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REVIEW AND SUMMARY

This chapter was devoted to the introduction of the concept of strain,


to the discussion of the relationship between stress and strain in
various types of materials, and to the determination of the deforma-
tions of structural components under axial loading.

Considering a rod of length L and uniform cross section and denot- Normal strain
ing by d its deformation under an axial load P (Fig. 2.68), we defined
the normal strain P in the rod as the deformation per unit length
[Sec. 2.2]: B B

d
P5 (2.1)
L
L
In the case of a rod of variable cross section, the normal strain was
defined at any given point Q by considering a small element of rod
at Q. Denoting by Dx the length of the element and by Dd its defor-
mation under the given load, we wrote C
 C
d dd A
P 5 lim 5 (2.2)
xy0 x dx P
(a) (b)
Plotting the stress s versus the strain P as the load increased, we Fig. 2.68
obtained a stress-strain diagram for the material used [Sec. 2.3].
From such a diagram, we were able to distinguish between brittle
and ductile materials: A specimen made of a brittle material ruptures Stress-strain diagram
without any noticeable prior change in the rate of elongation (Fig.
2.69), while a specimen made of a ductile material yields after a
critical stress sY, called the yield strength, has been reached, i.e., the
specimen undergoes a large deformation before rupturing, with a
relatively small increase in the applied load (Fig. 2.70). An example
of brittle material with different properties in tension and in com-
pression was provided by concrete.


Rupture 60 60
U  B U Rupture U Rupture

40 40
Y
 (ksi)

 (ksi)

Y
B B
20 20

Yield Strain-hardening Necking


  
0.02 0.2 0.25 0.2
Fig. 2.69 0.0012 0.004
(a) Low-carbon steel (b) Aluminum alloy
Fig. 2.70

129
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130 Stress and StrainAxial Loading We noted in Sec. 2.5 that the initial portion of the stress-strain dia-
gram is a straight line. This means that for small deformations, the
Hookes law stress is directly proportional to the strain:
Modulus of elasticity s 5 EP (2.4)
This relation is known as Hookes law and the coefficient E as the
y modulus of elasticity of the material. The largest stress for which Eq.
(2.4) applies is the proportional limit of the material.
Materials considered up to this point were isotropic, i.e., their
properties were independent of direction. In Sec. 2.5 we also con-
Layer of
material
sidered a class of anisotropic materials, i.e., materials whose proper-
ties depend upon direction. They were fiber-reinforced composite
z materials, made of fibers of a strong, stiff material embedded in lay-
x
Fibers ers of a weaker, softer material (Fig. 2.71). We saw that different
Fig. 2.71 moduli of elasticity had to be used, depending upon the direction of
loading.

Elastic limit. Plastic deformation If the strains caused in a test specimen by the application of a given
load disappear when the load is removed, the material is said to

behave elastically, and the largest stress for which this occurs is
C called the elastic limit of the material [Sec. 2.6]. If the elastic limit
Rupture
is exceeded, the stress and strain decrease in a linear fashion when
B
the load is removed and the strain does not return to zero (Fig. 2.72),
indicating that a permanent set or plastic deformation of the material
has taken place.

In Sec. 2.7, we discussed the phenomenon of fatigue, which causes


the failure of structural or machine components after a very large
number of repeated loadings, even though the stresses remain in
A D
the elastic range. A standard fatigue test consists in determining
Fig. 2.72
the number n of successive loading-and-unloading cycles required
Fatigue. Endurance limit to cause the failure of a specimen for any given maximum stress
level s, and plotting the resulting s-n curve. The value of s for
which failure does not occur, even for an indefinitely large number
of cycles, is known as the endurance limit of the material used in
the test.

Elastic deformation under axial Section 2.8 was devoted to the determination of the elastic defor-
loading mations of various types of machine and structural components
under various conditions of axial loading. We saw that if a rod of
B B
length L and uniform cross section of area A is subjected at its
end to a centric axial load P (Fig. 2.73), the corresponding defor-
mation is
PL
L d5 (2.7)
AE
If the rod is loaded at several points or consists of several parts of
various cross sections and possibly of different materials, the defor-
C mation d of the rod must be expressed as the sum of the deforma-

C tions of its component parts [Example 2.01]:
A

P P iL i
d5 a (2.8)
Fig. 2.73 i A iE i
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Tube (A2, E2) Review and Summary


131
P
Rod (A1, E1)

End plate Statically indeterminate problems


L

Fig. 2.74
RA

Section 2.9 was devoted to the solution of statically indeterminate A


A
problems, i.e., problems in which the reactions and the internal
forces cannot be determined from statics alone. The equilibrium L1
C C
equations derived from the free-body diagram of the member under L
consideration were complemented by relations involving deforma-
L2
tions and obtained from the geometry of the problem. The forces in
P P
the rod and in the tube of Fig. 2.74, for instance, were determined
B
by observing, on one hand, that their sum is equal to P, and on the B
other, that they cause equal deformations in the rod and in the tube RB
[Example 2.02]. Similarly, the reactions at the supports of the bar of
(a) (b)
Fig. 2.75 could not be obtained from the free-body diagram of the
bar alone [Example 2.03]; but they could be determined by express- Fig. 2.75
ing that the total elongation of the bar must be equal to zero.

In Sec. 2.10, we considered problems involving temperature changes. Problems with temperature changes
We first observed that if the temperature of an unrestrained rod AB
of length L is increased by DT, its elongation is
dT 5 a1 T2 L (2.21)
where a is the coefficient of thermal expansion of the material. We
noted that the corresponding strain, called thermal strain, is
PT 5 aT (2.22)
and that no stress is associated with this strain. However, if the rod
AB is restrained by fixed supports (Fig. 2.76), stresses develop in the
L L
A B

A B
(a)
Fig. 2.76 T
A B
rod as the temperature increases, because of the reactions at the
supports. To determine the magnitude P of the reactions, we detached
the rod from its support at B (Fig. 2.77) and considered separately
the deformation dT of the rod as it expands freely because of the (b) P
temperature change, and the deformation dP caused by the force P A B
required to bring it back to its original length, so that it may be reat-
tached to the support at B. Writing that the total deformation d 5 P
dT 1 dP is equal to zero, we obtained an equation that could be
solved for P. While the final strain in rod AB is clearly zero, this will L
generally not be the case for rods and bars consisting of elements of (c)
different cross sections or materials, since the deformations of the Fig. 2.77
various elements will usually not be zero [Example 2.06].
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132 Stress and StrainAxial Loading y

A
z

P x
Fig. 2.78

Lateral strain. Poissons ratio When an axial load P is applied to a homogeneous, slender bar
(Fig. 2.78), it causes a strain, not only along the axis of the bar but in
any transverse direction as well [Sec. 2.11]. This strain is referred to as
the lateral strain, and the ratio of the lateral strain over the axial strain
is called Poissons ratio and is denoted by n (Greek letter nu). We
wrote
lateral strain
n52 (2.25)
axial strain
Recalling that the axial strain in the bar is Px 5 sxyE, we expressed
as follows the condition of strain under an axial loading in the x
direction:
Px 5
sx
E
Py 5 Pz 5 2
ns x
E
(2.27)

This result was extended in Sec. 2.12 to the case of a multiaxial


loading causing the state of stress shown in Fig. 2.79. The resulting
Multiaxial loading
strain condition was described by the following relations, referred to
y as the generalized Hookes law for a multiaxial loading.
x z sx ns y ns z
Px 5 1 2 2
E E E
ns x s y ns z
Py 5 2 1 2 (2.28)
z
E E E
x
ns x ns y sz
Pz 5 2 2 1
y E E E
Fig. 2.79 If an element of material is subjected to the stresses sx, sy, sz, it
will deform and a certain change of volume will result [Sec. 2.13].
Dilatation The change in volume per unit volume is referred to as the dilatation
of the material and is denoted by e. We showed that
1 2 2n
e5 1sx 1 sy 1 sz 2 (2.31)
E
When a material is subjected to a hydrostatic pressure p, we have
p
e52 (2.34)
k
Bulk modulus where k is known as the bulk modulus of the material:
E
k5
311 2 2n2 (2.33)
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y y
y
Review and Summary
133

yx
2 xy

yx

yz 1

zy
xy
xy
Q
 1
xy
x 2
z
zx
xz

z z

x x
Fig. 2.80 Fig. 2.81

As we saw in Chap. 1, the state of stress in a material under the most Shearing strain. Modulus of rigidity
general loading condition involves shearing stresses, as well as nor-
mal stresses (Fig. 2.80). The shearing stresses tend to deform a cubic
element of material into an oblique parallelepiped [Sec. 2.14]. Con-
sidering, for instance, the stresses txy and tyx shown in Fig. 2.81
(which, we recall, are equal in magnitude), we noted that they cause
the angles formed by the faces on which they act to either increase
or decrease by a small angle gxy; this angle, expressed in radians, y
defines the shearing strain corresponding to the x and y directions. 1
Defining in a similar way the shearing strains gyz and gzx, we wrote
the relations P' P
1 x
txy 5 Ggxy tyz 5 Ggyz tzx 5 Ggzx (2.36, 37)
1   x
which are valid for any homogeneous isotropic material within its 1 x
proportional limit in shear. The constant G is called the modulus of (a)
rigidity of the material and the relations obtained express Hookes
law for shearing stress and strain. Together with Eqs. (2.28), they
form a group of equations representing the generalized Hookes law
for a homogeneous isotropic material under the most general stress
condition. P' P
We observed in Sec. 2.15 that while an axial load exerted on a '  '
slender bar produces only normal strainsboth axial and transverse 2 2

on an element of material oriented along the axis of the bar, it will


produce both normal and shearing strains on an element rotated (b)
through 458 (Fig. 2.82). We also noted that the three constants E, n, Fig. 2.82
and G are not independent; they satisfy the relation.
E
511n (2.43)
2G
which may be used to determine any of the three constants in terms
of the other two.

Stress-strain relationships for fiber-reinforced composite materials Fiber-reinforced composite materials


were discussed in an optional section (Sec. 2.16). Equations similar
to Eqs. (2.28) and (2.36, 37) were derived for these materials, but
we noted that direction-dependent moduli of elasticity, Poissons
ratios, and moduli of rigidity had to be used.
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134 Stress and StrainAxial Loading In Sec. 2.17, we discussed Saint-Venants principle, which states
that except in the immediate vicinity of the points of application of
the loads, the distribution of stresses in a given member is inde-
Saint-Venants principle pendent of the actual mode of application of the loads. This prin-
ciple makes it possible to assume a uniform distribution of stresses
in a member subjected to concentrated axial loads, except close to
the points of application of the loads, where stress concentrations
will occur.

Stress concentrations Stress concentrations will also occur in structural members near a
discontinuity, such as a hole or a sudden change in cross section [Sec.
2.18]. The ratio of the maximum value of the stress occurring near
the discontinuity over the average stress computed in the critical
section is referred to as the stress-concentration factor of the discon-
tinuity and is denoted by K:
s max
K5 (2.48)
s ave
Values of K for circular holes and fillets in flat bars were given in
Fig. 2.64 on p. 108.

Plastic deformotions In Sec. 2.19, we discussed the plastic deformations which occur in
structural members made of a ductile material when the stresses in
some part of the member exceed the yield strength of the material.
Our analysis was carried out for an idealized elastoplastic material
characterized by the stress-strain diagram shown in Fig. 2.83 [Exam-
ples 2.13, 2.14, and 2.15]. Finally, in Sec. 2.20, we observed that
when an indeterminate structure undergoes plastic deformations, the
stresses do not, in general, return to zero after the load has been
removed. The stresses remaining in the various parts of the structure
are called residual stresses and may be determined by adding the
maximum stresses reached during the loading phase and the reverse
stresses corresponding to the unloading phase [Example 2.16].

Y C
Y Rupture

A D
Fig. 2.83