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KMaL

A Collection of physics problems from 1997-2017 .

What is KMaL?
It was more than a hundred years ago that Dniel Arany, a high school teacher from the city of Gyr, decided to
found a mathematical journal for high school students. His goal was "to give a wealth of examples to students and
teachers". The journal's first edition appeared on January 1, 1894.
The foundation of the journal had close connections with the boom in scientific life at the turn of the century. The
Mathematical and Physical Society was founded in 1891, and in the autumn of 1894 the first Etvs Competition in
mathematics was organised for students that just graduated from high school.
From that time several generations of mathematicians and scientists developed their problem-solving skills through
KMaL. The best solutions with the names of the 14-18 year-old authors are printed in the periodical.
KMaL regularly reports on national and international competitions, prints articles on interesting results in
mathematics and physics, and includes book reviews.
For more than 40 years all the new problems have appeared in English as well as Hungarian. This means thousands
of mathematics and physics problems and exercises in English!
At present the journal is published by the MATFUND Hungarian High School Mathematics and Physics Foundation,
the Jnos Bolyai Mathematical Society and the Roland Etvs Physical Society with the financial support of the
Ministry of Education and Culture in 3500 copies.
The periodical "KMaL - Kzpiskolai Matematikai s Fizikai Lapok" appears in Hungarian language 64 pages a
month 9 times a year.
Detailed Information on the KMaL Archives
You can find the KMaL Archives at http://db.komal.hu/KomalHU/ (from 1984 to 2013)
and at http://db.komal.hu/scan/ (from 1893 to 2001).
The archives of the High School Mathematics and Physics Journal (also known as KMaL, a popular abbreviation
of the Hungarian name Kzpiskolai Matematikai s Fizikai Lapok) are an extraordinary collection of problems and
articles, spanning more than a century and representing a significant factor in the history of Hungarian mathematics
and physics. Mathematics at the start and later extended to physics, this highly professional monthly journal has
survived two world wars and several political changes, and it established a worldwide reputation for Hungarian
mathematics and sciences.
The High School Mathematics Journal was founded in 1894 by Dniel Arany, a teacher of the science high school in
the city of Gyr. He edited the journal until 1896 when Lszl Rtz, a prominent teacher of the Fasori Lutheran
High School took it over from him and continued till 1914. In addition to the articles aiming at students who were
seriously interested in mathematics, each issue contained problems for the reader to solve and submit the following
month. Initially, the numbered problems (Feladat in Hungarian) were adressed to 11 th and 12th-grade students, i.
e. 17 to 18-year-olds. There were 2415 problems during the period of December 1893 to April 1914. The
excercises (Gyakorlat in Hungarian) for 15 to 16-year-olds appeared in January 1900, numbered 1 to 1390. The
descriptive geometry problems were numbered separately, with Roman numerals.
The sample solutions printed in the journal were based on students papers. The names of the best problem solvers
were published, the results were totalled up at the end of the scool year and prizes were given to the winners. With
the assistance of teachers the competition of the Journal went nationwide. During the first world war and for several
years after the war the publication of the journal was interrupted, as people had other things to worry about. In 1925
at last, another teacher, Andor Farag decided that the mathematics journal was worth starting again. Physics was
given a greater emphasis than before, and the name was changed to High School Mathematics and Physics Journal.
The numbering of problems, excercises and descriptive geometry problems started all over. This second series of the
journal lasted till 1938 when the second world war began, and, unfortunately, Andor Farag was among the victims.
The war ended in 1945, and in 1946 a mathematics teacher in the city of Szeged, dr. Paula Sos launched the
mimeographed Szeged Pages that she distributed herself with the help of a young colleague.The young teacher,
Jnos Surnyi had been a regular solver of KMaL problems in his high school years. The High School Mathematics
Journal was revived again from the Szeged Pages and Jnos Surnyi became the first editor of the new series. The
journal was published by the Jnos Bolyai Mathematical Society and the publication was financed by the Ministry of
Education. The numbering of the problems started over again in 1946 and the excercises for 15 to 16-years-olds
were also restarted in 1952. In 1959, a physics column was added, edited by the Roland Etvs Physical Society.
The traditional points competition continued. A new competition was called every school year, the best solutions
submitted by students were published, as well as the results of the competition and the photos of the best solvers.
The short name KMaL first became popular in the 1980s and this abbreviation renained in use even when the name
was changed again to High Sccool Mathematics and Physics Journal (Kzpiskolai Matematikai s Fizikai Lapok)
in 1992. The joint publication by the Jnos Bolyai Mathematical Socety and the Roland Etvs Physical Society is
provided financial support by the Ministry and various foundations and companies.
As the journal was started three times, its history consists of three series referred to the Rtz (-Arany) series, the
Farag series and the New series. In each series the numbering of the volumes and of the problems was started over.
Before the New series a new volume always began with the school year in September and in most cases ended in
June. The volumes were divided into two sections each but this division does not show up in the archives. The first
complete volume of the New series is that of 1951. From that volume onwards the volumes have been organized by
calendar years, from January to December. Between 1960 and 1983, volumes were divided again into two sections
that is why pages were numbered 1 to 240 from January to May and 1 to 240 again from September to December.
Since 1984 pages have been numbered continuosly from January to December. In 1995 the tradition of the double
issue in November was discontinued. Now there are only 9 numbers a year, not 10, but the length of each issue has
grown from 48 to 64 pages. The organization of the competition still follows the school year. For more than fifty
years now there have been a new issue every month from September to May with problems set in different
categories and one month provided for submitting the solutions.
It is possible to search the archives by the number of the problem, but the same number, for the above reasons may
belong to as many as three problems in three diferent series. It is also hapeened a couple of times, that the editors
gave the same number to two different problems or skipped a few numbers by accident.
Starting with 1968, a letter code was added to the numbers of the problems of various categories: Mathematics
excercises were marked by Gy (short for gyakorlat) in front of the number, and problems were marked by F
(for feladat). Gy.1210 and F.1617 were the first to carry a letter code. Between 1973 and 1984 the journal also
published problems marked with P. These were more involved problems and their solutions did not count in the
points competition. as there were very few students who sent in solutions to these problems, the publication of the
problems P stopped in 1984. They were replaced by the excercises marked with C, initially addressed to students of
secondary technical schools. However, it turned out that these easier excercises C were also popular with some high
school students, as their solution did not require more knowledge than that of the standard high school material.
Between 1981 and 1987 the KMaL also contained computer problems marked with Sz and easier excercises Szk.
This column was very popular at the beginning but as the extremely rapid development of technology became harder
and harder to follow in teaching, the editors decided to discontinue the computer column. In 1992 the physics
problems were also given a letter code. The numbering went on continously, but problems for 17 to 18-year-olds
were marked with FF and those for 15 to 16-year-olds were marked with FGy. In 1993 the editors ventured again to
a series of harder problems but this time a separate points competition was called. The hard problems were marked
with N (for nehz, the Hungarian for hard). They became more and morepopular and by the end of the 1990s both
the easy excercises C and the hard problems N had an established circle of solvers.
As next to the traditional four-year high school curriculum, there appeared six and eight-year curricula, and the
syllabi of secondary technical schools kept changing, too, the traditional division of students into age groups seemed
more and more impractical. Some students were taught a particular chapter of the syllabus at the age of 15 while
others learnt the same material at the age of 17. It made no sense any more to address a problem to those over 16 or
under 16 only. The rules of submitting problems were changed, first in physics then in mathematics. Any student
may solve any problem now, but one does not need to solve all problems to be successful in the competition. In
physics only the best 5 of the submitted solutions while in mathematics the best 6 solutions (i.e. the 6 with the
highest scores) count in the competition. The letter codes were also changed at the millenium: in mathematics N
became A, Gy and F together became B. The notation C survived. In physics the measurement task of the month is
now marked with M and all theoretical problems are marked with P.
To celebrate the centenary of the founding of the journal the December issue of 1993 contains articles
commemorating the events of the hundred years, as well as articles about various interesting chapters of the history
of mathematics and physics in Hungary. Page 496 of that issue features a table of the most important dates in the
history of the High School Mathematics and Physics Journal. A few more articles, left out of the December issue for
lack of space appeared in April 1994. Those interested in the past of the journal look up the April issue., too.
In July 1994 the centennial issue was also published in English for interested forigners. In August 1996 another
special issue came out in English, in honour of the International Youth Conference of Mathematics organized in
Miskoc, Hungary. The third English publication associated with the journal is the book called C2K (Century 2 of
KMaL), a selection of problems and articles of KMaL, dating from the period 1994 to 1997. The mathematics and
physics problems of the (Hungarian) KMaL have been regularly translated into other languages for several
decades. These translations always appear on the pages following the new problems (mathematics and physics
separately). Different times and different editors over decades brought various languages: French at the beginning,
then English, Russian, Esperanto and German versions followed. English translations number the highest, these can
also be found in the electronic archives. A part of the problems and the titles of a part of the articles can be searched
fully in Hungarian or in English, whereas the rest of the more than thirty-five thosand pages of the archives can be
searched by date, by topic and by names of authors and problem solvers. In the future the database will gradually
expand to include , in Hungarian and in English , all the problems ever published in the KMaL. Full search will be
available in the entire text of the journal, from the 1990s onwards.
In addition to problems and articles the KMaL also provides a regular account of all the national and international
competitions that play an important role in Hungarian mathematics and physics teaching. Some of these competition
problems also featured in KMaLs points competition, but in most cases the places, times, results as wellas the
problems themselves are found in the reports written on the mathematics, physics and (in recent years) computer
science competitions and on complex competitions involving more than one subject.
One of the most important national competitions in Hungary is the national mathematics competition fonded by the
Mathematical and Physical Society in 1894 (a lucky coincidence with the start of the Journal). The competition was
organized every autumn for high school graduate of that year, with three problems to solve. Between 1894 and 1913
there were regular reports in the journal that introduced the winners; the problems and the solutions that were
publshed after the problems in a later issue. One can also find regular reports on the competitions between 1824 and
1838. It is in 1925 that the competition of the Society is called Lornd Etvs Mathematics Competition. In the
meantime the physics counterpart of the mathematics competition was founded, too. Initially the physics
competition also bore the name of Etvs, then from 1926 to 1939 it was renamed after the priest teacher Irneus
Kroly. After the World War II in 1947 the mathematics competition was restarted by the name of Jnos Bolyai
Competition. Finally in 1949 it was giveb the name of Jzsef Krschk, the university professor who had previously
been an enthusiastic organizer of the competition. Ever since, the High School Mathemarics Fournal published
regular reports on the Krschk competitions. In the autumn of 1956 the competition was cancelled because of the
revolution but since the following year it has taken place every autumn. It is open to younger students, too, not only
high-school graduates of the current year. Since 1952 the physics competition has borne the name of Baron Lorand
Etvs, and since its founding in 1959, the physics column of the journal features regular reports on the Lornd
Etvs physics competitions . In the archives the competition reports appear among the articles but the problems of
the Krschk competitions as well as their English translations can also be found among the mathematics problems.
It was in 1923 that the first National Competition for Secondary School Students was organized in mathematics for
students in the final years of high school. The journal published reports on these competitions from 1924 to 1938.
Starting with 1927, the problems of physiics competitions also appeared regularly. In 1947 the numbering of these
spring competitions was started all over.In 1952 the high school competition was named after Mtya Rkosi, the
famous-infamous political leader of those times. These competitions are now considered the precusors of the present
National Competition for Secondary School Students, most often referred to by the abbreviation OKTV (Orszgos
Kzpiskolai Tanulmnyi Verseny).
In the archives the problems of the OKTV are found in the reports, among the articles:one needs to search for the
topic of the OKTV. In some years, when solutions of the problems were also published in the jornal, the competition
problems also appear in the problems section of the archives. Reports on the physics OKTV have been published in
the journal since 1959.
In 1950 a new mathematics competition was launched for 15 to 16-year-olds as the competition of Kzpiskolai
Matematikai Lapok. That is what we now consider the first Dniel Arany Competition. It has been organized
annually ever since, and published in the journal. In the years when the solutions were also published, the Dniel
Arany problems appear in the problems section of the archives, too.
The KMaL has featured many other competitions over the years, including reports on the annual points
competitions of KMaL. The reports on the International Mathematical Olympiads published since 1959and on the
Physics Olympiads since for a few years later are of exceptional importance as the reader is offered detailed and
commented solutions to the problems of the most prominent competition of the world.. The problems of the
mathematical olympiads appear in English, too.
During the next few years we are planning further development in the KMaL archives, based on its current
database, as well as continual maintenance of the existing structzre. Our goal is that the greatest possible part of the
more than one hundred years of material should be available in English translation. we hope that having read the
problem in English, the reader will be able to get an idea from the Hungarian solution. Translating the whole
KMaL into English would probably too big a task for us. The KMaL archives would be impossible without the
photos of the problem solvers. One of out short term goals is to make this gallery of faces as complete as possible, in
the best possible quality.As further developement it would be a good idea to provide illustrated biographies of past
students who started their careers as problem solvers of the KMaL and became famous scholars or teachers. It
would be also worth following particular area of mathematics or physics has developed since then. As an apect of
the history of Hungarian mathematics it would be interesting to compile all problems of all competitions of the
twentieth century that the journal has reported on.
If you find an error in the KMaL archives or you have any further questions or suggestions please write to the
editors of KMaL at Pzmny Pter stny 1/A, room 2/76. Budapest, Hungary, H-1117 or send an e-mail to
szerk@komal.hu.
Exercises and problems in Physics
September 1997
New experimental problem:
m. 190. How many cubic centimetres of gas are released during the dissolution of a single sparkling tablet?
New exercises:
FGy. 3079. In order to crack nuts bare-fisted, one usually takes two nuts into one's hand at the same time. Why is it
easier to crack a nut with this method?
FGy. 3080. In the house of a person who is weak of hearing, a light bulb is also lit when somebody rings the door-
bell. The ring can be operated both from the garden gate and from the door of the house. Draw such a circuit.
FGy. 3081. The speed of a 100-metre-wide river is 2 m/s everywhere. A boat that can travel at a constant speed of 1
m/s in standing water sets off from one bank. How far is the nearest point that the boat can reach on the opposite
bank?
FGy. 3082. In the figure ammeter I reads a current of 10 mA, while the voltmeter reads a
p.d. of 3 V. What does ammeter II read? The ammeters are identical, the internal resistance
of the battery is negligible.
FF. 3083. The height of the cabin of a spacecraft is 3 metres. The air in the
cabin is in normal state. What is difference between the pressure at the
floor and at the ceiling of the cabin
a) before taking off, in the vertical position of the cabin?
b) after taking off, when the spacecraft rises with an acceleration of 40
m/s2?
c) when the spacecraft orbits the Earth?
New problems:
FF. 3084. An insect sets off upwards from the shaft of the minute hand of a church-clock exactly at
12 o'clock. Moving uniformly along the hand, it reaches the end of the hand in a quarter of an hour. When was it at
the highest position?
FF. 3085. A prism of height h, width h/2 and mass M and with a homogeneous mass
distribution is placed onto a horizontal plane. One end of a thread running in a pulley is
fastened to the bottom of the prism, a body of mass m is hung from the other end and the
system is left alone. Friction is negligible everywhere. At what ratio m/M is the prism tilted?
FF. 3086. A small body of mass m and speed v0
slides up onto a slope of mass M standing on a
horizontal surface. Friction is negligible
everywhere, the bottom of the slope is tangent to the horizontal plane.
What is the maximum height the small body can reach on the slope?
FF. 3087. Large rain drops grow by capturing small rain drops that collide with them during their fall. Give an
estimate of the increase of mass in 10 seconds of a drop with a diameter of 3 mm, the speed of which grows
uniformly from 5 m/s to 7 m/s. The drop in question hits droplets with a diameter of floating in the air. The
spatial distribution of the droplets is uniform, there are 200 of them in average in a cubic centimetre.
New advanced problem:
FN. 3088. A certain helicopter can hover when the mechanical power output of its engine is P. A second helicopter
is an exact copy of the first one, but reduced to 1/2 (its linear dimensions are half as large). What mechanical power
output is needed to make this second helicopter hover?
Exercises and problems in Physics
October 1997
New experimental problem:
m. 191. Measure the specific heat of the material of some coin.
New exercises:
FGy. 3089. Why is less force required to slice a salami if the knife is moved forward and backward while cutting
than if it is only pressed downward?
FGy. 3090. The battleship called VASA sunk near Stockholm was lifted out by means of steel tanks. The volume of
each tank was 1500 m3, its mass was 300 tons. What lifting force could such a tank exert?
FGy. 3091. A perforated body can move without friction on the vertical rod shown in the figure. When the body is
carefully let onto a sufficiently long spring, the spring is compressed by 1 cm. From what height h should the body
be dropped so that the largest compression of the spring is 8 cm?
FGy. 3092. A thin tube is pushed into a thicker one and fixed to it at both ends.
The tubes are loosely in contact, equally long, but their materials are different.
What is the longitudinal linear thermal expansion coefficient of this double
tube? The cross-sections of the tubes are A1 and A2, the linear thermal
expansion coefficients and Young's moduli are respectively and , and E1
and E2.
FGy. 3093. A uniformly filled wooden box of mass M,
width L and height h is pulled horizontally by means of
a rope fastened to the centre of its side (see the figure).
A cylindrical roller of small diameter is placed under
this side of the box. The coefficient of friction between
the box and the ground is , rolling friction is negligible.
What force F is required to set the box into motion?
New problems:
FF. 3094. Coulomb's law prescribes an infinitely large force to
make two point-like charges of identical sign touch. What is the
situation if the charges are uniformly distributed on two circular plates? What is the force required to make two
circular plates of charge Q and radius r touch?
FF. 3095. 80 liters of gaseous oxygen at a pressure of 5 .105 Pa and a temperature of 32 oC are compressed
adiabatically, which raises the temperature to 78 oC. What amount of work is done?
FF. 3096. Estimate the maximum change in the volume of a football with a mass of 0.4 kg and an excess pressure of
5.104 Pa,volleyed at an angle of 30o and landing at a distance of 50 m.
FF. 3097. Three small bodies of identical masses can move along a
straight line. The central body is initially at rest, then the two other
bodies hit it nearly at the same moment and at the same speed. The
collision of the body on the left is perfectly elastic, while that of the body on the right is perfectly inelastic. How do
the bodies move after the collisions?
New advanced problem:
FN. 3098. How high does water crawl up a smooth vertical wall if it adheres
to the wall? What is the force exerted by the wall onto the water? What is the
radius of curvature of the surface of the water at half of the maximum height
(in the plane perpendicular to the wall)?

Exercises and problems in Physics


November 1997
New experimental problem:
m. 192. How does the electric power taken up by a pocket radio depend on
the volume at which one listens to it?
New exercises:
FGy. 3099. A long adhesive tape is stuck to a table, then pulled at a uniform speed
v0=0.1 m/s backwards by its end turned up. What is the speed of the middle of the
moving part of the tape?
FGy. 3100. A 0.5 kg pan mounted on wheels is started at a speed of 0.3 m/s. How
does its speed change if 1 kg of sand is `poured' into it on its way?
FGy. 3101. At the end of last year, when the radio announced the unsuccessful
launching of the Russian probe Mars '96, it was said that there would be a lot of
time for the construction of the next Mars probe. When will the relative positions of Mars and the Earth be the same
as at the time of the unsuccessful launching? (A year on Mars is 1.88 times a year on Earth.)
FGy. 3102. Some quantity of monatomic ideal gas makes the process
shown in the figure. The algebraic sum of the heat taken up and given out by the
gas in the course of the process is 7.5p0V0.
a) What is the change in the internal energy of the gas?
b) Determine the value of x.
FGy. 3103. How does the total energy of the capacitors in the circuit shown in the
figure change when first switch K1 and then switch K2, too, is closed?
New problems:
FF. 3104. Two small bodies, both of charge Q, are fixed at distance l from each other. A
small body of charge q and mass m can move along the horizontal straight line
connecting the previous two charges. What will the period of the motion of this latter
body be when it is displaced a little from its equilibrium position?
FF. 3105. In the circuit shown in the figure R and
U0 are given, while r can change, taking up all
values.
a) Between what limits does the
equivalent resistance change?
b) What is the maximum electric power share of resistor r?
FF. 3106. A 1 m long conical pendulum of 0.5 kg is pulled very slowly
upward through a hole drilled into the ceiling. Both at the beginning and at the
end of the process the pendulum rotates in a horizontal plane. Initially, the
thread is at an angle of 30 o with the vertical, while at the end, this angle is 45 o. What work has been done during the
process?
FF. 3107. A basin is filled in time T1 when the tap at its top is open. It becomes empty in time T2 when the plug-hole
at its bottom is open. At what ratio T1/T2 is there a risk of overflow if both the tap and the plug-hole are open?
FF. 3108. The potential of a spherically symmetrical cloud of charges is

. What proportion of the total charge is situated in the part r<R?


(Numerical methods can be applied.)
New advanced problem:
FN. 3109. A plane plate is fixed onto the table of a turntable and a solid rubber ball of uniform mass distribution is
placed onto it. The turntable is switched on. Describe the motion of the ball when it has reached pure rolling on the
uniformly rotating horizontal plate.
Exercises and problems in Physics
December 1997
New experimental problem:
m. 193. Determine the directions in which pictures of objects can be seen through a binocle and the magnifications.
Does the magnification depend on the distance of the object?
New exercises:
FGy. 3110. Two candles of identical lengths and different thicknesses were lit at Christmas. Half of the thin candle
and one third of the thick candle could be seen to burn down in 15 minutes. How long after the candles had been lit
was the ratio of their lengths 4?
FGy. 3111. The tramway control lights show red when lights 1, 2 and 3 are on, and it shows
green when lights 2 and 4 are on. What circuit makes it possible to turn the lights from green to
red or from red to green with a single switching?
FGy. 3112. Hanging a 3 dkg body on each of a 12 cm and a 9 cm spring makes both springs
extend by one third of their original lengths. Half of the long spring and two thirds of the short
spring are cut off, therefore fastening the ends of the remaining springs together gives a 9 cm-long spring. At what
frequency will a 6 dkg body oscillate on this spring?
FGy. 3113. There are two pistons of negligible thickness and of mass m each in a vertically standing
cylindrical container as shown in the figure. The upper piston is slowly pushed down until it arrives at
the initial position of the lower piston. Where is the lower piston at this moment? The area of the
cross-section of the cylinder is A, the atmospheric pressure is p0. (Both pistons can move without
friction; consider the temperature as constant.)
New problems:
FF. 3114. Astronauts land on an asteroid of radius R and homogeneous mass distribution. A
physicist astronaut makes a simple pendulum and measures its period to be 1 second. As precious ores can be
found in the asteroid, a sphere of radius R/2 is exploited and removed from the asteroid (see the figure).
What will the period of the pendulum be in points A, B, C and D shown in the figure?
FF. 3115. The bottom one of two horizontal metal plates of area A and mass m is fixed and the top one hangs
on a spring of force constant D. Connecting voltage U between the plates the equilibrium distance between
the plates is d. What is the frequency of the small amplitude oscillations that the top plate can do when
a) the battery is switched off,
b) the battery remains switched on during the oscillations of the plate?
FF. 3116. On 6 November, 1997, Venus could be seen at a maximum deviation of 47 o East of the Sun. The
previous time Venus was in such a position was on 1 April, 1996, when it could be seen at an angle of 46 o from the
Sun. (The reason for the slight difference between the angles is that the planets move on elliptical orbits.) Determine
the period of Venus. When will Venus next be at its maximum deviation to the West?
FF. 3117. An airplane moves at a uniform speed in a horizontal plane. What is the curve of its track if there is a point
that the sound of the plane reaches at the same time from any point of the track?
New advanced problem:
FN. 3118. The 22nd of December is said to be the shortest day of the year. According to the data of a pocket
calendar, the earliest sunset is on the 11th of December (at 15 h 53 in Budapest) and the latest sunrise is on the 2nd
of January (at 7 h 32 in Budapest). Explain the phenomenon.

The Conditions of the Points Contest of KMaL, 1998/1999


The competitions start annually and last from September to May, but they can be joined any time during the school
year.
In mathematics, there are four different contests, in physics there are two. The conditions of the mathematics and
physics contests are different. See below for details.
Every primary or secondary school student is eligible to take part in the competitions. Students in different grades
may solve the same problems but in most cases their work is evaluated within their age group, they only compete
against other students in the same grade. Therefore, it is essential that the paper should indicate the 1 to 12 grade of
the contestant in the current school year. The KMaL contests are competitions of individuals, solutions produced in
team work are not accepted. If two papers are found to be practically identical, neither will be scored.
MATHEMATICS

Each full solution is scored 5 points in all the four contests.


C contest: exercises for practice, easier than those in the Gy and F contest; 4 per month.
Age groups:
up to 10th grade students
11 to 12th grade students (preferably those not studying mathematics in a special advanced class. Those
in advanced classes are advised to take part in the F competition).
Gy contest: exercises for those up to 10th grade; 8 per month.
Age groups:
up to 8th grade
9th grade
10th grade.
F contest: problems advised for 11 to 12th grade students, 6 per month.
Age groups:
up to 8th grade
9th grade
10th grade
11th grade (the Gy exercises marked with H also count in the 11th graders' contest)
12th grade
N contest: advanced problems, 4 per month. More involved than F contest, for those who are preparing for national
or international competitions. There are no separate age groups here.
PHYSICS

m contest: Experimental problems: One measuring task is set each month. Each of them is worth 6 points. The
report must contain a description of the method, the material data sufficient in quantity and quality, the analysis of
the data, and the estimation of the inaccuracies. There are no separate age groups.
Theoretical contest: 10 problems per month. The letter codes do not indicate different contests, they are merely
informatic:
FGY: exercises scored 4 points each
FF: problems scored 5 points each
FN: advanced problems scored 6 points each.
Age groups:
up to 8th grade;
9th grade;
10th grade;
11th grade;
12th grade.
Every age group may send solutions to all kinds of problems but at most 5 theoretical + 1 experimental problem a
month. More than 5 + 1 solution sent by one contestant will not be evaluated.
Deadlines, adresses

The deadline of sending in the solutions by mail or e-mail is indicated next to the new exercises and problems in
every issue. In mathematics, it is the 15th of the month following the publication of the problems, in physics it is the
11th. Should that be a weekend or bank holiday, the deadline is the next workday.
Send solutions to the following address:

KMaL Szerkesztsg (KMaL feladatok), Budapest Pf. 47. 1255, Hungary


or by e-mail to: megoldas@komal.elte.hu.
The actual state of the contests appears at our web-site (http://komal.elte.hu/eredm/index.e.shtml) updated at regular
intervals. These data are unofficial, for your information. The final results will appear in August in our Internet home
page and in the September issue of the next academic year. The winners of the first few places will get a certificate
mailed to their schools, and their photos will be shown in the December issue and the Internet. Entry for the contests
The outward appearance of the papers:
By ordinary mail:
Write the solutions to different problems on separate A4 sheets of paper. (This is important because
different people are responsible for the correcting.)
The heading of every sheet must contain in the upper left corner (see sample 1):
the letter code (C, Gy, F, m, FGy, FF, FN) and number of the problem in red
the full name and the grade of the sender
the name of the school and the town (and country)
Fold each sheet separately in four so that the heading is seen on top.
Solutions to geometry problems should contain a diagram.
Enclose in the envelope with the solutions a separate sheet listing the data of the contestant and the
contents of that envelope. See sample 2.

Sample 1. Heading of a sheet Sample 2. Enclosed list

C. 473. Varga 783 Istvn, 10th grade


Varga 783 Istvn, 10th grade Rvai High School, Gyr
Rvai High School, Gyr I send the following 3 papers in:
C. 473., C. 474., GY. 3147.

By e-mail:
Send the solutions of different problems in separate e-mail messages.
The "subject" line of the e-mail message must contain the letter code and number of the problem.
The content of the papers:

It is not enough to state the answer. Only results with detailed explanations will receive full credit. (Reference to
secondary-school material does not require a proof.) A second solution to the same problem but based on principally
different ideas will receive at most 2 extra points. A third different solution will not be evaluated.

Exercises and problems in Physics


January 1998
New experimental problem:
m. 194. Observe how a candle floating on water with a ballast attached to its bottom burns down. Measure the
distance between the ballast and the bottom of the vessel as a function of time. How much does the mass of the
extinguished candle differ from the value calculated on the basis of the solution of problem 3062 (published in the
December 1997 issue of KMaL)? Make the measurement with at least two candles of different thicknesses.
New exercises:
FGy. 3119. The average daily loss of water of a human body is 0.8 kg, evaporated by the organism. How much
cheese has to be consumed in order to compensate for the loss of energy due to the evaporation if a human organism
can use 70% of the energy provided by the decomposition of aliments. The heat of combustion of cheese is 12,000
kJ/kg, the heat of vaporisation of water is 2440 kJ/kg.
FGy. 3120. How many times does the Earth rotate about its axis with respect to the fixed stars in a year? And the
Moon?
FGy. 3121. Before the run-up, a pole-jumper holds his pole of a mass of 4 kg and a length of 6 m horizontally. He
exerts a force F1 with one hand at the end of the pole and a force F2 with the other hand at a distance of 0.5 m from
the end of the pole. Determine the magnitudes of forces F1 and F2 if their lines of action are perpendicular to the
pole. When exercising with another pole, he holds the pole in such a way that it is at an angle of 30 o with the
horizontal. He pushes the end of the pole horizontally with a force of 28.9 N with one hand and holds it
perpendicularly with the other at the suitable point. What is the mass of this pole?
FGy. 3122. What should the total mass of the meteorites hitting the Earth in a year at a speed of 40 km/s be so that
in average they cause the same heating as the radiation of the Sun? What mass does this correspond to per second
and per square meter?
FGy. 3123. Why do symphonic orchestras tune on the stage of the concert hall and not in the rehearsal room before
the performance? List physical reasons that put different instruments (wind-instruments, stringed instruments) out of
tune.
New problems:
FF. 3124. The thread of length l of a yo-yo of mass m and radius R is wound onto the spool of radius r and
negligible mass. The yo-yo can be approximated as two cylinders of homogeneous mass distribution. How should
we move our hand holding the end of the thread so that the yo-yo rotates in place? How much work do we do while
lifting our hand?
FF. 3125. Four parallel metal plates of identical areas, facing each other, are connected to each other
and to a 220 V DC supply as shown in the picture. The plates are at 2 cm from each other, this
distance being small compared to the size of the plates.
a) Determine the magnitude and the direction of the electric field strength in the spaces between the
plates.
b) How much energy does this system of capacitors store if the capacitance of a parallel-plate
capacitor formed by two of these metal plates placed at 2 cm from each other is known to be 20 pF?
FF. 3126. There is a circular conductor with a radius of 4 cm at some distance from a straight coil
with a vertical axis, its plane perpendicular to the axis of the coil and its centre on the axis. The lines
of the magnetic induction of the coil are at an angle of 60 o with the plane of the circular conductor in
the points of the conductor, the magnitude of the induction is 0.08 tesla along the conductor.
a) What is the magnetic force exerted onto the circular conductor when a current of 10 A flows through it?
b) What elastic stress occurs in the conductor with a cross-section of 1 mm2?
FF. 3127. A positron of speed v collides with an electron of negligible speed. Two photons are produced in the
process, moving perpendicularly to each other. Determine the energy of the photons. What is the minimum speed of
the positron required to produce such photons?
New advanced problem:
FN. 3128. A small body of mass m is at rest in a sufficiently long tube of radius r at angle with the horizontal. The
coefficient of friction between the tube and the body is ( >tg ). At what speed and where does the body slide
out of the tube when the tube is rotated about its axis at angular velocity ?
Exercises and problems in Physics
February 1998
New experimental problem:
m. 195. Pour the same amount and temperature (e.g. 80 oC) of tea into different cups and measure the temperature
decrease versus time. What does the speed of the cooling depend?
New exercises:
FGy. 3129. We are trying to make an obtuse-angled triangle cut out of cardboard stand on a horizontal table plate. Is
there such triangle that can only stand on one side? (The plane of the triangle is kept vertical.)
FGy. 3130. A load of power of 40 W is connected parallel to another load, thus the power decreases to 17 W. What
is the power of the second load? (Provided the voltage and load resistance are kept constant.)
FGy. 3131. One mol of biatomic gas is being heated in a closed tank from 300 K up to 1000 K. During the process
part of the molecules dissociate. At 1000 K the energy of the biatomic molecules are only half of that of the whole
gas. How many molecules have dissociated and by what factor has the gas pressure risen? (The oscillation of the
molecules are not to be taken in account.)
FGy. 3132. How many times greater is the work done by a gas expanding at constant pressure, than of that which
pressure is proportional to its volume? The initial and final
temperatures are the same.
FGy. 3133. A frictionless pulley of negligible mass is attached
to the rectangular peak of a double sided slope with negligible
friction on all sides. A thread passing over the pulley connects
bodies of mass m1 and m1. Determine versus m1 and m2 when
the slope does not slip on the vertical table with also negligible
friction.
FGy.
3134.
Two small carriages are connected by a thin elastic string of
unstretched length of 96 cm and of force constant of 18 N/m
which at first lies loosely on the ground. One of the carriages is being pulled by a constant velocity of 1.2 m/s.
a) How long does it take the carriage of mass m=2 kg to catch up with the carriage in front of it after the
string has straightened?
b) Make a graph versus time showing what force should be applied on the first carriage to maintain a
constant velocity.
c) Determine the work needed.
d) What is the distance covered by the second carriage?
New problems:
FF. 3135. An optical grid of grid constant of 2 is illuminated with a perpendicular beam of monochromatic light.
Should this grid be replaced by one with half the original density, so shall the first order diffraction angle decrease
by 10.4o. What is the wavelength of the light?
FF. 3136. The photoelectron multiplier which is
able to transform weak light intensity into
electrical current measurable by a sensitive
galvanometer was invented by Z. Bay 60 years
ago, in 1938. (The picture shows the simplified
model, the real one has 10-15 grades.)
Ultraviolet light of intensity and frequency f
is incident onto a photocathode of work
function W. The electrons are accelerated between the two electrodes by voltage U. If the losses are negligible, what
is the maximum number of electrons a photon can send into the circuit? What is the maximum of the current flowing
through the galvanometer? (Data: =10-10W, f=2,2.1015Hz, W=0,42.10-18J, e=1,6.10-19C, h=6,06.10-34Js, U=4 V.)
FF. 3137. A particle of mass m is on a circuital orbit due to force of a central force field. According to
the Bohr theory determine the radius of the possible orbits and the energy of the particle on these certain orbits.
FF. 3138. Due to the friction between the water and the crust of the Earth at the bottom of the oceans the maximum
of the tide waves are not exactly pointed at the Moon. Does the tide hurry or delay in compare to the motion of the
Moon? What effect does this have on the rotation of the Earth?
New advanced problem:
FN. 3139. An homogeneous rod may turn around a ball-and-socket joint attached to one
end of it. The rod leans on a vertical wall and is in equilibrium when left alone. The
upper end of the rod is then displaced by a little to the side and is left alone. At what
position does the rod separate from the wall? (The friction by wall and the joint is
negligible.)

Exercises and problems in Physics


March 1998
New experimental problem:
m. 196. Pour some sand into a transparent, cylindrical container, and fill it up with
water. Close the bottle, shake it well, and stand it in a vertical position. Observe how the
sand settles in the bottom. Find a relation between the volume of sediment (settled sand)
and time. Find a method to determine the size of the sand particles.
New exercises:
FGy. 3140. An open rectangular tank is divided into two equal halves by a vertical wall. In
the left half of the tank is a column of liquid, density 1=800 kg/m3, and height h1=30 cm.
The right half of the tank contains liquid of density 2=1600 kg/m3, to a height h2=20 cm
(see figure). The two liquids don't mix.
a) Find the heights of the respective columns, if a small hole is drilled in the
bottom of the separating wall.
b) Where is it possible to drill a hole, without causing any change to the state of
the system?
FGy. 3141. Consider the circuit shown in the figure (R=1
k , C=25 nF, U=25 V). What is the p.d. shown on the
ideal (static) voltmeter?
FGy. 3142. Coal is mined in the Equatorial-Guinea, to be burnt in power stations
across the world. How does this change the angular velocity of the rotation of the
Earth?
FGy. 3143. A piston operated vacuum pump is connected to a gas discharge tube
of ten times its volume. How many times does the piston need to be pumped in
order for the pressure in the discharge tube to decrease to 1/10th of its original
value? Assume the process to be
a) isothermal;
b) adiabatic ( =1.4).
Which model is the most realistic?
FGy. 3144. A binary star is at a distance of 100 parsec from the Earth. The absolute brightnesses of its components
are 2m and 4m respectively. What is the absolute brightness of the whole system?
New problems:
FF. 3145. Distilled water is poured on top of a colloidal solution in a container. The two liquids don't mix. The angle
of incidence of a laser beam entering the water from air is 5 o greater than its angle of refraction, and the angle of
incidence from the water at its interface with the solution is 6 o greater than its angle of refraction. Find the velocity
of the beam in the colloidal solution, if the refractive index for light travelling from air to water is 1.333.
FF. 3146. An aeroplane, with a wing span of 50 m, travels at a speed of 900 km/h. The vertical component of the
Earth's magnetic field is 0.5 mT. Find the p.d. induced between the wing tips. Why doesn't a bulb, designed for this
voltage, light up if it is connected between the wing tips? Is it
possible to measure the p.d.?
FF. 3147. In a demonstration, two balls of equal density, and radii,
r and R=2r, are placed on the middle of a cart of mass M=6 kg and
length L=2 m. The mass of smaller ball is m=1 kg. The balls are
caused to roll, without slipping, in such a way that the larger ball is
at the bottom, and a strait line connecting their centres remains
constant at an angle to the horizontal. The cart is pulled with a
horizontal force in the direction shown in the figure.
a) Find the magnitude of the force, F.
b) How much time elapses before the balls fall down?
FF. 3148. The primary coil of a transformer has N1 turns, and self-inductance, L. The secondary coil has N2 turns,
and is connected to a load resistor, R. (The ohmic resistance of the coils is negligible.) An alternating emf of
frequency, f, is applied across the primary coil. Determine the phase difference between the primary and secondary
voltages and currents. Examine the limiting cases, R 0 and R . Under what conditions are the currents in the
coils inversely proportional to the number of turns?
New advanced problem:
FN. 3149. A hole of radius R/4 is drilled through a solid, homogeneous cylinder, lying
on a rough, horizontal surface, as shown in the figure. With what period does the
cylinder move to and fro, if it is displaced slightly from its equilibrium position?

Exercises and problems in Physics


April 1998
New experimental problem:
m. 197. Examine how the electric power output of the dynamo of a bicycle through
different constant resistances depends on the number of revolutions of the rotor.
New exercises:
FGy. 3150. A row-boat travels downstream on a river at a speed of 8 m/s with respect to the shore. A motor-boat
comes from the opposite direction at a speed of 10 m/s with respect to the water. 10 seconds after meeting each other
they are at 160 metres from each other. At what speed does the river flow?
FGy. 3151. After disassembling a new type energy sparing light source one can see a 0.25 watt, 27 ohm resistor and
a complicated circuit (including the part that emits the light) connected in series inside it. The new light source gives
out as much light as a 60 watt filament lamp. By at least how many percents is its power consumption reduced?
FGy. 3152. When a tank vehicle half filled with some liquid is in uniform acceleration what is the direction of the
upthrust inside it?
FGy. 3153. A piece of -10 oC ice is heated to -1 oC using a certain quantity of energy. Then another 20 times as much
energy is necessary to finally obtain water. Using that the specific heat of ice is half of the specific heat of 4.2 kJ/
(kg oC) of water, determine the heat of fusion of ice from the above measurement data.
FGy. 3154. A pair of compasses hangs on a thread fastened to one of its ends. At what angle should the compasses
be open so that their joint is at the highest possible position? What is the position of the lower leg then? (The legs
should be approximated as homogeneous rods.)
New problems:
FF. 3155. Estimate the radius of a drop of water in which the density of the water has increased by one per mil due
to the pressure of curvature. (The compressibility of water is 5.10-10 Pa-1).
FF. 3156. A satellite is launched from a spherical planet in such a way that its velocity vector at its return to the
planet is parallel to its velocity vector at launching. The angular distance between the launching and the landing
point is . How much time does the satellite spend in space if the period of a satellite on a circular orbit near the
surface of the planet is T0? What is the maximum distance of the satellite from the surface of the planet if the radius
of the planet is R? Examine the limiting case when .
FF. 3157. There are diodes that do not conduct under 2.5 V, while at 2.5 V only the internal resistance of the current
supply limits the current flowing through them, and they emit light (LEDs). Design a simple circuit with the
following properties using two of these diodes and different ohmic resistors: when a voltage between 4.25 V and
5.5 V is connected to the circuit then only one of the diodes lights up, when a voltage between 5.5 V and 6 V is
connected to the circuit then both diodes light up, and when a voltage under 4.25 V is connected to the circuit then
none of the LEDs lights up. The current flowing through the diodes must not be higher than 25 mA.
FF. 3158. The end of an optical fibre is cut perpendicularly to the fibre. What is the minimum required refractive
index so that light inciding from any direction at the end of the fibre can enter the fibre but it cannot leave the fibre
on the side?
New advanced problem:
FN. 3159. A spring with N turns, radius R, length l0 and force constant D is made from a thin, insulated steel wire.
The turns of the spring do not touch each other, i.e. it cannot only be expanded but also compressed. What is the new
equilibrium length of the spring if current I is conducted through it?
Exercises and problems in Physics
May 1998
New experimental problem:
m. 198. Determine the number of carbon atoms per millimetre on lines drawn with pencils containing graphite leads
of various hardness.
New exercises:
FGy. 3160. The height of a brick is 15 cm, its density is 2.5 g/cm3. What is the maximum possible height of a wall
built out of such bricks of the pressure at the base is not to exceed 0.5 MPa? The thickness of the mortar layer
between the bricks is 1.5 cm and its density of 1.5 g/cm3.
FGy. 3161. The temperature of some plants rises considerably when they are in blossom. A plant of that kind is put
in a thermally insulated vessel with a heat capacity of 18 J/K. Initially, the temperature of the air enclosed is 20 oC,
and it rises to 25 oC in 40 seconds. Then, after a quick airing, it only takes 30 seconds to raise the temperature from
20 oC to 25 oC again. Find the heat generating power of the plant.
FGy. 3162. A series combination of three voltmeters is connected across the poles of a battery with relatively large
internal resistance and an electromotive force of 9 V. One voltmeter reads 2.4 V, the other reads 2.9 V and the third
one reads 3.6 V. What will the same voltmeters read if they are connected to the battery in parallel?
FGy. 3163. A pendulum swings in front of a scale between the divisions marked 10 and 30. In photograph of the
pendulum, the blurred image covers the region between the marks of 18 and 25. Find the time of exposition if the
period of the pendulum is 1.73 seconds.
FGy. 3164. The initial speed of the centre of a ping pong ball spinning ``backwards'' on a level tabletop is 3 \rm m/s,
and the tangential speed of its rotation os 9 m/s initially. The coefficient of friction is 0.2.
a) Find the time it takes the ball to get back to its starting position.
b) For that speeds will the ball come to rest on the table instead of coming back?
(The rotational inertia of a thin spherical shell is 2/3 mr2.
New problems:
FF. 3165. A direct-vision prism is made out of three prisms, each with a refracting
angle of =60o, attached to each other as shown in the figure. Light of a certain
wavelength is incident on the first prism. The angle of incidence is 30 o and the ray
leaves the third prism parallel to the direction of incidence. The refractive index of
the glass of the first and third prisms is 1.44. Find the refractive index of the
material of the middle prism.
FF. 3166. The magnetic field shown in the figure consists of two uniform regions.
The width of the first part is 5 cm, and the magnetic induction here is 0.001 T. The
width of the other part is also 5 cm, with the direction of the induction being
opposite in direction and 0.002 T in magnitude. What should be the minimum speed
of the electron arriving from the direction indicated in the figure so that it can pass
through the magnetic field? How much time does such an electron spend in the
magnetic field?
FF. 3167. Find the average power drawn out of an object oscillating at a frequency f
with an amplitude A by a taut string attached to it, in which the speed of elastic
waves is c and its mass per unit length is \mu.
FF. 3168. A 2-kg block is placed in an inclined plane enclosing a 30 o
angle with the horizontal, and a 1-kg block is placed on top of it. The two of them are connected by a
thread wrapped over a pulley as shown in the figure. The coefficient of friction between the blocks in 0.1
and 0.2 between the lower block and the slope. Find the acceleration of each block and the tension in the
thread.
FF. 3169. A person of height h0=2 m is doing bungy jumping from a tower of h=25 m over the lake
Balaton. One end of an elastic rope is attached to his foot and the other end is fixed in the tower. He
starts falling from rest in vertical position. The length and elastic properties of the rope are chosen so
that the speed of the descending person should decrease to zero at the instant when
his head reaches the surface of the water. At the end the person is hanging from the
rope with his head 8 m over the water.
a) Find the unstretched length of the rope.
b) Find the maximum speed and the maximum acceleration during the jump.
New advanced problem:
FN. 3170. Consider the following well-known experiment: There is an object
suspended from a thread and having an identical string attached to the bottom. If the
lower string is pulled slowly, the upper one will break. If it is jerked abruptly, it is the
lower string that will break. Let the mass of the object be m=0.2 kg. Let the force
constant of the strings be D=1000 N/m and let the maximum tension they can
withstand be Fmax=6mg. Which string will break if the lower end is pulled with a
speed of
a) 0.15 m/s,
b) 0.28 m/s,
c) 0.40 m/s,
d) 0.80 m/s.

Exercises and problems in Physics


September 1998

New experimental problem:


m. 199. A small water droplet in cooking oil has an approximately spherical shape, and is sinking with constant
velocity. Determine the relationship between the velocity of descent and the size of the droplet.
New exercises:
FGy. 3171. Press release: ,,In July 1997 the Ethiopian runner Haile Gebrselassie broke the world record of the
10 000 m flat race in Oslo with a result of 26:31.32 minutes. This meant an improvement of Morocco's runner, Salah
Hissou, by 6.76 seconds.'' Assuming that the two athletes compete against each other running at constant velocities
and set their own records,
a) what is the distance between them 1 minute after the start?
b) what is the distance between them when the Ethiopian athlete reaches the finishing line?
FGy. 3172. We put a closed glass-case with air and a small bird inside on a scale. It is obvious that the scale indicates
the weight of the bird too, when it is sitting on the bottom of the case. What is the combined weight if the bird is
hovering in the mid-air inside the case? What is the weight if we use a cage instead of the closed glass-case?
FGy. 3173. How many people can float in the sea with a cork life-belt of 10 kg if an average person's weighs is taken
to be 60 kg and 95% of his body-volume is under water? The average density of the human body is 1.06 g/cm3, the
density of sea-water is 1030 kg/m3, and that of cork is 240 kg/m3.
FGy. 3174. At the beginning of an experiment we have He gas in a 40-litre bottle under 6 MPa pressure at 18 degrees
centigrade. At the end of the experiment the pressure in the bottle is decreased by 30%, and the temperature is 20
degrees centigrade. How much He gas was used up? What is the price of the spent gas if the price of a newly filled
bottle is 20000 Ft and the net filling mass is 1.3 kg?
FGy. 3175. We have a room-bike equipped for measuring work too. The diameter of the bike's wheel is 60 cm. There
are two break-shoes fitted to the rim of this wheel and the friction force is 5 N per break-shoe. A test person
uniformly pedals the wheel for 10 minutes at 48 revolutions per minute. During this time, the test person uses up 2.2
litres of excess oxygen. The utilization of 1 litre of excess oxygen decreases the chemical energy of the body by
20 kJ. What is the efficiency of the work done by the human organism?
FGy. 3176. The sun shines here and there even in a dense forest. When the humidity is high enough, one can observe
shiny beams of vapour that don't appear to be parallel. Are they in fact parallel?
New problems:
FF. 3177. A plastic sucking disk weighing 3.5 g is fired from a toy-gun hitting the lower end of a vertically
positioned 50 cm long wooden slat. The weighing 230 g. The upper end of the hanging slat is fixed with a horizontal
axle. After the collision at the lower end the slat deflects from the vertical position by 15 degrees. What was the
velocity of the banging "bullet"? FF. 3178. A 20 cm long ruler weighing 0.05 kg rests on a frictionless table. At a
given instance a horizontal force of 0.01 N acts perpendicularly to the axis at one end of the ruler. What is the
acceleration at the opposite end of the ruler at this moment?
FF. 3179. A thin, homogeneous stick of mass m and length L may rotate in the vertical plane around a horizontal axle
pivoted at one end of the stick. A small ball of mass m and charge Q is attached to the opposite end of this stick. The
whole system is positioned in a homogeneous electric field of magnitude E=mg/Q. The electric field is parallel with
the stick held horizontally at the beginning.
a) What is the acceleration of the small ball at the instance of releasing the stick?
b) What is the velocity and the acceleration of the end of the stick when it swings through the vertical
position? Determine the direction of the acceleration at this time.
FF. 3180. A parallel-plate capacitor of 2 nF capacitance is charged to 100 V and then disconnected from the charging
source. The space between the plates is filled with mica of relative dielectric constant
epsilon"ALIGN=ABSCENTE
r=5.
a) What is the quantity of work needed for extracting the mica from the plates?
b) What will be the voltage after removing the mica?
FF. 3181. The vertical bar and it's supporting base illustrated has a combined mass of M.
At the lower end of the bar there is a spring of equilibrium length l0=16 cm attached to the
base plate. The small bead of mass m=0,1 kg can slide down on the bar without friction.
When the bead is carefully placed onto the spring, the spring is compressed by x0=2 cm.
a) What is the spring constant?
b) At what height h should the bead be released, so that the spring should
compress to x1=8 cm?
c) Let us assume that in question b) during impact the bead gets glued to the free
end of the spring. What is the minimal mass M needed to prevent the support
from jumping up?
FF. 3182. A given substance containing radioactive isotope
13153I"ALIGN=ABSCENTE
of mass 8.10-11 g is used for an examination of the thyroid gland. 50% of the isotope
infiltrates and remains in the thyroid gland, the rest is evacuated within 24 hours. The half-life of the isotope is 8
days.
a) What is the activity of the substance before the utilization?
b) What is the activity of the iodine in the thyroid after 4 days?
c) what length of time will be required for the activity in the thyroid to drop below 1% of the initial activity
of the iodine accumulated in the thyroid gland?
d) Estimate in mSv units the maximal full-body exposure (absorbed dose equivalent) from the radioactive
iodine in the thyroid of a patient of 60 kg. Neglect the gamma radiation of the
13153I"ALIGN=ABSCENTE
, and assume one beta particle of average energy 0.1 pJ for each decay. (The quality factor for beta radiation
is 1.0)
New advanced problem:
FN. 3183. Boron ions of mass number A=10 collide with particles of an unspecified element in an accelerator. The
velocities of the unknown ions and the boron have the same magnitude but opposite directions. It has been observed
that the maximal scattering angle of the boron ions is 30 degrees. (The motion of the particles is nonrelativistic.)
What is this unknown element in the experiment?

Exercises and problems in Physics


October 1998

New experimental problem:


m. 200. The remote control handset of the TV set emits invisible infra-red radiation. Examine to what extent different
sheets of paper let this radiation through or reflect it.
New exercises:
FGy. 3184. A sports field covered with snow is cleared using a snow-plough that travels at a uniform speed and
pushes the snow in front of it to the opposite side of the field. The field is twice as long as it is wide. How should the
machine move in the field to minimise the work done: crossways or lengthways? What is the ratio of these works?
FGy. 3185. A student connects four identical cells of 1.5 V each and an accumulator of 6 V in series. He connects a
resistor of 6 to this `battery', the pd across this resistor is also 6 V. He then takes away 1, 2, 3 and then 4 cells from
the circuit and is surprised to see that the pd across the resistor remains 6 V in each case. After some reasoning, he
realises that there is nothing surprising in this. Why?
FGy. 3186. A monatomic ideal gas expands at a constant pressure, while its energy increases by 3 kJ. How much
work does it do? How much heat does it take up?
FGy. 3187. Two bodies with a mass of 2 kg each are at rest on a horizontal board. The
bodies are joined by a tight thread of negligible mass. One end of the board is slowly
lifted. The coefficient of friction is 0.2 for the body at the bottom and 0.5 for the one at the
top. What force stretches the thread when the bodies already slide?
FGy. 3188. The little prince arrives at a planet with a small back-pack. He can calculate
the density of the planet using the following three observations:
a) On the Earth, he could jump four times as high without his back-pack than with it.
b) On this planet, he can jump K times as high with his back-pack than the distance covered by the planet in
the meantime.
c) Sending his back-pack on orbit around the planet, he can catch it in time t. What is the density of the
planet?
FGy. 3189. A student made pictures of the comet Hale-Bopp with an exposition time of 4 minutes. Due to the
rotation of the Earth, the stars made `streaks' in the pictures. Estimate the angular velocity of the rotation of the Earth
using the following data: the focal length of the objective of the camera is 300 mm, the enlargement of the negatives
is 4-fold and he measures the trace of a star to be 23 mm.
New problems:
FF. 3190. Where should a rod of homogeneous mass distribution be hung so that the period of this pendulum is the
minimum possible?
FF. 3191. A thin metal rod is rotated at a constant angular velocity about an axis crossing the middle of the rod and
perpendicular to the rod, in a magnetic field parallel to the axis of rotation. What is the charge distribution inside the
rod?
FF. 3192. Place a domino on top of a half-cylinder lying on its flat face as shown in the
figure. When the domino is deviated by a small angle and then released, it starts a periodic
oscillation on top of the half-cylinder. How many dominoes can be placed on top of each
other to allow such oscillations? What can the maximum deviation be so that the dominoes
do just not slip from the half-cylinder if the static coefficient of friction between them is
=0.1? (The thickness of a domino is d=5 mm, the radius of the cylinder is R=3 cm.)
FF. 3193. A beetle of mass M climbs from the bottom of a thin
hemispherical shell of radius R and mass M to its top rim.
a) What work does it do?
b) What is the minimum static coefficient of friction between the beetle and the
hemispherical shell if the beetle can climb?
c) Does the friction between the horizontal table and the hemispherical shell play any role?
New advanced problem:
FN. 3194. What is the frequency of the oscillation of the body of mass M shown in the
figure if all frictions are negligible?

Exercises and problems in Physics


November 1998

New experimental problem:


m. 201. Measure the speed dependence of pace-length and of the rate of paces, ranging from a slow stroll to fast
running.
New exercises:
FGy. 3195. When sacking, a basketball player rises vertically to 76 centimetres. How much time does he spend then
in the lower and upper 15 centimetres of his trajectory? Why do we get the feeling that players are soaring in the air?
FGy. 3196. 100 MJ of electrical energy per second needs to be transmitted to consumers through a 20-kilometre
aluminium cable of 100 mm2 cross-section. What is the loss, if the p.d. is 100 kV at the point of consumption? What
would the loss be at 380 V?
FGy. 3197. A homogeneous rod of 1.5 m length and 3.36 cm diameter is hanging, fixed at one end. A 2-
kilogram ball collides elastically at a horizontal velocity of 0.3 m/s with the lower end of the rod.
Meanwhile, it has transmitted its full kinetic energy to the rod bouncing away. What material do you think
the rod may have been made of? At what angular velocity did the rod start moving? How much later did it
pass the initial position again?
FGy. 3198. At the bottom of a glass there is a liquid the density of which is three times as much as that of
water. Above this liquid there is water. The two materials do not mix. There is also a piece of ice in the
glass, with a piece of aluminium frozen into it. How do the levels of liquids change when the ice melts?
New problems:
FF. 3199. In the electric circuit shown in the figure R1=400 , R2=600 ,
U0=50 V. The internal resistance of the battery is negligible. If a voltmeter is attached
between points A and B, it measures 19.5 V. What is the resistance of the voltmeter? What
p.d. does it feature between points B and C? How many times do we need to increase the
resistance of the voltmeter in order to decrease the relative errors of the voltage
measurements below 1 %?
FF. 3200. Two blocks connected with a spring are moving on a horizontal surface. The coefficient of kinetic and
static friction is . How does the system's centre of mass move? Data: D=10 N/m, m1=m2=0.4 kg, v1,0=0, v2,0=2 m/s,
=0.3.
FF. 3201. A small block of mass m and electric charge Q is sliding without friction from the top of a cylinder whose
radius is R and the axis is horizontal. The cylinder is placed into a homogeneous magnetic field, B is parallel to the
axis of the cylinder. Where does the small block leave the surface of the cylinder? Is it possible that it does not leave
it at all?
FF. 3202. A horizontal 50-cm metallic rod is attached to a vertical conductive axis and
it can rotate around it. The other end of the metallic rod touches a conductive ring.
Between the ring and the axis there is a 0.1 resistor. The resistance of all other
conductors and the friction are negligible. The equipment is placed into a vertical
homogeneous magnetic field of 0.8 T magnetic induction. What torque is to be exerted
on the rod in order that it should rotate at a constant 10 s-1 angular velocity?
New advanced problem:
FN. 3203. In a thermally insulated, easily expandable gas-bag there is some gas. The
pressure of the environment decreases from p1 to p2 Therefore, the gas expands and
cools down. In which case does the temperature go down more: when the outer
pressure decreases slowly or drops dramatically?

Exercises and problems in Physics


December 1998

New experimental problem:


m. 202. Measure the fractions of incident light reflected, transmitted and absorbed by a plastic ruler as a function of
the angle of incidence. (6 points)
New exercises:
FGy. 3204. The area of the point of a drawing-pin is approximately 0.1 mm2, while that of its head is 1.2 cm2. What
pressure has to be exerted onto the head of the pin so that its point exerts a pressure one thousand times greater than
the atmospheric pressure onto the drawing-board? What force is then applied? (3 points)
FGy. 3205. A consumer is connected to an accumulator across a series resistor. When the resistance of the series
resistor is increased from 100 to 150 , the power output of the accumulator decreases by 25 %. By how many
percents does the power consumption of the consumer with unchanged resistance decrease? (4 points)
FGy. 3206. A floating areometer is calibrated for densities between 800 kg/m3 and 2000 kg/m3, the distance between
the signs corresponding to these is 28 cm. What is the distance between the bottom sign and the sign corresponding
to 1400 kg/m3? (4 points)
FGy. 3207. There is a small, closed, evacuated tube with heat-insulating walls in a large container containing He gas.
The pressure of the He is 105 Pa, its temperature is 300 K. The end of the small tube is opened for a little while and
some He enters. What is the temperature of the He in the tube? (4 points)
New problems:
FF. 3208. Estimate the masses of the atmospheres of the Earth and Venus. The pressure at the surface of Venus is 90
times greater than that at the surface of the Earth, the mean diameter of Venus is 5 % smaller, its density 10 %
smaller than the respective data of the Earth. (4 points)
FF. 3209. There is 1 mole of He gas at a temperature of 0 oC in a vertically standing, 5 m-high, heat-insulated
cylinder with a cross-section of 0.01 m2. A heat-insulating piston with a mass of 4 kg, moving without friction, is
held at the top of the cylinder. The atmospheric pressure is 10 5 Pa. How deep does the piston sink when released? (4
points)
FF. 3210. In principle, both the Earth and the Moon could be charged electrically by shooting electrons from them
into space. What would be the minimum work required to form an electrostatic repulsion strong enough to finally
separate the Moon from the Earth? What would the majority of this work be used for? (5 points)
FF. 3211. A rod of mass m and resistance R is placed perpendicularly onto a pair of sufficiently long, parallel bars of
negligible resistance, at distance l from each other in a horizontal plane. The rod can slide without friction parallelly
to itself on the bars. One end of the pair of bars is open, the other is connected to a capacitor of capacitance C
charged to p.d. U. The bars are in a homogeneous, vertical magnetic field of induction B. After connecting the
capacitor to the bars, what is the final speed of the rod and what is the final p.d. across the capacitor? What should
the mass of the rod be to allow the maximum kinetic energy? (5 points)
FF. 3212. White light is shone onto a 250 nm-thick soap membrane at an angle of incidence of 30 o. What is the
colour of the light reflected from the membrane? (5 points)
New advanced problem:
FN. 3213. What shape is the image made of a sphere of radius r by a condensing lens of focal length f if the centre of
the sphere is the focus of the lens? (6 points)

Exercises and problems in Physics


January 1999
New experimental problem:
m. 203. Measure the densities of lump sugar, granulated sugar, icing sugar and Christmas fondant as accurately as
possible. How does the water content affect the densities?
New exercises:
FGy. 3215. How much energy is necessary to tear a CO2 molecule from solid carbon-dioxide? (The required data can
be found in scientific tables.)
FGy. 3216. A caterpillar tractor moves on a horizontal road at a speed of 36 km/h. a) Determine the kinetic energy of
one of the 600 kg caterpillars. b) What is the kinetic energy of this caterpillar according to the driver of the tractor?
FGy. 3217. People at an excursion measure the boiling point of water to be 99 oC at the morning start and 97 oC at
sunset, at the end of a walk in a hilly country. Using scientific tables, estimate the difference in the altitudes of the
two places. The temperature is 15 oC at both places and times, and the atmospheric pressure does not change during
the day.
New problems:
FF. 3218. The period of a binary system is 2 years, the distance between the two stars is 300 million kilometres and
the mass of one of the stars equals that of the Sun. What is the mass of the other star?
FF. 3219. A small, flat body is released with no initial speed and slides down from the
rim (point A in the figure) of a fixed, half-cylinder shaped trough, the axis of which is
horizontal. a) Does the body slide to point B if the coefficient of friction between the
body and the trough is 1=0.5? b) Does the body reach point B if the coefficient of
friction is 2=0.268?
FF. 3220. A point-like body with a mass of 0.5 kg moving at a uniform speed of 5 m/s on
an elliptical track experiences a force of 10 N at the endpoints of the major axis and a force of 1.25 N at the
endpoints of the minor axis. How long are the axes of the ellipse?
FF. 3221. When is the earliest time after midnight when the distance between the endpoints of the hands of the clock
in exercise 3214 changes the most rapidly? And the most slowly?
FF. 3222. A light with a wavelength of 0.4 m and an intensity of 0.5 W/cm2 falls perpendicularly onto the surface
of a cesium photo-cathode. The exit energy of the electrons is 2 eV. If the electrons leave the surface perpendicularly,
what pressure do they exert on it? How does this relate to the pressure of the incident light? (Assume that half of the
incident photons is absorbed, the rest is reflected perpendicularly, and 10 percent of the absorbed photons produce
photoelectrons.)
New advanced problem:
FN. 3223. A homogeneous rod of mass m and length l is held horizontally by supporting its two ends with our
fingers. When we slowly approach our fingers together, they finally meet under the centre of the rod, while the rod
slips on either one or the other finger. How much work do we do during the process if the coefficient of static friction
is s, that of dynamic friction is d ( s d)?

Exercises and problems in Physics


February 1999

New experimental problem:


m. 204. Observe the motion of balls started from the side of a bath wiped dry and bunged. Due to the slope of the
bottom of the bath, the balls moving to and fro drift towards the bung. How does the average drift velocity in the
direction of the slope of the bath depend on the height h of the starting point? Make experiments using balls of
different material and size (e.g. steel ball, glass ball, table-tennis ball, etc.), and using different starting points with
the same height h as well. (6 points)
New exercises:
FGy. 3224. 5 cm3 of water is mixed with 5 cm3 of heavy water in one vessel, and 5 g of water is mixed with 5 g of
heavy water in another one. Which mixture is of higher density? (3 points)
FGy. 3225. A bus driver is separated from the passengers by a Plexiglas pane mounted behind him. A car moving at a
speed of 110 km/h starts to overtake the bus travelling at a speed of 80 km/h. In what direction and at what speed
does the reflection of the lights of the car made by the Plexiglas pane move, as seen by a passenger on the bus? (3
points)
FGy. 3226. An inert gas with a volume of 2 dm3 and a pressure of 105 Pa expands to a volume of 6 dm3 in such a way
that the process can be represented on a (p,V) diagram by a straight line. At the end of the process, the increase of the
internal energy of the gas is twice the work done by the gas.
a) Determine the pressure of the gas in the final state.
b) How much heat does the gas take up during the expansion? (4 points)
FGy. 3227. An astronaut throws a stone on the Moon at an angle of 60 o with the horizontal and at an initial speed of
20 m/s. What are the tangential and the normal components of the acceleration of the stone 3 seconds after the
throwing? What is the radius of curvature of the trajectory in this point? (5 points)
New problems:
FF. 3228. A small body of mass m can be fastened to any point of a homogeneous rod of length l and mass M
suspended at one end. Where should the small body be fixed so that the period of the rod is minimum? What is this
minimum period? (E.g. let m=6M.)
FF. 3229. A body starting from the top of a slope of inclination and height h slides down the slope and rebounds
from a wall perpendicular to the slope. It loses some mechanical energy both while sliding and while rebounding.
What distance does it cover in how much time before it finally stops? The coefficient of dynamic friction is , the

collision number (the ratio of the speeds after to before rebounding) is k. Numerical data: =30o, h=1 m, = , k= .
FF. 3230. The top plate of a charged plane capacitor is fixed, while the bottom one is kept in equilibrium by the
gravitational and electrostatic forces. What is the type of the equilibrium when a) the charge, b) the pd. of the
capacitor is constant?
FF. 3231. A metal ring with a mass of 1 gram and a charge of 2 .10-8 C rotates at high velocity about its symmetry axis
perpendicular to its plane. Calculate its magnetic dipole momentum if its momentum is 0.1 kg m2 s-1.
New advanced problem:
FN. 3232. On a slope of inclination , the coefficient of friction grows proportionally to the distance from the top of
the slope: = .x. Describe the motion of a tyre of mass m and radius r starting from the top of the slope. In how
much time will the tyre start rolling without friction?

Exercises and problems in Physics


March 1999

New experimental problem:


m. 205. Measure the coefficient of thermal expansion of wood along the grain and perpendicularly to it. (6 points)
New exercises:
FGy. 3233. A person's heart does approximately a work of 1.6 J during a beat. How much work does it do during a
day? How many kg of sand could a machine with such a power output `shovel up' to a height of 1 m? (3 points)
FGy. 3234. A certain quantity of gas makes the cycle shown in the figure. The
thermodynamic efficiency of the cycle is . Can this gas be radon? (4 points)
FGy. 3235. Lying on his stomach at the bottom of a slope that has an inclination of 35 o,
somebody tries to hit the mark 40 metres upward along the slope with a gun. Where should
the gun point if the initial speed of the bullet is 100 m/s and air resistance is neglected? (4
points)
FGy. 3236. A body with a mass of 0.5 kg is fastened to the free end of a light, cylindrical
rod with a length of 40 cm and a diameter of 0.5 cm. The period of the small oscillations
of the system is measured to be 0.1 second. Determine the value of Young's modulus. (5
points)
FGy. 3237. Electrons inside a solenoid revolve along a circular path. In what direction: according or opposite to that
of the electrons moving inside the wire of the solenoid? (3 points)
New problems:
FF. 3238. Two solid, homogeneous spheres of identical weight and radius start down the same slope at the same
time, with no initial speed. The quality of the surface of each sphere is different: the coefficient of dynamic friction is
1=0.1 for one of them and 2=0.4 for the other one.
a) Which sphere arrives first at the bottom of the slope?
b) Which sphere has a greater kinetic energy at the bottom of the slope? Represent these ratios as a function of the
inclination of the slope. (5 points)
FF. 3239. We want to tune the E-string of our guitar to the A-string already tuned, applying the usual method: we
hold it down so that it also gives an A, then we touch both strings and listen. We can hear the sound fading every
second. By how many percents does the frequency of the false A differ from the required value? Is it higher or lower?
The frequency of the tuned A-string is 110 Hz. (4 points)
FF. 3240. Estimate the length of time up to which a fire extinguisher with a volume of 10 litres, containing 4 kg of
carbon dioxide can be operated. Assume that the gas leaves the container through a hole
with a cross-section of 0.1 cm2, at a uniformly decreasing speed. (5 points)
FF. 3241. A particle of charge Q and mass m is released from point P
inside a vertical plane capacitor charged to pd. U, as shown in the
figure. There is a small hole at the point where the particle reaches
the right plate, through which the particle can pass. What is the
trajectory of the particle? In how much time and where does the
particle reach the ground? (Air resistance can be neglected.) (4
points)
FF. 3242. A recently patented `plummet' consists of a liquid with a
suitable refractive index poured into a cylindrical vessel and of a
small laser. How should the refractive index n be chosen so that the
light refracted by the liquid prism leaves the apparatus practically vertically when | | <10o? How accurate can this
apparatus be? (5 points)
New advanced problem:
FN. 3243. A body of mass m can move without friction
in a horizontal plane. The springs fixed in points A and
B shown in the figure are initially not expanded, their
spring constant is D.
a) What force does the body experience when it is
displaced to distance x perpendicularly to the straight
line AB? How can this force be approximated for small
displacements?
b) What is the period of the oscillations for an
amplitude of 2 cm if it is 2 s for an amplitude of 1 cm and AB>>1 cm? (6 points)

Exercises and problems in Physics


April 1999

New experimental problem:


m. 206. Measure to what extent perforation decreases the tensile strength of paper. You may use paper perforated in
the factory for the experiments (e.g. memo pad), but you can also make perforations with holes at given distances
using a sewing-machine. (6 points)
New exercises:
FGy. 3244. How many litres of air does the aerator of a 20-litre aquarium suck in per minute if a bubble spends an
average of 2 seconds in the water and a wooden cube with a density of 980 kg/m3 floats in the bubbly water? (3
points)
FGy. 3245. When making soda water, 22 % of the carbon dioxide dissolves in 1 litre of water above which there was
initially 2 dl of `empty' space. How many grams of CO 2 should there at least be in the cartridge to press the soda out?
(4 points)
FGy. 3246. In the morning, at a temperature of 10 oC, a tube with a length of 100 cm, closed at one end, is slightly
immersed into water in a vertical position, its open end downwards. (The end of the tube touches the water, but the
immersion is negligible.) The position of the tube is not changed during the day. In the evening - when the
temperature is again 10oC - there is a 5 cm high column of water in the tube.
a) What was the maximum daily temperature?
b) When is the internal energy of the air enclosed in the tube higher: in the morning or at the maximum daily
temperature?
The atmospheric pressure is 105 Pa all day and the density of water can be considered as 1000 kg/m3. (4 points)
FGy. 3247. The initially square, jointed system shown in the figure consists of 4
homogeneous rods of length l and mass m and an unstretched spring with spring constant D.
What is the length of the spring at the equilibrium position of the system? (5 points)
FF. 3248. When does a skier reach the bottom of the slope more
quickly: when the slope is a convex or a concave circular arc? The
radius of the circular arcs is identical, friction is negligible. (4 points)
New problems:
FF. 3249. The maximum power output of a galvanic cell is P and we
have 60 such cells. In what arrangements and across what external resistances can exactly
60 P be taken out of them? (4 points)
FF. 3250. Estimate the minimum proportion of a fast neutron beam that can penetrate a 10 cm thick iron plate. (4
points)
FF. 3251. A solid, homogeneous ball of radius r is spun about a horizontal axis with angular velocity 0. The
spinning ball is dropped from height h= 02r2/(2g). The collision number between
the ball and the ground is k, the coefficient of friction is . In what conditions will
the ball not roll yet, but slide and spin when it stops bouncing? (5 points)
FF. 3252. What is the stronger limit for the resolution of human eye: the size of the
pupil or the density of the neurones in the retina? (5 points)
New advanced problem:
FN. 3253. A tube of mass M, radius R and with thin walls can revolve freely about a
horizontal axle. Inside, another tube of mass m and radius r can roll without sliding.
a) How many degrees of freedom does this system have? (How many independent
data can describe its position in each instant? b) Chose appropriate co-ordinates and
give the equations of motion using them. c) Solve the equations in the case when
the larger tube is initially at rest and the smaller one is moving at a low velocity at
its bottom position. (6 points)
Bonus problem (April special): Can we experience 10 Sundays in February in a year?

Exercises and problems in Physics


May 1999

New experimental problem:


m. 207. Investigate how the volume of an inflated, initially approximately spherical balloon changes as the balloon is
gradually pulled under water using a thread.
New exercises:
FGy. 3254. There is half a metre of oil with a density of 800 kg/m3 atop half a metre of water in a barrel. A prism
with a length of 1 m and a cross-section of 1 dm2 floats in this liquid. The bottom 10 cm of this prism is made of
aluminium with a density of 2700 kg/m3, the rest is made of pinewood with a density of 500 kg/m3. The prism is
slowly and cautiously lifted out from the liquid. How much work do we do and how much work does the upthrust
do? (The prism remains vertical all the time.)
FGy. 3255. There is 10 g of oxygen in a cylinder closed by a piston. This gas goes through the equilibrium states
described by the formula

while its volume increases from the initial 10 litres to 25 litres. What are the lowest and highest pressures and
temperatures of the gas during this process?
FGy. 3256. There is one point-like body with a charge of 6 .10-8 C and a mass of 2 g at rest in each vertex of an
equilateral triangle with 50 cm sides. What are the electric field strength and the potential at the centre of the
triangle? What is the initial acceleration of the bodies when their fastenings are simultaneously released, and what
final speed do they reach? (All other forces should be neglected.)
FGy. 3257. A prism of mass M=3 kg forming a slope of inclination can slide
without friction on a horizontal table. A rectangular body of mass m=1 kg is placed
onto this slope, where it can slide down without friction, while the prism moves with
some acceleration. At what angle is the acceleration of the prism maximum?
New problems:
FF. 3258. A flea goes up a flight of stairs jumping from edge to edge on the stairs.
When can he get up with less work: when he takes the stairs one by one or two by two? In which case does he arrive
upstairs sooner?
FF. 3259. A ship can increase its speed using a built-in pump that sucks in a mass m of water per unit time through an
opening in the ship's bottom, and ejaculating it backwards at speed c with respect to the ship. What is the maximum
speed that the ship can reach if the drag is proportional to the square of its speed: Fk=B.v2?
FF. 3260. A metal sphere can be charged to charge Q1 using a belt generator. When it touches another, uncharged
metal sphere, charge Q2 is passed over. Continuing this procedure - i.e. touching the first sphere to the belt generator
and then to the second sphere -, what is the maximum charge that can accumulate on the second sphere?
FF. 3261. A point-like body with a mass of 0.1 kg starts with zero initial speed from
point A of a hyperbolic slope of equation y=1/x, as shown in the figure. What is the
pressing force in point B if friction is negligible?
FF. 3262. There is helium gas in a horizontal cylinder with heat insulating walls,
closed by a piston. The piston of mass m can move without friction in the cylinder.
The atmospheric pressure is pa; the temperature of the helium is initially T0, its
volume is V0. Releasing the fastening of the piston, the atmospheric pressure
suddenly compresses the gas, heating it up to temperature T. What is the maximum
speed of the piston during this process? (Data: m=100 kg, pa=105 Pa, V0=1 m3,
T0=300 K, T=600 K.)
New advanced problem:
FN. 3263. There is a coil of 3600 turns in the central
part of the iron core shown in the figure. The cross-
section of the coil is 20 cm2 here and 5 cm2 elsewhere.
The relative permeability of iron is 4600. What pd. do
the voltmeters read, while the current flowing in the
coil increases uniformly from zero to 10 A in 0.1 s?
(The internal resistance of the battery is negligible.
U0=18 V, R1=3 , R2=2 .)

The Conditions of the Problem Solving Competition, 1999/2000


The competitions start annually and last from September to May, but you can enter any time during the academic
year.
In mathematics, there are three different contests, in physics there are two. The conditions of the mathematics and
physics contests are different. See below for details.
Every primary or secondary school student is eligible to participate in the competitions. Students in different grades
might find the same problems but in most cases their work is evaluated within their age group, they compete with
students of the same age only. Therefore, it is essential that the paper should indicate the 1 to 12 grade of the
contestant in the current school year. The KMaL contests are individual competitions, solutions produced by a
group are not accepted. If two papers turn out to be practically identical, none of them will be marked.
MATHEMATICS

C contest: exercises for practice, easier than those in the B contest; 5 per month. Correct solutions worth 5 marks.
Age groups:
up to 10th grade students
11 to 12th grade students (preferably those not studying mathematics in a special advanced class. Those
in advanced classes are advised to take part in the B contest).
B contest: 10 problems per month. You can send any number of solutions, but only the highest six scores are
entered.
Age groups:
up to the 8th grade
9th grade
10th grade
11th grade
12th grade
A contest: advanced problems, 3 per month. More demainding than the B contest, for those who are preparing for
national or international competitions. Here are no separate age groups.
PHYSICS

M contest: Experimental problems: One measuring task is set each month. Each of them is worth 6 points. The
report must contain a description of the method, the data obtained sufficient in quantity and quality, the analysis
of the data, and the estimation of the error. There are no separate age groups.
P contest: 10 theoretical problems per month.
Age groups:
up to the 8th grade;
9th grade;
10th grade;
11th grade;
12th grade.
Every age group may send solutions to all kinds of problems but at most 5 theoretical + 1 experimental problem a
month. More than 5 + 1 solution sent by one contestant will not be evaluated.
Deadlines, adresses

The deadline of mailing or e-mailing the solutions is indicated in every issue next to the new exercises and
problems. In mathematics, it is the 15th of the month following the publication of the current issue, in physics it is
the 11th. Should that be a weekend or bank holiday, the deadline is the next workday.
Send your solutions to the following address:

KMaL Szerkesztsg (KMaL feladatok), Budapest Pf. 47. 1255, Hungary


or by e-mail to: megoldas@komal.elte.hu.
The actual state of the contests appears on our web-site (http://komal.elte.hu/eredm/index.e.shtml) and it is updated
regularly. These data are not official, only for your information. The final results will appear in August on our
Internet home page and in the September issue of the following academic year. The cca 10 top contestans are
rewarded by a certificate in each category and this is going to be mailed to their schools, and their portraits,
additionally, will be presented in the December issue and the Internet. Entry for the contests
The layout of the papers:
By ordinary mail:
Write the solutions to different problems on separate A4 sheets of paper. (This is important because
different people are responsible for the marking.)
The header of every sheet must contain the following in the upper left corner (see sample 1):

-the letter code (A, B, C, M, P) and number of the problem in red


-the full name and the grade of the sender
-the name of the school and the town (and country)
Fold each sheet in four separately so that the heading should be on the top.
Solutions to geometry problems should include diagrams.
Enclose with your solutions a separate sheet listing your data and the contents of your mail. See sample 2.

Sample 1. Header of a sheet Sample 2. Enclosed list

C. 547. Varga 783 Istvn, 10th grade


Varga 783 Istvn, 10th grade Rvai High School, Gyr
Rvai High School, Gyr I send the following 3 papers in:
C. 545., C. 547., B. 3293.

By e-mail:
Send the solutions of different problems as separate e-mail messages.
The "subject" field of the e-mail message should contain the letter code and number of the problem.
The content of the papers:

It is not enough to state the answer. Results with detailed explanations only will receive full credit. (Reference to
standard school math is accepted without proof.)

Exercises and problems in Physics


September 1999

Please read The Conditions of the Problem Solving Competition.

New experimental problem:


M. 208. Measure the density of the material of a table-tennis ball as accurately as you can. Give an error estimation.
(6 points)

New problems:
P. 3264. The value at "cement 600" shows that the cross-sectional area of 1 cm 2 of a concrete plate is capable to hold
the weight of 600 kg. Using ten times higher safety standard how high concrete tower can be made of this kind of
cement? The density of concrete is 2500 kg/m3. (3 points)
P. 3265. The water runs into an insulated vessel from two taps. The first tap gives 7 litres water per minute with
temperature 12 oC, while the other gives 4 litres per minute with 60 oC. The cold water tap has been open for 8
minutes. How long should the hot water tap be open to get finally 36 oC water in the vessel? (3 points)
P. 3266. In hail a piece of ice hits onto the roof of a car with a speed of 6 m/s. How high does it bounce back at most
if 60%of its kinetic energy is lost in the collision? (3 points)
P. 3267. There are two identical open test-tube in a garden. One of them is in shadow, the other is placed on a very
sunny place. There is no wind at all. In which test-tube is bigger the energy of air
a) if the thermal expansion of glass is negligible;
b) if the thermal expansion of glass is not negligible?
(4 points)
P. 3268. A glass of carbonated water is on the table. Approximately how many CO 2 molecules are in a bubble of
diameter 1 mm? (4 points)
P. 3269. A simple pendulum is hung on a frictionless chart of mass M. The mass of the bob is m, the length of the
string is l. Fixing the chart the pendulum is displaced a little bit and released. After measuring the period the
experiment is repeated not fixing the chart. How does the period of the pendulum change? (4 points)
P. 3270. A satellite has a circular orbit of radius r=2R around the Earth of radius R=6370 km. In an instant it gets an
extra velocity directed to the centre of the Earth. The change of magnitude of its linear momentum is equal the
magnitude of momentum of the satellite before.
a) Find the velocity of the satellite just after the change of its momentum.
b) Find the minimum distance of the satellite from the centre of the Earth after changing its momentum.
c) What is its velocity at the closest point?
(5 points)
P. 3271. The diameter of the objective lens of a Kepler telescope (of magnification 5) is 84 mm, its focal length is
1 m, the diameter of its ocular (eyepiece) lens is 12 mm. Find the maximum visual angle of this telescope to observe
stars at the same time. (5 points)
P. 3272. Suppose the rest heat of nuclear power station in Paks of power 1800 MW and efficiency 30 % is using for
melting the ice cover of the frozen lake Balaton of thickness 10 cm. For how long would this quantity of ice melt?
What surface should be covered with solar cells constructing a solar power station having a peak power identical
with the permanent electric power of Paks? (The intensity of the solar radiation on the surface of the Earth is
approximately 1 kW/m2.) (4 points)
P. 3273. There is a very small hole on a heatable furnace. In the vicinity of the furnace the temperature of air is 0 oC,
while the temperature inside is 57 oC. In sufficient time the pressure in the furnace becomes steady. Estimate this
steady pressure. (6 points)

Exercises and problems in Physics


October 1999

Please read The Conditions of the Problem Solving Competition.

New experimental problem:


M. 209. Stand dominoes parallel to each other and at even distances in such a way that pushing the first one makes
all of them tumble over. Investigate what the speed of the tumbling wave depends on, and how. (6 points)

New problems:
P. 3274. The light of a searchlight placed at the top of a 26 meter high lighthouse standing on the seashore could first
be seen at 30 km from the shore, through the telescope of a ship. How high was the telescope above the surface of the
sea? (4 points)
P. 3275. How deep should a floating wooden log be submerged into water so that the work done during the
submerging is equal to the minimum work necessary to lift the log out of the water? The density of wood is k times
smaller than that of water. Investigate the case when k 2. (4 points)
P. 3276. Make an estimate of the universal gas constant using the following measurement data made on 100 oC
steam.
p (Pa) 986 9806 98066
(kg/m3) 0,00570 0,05705 0,578
(3 points)
P. 3277. Starting from the edge of a rock, Tarzan swings towards another rock on a 18 m long liana. The bottom of
his trajectory is 3 metres lower than his starting point. Will the liana support the jump of Tarzan, who weighs 900 N,
if its maximum tensile strength is 1200 N? (4 points)
P. 3278. Should two resistors of different resistances but identical maximum power be connected in series or in
parallel so that their power is maximum together? (4 points)
P. 3279. One of the devices used to measure gravitational acceleration is Whiting's plank pendulum.
Show that a ball in free fall starting together with the plank from the rotational axis of the plank always
hits the plank at the same proportion of the length of the latter, regardless of the actual length. What is
this proportion? (4 points)
P. 3280. Should the volume of air saturated with steam be decreased or increased in order to condense
some of the water from the air? (4 points)
P. 3281. Determine the radius of curvature at the topmost point of the
trajectory described by a point of a hoop rolling without sliding on a
slope. (5 points)
P. 3282. A circular conductor of radius R is electrically charged with
charge Q. How does the electric field strength change along the straight
line crossing the centre of the circle and perpendicular to the plane of the
circle? Where does it reach its maximum value? (5 points)
P. 3283. The suspension springs of all the wheels of a car are identical. How much does the body of the car
(considered as rigid) rise above the wheels when the car is parked on a 8 cm high kerb with its right front wheel?
How does the result change when the car is parked with both its right wheels on the kerb? Does the result depend on
the number and the position of the persons sitting in the car? (6 points)

Exercises and problems in Physics


November 1999

Please read The Conditions of the Problem Solving Competition.

New experimental problem:


M. 210. A test tube with some ballast at its bottom (water, shots, sand, etc.) floats in water in a vertical position, in a
large graduated cylinder. When the test tube is slightly lifted and released, it makes vertical damped oscillations.
Measure the period T of the oscillations (with different quantities of ballast) and calculate the value of the quantity
. Compare x with the length of the test tube immersed in water when the tube is at rest. (6 points)

New problems:
P. 3284. A closed ring made of some metal wire has a piece of wire soldered to each end of a
quarter cycle of the ring as shown in the figure. Connecting these pieces of wire to a current
supply, a current of 2.4 A starts flowing. What are the separate resistances of the quarter and
the three-quarter cycles, if a pd. of 3.6 V is measured between the soldering points? What is
the power taken up by the metal ring? (3 points)
P. 3285. A balloon with a mass of 7.3 kg, filled with helium gas at a temperature of 23o C,
floats in the air as a sphere with a diameter of 2.4 m (it does neither rise, nor sink). The
density of air around it is 1.19 km/m3.
What is the pressure of the helium gas? (4 points)
P. 3286. Silvia asks her friend Julia for help through the Internet, to solve the following
physics problem:
"The figure represents some equilibrium process of n moles of monatomic ideal gas.
How much heat does the gas take up during the process?"
Unfortunately, it turned out later that Silvia had typed wrong data on the vertical axis.
The correct figure has symbols p instead of T.
How many times is the correct result greater than what Julia first calculated, assuming
that the initial temperature of the gas is T0 in the correct figure as well? (4 points)
P. 3287. A stone is thrown horizontally with initial velocity v0. What is the time
dependence of the angular velocity of this velocity vector? (5 points)
P. 3288. What is the maximum starting acceleration - on level ground - of a motorcycle with a very strong engine if
the wheel base is l, the height of the centre of gravity is h and the coefficient of friction between the wheels and the
ground is ? The moment of inertia of the wheels is small, the load on the wheels is identical in equilibrium. (5
points)
P. 3289. There are two electric dipoles in vacuum, at a distance of 3 m from each other, with respective electric
dipole moments of 6.10-6 C m and 2.10-7 C m. (The dipoles can be approximated as pairs of charges.) What are the
minimum and maximum values of the interaction energy between the two dipoles? (The point-like charges forming
the dipoles are in both cases in one straight line.) (6 points)
P. 3290. A proton beam passes first through a 4 cm wide, homogeneous magnetic field with induction B1=0.2 T, and
then through a second, also 4 cm wide, homogeneous magnetic field joining the first field, but with induction
B2=0.4 T. The B-lines of the two fields are parallel and point into the same direction; the initial velocity of the
protons is perpendicular both to the B-lines and to the limiting surface of the magnetic fields.
What accelerating voltage is required so that the protons can penetrate through both magnetic fields? (4 points)
P. 3291. What is the difference in percentage between the wavelength of the smallest frequency visible light emitted
by deuterium and hydrogen atoms? (5 points)
P. 3292. Sometimes, interesting colourful streaks can be observed on a transparent plastic ruler lying on a table by
the window. Give an explanation to the phenomenon. (5 points)
P. 3293. There is a body of mass m at the bottom of a thin and narrow tyre of mass m and radius r standing on a level
table. The small body is started with a small, horizontal initial velocity v0 in the plane of the tyre. How does the
centre of the tyre move afterwards? (Friction is negligible everywhere.) (6 points)

Exercises and problems in Physics


December 1999

Please read The Conditions of the Problem Solving Competition.

New experimental problem:


M. 211. Drops dripping from a slightly open water tap follow each other at seemingly even time intervals. Observe
this phenomenon for a long period of time. How can you characterise the difference between the time intervals? (6
points)

New problems:
P. 3294. While swinging, a thread pendulum runs into a nail each time it passes through its
vertical equilibrium position. The nail is exactly at the middle of the thread. Give the
difference in percentage between the time necessary for the pendulum to swing back to its
original position (deviated by 2o) without and with the nail. (3 points)
P. 3295. There are 18 circular holes on a shower rose, with a diameter of 2 mm each. Water
flows at a speed of 0.5 m/s through the hose with a diameter of 10 mm. At what speed does water leave the holes?
Does the kinetic energy of water change? Does it increase or decrease? Give an explanation. (4 points)
P. 3296. We have N different springs. Joining them in series results in a spring with a force constant of 52 N/m.
When joined in parallel, the resultant force constant is 1872 N/m. What is the maximum possible value of N? (4
points)
P. 3297. Two 1 kg lead balls start towards each other due to gravity, in an environment devoid of other gravitational
effects. How long does it take them to collide if the distance between the centres of mass of the balls was initially
1 metre? (The density of lead is 11 340 kg/m3.) (4 points)
P. 3298. Using a heat engine, some air with initially a volume of 7 litres, a pressure of 10 5Pa and a temperature of
0 o C is driven through a thermodynamic cycle consisting of two isobar and two isochore sections. During the cycle,
the air is never colder than 0 o C, and the work done by the heat engine is 500 J. What can the maximum
thermodynamic efficiency of this heat engine be? (5 points)
P. 3299. One plate of a plane capacitor has charge Q on it, the other one is uncharged. The area of the
plates is A, the distance between them is d. a) What is the voltage of the capacitor? b) What are the
magnitude and the direction of the force acting on metal plate n o 2 when connected with a wire to metal
plate no 3 parallel to plate no 2 and with the same area as the latter (see the figure)? (4 points)
P. 3300. Can the current flowing through a consumer (e.g. the electric starter of a car) fed by an
accumulator be increased by connecting a galvanic cell with the same electromotive force as the
accumulator, in parallel with the latter? (3 points)
P. 3301. A one-layer solenoid is made of some metal wire with diameter d and specific resistance by
coiling the wire onto a paper cylinder of radius r, making (insulated) turns closely touching each other. The solenoid
is then connected to a current supply with internal resistance R. How many turns should the solenoid have so that the
energy stored in the magnetic field be maximum? ( =1.78.10-8 m; R=1.2 ; d= mm; (r=3 cm. (5 points)
P. 3302. Holographic gratings are made the following way: a
parallel laser beam is divided into two beams of identical intensity
that are made to interfere at angle at the surface of a light-
sensitised plate. At what angle did the beams meet if light falling
perpendicularly onto the resulting optical grating is dispersed in
such a way that the complete secondary visible spectrum can just
be observed? The grating was made using a He-Ne laser with
wavelength 0=632 nm. (The visible spectrum extends from
380 nm to 760 nm.) (5 points)
P. 3303. A homogeneous rod of mass m and length l is suspended onto a thread of length l as shown
in the figure. The upper end of the rod receives a small thrust F t. Describe the motion of the lowest
point P of the rod. (6 points)

Exercises and problems in Physics


January 2000

Please read The Conditions of the Problem Solving Competition.

New experimental problem:


M. 212. Determine the frequency of the fundamental tone created by clinking two empty goblets.

New problems:
P. 3304 Two metal rods of identical cross section but different length and material properties are glued together. The
rod obtained this way is hung up by two long and vertical ropes fixed to its end points. In which direction will the
point of contact of the two rods be displaced upon increasing the temperature?
P. 3305 Determine the average spacing between cars of a row proceeding at 60 km/h, if the driver of a car travelling
at 80 km/h in the opposite direction passes by 14 cars of the row per kilometre. (The average length of the cars is
5 m.)
P. 3306 Going downhill on a long 30o slope, a skier of mass 80 kg reaches a terminal speed of 30 m/s, i.e.\ after a
while he travels at this constant speed. He did not use his sticks to accelerate, thus the first 2 metres took him 1
second. How much snow would melt under his skis per minute if all the heat produced by friction were used to melt
the snow? What forces act on the skier, and how large are they?
P. 3307 A simple pendulum swings with an initial angular amplitude . How does the period of swinging change if
two elastic walls making an angle are introduced in the system in a symmetrical way as shown in the figure?

P. 3308 A four-wheel drive car arrives at the bottom of an icy slope of angle with a speed v. How high can it go up
if the coefficient of friction is ?
P. 3309 Two bodies connected vertically by a length of rope are attached to the free end of a vertical coiled spring as
shown in the figure. If the rope snaps, the body staying on the spring starts to oscillate. If the two bodies are
interchanged and then the rope snaps, the body staying on the spring starts to oscillate again. The difference of the
two periods of oscillation is 0.3 sec. Determine the period of oscillation in each case if the two bodies together
oscillate with a period of 1.5 sec on the same spring.

P. 3310 A battery is connected to a linear variable resistor between one end and the sliding contact of which a load
resistor is placed. a) What is the maximum attainable power across the load resistor? b) Determine the position of the
sliding contact if the power across the load resistor is half of the maximum value.
Use the following data: U=12 V, Rb=1 , R=120 , r=25 .
P. 3311 Will the total electrostatic energy of the capacitors in the figure increase, decrease, or stay unchanged if
switch K is closed?

P. 3312 Each edge of an infinite grid has resistance R. One edge between two adjacent grid points is removed.
Determine the resultant resistance between these two points.

P. 3313 Part of the series of isotopes produced by the decay of thorium-232, together with the corresponding half-
lives, is given below.

Thorium-232 and thorium-228 in equilibrium are extracted from an ore and purified by a chemical process. Sketch
the form of the variation in the number of atoms of radon-220 you would expect to be present in 10 -3 kg of this
material over a (logarithmic) range from 10-3 years to 103 years.
P. 3314. A metal disc of radius r can rotate with negligible friction inside a long, straight coil, about a shaft parallel to
the symmetry axis of the coil. One end of the wire of the coil is connected with a sliding contact to the edge of the
disc and the other one to the shaft. The ohmic resistance of the coil is R and there are n turns on a unit length of it.
The coil is placed so that its axis is parallel to the induction vector B0 of the Earth. What current flows through the
ammeter if the disc rotates with angular frequency ? Plot the current as a function of for both directions of the
rotation. Prove that the work necessary to spin the disc is identical to the Joule heat released on the ohmic resistance
of the coil.
Exercises and problems in Physics
February 2000

Please read The Conditions of the Problem Solving Competition.

New experimental problem:


M. 213. Measure the radiation pattern of a microphone.

New problems:
P. 3315. A child asks: `Why does winter come when the Earth gets nearest to the Sun?' Answer his question. (3
points)
P. 3316. I wanted to project the spectrum of a sunbeam onto the wall using a regular (equilateral triangle-based)
prism with a medium refractive index of n=1.5. I was turning the prism so that the sunbeam be perpendicular to its
edge when I noticed the spectrum appearing on the floor, but in a reversed order. Why? At what angles of incidence
are both spectra present? (4 points)
P. 3317. What is the maximum possible height of a column made of -0.1 oC ice cubes? (4 points)
P. 3318. The ends of a thread of length L are fixed at identical heights, at distance D from each other. A small bead
can slide on the thread without friction. What is the period of the bead for small deviations if a) the deviation is
perpendicular to the plane of the thread; b) the deviation is within the plane of the thread? (5 points)
P. 3319. A narrow electron beam accelerated in vacuum using a voltage of U=250 V produces a magnetic induction
of B=8.10-6 T at r=2 mm from its axis. What force does the electron beam exert onto a metal plate placed in its way?
Assume that 20 % of the electrons is elastically reflected and the rest is absorbed by the plate. (4 points)
P. 3320. particles and C and Ca nuclei with negligible initial velocity are accelerated in a heavy ion accelerator
using the same voltage. What is the ratio of their final velocities? Does the result depend on the magnitude of the
accelerating voltage? (4 points)
P. 3321. Measurements of scattering indicate that all the nucleons in a nucleus of mass number A are within a sphere
of radius r A1/3.1.2.10-13 cm, close to each other. Calculate the density of the nucleus. What is the diameter of a star
of such average density and with a mass identical to that of the Sun? What is the escape velocity at the surface of
such a star? (4 points)
P. 3322. An electrically charged small bead can move without friction in a horizontal plane on a circular insulating
wire. There is a fixed dipole with a horizontal axis at the centre of the circle. The bead is initially at rest at a position
perpendicular to the axis of the dipole. a) What force does the bead exert onto the wire during its motion? b) Where
does the bead first stop after being released? c) What trajectory would the bead follow in the horizontal plane if it
were not strung onto the wire? (6 points)
P. 3323. The magnitude of the initial velocity of an intercontinental ballistic missile is half of the first cosmic
velocity, its direction includes an angle of 45 o with the horizontal plane. a) What are the major and minor axes of the
orbit of the missile? b) What maximum height does the missile reach above the surface of the Earth? c) How far from
its starting place does it reach the ground? d) How long does the missile remain in movement? (Take no notice of the
rotation of the Earth.) (6 points)

Exercises and problems in Physics


March 2000

Please read The Conditions of the Problem Solving Competition.


New experimental problem:
M. 214. Measure the freezing-point of a lean solution of alcohol in water as a function of the dilution. At what
composition will the freezing-point be -18 Co? (6 points)

New problems:
P. 3324. The mirrors of two car headlights have been placed on top of each
other, turned towards each other, as shown in the figure. There is a stopper in
the bottom mirror but not in the top mirror, but it looks as if there were one in
the top mirror as well. Explain the phenomenon. (4 points)
P. 3325. The circuit shown in the figure is composed of two times two identical resistors and
two identical batteries. What current flows through the resistors r? (R=20 , r=10 ,
U=10 V.) (4 points)
P. 3326. A piece of ice floats in water in a vessel. Some oil is carefully poured onto it,
enough to just cover it. The piece of ice slowly melts, while the temperature of the system
remains constant. Does the level of the oil rise or sink in the vessel? Does the gravitational
potential energy of the system increase or decrease? (5 points)
P. 3327. An astronaut on a space trip moves away from his space shuttle. He has two light,
identical spring guns, capable of shooting two projectiles of identical mass. How can he
obtain a higher speed: by shooting the two guns simultaneously or consecutively in the same
direction? (Let for example the mass of one projectile equal one twentieth of the total mass of the astronaut and the
two guns.) (5 points)
P. 3328. On which of several slopes of identical base but different angles of inclination does a small body slide down
in the shortest time if the coefficient of dynamic friction is ? (5 points)
P. 3329. Two small metal balls are suspended from the same point on threads of length l=0.5 m each. The mass of
one of the metal balls is m=2 g, that of the other one is twice as large. The balls are given identical electric charges.
What is this charge if the balls are at distance d=20 cm from each other in equilibrium? (5 points)
P. 3330. A soap bubble of radius r is blown in atmospheric pressure p0. When it is given electric charge Q, its radius
increases to R. What is the surface tension of the solution of soap? (5 points)
P. 3331. Imagine that there is only a homogeneous sphere of density 0 in space. The sphere starts expanding due to
a flash-explosion in such a way that the speed of any of its points is initially v0(r)=H.r with respect to its centre,
where H is a value characteristic of the expansion and r is the distance of the given point from the centre of the
sphere. What is the minimum value of H required to maintain the eternal expansion of this sphere in spite of the
gravitational attraction? (5 points)
P. 3332. A cylindrical vessel of height H stands on top of a long slope with angle
of inclination . The vessel is filled with water to the brim. Where should a hole
be drilled on the side of the vessel so that the water flowing out reach the slope
the furthest possible? Represent the distance of the impact as a function of the
height of the hole for =15o and =45o. (6 points)
P. 3333. A body of mass M with a half-
cylindrical dent on one side stands on a
frictionless table, as shown in the
figure. What is the minimum initial
speed v required for the body of mass m so that it runs through the dent of radius
R of the body of mass M? (Friction is negligible everywhere.) (6 points)

Exercises and problems in Physics


April 2000

Please read The Conditions of the Problem Solving Competition.

New experimental problem:


M. 215. A homogeneous rod of length L is suspended onto a thread of length l. Measure the two eigen-
frequencies of the system for different values of L and l. (Consider only plane motions.)

New problems:
P. 3334. A boy usually rides his bicycle along a certain route at a constant speed. He once makes the first x
percent of this route at a speed x percent lower than usual. Then he makes the rest of the distance at a speed
twice as high as usual, and arrives at his destination at the usual time. How many percents of the total
distance does he make at a speed lower than usual in this case?
P. 3335. Point-like bodies can slide without friction from vertex A along sides AB and AC of the
triangle ABC shown in the figure. What should the angle shown in the figure be so that the
bodies released from point A with no initial velocity arrive at points B and C at the same time?
P. 3336. The gas in a Diesel engine is adiabatically compressed. If the initial temperature is
27 oC then the temperature after the compression is 681 oC. Assume that the gas can be
considered as an ideal gas consisting of diatomic molecules. What is the proportion of the
volumes of the gas before and after the compression?
P. 3337. The energy of a drop of mercury (considered as spherical) at rest on a level table can be
given by the following formula: E= V+ A+mgr ( >0 is a constant, is the surface tension of
mercury, and r is the radius, A the surface, V the volume and m the mass of the drop). What is the radius of the drop
of mercury giving the lowest specific energy (energy per unit mass)? Determine the radius numerically as well.
P. 3338. The tube of cross-section A closed at one end by soldering (shown in the figure) is
in a vertical plane. The column of mercury of length L situated in the horizontal part of the
tube blocks a column of oxygen of length L. The external pressure is identical to the
hydrostatic pressure of a column of mercury of height L. The temperature around the tube
slowly rises. What is the volume of the gas when the work done by the gas is 20 % of the
absorbed heat? (The vertical part of the tube is sufficiently long.)
P. 3339. Two metal balls of radius R are placed at distance r from each other (r<<R). One
has charge Q1, the other one charge Q2. What is the maximum energy converted into heat in
the wire connecting the two metal spheres? Data: Q1=3.10-8 C, Q2=2.10-9 C, r=2 m, R=2 cm.
P. 3340. A homogeneous magnetic
field of circular cross-section with
radius R=2 cm is formed inside a cathode ray tube, using a
coil. When the coil is switched on, the deviation of the
electron beam accelerated using a potential difference
U=250 V is d=10 cm on a screen at distance D=20 cm from
the axis of the coil. What is the induction of the deviating
magnetic field? (The beam crosses the axis of the coil before
switching the coil on.)
P. 3341. The cross-section of the U-shaped iron core of an electromagnet is A, the length of its
centre-line is L. The length of the closing iron core is l and its cross-section is also A. A current I
flows through the coil surrounding the U-shaped iron core; when the closing iron core is at
distance h from the U-shaped iron core, it is pulled by force F to the electromagnet. (The
permeability of iron is not constant, but its dependence (B) on the magnetic induction is
known.) a) How many turns does the coil consist of? b) With what force does the electromagnet
attract the closing core when there is no air gap between them? What are then the values of the
magnetic induction and the relative permeability in the iron? Data: L=30 cm, l=12 cm,
A=10 cm2, h=1 mm, I=1 A, F=500 N, and (B)= 0(4500-2500 T-1 B) in the investigated range.
P. 3342. The following reaction may occur in the course of the
fission of a 238U nucleus induced by a fast neutron:
.
Assume that the fission occurs as shown in the figure and the
following are true: a) the kinetic energy of the incoming fast
neutron is 3.2.10-13 J; b) the 6 neutrons produced in the course of
the fission fly off in one plane, symmetrically to the direction of
motion of the incoming neutron, at angles of 60 o from each
other; c) the nuclear energy released is 2.88.10-11 J; d) the kinetic
energy of the neutrons flying off at right-angles and that of those flying "backwards" is identical: 1.6 .10-13 J; e) the Kr
and Ba nuclei produced in the course of the fission also fly off at right-angles. What are the separate kinetic energies
of the produced nuclei?
P. 3343. A tube with internal radius R and fixed axis is rotated with a small angular acceleration
. A solid rod of homogeneous mass distribution with mass m and radius r is placed inside the
tube. (Friction is strong enough so that the rod always rolls without sliding in the tube.) a) What
should the angle shown in the figure be so that the axis of the rod remains at the same place?
b) How does the rod move if initially it is at the bottom of the tube?
Bonus Problem (April extra). Estimate how much longer a day would be if at midnight on 1
April 2000 everywhere in the world traffic started to keep to the right?

Exercises and problems in Physics


May 2000
Please read The Conditions of the Problem Solving Competition.

New experimental problem:


M. 216. "Why does a magnetic steel rod have no effect at its middle, but a stronger and stronger effect towards its
ends?" - asked nyos Jedlik (1800 - 1895) famous Hungarian professor of Physics in the course of an examination,
in 1871. Measure the direction of the magnetic induction B around a rod magnet and represent the field using B-lines.

New problems:
P. 3344. The horizontal rotating disc of a bicycle dynamo touches the wheel of radius R exactly above the axle of the
wheel, at distance r from the axle. The disc and the wheel roll without sliding on each other, and the wheel rolls
similarly on the ground. At what speed does the point of the disc opposite to the touching point travel forward when
the bicycle travels at speed v?
P. 3345. A solid cylinder of mass m=6 kg and radius r=0.1 m is kept in balance on a slope of inclination =30o with
the help of a thread fastened to its jacket. The cylinder does not slip on the slope.
a) What force F is required to keep the cylinder in balance when the thread is held vertically?
b) In what direction should the thread be pulled to minimise the force required to hold the
cylinder? What is the magnitude of this force?
c) What is the minimum required coefficient of friction in cases a) and b)?
P. 3346. A well-fitting disc of negligible mass is pressed against the
bottom of a cone-frustum jacket type vessel broader at the bottom. The
vessel is then immersed into the water container shown in the figure
and fastened to the container by its jacket. The volume of the displaced water is 1 dm3. A
piece of ice with a mass slightly greater than 1 kg is then placed onto the disc. What happens
when the ice melts?
P. 3347. How many times should the mass of the point-like body hanging on a thread be greater than that of the
thread so that the period of such a pendulum differs by no more than 1 % from that of a mathematical pendulum?
P. 3348. The long, horizontal pair of rails shown in the figure is connected using resistance R. The distance between
the rails is l, the electrical resistance of the rails is negligible. A conducting rod of mass m and length l can slide
without friction on the pair of rails, in a vertical, homogeneous magnetic field of induction B.

A force of magnitude F0 is exerted for a long time onto the conducting rod, therefore the speed of the rod is constant.
The external force stops at a certain point P. What distance does the conducting rod cover from point P before
stopping?
P. 3349. There are two identical superconducting rings at a large distance from each other. Current I0 flows in one of
them (A), and no current flows in the other one (B). The two rings are slowly approached to each other. What is the
current flowing in A when current I1 flows in the other ring? (The value of the magnetic flux surrounded by a
superconducting ring cannot change.)
P. 3350. A small body of mass m is at rest inside a thin, narrow tyre of mass M and radius r
lying on a horizontal table, touching the tyre. How does the centre of the tyre move if the
small body starts to move at a tangential initial velocity v0? How much later and where will
the velocity of the tyre be zero again? (Friction is everywhere negligible.)
P. 3351. A point-like body of mass m moving without friction at speed v0 collides elastically
with a system S consisting of two point-like bodies of mass M each, joined to each other by
a spring of directional force k.

a) What should the minimum value of the proportion m/M be so that a second collision occurs between the body of
mass m and the system S?
b) What is the maximum time elapsing between the two collisions?

The Conditions of the Problem Solving Competition, 2000/2001


The competitions start annually and last from September to May, but you can enter any time during the academic
year.
In mathematics, there are three different contests, in physics there are two. The conditions of the mathematics and
physics contests are different. See below for details.
Every primary or secondary school student is eligible to participate in the competitions. Students in different grades
might find the same problems but in most cases their work is evaluated within their age group, they compete with
students of the same age only. Therefore, it is essential that the paper should indicate the 1 to 12 grade of the
contestant in the current school year. The KMaL contests are individual competitions, solutions produced by a
group are not accepted. If two papers turn out to be practically identical, none of them will be marked.
MATHEMATICS

C contest: exercises for practice, easier than those in the B contest; 5 per month. Correct solutions worth 5 marks.
Age groups:
up to 10th grade students
11 to 12th grade students (preferably those not studying mathematics in a special advanced class. Those
in advanced classes are advised to take part in the B contest).
B contest: 10 problems per month. You can send any number of solutions, but only the highest six scores are
entered.
Age groups:
up to the 8th grade
9th grade
10th grade
11th grade
12th grade
A contest: advanced problems, 3 per month. More demainding than the B contest, for those who are preparing for
national or international competitions. Here are no separate age groups.
PHYSICS

M contest: Experimental problems: One measuring task is set each month. Each of them is worth 6 points. The
report must contain a description of the method, the data obtained sufficient in quantity and quality, the analysis
of the data, and the estimation of the error. There are no separate age groups.
P contest: 10 theoretical problems per month.
Age groups:
up to the 8th grade;
9th grade;
10th grade;
11th grade;
12th grade.
Every age group may send solutions to all kinds of problems. Int the P contest we evaluate only 3 problems up to the
8th grade and 5 problems from 9th - 12th grade.
Deadlines, adresses

The deadline of mailing or e-mailing the solutions is indicated in every issue next to the new exercises and
problems. In mathematics, it is the 15th of the month following the publication of the current issue, in physics it is
the 11th. Should that be a weekend or bank holiday, the deadline is the next workday.
Send your solutions to the following address:

KMaL Szerkesztsg (KMaL feladatok), Budapest Pf. 47. 1255, Hungary


or by e-mail to: solutions@komal.elte.hu.
The actual state of the contests appears on our web-site (http://komal.elte.hu/eredm/index.e.shtml) and it is updated
regularly. These data are not official, only for your information. The final results will appear in August on our
Internet home page and in the September issue of the following academic year. The cca 10 top contestans are
rewarded by a certificate in each category and this is going to be mailed to their schools, and their portraits,
additionally, will be presented in the December issue and the Internet.
The layout of the papers:
By ordinary mail:
Write the solutions to different problems on separate A4 sheets of paper. (This is important because
different people are responsible for the marking.)
The header of every sheet must contain the following in the upper left corner (see sample 1):

-the letter code (A, B, C, M, P) and number of the problem in red


-the full name and the grade of the sender
-the name of the school and the town (and country)
-the e-mail adress of the sender
Fold each sheet in four separately so that the heading should be on the top.
Solutions to geometry problems should include diagrams.
Enclose with your solutions a separate sheet listing your data and the contents of your mail. See sample 2.

Sample 1. Header of a sheet Sample 2. Enclosed list

C. 593. Varga 163 Rbert, 9th grade


Varga 163 Rbert, 9th grade Rvai High School, Gyr
Rvai High School, Gyr I send the following 3 papers in:
e-mail: robi@revai.hu C. 591., C. 593., B. 3389.

By e-mail:
Send the solutions of different problems as separate e-mail messages.
The "subject" field of the e-mail message should contain the letter code and number of the problem.
The content of the papers:

It is not enough to state the answer. Results with detailed explanations only will receive full credit. (Reference to
standard school math is accepted without proof.)

Exercises and problems in Physics


September 2000

Please read The Conditions of the Problem Solving Competition.

New experimental problem:


M. 217. Measure the density of a pebble with the help of two identical measuring cylinders, a pair of scales (without
weights) and water. Find the error of your measurement. Perform your measurement using 2-3 other pieces of stone,
too.

New problems:
P. 3353. There is 16 m3 of water in the container of a watering-cart. Thus the compression of spring structure holding
the container is 8 cm. The vehicle travels 250 meters away in 10 minutes at constant velocity, while it sprinkles 16
litres of water every second on the road. At that moment rain begins falling so the vehicle stops sprinkling and turns
back to its initial position at uniform motion, while a pushing force of 3.0 kN is exerted on it.
a) Find the compression of spring structure when the vehicle is coming back.
b) At least how much work does the vehicle do back and forth, if the required force for traction is 2.5 % of gross
weight. (4 points)
P. 3354. A SUZUKI SWIFT car of 1300 cm3 consumes 5.4 litres of petrol in 100 km at a constant speed of 90 km/h.
When the car travels at 160 km/h the power of its engine is 48.3 kW. The efficiency of the engine is 30 %, the density
of the petrol is 700 kg/m3, its heat of combustion is 46 000 kJ/m3. a) How many litres of petrol does this car consume
at 100 km? b) What is the power of the car at 90 km/h? (3 points)
P. 3355. At a tennis tournament the second place winner has got a medal made of silver. The medal has been made
such a way that the material, initially at a temperature of 20 oC, was melted at its melting point and then it was cast
into the mould. How long did the quantity of silver for 20 medals (5 dkg each) melt, if the melting furnace has a
power supply of 230 V, the resistance of the filament of the furnace is 46 and its efficiency is 40 %? (The melting
point of silver is 960 oC, its specific heat is 0.2 kJ/(kg oC) and its heat of fusion is 100 kJ/kg.) (3 points)
P. 3356. On how steep an inclined plane (maximum angle) can a homogeneous solid hemisphere be placed on its
convex side to remain at rest? What coefficient of friction is required for this? (The centre of mass of the hemisphere
is at 3/8 of the radius.) (4 points)
P. 3357. It is a well-known experience that an open plastic litter bag filled with hot air and turned up-side-down (its
opening is below) lifts up like a real hot air balloon. Why false is the following argument? "The opening of the bag is
free, so the air pressure inside and outside is the same. This is why the closed bottom of the bag (at the top) is pushed
upward by the inner air with the same force as the outer pressure downward. Thus these forces cancel each other and
the bag falls down because of gravitational force exerting on the material of the bag." (4 points)
P. 3358. Make the plan of a road bend with the following conditions: "When the road is icy (the coefficient of static
friction is 0.08) a car at rest cannot slip down to the centre of the bend, and the car at a speed of less than 60 km/h
cannot skid off the road." What is the minimum radius the trajectory? Find the angle respected to the horizontal at
which the roadway should be tilted in the minimum radius case. (4 points)
P. 3359. A steel and a copper cylinder with the same size and painted white both are warmed up to the same
temperature, and then are placed to cool down on a table (not right next to each other). According to our experience
the copper cylinder cools down faster. What could be the explanation? (The specific heat of copper and steel are
nearly identical as well as their density.) (5 points)
P. 3360. From what minimum height did a spherical mercury drop with a diameter of 1 mm fall onto a glass plate, if
it has disintegrated to 1000 identical spheres. (4 points)
P. 3361. A direct current motor is operated at 100 V. When the motor is first turned on, the current in the coils
connected in series is 16 A. When the motor has reached maximum speed, the current decreases to 4 A. This motor is
used as a generator at the same revolutions per minute. Find the external resistance to connect between the terminals
of the generator, if the current of the generator is also 4 A. What is the useful power of the generator in this case
dissipated on the external resistor? (4 points)
P. 3362. It has been detected that a nucleus at negligible speed radiates an particle with a kinetic energy of
5.5 MeV when it decays. a) Find the speed of the particle and the recoil speed of the nucleus which has
been formed in the decay. b) Find the released energy in the decay of the nucleus. c) Find the released
energy in the decay of a 1 mg pure sample of radon during 3.82 days, if the half-life of the radon-222 isotope is just
3.82 days. (4 points)
P. 3363. What maximum temperature can a small, spherical, black body reach using sun light with the help of a thin
lens, if its focal length equals to the double of its diameter? Does the result depend on the radius of the small sphere?
(5 points)

Exercises and problems in Physics


October 2000

Please read The Conditions of the Problem Solving Competition.

New experimental problem:


M. 218. Prepare a magnetic pendulum. Fasten one of two magnetic discs to a table and hang the other one above the
first one in such a way that they are near enough and in an attracting position in equilibrium. Determine the force of
attraction acting on the deviated pendulum as a function of the angle of deviation. (6 points)

New problems:
P. 3364. Kalid Kanussi of Morocco covered the distance of 42.195 metres in 2 hours, 5 minutes and 42 seconds at
the Chicago marathon, on October 24, 1999. a) How many metres did he `miss' the 2 hours dream record by?
(Assume he covered the distance at a constant speed.) b) How much higher should his average speed have been to
reach this still unbelievable record? (3 points)
P. 3365. One afternoon Vivien phones Peter to tell him that she has already received the October issue of KMaL.
Peter sets off to Vivien, making 120 steps per minute. He returns home at once and, reading KMaL, makes 60 steps
per minute until he arrives home. How many steps are there between Vivien's and Peter's places if the total time Peter
was walking was 30 minutes? (3 points)
P. 3366. In a cubic crystal lattice model consisting of rigid spheres of radius R in contact with each other, what is the
radius of the largest sphere that can be placed between these spheres? (3 points)
P. 3367. A wooden log of mass m with a cross-section shaped like an equilateral right-
angled triangle can slide on a horizontal surface without friction. Two point-like bodies of
masses m and 2m, tied to each other using a thread, are placed onto the log as shown in
the figure. The length of the base of the log is L=54 cm. Friction and the masses of the
thread and the pulley are negligible. The bodies are released at a certain moment. a) What
distance does the wooden log cover until the body of mass 2m reaches its bottom?
b) Determine the speed of the bodies and that of the wooden log when the body of mass 2m reaches the bottom of the
log. (6 points)
P. 3368. There is half a litre of water in a one-litre pot, the bottom of which has an area of 1 dm2. How much work is
done while slowly pushing a high beaker with a cross-sectional area of 0.5 dm2 bottom first down to the bottom of
the water? (The mass of the beaker is negligible.) (4 points)
P. 3369. 1 dm3 of water is poured into a funnel in the position shown in the figure. The area of
the table covered by the funnel is 2 dm2, the height of the water is 1.2 dm. What mass should the
funnel at least be so that it does not rise from the table? (4 points)
P. 3370. An experienced pearl-diver swims down to depth h1, then
continues sinking without swimming. Arriving at the bottom, he ties
a basket of mass m and with an average density twice as high as that
of the water to his waist and starts swimming upwards. When
reaching depth h2 he does not have to swim any more, he continues rising nevertheless.
What is the volume of the lungs of the pearl-diver? (During diving, he never blows out
air.) (5 points)
P. 3371. The figure shows two processes of the same N 2 gas on a pressure-
temperature diagram. In state A the volume of the gas is V0
a) Represent the processes ABC and ADC in a pressure-volume diagram.
b) In which process does the gas take up more heat?
c) Determine the proportion of the amounts of heat taken up in the two processes. (4 points)
P. 3372. Two voltmeters with a measuring limit of 30 V and an ammeter with a measuring limit of 1 mA are
connected in series to a battery. One of the voltmeters reads 12 V and the other 19 V, while the ammeter reads
0.4 mA. Investigate what happens when one of the instruments is short-circuited. What do the instruments read then?
Is any of them damaged? (4 points)
P. 3373. Using the data of the Solar system, show that during the total eclipse of the Sun on the 11 August, 1999, the
shade of the Moon run through Hungary at a speed approximately twice as high as that of sound. (4 points)

Send your solutions to the following address:

KMaL Szerkesztsg (KMaL feladatok), Budapest Pf. 47. 1255, Hungary


or by e-mail to: solutions@komal.elte.hu.
Deadline: 13 November 2000

Exercises and problems in Physics


October 2000

Please read The Conditions of the Problem Solving Competition.

New experimental problem:


M. 219. Balance straight rulers (laths) of different lengths on top of a cylinder, in a position perpendicular to the axis
of the cylinder. Investigate how the period of the small oscillations of the rulers depends on the length of the ruler. (6
points)

New problems:
P. 3374. A broad, high glass tube stands on a table. A candle burns at the centre of the bottom of the
tube and there is a long, narrow glass tube above the candle as shown in the figure.
a) What happens when the inner glass tube is removed?
b) What happens when the outer glass tube is removed? (3 points)
P. 3375. A certain liquid in a capillary tube rises half as high as water. What happens when some of
this liquid is dripped next to one side of a razor blade floating on top of water? (3 points)
P. 3376. One member of a group of tourists, Andrew, walks a little faster than Brian, who started off
earlier but walks more slowly. Andrew observes when Brian passes a certain tree and measures (using
his watch) that he reaches the same tree time t1 later than Brian, then catches up with Brian after
another lapse of time t2. He says that he can work out the proportion vA/vB of their respective speeds using these two
time data. How? (3 points)
P. 3377. A shot putter with a mass of 80 kg pushes the iron ball with a mass of 6 kg from a standing position, at an
angle of 45o with the horizontal, accelerating it evenly during a time interval of 0.1 seconds. The ball leaves his hand
when it is 2 m high above the ground and hits the ground 2 seconds later. What is the minimum value of the static
coefficient of friction if the shot putter does not slip during the shot? (5 points)
P. 3378. The plates of a charged plane capacitor are at 3 cm from each other. A 3 mm thick, uncharged metal plate is
pushed between them. Do the pd. and energy of the capacitor change? Is any work done while pushing the plate into
position? (4 points)
P. 3379. Consumers with respective resistances of 100 , 200 , 300 and 400 are connected in such a way that
they take up a total power of 100 W when connected to a pd. of 100 V. What power does each consumer take up in
this situation? (4 points)
P. 3380. A light source that can be considered as point-like is placed next to a 8.4 mm thick glass panel. Looking at
the glass from the side of the light source, at almost right-angles to the glass, several images can be seen at distances
of 12 mm from each other. Determine the refractive index of the glass. (5 points)
P. 3381. A straight conductor of length l moves at velocity v in a homogeneous magnetic
field of induction B. What is the pd. between the ends of the conductor if the angle between
the wire and the magnetic induction is , that between the induction and the velocity is
and that between the velocity and the conductor is ? (E.g. let =30o, =40o, =50o,
l=0.5 m, v=2 m/s and B=0.5 mT.) (5 points)
P. 3382. Le Szilrd and Walter Zinn measured that the average number of neutrons
produced in the course of the fission of 235U is 2.5. Consider 100 nuclear fissions in an
imaginary reactor. Among the neutrons produced in these fissions, 10 escape from the
reactor, 8 are captured in 238U, some are absorbed by the control rods and the rest induce further fissions. How many
percents of the neutrons have to be absorbed by the control rods in order to sustain a constant number of neutrons in
time? (3 points)
P. 3383. Half of the inner surface of a glass tube is covered with soot, the other half with some reflecting material.
The tube is placed vertically onto the table with its black half downward as shown in figure (a). There is a point-like
photo-detector D on the table, on the axis of the tube. How many times is the value read by the photo-detector higher
when the tube is turned as shown in figure (b)? (5 points)

Exercises and problems in Physics


December 2000

Please read The Conditions of the Problem Solving Competition.

New experimental problem:


M. 220. Prepare an air vane supported in good bearings using paper cones or table tennis balls cut in two. Measure
how the number of revolutions per minute of the vane depends on the speed of the air current (wind). Can we deduce
the coefficient of air resistance for the concave and the convex side using the measurement data?

New problems:
P. 3384. Water is poured into a quadrangular vessel. What is the height of the vessel if the force exerted onto each
side is greater than the weight of the water?
P. 3385. An aluminium cube with 2 dm sides and 2700 kg/m3 density is fastened to one end of a 3 m long chain lying
on a table, each metre of which has a mass of 1 kg. The cube is lifted at a uniform speed of 0.5 m/s. What is the
change of the potential energy after a) 5 seconds, b) 10 seconds of lifting?
P. 3386. A 3 litre container with insulated walls is divided into two equal parts by a rigid, heat conducting wall. There
is oxygen with a pressure of 105 Pa and a temperature of 300 K in both parts: diatomic (O 2) on the left side and
triatomic (O3), i.e. ozone on the right. After some time, ozone passes into diatomic oxygen in such a way that two
ozone molecules transform into three O 2 molecules: 2O3 3O2. a) What is the number of oxygen molecules in each
part? b) What are the pressure and temperature in each part when thermal equilibrium is reached if 2.4 .10-19 J of
energy are released during the transformation of each ozone molecule? (Consider the gases O 3 and O2 as ideal gases
of respectively 6 and 5 degrees of freedom.)
P. 3387. Why do children usually sweat less than adults when performing sports?
P. 3388. A body of mass m is slid upwards on a lath of inclination in a uniform motion. Determine the magnitude
and the direction of the minimum force required for the sliding. The coefficient of friction is .

P. 3389. Two bodies of respective masses m and M are joined to each other by a weightless thread flung over a pulley
of negligible mass. The two bodies are held in the position shown in the figure and released at a given moment. Mass
M is much (e.g. a thousand times) greater than mass m. Friction between the body of mass m and the table is
negligible. Is the body of mass m separated from the table right after the two bodies are released?

P. 3390. What should the capacitance C in the circuit shown in the figure be so that the energy accumulating in it is
maximum? What is this maximum amount of energy?

P. 3391. An electron beam reaches the d=4 cm wide homogeneous magnetic field of induction B=0.02 T shown in
the figure at an angle of incidence =30o, at right angles to vector B. a) Slow or fast particles can get through the
magnetic field? b) At what pd. should the elctrons be accelerated so that they are ``reflected'' from the magnetic
field?

P. 3392. In the series RLC circuit shown in the figure, the bulb shines. When the coil is short-circuited the light
emission of the bulb does not change. How does it change when the capacitor is short-circuited?

P. 3393. A regular tetrahedron is made of a homogeneous resistance wire of uniform cross-section. Current I is
conducted to vertex A through a long, straight piece of wire directed toward centre O of the tetrahedron, and it is
conducted away from vertex B in the same fashion. What are the magnitude and the direction of the magnetic
induction vector at the centre of the tetrahedron?

Exercises and problems in Physics


January 2001

Please read The Conditions of the Problem Solving Competition.


New experimental problem:
M. 221. Measure how much mechanical energy it takes to completely open a door mounted with a damper. (6 points)

New problems:
P. 3394. Two cars start from the same place at the same time. Their respective speeds are 60 km/h and 80 km/h. Is it
possible that they move away from each other at a speed of a) 140 km/h; b) 20 km/h; c) 100 km/h? (3 points)
P. 3395. The length of a steel aircraft-carrier is 600 m in the 0 oC Arctic Ocean. How long will this same ship be in
the 20 oC Mediterranean Sea? How many times its original value will the immersed volume of the ship change to? (5
points)
P. 3396. A point-like body at the top of a smooth slope of height h=1 m, and another one thrown obliquely from point
B start at the same time. They arrive at point C at the same time and speed. How long is the slope? (5 points)

P. 3397. The end point A of the rigid, L=2 m long rod shown in the figure moves along axis x all the time, while the
end point B moves along axis y. The speed of point A is constant: vA=1 m/s, and the rod is vertical at time t=0.
Determine the speed and the acceleration of point B and the angular acceleration of the rod as a function of time.
What are these values at the following moments: t1=0.5 s, t2=1.5 s and t3=1.999 s? (The problem can be solved using
elementary methods.) (5 points)

P. 3398. In one case, a disc only rotates about a vertical axis, while in another case it only travels horizontally. The
energy of the two motions is identical. The disc is placed flatly onto a level table. In which case does it stop earlier?
(Assume that the disc presses the table uniformly.) (5 points)
P. 3399. A loop made of non stretchable string is fastened to the frame shown in the figure and immersed into a
solution of soap, holding the frame. When the film inside the loop is pierced, the loop stretches out into a circle.
What force arises in the string if the radius of the circle is 1 cm and the surface tension of the solution is 0.03 N/m?
(4 points)

P. 3400. Some acetylene gas (cp/cV= =1.25) follows the cycle ABCDA shown in the figure. Determine the
proportion of the energy given out by the gas to its surroundings during the isochore section of the cycle to the
expansion work done during the isobaric section of the cycle. (4 points)
P. 3401. Three identical metal plates of area T are at distances d1 and d2 from each other. Metal plate A is uncharged,
while metal plates B and C have respective charges +q and -q. Metal plates A and C are connected by switch K
through a consumer of unknown resistance. What energy does the consumer give out to its surroundings? (5 points)

P. 3402. Does the same force act between two conductors with current flowing through them, and a conductor with
current flowing through it and an electron beam parallel to it if the other data are identical? (4 points)
P. 3403. We would like to send some space device from the Earth to Mars using the least possible amount of energy.
At what speed should the device be launched with respect to the Earth, and what should the Earth--Sun--Mars angle
be at the launching? (Ignore the modifying effect of the gravitational attraction between the Earth and Mars on the
trajectory of the object.) (6 points)

Exercises and problems in Physics


February 2001

Please read The Conditions of the Problem Solving Competition.

New experimental problem:


M. 222. The angle of refraction of a puck bouncing back from a board is usually not identical to its angle of
incidence. (The motion of a puck can be modelled using the lid of a jar.) How does the angle of refraction depend on
the speed of the puck (lid) and on the angle of incidence? (6 points)
Solution

New problems:
P. 3404. An aluminium ball with an empty interior floats in 20.0 oC water. The water with the ball in it is heated.
Does the upthrust exerted onto the ball increase or decrease? Why? (3 points)
P. 3405. The springing of scooters is often carried out using the screw spring of varying pitch shown in the figure.
What is the advantage of such a spring? (4 points)

P. 3406. How high does a rocket that is launched vertically at the first cosmic speed from the surface of the Earth go?
(4 points)
P. 3407. There are three rods of identical size but different masses and homogeneous mass distribution placed atop
each other in the arrangement shown from above in the figure. One end of each rod leans on a pillar, while the other
end leans on the centre of another rod. The height of the pillars is identical. What is the force exerted by each pillar
onto each rod? (Let m1=1 kg, m2=2 kg, m3=3 kg.) Does the result change when two rods are interchanged? (5 points)
P. 3408. The weight of an air-balloon inflated with air is measured using a very sensitive scale. The air is let out from
the balloon and the weight of the balloon (and of the thread) is measured. What is the result? Why? (4 points)
P. 3409. A process made with an ideal gas is represented by a straight section on a (V,T) diagram. In what cases can
the pressure at the middle of this section be the arithmetic mean of the respective pressure values of the initial and
final states? (5 points)
P. 3410. There are such a homogeneous electric field E and a homogeneous magnetic field B perpendicular to the
plane of the figure between the plates of a plane capacitor that positively charged particles shot parallel to the plates
reach the screen without changing direction. The length of the plates of the plane capacitor is b and the screen is at
distance c from the right-hand end of the plates. When the magnetic field is switched off the point where the charged
particles hit the screen moves by y. Determine the specific charge Q/m of the particles. (Neglect the effect of
gravitation.) (5 points)

P. 3411. A flat coil with N turns of radius r is placed at distance l from a long, straight conductor (l<<r). The flat coil
and the straight conductor are in the same plane. A voltmeter is inserted into the long conductor, and the far ends of
this latter are earthed. What does the voltmeter show when the current in the coil is uniformly increased from zero to
I0 in time t0. (The self-induction of the straight conductor is negligible.) Data: N=100, l=100 cm, r=2 cm, t0=5 s,
I0=2 A. (5 points)

P. 3412. Light does not get through perpendicular polar filters. When a third polar filter is slid between the first two
some light may pass through. What is the maximum proportion of the incident light that can pass through such an
arrangement? (5 points)
P. 3413. When one looks into the concave side of a shiny spoon, one sees oneself upside down. Turning the spoon
and looking into its convex side, the image is erect and looks the same size as the inverted image seen in the concave
side. Try this out and explain the phenomenon. (4 points)
P. 3414. At Paks Nuclear Power Plant the nucleus , when hit by a ``thermal'' neutron, may e.g. split into a
and a , while three fast neutrons are also produced. The Kr and Ba isotopes are unstable and decay once more
emitting radiation. What are the final products? (4 points)
P. 3415. A conventional turntable is tilted at angle . A small body is placed onto its disc, at distance r from its axis,
at the lowest possible position. Then, starting from rest, the disc is turned at angular acceleration . The small body
slips after time t. a) What is the coefficient of static friction between the small body and the disc? b) What is the
required minimum value of so that the small body does not slip at once at the beginning? (6 points)
Please read The Conditions of the Problem Solving Competition.

New experimental problem:


M. 223. Prepare the double pendulum (coupled with a weak spring) shown in the figure and investigate the motions
of the system occurring in the plane of the figure. Measure the frequency of beat as a function of l and m. (6 points)

New problems:
P. 3416. On what part of Earth and how can two Sundays be spent between a Saturday and the following Monday?
(3 points)
P. 3417. A large digital clock is made to show the hours and the minutes. 14 electric discharge tubes are used to show
the minutes, each of which goes out after an average of 2160 hours of operation. The clock is started at 00:00 on the
first of January 2001. Which of the tubes showing the minutes can be expected to go out first and when? And which
one can be expected to go out last and when? (3 points)

P. 3418. Two circular copper conductors of identical radii and resistances of 30 Omega
each are soldered in such a way that they cross each other's centre. An accumulator of 12 V is connected to the
soldered points. a) What is the magnitude of the current flowing through one of the smaller arcs? b) What is the
power given out by the accumulator? (3 points)
P. 3419. A hunter hits a bird flying at 100 metres above him, the bird hits the ground at 60 metres from him.
Approximately how many metres and how many degrees did the hunter aim in front of the bird if the speed of the
bullet was 400 m/s? (4 points)
P. 3420. A long, straight ruler lies on the level table. The ruler is pulled horizontally using a thread attached to one of
its ends. Force F0 is required to move the body when the thread is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the ruler. What
force is required to move the ruler when the thread is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis? (The ruler presses the
table uniformly.) (4 points)
P. 3421. A large group of Alaskan gold diggers arrives at a wide river. They catch sight of a huge nugget on the
opposite bank, just in front of them. The digger who arrives first at the nugget will get the right for the exploitation
of a mine. What route should Joe choose if he can paddle on the water as fast as he can walk on the ground?
Calculate and draw Joe's most favourable route if the proportion of Joe's speed to the speed of the river equals the
gold section, is a) greater, b) lesser than the gold section. (Graphical methods can also be used to determine the
optimum route.) (5 points)
P. 3422. Nine point-like charges are placed in the points of a 3x3 tetragonal grid with a lattice constant of 1 cm. The
magnitude of the charges is chosen in such a way that the potential caused by the other charges at the position of
each charge is 10 kV. What is the total interaction energy of the charges? (5 points)
P. 3423. The mobile side of the triangular conducting frame shown in the figure is slid at a uniform speed of
v=0.1 m/s along the two other sides. The horizontal frame is in a vertical, homogeneous magnetic field with an
induction of B=0.4 T. The length of each side is l=1 m, the resistance is 1 Omega
. a) How does the electromotive force induced in the circuit change with time? b) How does the current change with
time? c) How much work is required for the sliding if friction is negligible? (5 points)
P. 3424. An adiabatically closed system contains two bodies. The heat capacity of body A is 4000 J/K, its
temperature is 2400 K, while the heat capacity of body B is 8000 J/K and its temperature is 300 K. What maximum
work can be obtained from this system (as heat engine)? (6 points)
P. 3425. What is the picture of the spoked wheel of a bicycle like on a photo finish? (The photo finish is made the
following way: pictures of a very narrow band around the finish line are made in very short time intervals using an
electronic camera. These are then placed next to each other at distances corresponding to the expected speed of the
bicycle.) (6 points)
Solution

Exercises and problems in Physics


April 2001

Please read The Conditions of the Problem Solving Competition.

New experimental problem:


M. 224. Determine, applying dripping or some other method, the proportion of the surface tension of eau de cologne
to that of water. (6 points)

New problems:
P. 3426. One of two trains travelling on parallel tracks covers 90 km per hour, the other one 10 meters per second. A
passenger travelling in one of the trains sees the other train pass by is 8 seconds. What is the length of the other train?
(3 points)
P. 3427. An airliner takes off from the runway at a speed of 190 km/h, and reaches a height of 2000 m and a speed of
540 km/h in 40 seconds, following a straight trajectory with a uniform acceleration. a) During the rise, what are the
magnitude and the direction of the acceleration of the plane? b) During the rise, the suitcase on the floor of the plane
does not slip. What is the minimum coefficient of static friction required for this? (Assume that the plane of the floor
is parallel to the velocity.) (4 points)
P. 3428. A small axle is fastened to one end of a thin staff of mass m, perpendicular to the staff. The axle can slide
without friction on the horizontal track shown in the figure. The staff tumbles over to one side from its unstable
equilibrium position. a) Will the force exerted onto the track ever be zero? b) Will the axle of the staff ever lose touch
with the track? c) What is the force pressing the track when the staff has turned 0o, 90o and 180o?

(5 points)
P. 3429. A table-tennis player moves his bat up and down in such a way that the ball always bounces to a height of
40 cm from the bat. The collision number is 0.5. What is the speed of the bat when hitting the ball? (The mass of the
ball is much less than that of the bat and air resistance is also negligible.) (4 points)
P. 3430. A sun furnace has been at work in the Pyrenees since 1969, in which 63 mirrors of 30 m2 each reflect the
sunlight into a small area. How much energy do the mirrors at least concentrate if a hole with a diameter of 15 cm
can be melted in 1 minute into a 1 cm thick iron plate with an initial temperature of 35 oC? What is at least the power
output of the sun furnace? (3 points)
P. 3431. There is some water at T0=80 oC in a tub, the temperature of the surroundings is T*=20 oC. The temperature
of the water as a function of time goes as follows: T(t)=T*+(T0-T*)e- t, where is a constant characteristic of the
cooling. During the first 5 minutes, the temperature decreases by 10 oC. How much later should the same amount of
water of 10 oC be poured again into the tub so that the mixture reaches the temperature of 30 oC as soon as possible?
(5 points)
P. 3432. Identical metal spheres are placed into the vertices of a regular tetrahedron. The spheres do not touch. When
a single sphere (A) is given a charge of 20 nC it reaches the same potential as when A and another sphere are given
15 nC each. What equal charges should be given to A and to two other spheres, and what equal charges to all four
spheres so that the potential of sphere A is always the same? (6 points)
Solution
P. 3433. An old voltmeter reads the voltage of a battery as 0.7 V at a measuring limit of 1 V, and as 2.6 V at a
measuring limit of 10 V. What does the voltmeter read at a measuring limit of 100 V? (4 points)
P. 3434. Determine the resultant resistance of the infinite circuit made up of 1 kOmega
resistors shown in the figure between points A and C, and between points A and B.

(6 points)
P. 3435. A coil with an inductivity of 0.2 H and an ohmic resistance of 62.8 Omega
is connected to the mains alternating voltage. a) What should the capacity of the capacitor connected in series with
the coil be so that the active power does not change? b) Can the power factor be improved by connecting a capacitor
parallel to the coil? Can the power factor be increased to 1? (4 points)
P. 3436. One of the planets of star Noname is long and cylindrical. The average density of the planet is identical to
that of the Earth, its radius equals that of the Earth and the period of its revolution is exactly 1 day. a) What is the
first cosmic speed for this planet? b) How high above the surface of the planet do the synchronous
telecommunications satellites orbit? c) What is the second cosmic speed for this planet?

(5 points)
Solution

Exercises and problems in Physics


May 2001

Please read The Conditions of the Problem Solving Competition.

New experimental problem:


M. 225. Let a drop of oil fall into pure water. Measure how the ``penetration depth'' depends on the dropping height
and on the size of the drop. (6 points)

New problems:
P. 3437. A wooden disc with a thickness of 2 cm and a density of 0.5 kg/dm3 is floating on water.
a) What is the maximum thickness of an aluminium disc of the same area that, when placed onto the wooden disc,
the latter does not disappear completely under the water.
b) What is the answer when the aluminium disc is fastened onto the bottom of the wooden disc? (3 points)
P. 3438. An alloy is made of copper and nickel at a proportion of 1:1. What is the density of this alloy if the two
metals mix without change in their respective volumes? (4 points)
P. 3439. Two bodies with a mass of 1 kg each hang on a spring with a directional force of 200 N/m, attached to each
other using a thread with a length of 10 cm, as shown in the figure. We burn the thread. What is the distance between
the two bodies when the top body first arrives at its highest position?

(4 points)
P. 3440. One side of a pull-push spring of initial, unstretched length l0, lying on an air-cushioned table, is fixed, the
other one is fastened to a small puck of mass m. The puck is thrust in a direction perpendicular to the spring, at an
initial speed v0. In the course of the motion, the maximum elongation of the spring is Delta
l=l0/10. What is the force constant of the spring? Sketch the trajectory of the centre of the puck.
(5 points)
P. 3441. Some quantity of monatomic ideal gas can reach state B from state A (see the figure) following two
different processes: AB or ACB. The heat taken up by the gas during process ACB is only 90 % of that taken up
during process AB. Initially (in state A) the temperature of the gas is 150 K. What are the respective temperatures of
the gas in states C and B?

(5 points)
P. 3442. The mirror of length 2
makes 10 revolutions per minute about the axis crossing its midpoint O and perpendicular to the plane of the
figure. There are a light source in point A and an observer in point B of the circle of radius R drawn around centre O
(AOBangle
=90o).
a) Along what curve does the virtual image of the point-like light source A move?
b) At what speed does the virtual image of A move?
c) What is the proportion R/
if the observer B first sees the light source when the angle of the mirror is phi
=15o?
d) How long can the observer continuously see the light source in the mirror at such a proportion R/
?

(5 points)
P. 3443. An electron with a kinetic energy of 100 eV enters the space between the plates of a plane capacitor made
of two dense metal grids at an angle of 30 o with the plates of the capacitor, and leaves this space at an angle of 45 o
with the plates. What is the pd. of the capacitor and at what kinetic energy does the electron leave the capacitor?

(4 points)
P. 3444. The equation of a "super-ellipse" is (x/a)4+(y/b)4=1, where a and b are the semi-axes. A homogeneous
cylinder with a super-elliptical cross-section is placed onto a horizontal table with its long semi-axis in the vertical
direction. Determine (using numerical, graphical or analytical methods) the maximum angle of deviation phi
until which the position shown in the figure is stable. Represent phi
as a function of the oblateness b/a.

Problem Solving Competition: 2001/2002


The competitions start annually and last from September to May, but you can enter any time during the academic
year.
In Mathematics, there are three different contests, in Physics there are two. Additionally, a new contest in
Informatics is launched. The conditions of the respective contests are slightly different. See below for details.
Every primary or secondary school student is eligible to participate in the competitions. Students in different grades
might find the same problems but in most cases their work is evaluated within their age group, they compete with
students of the same age only. Therefore, it is essential that the paper should indicate the 1 to 12 grade of the
contestant in the current school year. The KMaL contests are individual competitions, solutions produced by a
group are not accepted. If two papers turn out to be practically identical, none of them will be marked.
MATHEMATICS

C contest: exercises for practice, easier than those in the B contest; 5 each month. Correct solutions worth 5 marks.
Age groups:
up to 10th grade students
11 to 12th grade students (preferably those not studying mathematics in a special advanced class. Those
in advanced classes are advised to take part in the B contest).
B contest: 10 problems each month. You can send any number of solutions, but only the highest six scores are
entered.
Age groups:
up to the 8th grade
9th grade
10th grade
11th grade
12th grade
A contest: advanced problems, 3 each month. More demainding than the B contest, for those who are preparing for
national or international competitions. Here there are no separate age groups.
PHYSICS

M contest: Experimental problems: One measuring task is set each month. Each of them is worth 6 points. The
report must contain a description of the method, the data obtained sufficient in quantity and quality, the analysis
of the data, and the estimation of the error. There are no separate age groups.
P contest: 10 theoretical problems each month.
Age groups:
up to the 8th grade;
9th grade;
10th grade;
11th grade;
12th grade.
Every age group may send solutions to all kinds of problems. In the P contest we evaluate only 3 problems up to the
8th grade and 5 problems from 9th - 12th grade.
INFORMATICS

Three programming problems are set each month. The solutions should be written as working programs in any high
level programming language, preferably Pascal or C. Do not send .exe files! There are no separate age groups,
competition is opened for everyone.
Deadlines, adresses

The deadline of mailing or e-mailing the solutions is indicated in every issue next to the new exercises and
problems. Deadlines: in Physics: 11th of the month following the publication of the current issue; in Informatics:
13th of the month following the publication of the current issue; in Mathematics: 15th of the month following the
publication of the current issue. Should that be a weekend or bank holiday, the deadline is the next workday.
Send your solutions to the following address:

KMaL Szerkesztsg (KMaL feladatok), Budapest Pf. 47. 1255, Hungary


or by e-mail to: solutions@komal.elte.hu.
Informatics solutions are accepted via e-mail only and should be sent to the following address:
infotech@komal.elte.hu.
The actual state of the contests appears on our web-site (http://komal.elte.hu/eredm/index.e.shtml) and it is updated
regularly. These data are not official, only for your information. The final results will appear in August on our
Internet home page and in the September issue of the following academic year. The cca 10 top contestans are
rewarded by a certificate in each category and this is going to be mailed to their schools, and their portraits,
additionally, will be presented in the December issue and the Internet.
Entry Form for the contests
The layout of the papers:
By ordinary mail:
Write the solutions to different problems on separate A4 sheets of paper. (This is important because
different people are responsible for the marking.)
The header of every sheet must contain the following in the upper left corner (see sample 1):

-the letter code (A, B, C, M, P) and number of the problem in red


-the full name and the grade of the sender
-the name of the school and the town (and country)
-the e-mail adress of the sender
Fold each sheet into four separatly so that the header should appear in the front side.
Solutions to geometry problems should include diagrams.
Enclose with your solutions a separate sheet listing your data and the contents of your mail. See sample 2.

Sample 1. Header of a sheet Sample 2. Enclosed


list
C. 593.
Varga 163 Rbert, 9th grade Varga 163 Rbert,
Rvai High School, Gyr 9th grade
e-mail: robi@revai.hu Rvai High School,
Denote the age of the captain by C, the age of the ship by S. When the age of the ship Gyr
was C, the age of the captain was C-(S-C)=2C-S. When the ship was 2C-S ... I send the following
3 papers in:
C. 591., C. 593.,
B. 3389.

By e-mail:
Send the solutions of different problems as separate e-mail messages.
The "subject" field of the e-mail message should contain the letter code and number of the problem.
Additional requirements concerning the Informatics solutions
o The solutions should be mailed separately to the following address: infotech@komal.elte.hu
o In the first few comment lines of each program do enter the following information:
your name and class
your school.
your town (country)
The content of the papers:

It is not enough to state the answer. Results with detailed explanations only will receive full credit. (Reference to
standard school math is accepted without proof.)
Exercises and problems in Physics
September 2001
Please read The Conditions of the Problem Solving Competition.

Experimental problem

M. 226. Use a drawing board to make a slope with a variable angle. Fit the bottom of the drawing board to the edge
of the table so that a sliding body could leave the slope without collision and fall freely on the floor. Take
measurements to find out what sloping angle a coin sliding from the top of the drawing board falls furthest. Does the
result depend on the length of the drawing board, on the height of the table or on the coin itself?

Theoretical problems
It is allowed to send solutions for any number of problems, but final scores of students of grade 9-12 are
computed from the 5 best score in each month. Final scores of students of grade 1-8 are computed from
the 3 best scores in each month.
P. 3445. Julie and Steve live in the same street, Julie in a 300 m and Steve in a 800 m distance from the school. In
the morning they leave for school at the same time. Steve goes by bike at a speed of 10 m/s and Julie goes on foot at
a speed of 2 m/s. When they meet, Steve gets off his bike and they walk on together talking to each other at a speed
of 1 m/s. Will they reach the school before the school bell rings if they started from home 3 minutes before the ring?
(3 points)
P. 3446. There is a force of 800 N exerted on a man standing in a lift due to gravitation. The force exerted on the lift
by the man (his weight) is 820 N. At what rate does the lift accelerate and in which direction? What can we say of
the velocity of the lift? (3 points)
P. 3447. Let's fill an air-balloon to the same volume once with hydrogen and once with helium. In which case is the
lifting capacity greater and by what percentage? (In the given conditions the gas densities in kg/m 3 units are:
hydrogen -- 0.08, helium -- 0.16, air -- 1.162). The mass of the balloon's material is negligible compared to the mass
of the burden and the volume of the burden is negligible compared to the volume of the balloon. (3 points)
P. 3448. Let's push up a crate of a mass of 10 kg slowly on a slope. The work needed to achieve this is 400 J. By
pulling the same crate down the slope we use work of 250 J. (The force of both pushing and pulling is parallel to the
direction of the slope.) What is the height of the slope? (4 points)
P. 3449. There are three elastic disks with masses m1=m3=0.15 kg, m2=0.2 kg connected with two equal length
strings of negligible mass, on a horizontal air-cushioned table. At the beginning the three disks are in rest and reside
in one line (according to the figure). Then we make the middle disk move horizontally and perpendicular to the
strings with a velocity of v0=6 m/s.

a) What is the velocity of the side disks right at the moment when the disk of mass m2 stops after the elastic collision
of the two disks in question? What is the angle formed by the two strings in this position?
b) What is the angle formed by the two strings in this position? (6 points)
P. 3450. There is a ship sailing east along the Equator with a speed of 45 km/h. How much time does a pendulum-
clock on board lose in 3 hours if it keeps good time when the ship rests relative to the Earth. (5 points)
P. 3451. A solid piece of metal with a volume of 50 cm3 and a temperature of 20 oC can be lifted to a height of
100 m by using 135 J of work. What would be the temperature of the same object if we transmitted to it an amount
of heat equivalent to the work used in lifting. (4 points)
P. 3452. The measuring limit of a standard voltage meter with the resistance of R=1 k can be extended to 60 V,
150 V and 300 V as can be seen in the figure. The sum of the three additional resistances is 9 kOmega
. What are the separate resistance values, and how much is the measuring limit of the basic instrument U0? (4 points)
P. 3453. A semicylinder made of a transparent plastic has a refraction index of n=1.41 and a radius of R=5 cm.
There is a narrow incident laser beam perpendicular to the flat side of the semicylinder at d distance from the axis of
symmetry.

a) What can the maximum value of d be so that the laser beam can still leave the other side of the semicylinder?
b) How can the refraction index be determined if we know dmax and R?
c) By varying distance d, in which interval will distance OB shown in the figure vary? (4 points)
P. 3454. In 1923 George Hevesy determined the age of a rock sample with some uranium content based on the
finding that the ratio of the number of 238U atoms to the number of 206Pb atoms present in the sample was 3:2. What
was the age he determined? (4 points)
P. 3455. The Sun emits electromagnetic radiation with the power of 3.86x1026 W.
a) How much energy arrives per second at the top of the Earth's atmosphere on a 1 m2 surface perpendicular to the
radiation coming from the Sun?
b) How much is the impulse of the light incident on a surface of 1 m2 in one second?
c) What is the pressure exerted by the incoming light on a surface that is perpendicular to the radiation and absorbs
every kind of light? (4 points)
Exercises and problems in Physics
October 2001
Please read The Conditions of the Problem Solving Competition.

Experimental problem

M. 227. A ring hanging on a nail can swing in several ways. Take among these two characteristic ones: the one when
the ring swings in its own plane, and the one perpendicular to it. Measure the two swing periods, and calculate the
ratio of the periods. Give an estimation of the error of this result. (6 points)

Theoretical problems

P. 3456. There is a motorway a railway track and a cycling path running parallel with each other. The railway track
is in a 600 m, and the cycling path is in a 800 m distance of the middle positioned motorway. The velocity of the
train is 90 km/h and the velocity of the car is 60 km/h. All the three vehicles are going in the same direction at a
constant speed,in a way that at a given moment they fit on one line. What is the velocity of the bicycle if this
situation maintains? (4 points)
P. 3457. A vessel is completely full of a liquid of a temperature of 0 Co and of greater density than that of water.
There is a piece of ice of a temperature of 0 Co floating in it. The temperature is kept constant and the piece of ice is
melted by an infrared laser beam. Does the water spill over the brim? (3 points)
P. 3458. What is the correct explanation of the phenomenon that if we put the sharp edge of an axe on a wooden
clog even with an additional weight put on top of it, the surface of the clog is hardly scratched, but if we lift the axe
and strike down, the clog cleaves asunder? (3 points)
P. 3459. There are two blocks with masses of m1=0,6 kg and m2=0,4 kg lying on a horizontal surface, connected
loosely by a string. We begin to pull the block of mass m1 with a F=3 N force and observe the acceleration of the
bodies. We execute the experiment on surfaces of different friction coefficient. The static and kinetic friction
coefficients are considered the same and mu
can vary from zero to 0,9.
a) Calculate and plot the acceleration of the bodies as a function of mu
.
b) Determine and plot the dependence of the force acting in the string on the friction coefficient. (5 points)

P. 3460. To determine the velocity of a bullet we put a wooden cube of mass M=1,2 kg on the edge of a table of a
height of h=0,8 m and we shoot a bullet of mass m=20 g into it from a horizontal direction. (The bullet remains in
the wooden cube.) As the effect of the collision the cube is thrown off the table and reaches the ground at x=3 m
distance. What was the velocity of the bullet? (4 points)
P. 3461. In the arrangement seen in the figure C can be replaced by an arbitrary capacitor. In what interval can the
capacity change between points A and B due to changes in C? (5 points)

P. 3462. Batteries of the same electromotive force and internal resistance were connected first in parallel then in
series with a consumer of the resistance of 129 . In the serial arrangement the output voltage of one battery was
found 10 % less than in the parallel arrangement.
a) How many batteries were used?
b) In which case was the power of the consumer greater? (4 points)
P. 3463. A monatomic ideal gas is compressed to one seventh of its volume while its pressure increases to seven
times its original value in a process of which the image on the p-V diagram is a line segment. In which part does the
gas absorb and in which part does it dissipate heat. What is the ratio of the lengths of the corresponding two
intervals on the p-V diagram? (5 points)
P. 3464. If a gas is heated, sooner or later it will emit light. Why? (4 points)
P. 3465. A long narrow cylindrical spring is so week that it stretches considerably even under its own weight. In one
case the spring is held by one of its ends and hung vertically, in another both ends are held in a distance so that the
spring takes the shape shown in the figure. In which case is the spring stretched longer? (6 points)

Exercises and problems in Physics


November 2001
Please read The Conditions of the Problem Solving Competition.

Experimental problem

M. 228. As is well known, if we stir the tea in a cup the submerged tea leafs gather in the middle in a small heap
(against our expectations, because we expect the particles with higher density to drift towards the perimeter of the
container). What is the explanation of this phenomenon? Carry out some experiments to prove the explanation. (6
points)

Theoretical problems

P. 3466. Looking into a convex mirror our nose seems to be disproportionately larger than our ears. Why? (3 points)
P. 3467. Cycling without rest between two towns the journey takes 6 hours. What is the distance between the two
towns if our average speed is 16 km/h on level surface, 12 km/h uphill and 24 km/h downhill? (3 points)
P. 3468. In a heat insulated vessel there is tap water of 15 oC. We place in it ice cubes of -15 oC taken out of the
deep-freezer. May there be no change of state? When does only a part of the ice melt? In which case does all of the
ice melt? In which case does the water freeze? (4 points)
P. 3469. The T shaped rigid body shown in the figure consists of three uniform rods, and can rotate round the
horizontal axis t perpendicular to its plane. At the end of the right side rod and at the point dividing it in a 2:3 ratio
there are ropes fixed and each of the ropes hold horizontal rods propped up by wedges. The wedge holding the upper
rod divides the lower rod in 3:2 ratio. The mass of the upper rod is m1, that of the lower one is m2, and the mass of
the body lying on the upper rod is m3. What is the required mass of the body that is to be hung on the end of the left
hand side rod so as to keep the balance. The data: m1=2.5 kg, m2=6.0 kg, m3=7.5 kg. (5 points)
P. 3470. A carriage is joined to the end of a slope as can be seen in the figure. A body released from the slope from
height h slides as far as the middle of the carriage. (The friction between the body and the slope and the mass of the
wheels of the carriage are negligible.) At what height should the body be released so that it could stop just at the end
of the carriage? (4 points)

P. 3471. We make a spiral of 0.6 m radius and 30o slope angle of a thin but sufficiently stiff wire and fix it in a way
that its axis is vertical. Then we thread a pierced pearl on the wire and at a given moment we let it slide down. What
speed does it gather if the friction coefficient is 0.5? (5 points)
P. 3472. We fix a block to a spring. Hanging the spring at its end the block oscillates with a period of 1 second. Then
we put the block on a horizontal table and hurl it towards a wall so that the spring is positioned in between as a
bumper. Colliding with the wall the spring contracts then hurls the body back. The block stops exactly when the
spring gets its neutral size back. How much time elapsed between the spring touching the wall and the the block
stopping? (4 points)
P. 3473. What are the mass percentages in a mixture of hydrogen and helium gases where at isobar dilation 70 % of
the absorbed heat from the surrounding environment is converted to internal energy. (4 points)
P. 3474. At the endpoints of a line segment of a length of d there are two identical positive electric charges. What is
the ratio of the electric field strength and the electric potential in a point characterized by an angle on the Thales'
circle drawn around the line segment. (4 points)

P. 3475. On a bumper at the lower end of a vertically positioned insulator bar shown in the figure there is a pearl of
the mass m=10-4 kg and a charge of Q1. Above at a h0=20 cm distance there is another pearl with the same mass m
and electric charge Q2 afloat. At a given moment we kick the lower pearl and it starts upwards at a velocity of
v0=2 m/s. How close can the lower pearl get to the upper one at most? (The pearls can move along the bar without
friction.) (6 points)

P. 3476. In a homogeneous magnetic field there is an electron moving in a circular orbit. Can the magnetic induction
vector generated by the moving electron be greater in the middle of the circle than the magnetic induction vector of
the homogeneous field? (5 points)
P. 3477. Using thin slats we construct a triangle shaped frame with sides a, b and c. The overall mass of the frame is
m. What is the inertial momentum of the frame related to an axis perpendicular to the triangle and crossing the frame
in its centre of mass? (5 points)

Exercises and problems in Physics


December 2001
Please read The Conditions of the Problem Solving Competition.

Experimental problem

M. 229. On a smooth and dry horizontal plastic surface prepare a few water drops of different mass (e.g. with an
eye-dropper). Examine the relation between the diameter and the mass of the water drops. (6 points)

Theoretical problems

P. 3478. Estimate how much work you do while you reach a proper press-up position from lying. (3 points)
P. 3479. Hydrogen gas is kept streaming through a tube while it is cooled by water surrounding the tube. The
temperature of the incoming gas is 60 C o and that of the outgoing gas is 30 C o. The capacity of the cooler tank is 60
liter and the water in it is completely changed in every hour. The initial temperature of the cooling water is 10 C o and
it is 20 Co when it is changed. What is the amount of the gas in kgs that goes through the tube in one hour? (4 points)
P. 3480. From a 5000 km radius planet a rocket is launched at the first cosmic velocity in a direction at a 60 o angle to
the vertical direction. What is the maximum height the rocket can reach? (5 points)
P. 3481. What is the relation between the temperature and the swing period of a physical pendulum made of a
homogeneous material? (4 points)
P. 3482. On the middle one of three thin concentric spherical metal shells of radius R there is Q electric charge. The

inner spherical shell of radius and the outer spherical shell of radius are earthed.
a) What is the amount of the electric charge on the earthed spherical shells?
b) Plot the electric field strength versus the distance from the centre. (5 points)
P. 3483. In the connection shown in the figure the switch K is open and the capacitor is uncharged. Then we close
the switch and let the capacitor charge up to the maximum and open the switch again. Determine the values
indicated by the ammeter

a) directly after closing the switch;


b) a long time after the switch was closed;
c) directly after reopening the switch;
U0=30 V, R1=10 k , R2=5 kOmega
.) (4 points)
P. 3484. What should be the capacity of the adjustable capacitor shown in the figure so that the voltmeter indicates
the highest voltage? (5 points)

P. 3485. The Sun attracts the Earth with a lot greater force then the Moon does.
a) What is the ratio of the two forces?
b) What is the explanation for the fact that despite this the tidal effect of the Moon is a few times bigger than that of
the Sun. (5 points)
P. 3486. The binding energy of the 14N nucleus is 16.19 pJ and the 14C nucleus is 16.37 pJ. Which nucleus is the
decay product of the other, and why? (5 points)
P. 3487. Werner Heisenberg, the Nobel Prize winner German theoretical physicist, was born a hundred years ago (5 th
December 1901). With the help of the uncertainty principle introduced by him estimate the uncertainty of the
velocity of a carbon atom and an electron `sitting' on the point of a pine needle! (4 points)

Exercises and problems in Physics


February 2002
Please read The Conditions of the Problem Solving Competition.

Experimental problem

M. 230. Take a chain made up of identical links. (It could be like the one we have recently decorated the Christmas
tree with.) Determine the values of the coefficients of a) static and b) kinetic friction between the chain and the
surface of a table. (6 points)

Theoretical problems

P. 3488. A solid, straight cylinder standing on its base is sliding down a slope of a given angle. The coefficient of
friction is mu
. Which point of the cylinder's base can be considered as the work point of the pressing force exerted by the slope?
(4 points)
P. 3489. A snowball of a mass of 150 g hits a window pane at a velocity of 20 m/s and stops within 0.01 s. Will the
pane break if it can resist a maximum of 300 N pressing force at the site of the hit? (4 points)
P. 3490. Why is it that some helicopters need a tail-rotor and others do not? (3 points)
P. 3491. The pull force of an electric motor is 310 kN at a speed of 57.6 km/h. The supply voltage is 3.6 kV and
there is an electric current of 230 A in the coils of the eight electric motors. Determine the efficiency of the motor. (3
points)
P. 3492. What is the radius of a bubble that has formed from a detergent solution, and in which the density of air is
one thousandth higher than the air surrounding it. (4 points)
P. 3493. We make hydrogen gas undergo the ABCA thermal cycle shown in the figure. (p1=2.105 Pa, V1=2 m3,
TA=300 K.)

a) How much heat is transmitted to the gas during the different subprocesses?
b) What is the total amount of work performed on the gas? (4 points)
P. 3494. What is the radius of the imaginary concentric sphere that divides the electrostatic field of a metal sphere of
a radius of 20 cm and a charge of 8.10-7 C into two regions of identical energy? What is the total energy of the
electric field of the metal sphere? (5 points)
P. 3495. The flat surface of a hemispherical glass lens is mat (n=1.5, R=4.8 cm). There is a point source of light on
the axis of symmetry of the hemisphere. The incident light creates a bright spot on the mat surface. Where is the
light source when the spot of light is the smallest? What is the diameter of the spot in this case? (5 points)
P. 3496. lambda
min denotes the shortest wavelength of the light emitted by a hydrogen atom. Can this atom emit a photon of a
wavelength of 2min
? (4 points)
P. 3497. We divert a string pendulum of a length of 1 meter until it is horizontal, then let it fall. What is the angular
velocity of the acceleration vector of the body hanging at the end of the string when the acceleration vector is
a) vertical, b) horizontal? (6 points)

Exercises and problems in Physics


February 2002
Please read The Conditions of the Problem Solving Competition.

Experimental problem

M. 231. With the help of measurements determine what the dependence of the warming rate of a glass of water in a
microwave oven on the amount of water in the glass, on the size of the glass and on its position on the center plate
is! (6 points)

Theoretical problems

P. 3498.Fill a graduated cylinder with fresh snow, and put on the surface of the snow an aluminum cylinder of a
mass of 162 g and wait until all the snow melts. (See the figure on the right.) What is the density of the snow? (3
points)

P. 3499. While heating up some water in a pot on a gas-cooker does the hydrostatic pressure of the water change at
the bottom? (3 points)
P. 3500. A climber sits between two parallel rock walls so that he presses his boots to one and his back to the other
wall. The friction coefficient between the boots and the wall is 1.2 and between the wall and the climber's back is
0.8. What force does he need to apply on the wall at least? Draw a figure. (5 points)
P. 3501. In the arrangement seen in the figure, lying on a horizontal table two parallel, unstretched rubber threads of
spring constant D are going through a ring of mass m, which can easily slip along them. We take the ring from its
state of equilibrium to a) point A, b) point B. What is the amount of work done and what is the starting acceleration
of the ring in the two cases? The ring can move along the table fricitionless. (Data: a=0.1 m; b=1 m; D=150 N/m;
m=0.1 kg.) (5 points)

P. 3502. 10% of the volume of a floating submarine is above the water level. In this case 80% of its volume is filled
with air. After an accident the amount of air drops to 10% (in closed chambers) and the 18 300 m3 volume submarine
sinks to a 110 m depth. How much work is needed to salvage the submarine? (The density of the sea water is
1030 kg/m3.) (4 points)
P. 3503. On a small bridge the road runs along a circle arc of radius R and of 180o-2 angle lying in a vertical plane.
A motorcyclist runs up the bridge with such a velocity that he flies off the road. What is its velocity at least? At what
velocity would he touch the road again in point B? (Data: R=100 m; alpha
=80o.) (4 points)

P. 3504. We perform the ABCA cycle seen in the figure with air as medium in a thermodynamical machine. Is this
machine a heat engine or a refrigerator? What is the ratio of the absorbed heat in section AB and the emitted heat in
section CA? (5 points)

P. 3505. At the edge of a plate capacitor there is an inhomogeneous electric field, which is usually neglected. Taking
this into account as well, would we get a smaller or a greater capacity value? (5 points)
P. 3506. The electromotive force of a power source consisting of four serially connected 4.5V batteries is 18 V. A
connected consumer carries an electric current of 0.3 A. This current decreases to 0.2 A if an 8 resistance is
connected parallel to the power source. What is the internal resistance of one 4.5V battery? (4 points)
P. 3507. In what cases does a parallel light beam incident on a double-convex (``biconvex'') glass lens keep parallel
after leaving the lens? (5 points)
P. 3508. A lambda
wavelength photon collides with an electron, which can be considered resting and free. In the interaction the
electron recoils and a 2lambda wavelength photon starts in the opposite direction of the incident one. Determine
the wavelength of the incident photon. (5 points)
Exercises and problems in Physics
March 2002
Please read The Conditions of the Problem Solving Competition.

Correction

Problem P. 3486. in December, 2001 contained a mistake. Now the problem is issued again. You can send your
solution for the corrected problem together with the problems in March. (Your score will be counted in December.)
P. 3486. The binding energy of the 14N nucleus is 16.76 pJ and the 14C nucleus is 16.86 pJ. Which nucleus is
the decay product of the other, and why? (5 points)

Experimental problem

M. 232. Hang a homogeneous metal bar symmetrically using two strong threads as seen in the figure. How does the
period of this somewhat distorted system depend on distances l and b. (6 points)
Theoretical problems

P. 3509. Is it possible that a freely falling body covers twice the distance in the last second of the fall than in the
previous second? (3 points)
P. 3510. A 150 kg piston closes 32 g of oxygen gas of a temperature of 0 oC in a vertical cylinder of base area of
4 dm2. The air pressure outside is 1.01.105 Pa. The axis of the cylinder is vertical, and the piston can move in it
without friction. At what height is the piston in rest? How much heat is to be transferred to the gas to raise the piston
20 cm? (4 points)
P. 3511. There is a line pendulum of length l hanging from a nail sticking out of a vertical wall. Release the
pendulum from the horizontal position. When its angular separation from the horizontal is alpha
the line hits another nail and from here the small body at the end of the line moves along an arc around this second
nail. How far can the second nail be from the first one if the body goes all along this new circular path? (4 points)
P. 3512. One side of a building is exposed to heavy sunshine. What is the direction of the draft inside the building if
we open one window on both the sunlit and the shady side? (3 points)
P. 3513. Estimate the resistance caused by rain under no wind conditions for a running car. Suppose, that in half an
hour there has been 10 mm of precipitation, the diameter of a rain drop is 2 mm, the frontal area of the car is 1.5 m2,
and its velocity is 90 km/h. What is the ratio of the rain and air densities? (5 points)
P. 3514. Examine the motion of a solid cylinder of mass m=4 kg moving down a long alpha
=30o angle slope having two different surfaces. The initial velocity of the cylinder is zero. The first section of the
slope is very smooth, the friction coefficient is mu1=0 here, while on the second section it is mu
2=tan . The cylinder arrives on this second section after it has descended h=1.8 m in the vertical direction.

a) How long after starting will the cylinder roll cleanly?


b) How much mechanical energy is lost during the motion of the cylinder? (5 points)
P. 3515. In a parallel-plate capacitor the area of each plate are 1500 cm2, and the distance of the plates is 20 mm.
After switching on a 250 V power supply we push a 5 mm thick metal plate and a 5 mm thick glass plate ( rel=5)
between the plates. How much work is done while pushing in the plates? (5 points)
P. 3516. One half of the square cross-section ring seen in the figure is made of aluminium and the other of copper.
The inner radius of the ring is 8 cm and the outer is 10 cm. It is in a homogeneous magnetic field perpendicular to its
plane, where the magnetic induction is 0.1 T. How much electric charge accumulates at the joints if the magnetic
induction is linearly decreased to zero within 2 seconds? (6 points)

P. 3517. The decay half-time of a radioactive source is T, and initially it resides in r0 distance of our radiation
counter. Then it starts moving towards us in a way that the count number does not change on the counter. Give the
distance of the source and the counter as a function of time. What was the initial velocity of the radioactive source
(The absorption in the air is neglected here.)? (5 points)
P. 3518. In the 19th century people thought that the Sun is a burning block of coal, which loses its energy through
radiation. On the Earth the intensity of the radiation of the Sun is 1400 W/m2. Let us suppose that the intensity will
not change in the future. The mass of the Sun is 2 .1030 kg, its distance from the Earth is 1.5.1011 m and the caloric
value of coal is 30 MJ/kg. How long would the Sun shine, if it really were a burning coal block? (The result of this
calculation surprised the scientists at that time as well.) (4 points)
P. 3519. In the assembly seen in the figure, the piston of the lower cylinder is initially at a height of 10 cm. Under
the cylinder there is 20 oC nitrogen and above it there is mercury which fills in the rubber hose and has its free
surface in the upper vessel 2 meters above the piston. The base area of the cylinder is 100 cm2, the piston is
weightless and the nitrogen can expand to a 30 cm height. The air pressure outside is 10 5 Pa. While heating the
nitrogen the piston rises and we make the upper vessel sink continuously so that while the piston rises 1 mm, the
upper level of the mercury drops 9 mm. Continue this while the nitrogen absorbs heat. How much is the absorbed
heat? How much is the top temperature of the nitrogen? (6 points)

Exercises and problems in Physics


April 2002
Please read The Conditions of the Problem Solving Competition.

Experimental problem

M. 233. Put a small sized glass filled with water on a matchbox lying on a table. Use a ruler to knock the matchbox
out from under the glass. Take simple measurements (for example among others measure the displacement of the
glass), and with the help of these estimate how much time it took to knock the matchbox out. (6 points)

Theoretical problems

P. 3520. Two trains are running along two parallel tracks. One of them covers 90 km an hour the other 10 meters a
second. A passenger sitting in one of the trains observes that the other train passes in 8 seconds. How long is the
other train? (3 points)
P. 3521. Pour 10 cm3 of water into an empty cube with 1,01 dm long edges, and then put an oak cube of a mass of
0,7 kg into it. Does the oak cube float? (4 points)
P. 3522. There is a 0,8 m long homogeneous stick attached with a hinge to the rim of a big tank partially filled with
water. The density of the material of the stick is 5 kg/dm3. If a 650 cm3 sphere of density of 0,4 kg/dm3 is fixed at the
other end of the stick, then the sphere submerges in the water and so does three quarters of the stick.
a) What is the cross section of the stick.
b) How much is the force and what is its direction exerted by the hinge on the stick? (4 points)
P. 3523. The figure (see on page 251) shows the velocity and the acceleration of a point-like body at the initial
moment of its motion. The direction and the absolute value of the acceleration remain constant. <p.a) When does the
absolute value of the velocity become the same as at the initial moment? </p.
b) When does the velocity reach its minimum value?
c) What is the minimal curvature of the orbit of the body?
(Data: a=6 m/s2, v0=24 m/s, varphi
=120o.) (5 points)
P. 3524. The medium (ammonia, freon) in a compression refrigerator and heater (heat pump) goes through the same
thermodynamic process in each cycle. What does it depend on whether it works as a refrigerator or a heater? (4
points)
P. 3525. There is a d distance between the big sized plates of a plate capacitor charged up to voltage U. From the
negative plate a particle of charge Q and mass m is detached without an initial velocity. At what velocity will this
negative charge hit the positive plate? What is the U voltage where this velocity is minimal? (5 points)
P. 3526. At the two ends of an electric insulator pipe the ends of which are bent at right angles there are soap
bubbles of radius r and R, respectively. How much electric charge is to be added to one of the bubbles to ensure that
the size of the other bubble does not change after opening the tap at the middle of the pipe? (Neglect the effect of the
electrostatic induction!) (5 points)

P. 3527. A magnetic rod is dropped into a very long vertical short-circuited coil as seen in the figure. Make a
schematic drawing of the currents in the coil and the acceleration of the magnetic rod as a function of time.

(5 points)
P. 3528. The boundary surface of the media of refractive indices n 1 and n2 in the optical system that can be seen in
the figure is a sphere of radius R. Is there a point on axis t where light beams starting from (closing only a small
angle with axis t) are running parallel to axis t in the other medium? (5 points)

P. 3529. At the beginning of the 20th century the Sun was considered a 6000 K hot glowing homogeneous gas sphere
consisting of H2 molecules, and slowly cooling down by its radiation. The current intensity of the Sun's radiation at
the distance of the Earth is 1400 W/m2. Estimate how long it would take for the Sun to darken, that is to cool down
to about 1000 K? (According to our present knowledge, the Sun - similarly to other stars - maintains its radiation
from the energy released in fusion processes of atomic nuclei and will probably shine for about 5 billion years from
now on.) (5 points)
P. 3530. What is the apparent resistance of the endless chain seen in the figure in alternating voltage at circular
frequency (between terminals A and B? Can the result be two different values? (6 points)
Exercises and problems in Physics
May 2002
Please read The Conditions of the Problem Solving Competition.

Experimental problem

M. 234. The viscosity of fruit juices with fibre increases with cooling and decreases whith diluting. Take some
measurements to decide which effect is ``stronger''. What happens to viscosity when the absolute temperature and
the concentration decrease by the same percentage (e.g. 5, 10 and 15 percents)? Find a method, where it is easy to
measure viscosity ratios. (6 points)

Theoretical problems

P. 3531. Some hikers hired a boat for 3 hours. The river flows at a speed of 2.5 km/h, and the speed of the boat is
7.5 km/h relative to the water. How far can they get from the port if they want to be back in 3 hours? (3 points)
P. 3532. We fix an inextensible thread to the ceiling and tie a body of mass m to the lower end of the thread as it is
seen in the figure. To the bottom of the body we fix a spring and on it hangs a body of mass 2m. The system is in
equilibrium. The dilation of the spring is 30 cm. Now burn the thread!

a) What is the acceleration of the bodies right after the thread is burnt?
b) How long will it take the spring to reach its unstretched state first and what is the velocity of the bodies at that
moment? (5 points)
P. 3533. It is hailing on a flat area of 10 000 m2 uniformly in time for 41 seconds in a uniformly random areal
distribution. The hailstones, which can be considered as uniform spheres, fall on a soil which they only slightly
indent. Only those move further from their place of impact that fall on their comrades. Among the 20 000 hailstones
that fell in the last second there were 200 which fell on those that landed in the previous 40 seconds. a) What is the
percentage of the ice covered area? b) What is the area of the great circle of an ice sphere? (5 points)
P. 3534. What thickness layer of a snow-blanket of 20 cm depth, 0 oC temperature and 0.25 kg/dm3 density melts
after 5 hours of sunshine when the radiation includes an angle of 25o with the snow layer on average? At the top of
the atmosphere at every surface element of 1 m2 which is perpendicular to the radiation of the Sun the incoming
radiation power is 1350 W. 50% of this is absorbed in the atmosphere, and the snow reflects 90% of the energy
incoming. (4 points)
P. 3535. The tube of cross section A seen in the figure is closed at one end, bent twice in right angles and resides in a
vertical plane. The L=38 cm long air column of temperature T0 in the vertical part of the tube is closed off by a 2L
long mercury column. The length of the horizontal part of the tube is L. The p0 air pressure outside equals with the
hydrostatic pressure of the 2L high mercury column. Let L.A be termed V0.

a) Give in p0V0 units the work done by the expanding air while the mercury flows to the upper vertical tube.
b) What percentage of the heat transmitted to the air increases the internal energy?
c) Plot the air temperature against its volume. (5 points)
P. 3536. A slightly divergent electron beam of 5 keV energy arrives at a homogeneous magnetic field. The velocity
of the particles include only small angles with B. What magnetic induction is needed to ensure that the electrons
meet again at a 10 cm distance? (5 points)
P. 3537. In a Compton scattering (the elastic collision of an electron and a photon) event the momentum of an
initially resting electron became greater than that of the incident photon of frequency f was. At least at what angle
did the photon scatter? (5 points)
P. 3538. The kinetic energy of an electron is the nth of that of a photon and its momentum is n times as much as the
momentum of the photon. At what n values are photons like this visible? (4 points)
P. 3539. We are holding with our arm outstretched a collector lens of focal distance of f=12 cm, and observing a
24 meter high tower at a 60 meter distance. Using estimated data determine the size of the image on the retina of our
eye. At what enlargement or reduction do we see the tower through the lens compared to the naked eye? How much
is the dioptre of our eye in the two cases? (5 points)
P. 3540. The SOHO satellite observing the Sun's eruptions is always on the line connecting the Sun and the Earth.
How far is SOHO from the Earth? (Take Earth's orbit as a circle.) (6 points)

Problem Solving Competition: 2002/2003


The competitions start annually and last from September to May, but you can enter any time during the academic
year.
In Mathematics, there are three different contests, in Physics there are two. Additionally, a new contest in
Informatics is launched. The conditions of the respective contests are slightly different. See below for details.
Every primary or secondary school student is eligible to participate in the competitions. Students in different grades
might find the same problems but in most cases their work is evaluated within their age group, they compete with
students of the same age only. Therefore, it is essential that the paper should indicate the 1 to 12 grade of the
contestant in the current school year. The KMaL contests are individual competitions, solutions produced by a
group are not accepted. If two papers turn out to be practically identical, none of them will be marked.
This year students are not allowed to participate in both competitions "B" and "C" at the same time.
MATHEMATICS

C contest: exercises for practice, easier than those in the B contest; 5 each month. Correct solutions worth 5 marks.
Age groups:
up to 10th grade students
11 to 12th grade students (preferably those not studying mathematics in a special advanced class. Those
in advanced classes are advised to take part in the B contest).
B contest: 10 problems each month. You can send any number of solutions, but only the highest six scores are
entered.
Age groups:
up to the 8th grade
9th grade
10th grade
11th grade
12th grade
A contest: advanced problems, 3 each month. More demainding than the B contest, for those who are preparing for
national or international competitions. Here there are no separate age groups.
PHYSICS

M contest: Experimental problems: One measuring task is set each month. Each of them is worth 6 points. The
report must contain a description of the method, the data obtained sufficient in quantity and quality, the analysis
of the data, and the estimation of the error. There are no separate age groups.
P contest: 10 theoretical problems each month.
Age groups:
up to the 8th grade;
9th grade;
10th grade;
11th grade;
12th grade.
Every age group may send solutions to all kinds of problems. In the P contest we evaluate only 3 problems up to the
8th grade and 5 problems from 9th - 12th grade.
INFORMATICS

Three programming problems are set each month. The solutions should be written as working programs in any high
level programming language, preferably Pascal or C. Do not send .exe files! There are no separate age groups,
competition is opened for everyone.
Deadlines, adresses

The deadline of mailing or e-mailing the solutions is indicated in every issue next to the new exercises and
problems. Deadlines: in Physics: 11th of the month following the publication of the current issue; in Informatics:
13th of the month following the publication of the current issue; in Mathematics: 15th of the month following the
publication of the current issue. Should that be a weekend or bank holiday, the deadline is the next workday.
Send your solutions to the following address:

KMaL Szerkesztsg (KMaL feladatok), Budapest Pf. 47. 1255, Hungary


or by e-mail to: solutions@komal.elte.hu.
Informatics solutions are accepted via e-mail only and should be sent to the following address:
infotech@komal.elte.hu.
The actual state of the contests appears on our web-site (http://komal.elte.hu/eredm/index.e.shtml) and it is updated
regularly. These data are not official, only for your information. The final results will appear in August on our
Internet home page and in the September issue of the following academic year. The cca 10 top contestans are
rewarded by a certificate in each category and this is going to be mailed to their schools, and their portraits,
additionally, will be presented in the December issue and the Internet.
Entry Form for the contests
The layout of the papers:
By ordinary mail:
Write the solutions to different problems on separate A4 sheets of paper. (This is important because
different people are responsible for the marking.)
The header of every sheet must contain the following in the upper left corner (see sample 1):

-the letter code (A, B, C, M, P) and number of the problem in red


-the full name and the grade of the sender
-the name of the school and the town (and country)
-the e-mail adress of the sender
Fold each sheet into four separatly so that the header should appear in the front side.
Solutions to geometry problems should include diagrams.
Enclose with your solutions a separate sheet listing your data and the contents of your mail. See sample 2.

Sample 1. Header of a sheet Sample 2. Enclosed


list
C. 593.
Varga 163 Rbert, 9th grade Varga 163 Rbert,
Rvai High School, Gyr 9th grade
e-mail: robi@revai.hu Rvai High School,
Denote the age of the captain by C, the age of the ship by S. When the age of the ship Gyr
was C, the age of the captain was C-(S-C)=2C-S. When the ship was 2C-S ... I send the following
3 papers in:
C. 591., C. 593.,
B. 3389.

By e-mail:
Send the solutions of different problems as separate e-mail messages.
The "subject" field of the e-mail message should contain the letter code and number of the problem.
Additional requirements concerning the Informatics solutions
o The solutions should be mailed separately to the following address: infotech@komal.elte.hu
o In the first few comment lines of each program do enter the following information:
your name and class
your school.
your town (country)
The content of the papers:

It is not enough to state the answer. Results with detailed explanations only will receive full credit. (Reference to
standard school math is accepted without proof.)
Exercises and problems in Physics
September 2002
Please read The Conditions of the Problem Solving Competition.

Experimental problem

M. 235. Determine the direction of the magnetic induction around a disk shaped magnet. First use some iron dust
then a compass. (6 points)

Theoretical problems
It is allowed to send solutions for any number of problems, but final scores of students of grades 9-12 are
computed from the 5 best score in each month. Final scores of students of grades 1-8 are computed from
the 3 best scores in each month.
P. 3541. In a vessel filled with water to its half there is a closed, thin walled glass sphere. On the same table there
also stand two glasses of equal size entirely filled with water. Pouring the contents of one of them into the vessel we
see that the glass sphere sinks a bit deeper. If we pour the contents of the other glass into the vessel the glass sphere
floats higher. How can that happen? (3 points)
P. 3542. How can the mass of a test tube be estimated with the help of a graduated cylinder and the side-piped vessel
shown in the figure. (3 points)

P. 3543. Eve, the 176 cm tall model is looking at herself in a mirror hanging on the wall. The mirror is vertical and
its height is 75 cm. Eve stands straight, her eyes are at a height of 168 cm from the floor. Can she see her eyes if she
can just see her shoes? (3 points)
P. 3544. From the vessel shown in the figure the air is pumped out. The upper sphere is filled with water. If the
lower sphere is cooled with liquid nitrogen, the water in the upper vessel freezes after some time. How can this
phenomenon be explained? Is it possible for the water to freeze while boiling? (4 points)

P. 3545. Two spherical shaped equal sized glass fishbowls filled with water are standing on the table. In the middle
of each fishbowl a small fish is swimming. How large and in what distance can they see each other? The refraction
index of water is 1.33. (5 points)
P. 3546. A 1000 kg space ship with a 100 kg astronaut inside and a 100 kg satellite are floating in space at a 20 m
distance from each other. The pilot kicks himself off the space ship to adjust an element of an aerial on the satellite.
His velocity relative to the space ship is 1.1 m/s. He concludes the job in 130 seconds, and then he wants to return to
the space ship in 100 seconds. At what velocity should he kick himself off the satellite to achieve this? (4 points)
P. 3547. Geostationary satellites are put into orbit as follows: first the satellite is in a low, Earth parking orbit, then
by firing its engines for a short period an elliptic orbit is achieved with its close Earth point (perigee) on the parking
orbit and the farthest from the Earth point(apogee) on the stationary orbit. When the satellite reaches the furthest
point, it is put into a circular orbit by firing the engines again. Let us assume that the parking orbit is a circular orbit
of an altitude of 200 km above Earth's surface. How long does it take for the satellite to reach the distance of the
geostationary orbit? (5 points)
P. 3548. The resistance of the current consumers in the electric network seen in the figure is R1=300 Omega
and R2=700 . The electromotive force of the power source is U0=50 V, and its internal resistance is negligible. The
capacity of the capacitor is C=50 F. Connecting the voltmeter between points A and B it shows an U1=14.5 V
voltage.
a) What is the resistance of the voltmeter? How many electrons leave the negative coating of the capacitor during
the measurement?
b) What would the voltmeter show connecting it between points B and D? What is the absolute and the relative error
of this measurement?
c) At least how much the resistance of the voltmeter should be that connecting it between points B and D the relative
error of the measurement is 1%. (5 points)

P. 3549. An optical grating is lit with parallel light beams of 589 nm wavelength. On a screen at a 3 meter distance
of the grating the distance of the zero order and first order diffraction maxima is 20 cm.
a) How many lines are there in the grating in one cm?
b) How far is the second order diffraction maximum from the first order one? (4 points)
P. 3550. In an Earth orbiting spaceship a floating laser pen of mass 50 g suddenly switches on, and emits light of
500 nm wavelength with a power of 3 mW for one hour.
a) How many photons are emitted during this period?
b) Estimate the velocity gained and the distance covered by the pen in the spaceship during this time. (5 points)
Exercises and problems in Physics
October 2002
Please read The Conditions of the Problem Solving Competition.

Experimental problem

M. 236. In the vinification process new wine is drawn from an upper barrel into a lower one through a rubber hose.
Model this process with water. Examine the dependence of the water stream velocity on the level difference and on
the length of the hose. (6 points)

Theoretical problems
It is allowed to send solutions for any number of problems, but final scores of students of grades 9-12 are
computed from the 5 best score in each month. Final scores of students of grades 1-8 are computed from
the 3 best scores in each month.
P. 3551. A crane driven by a toy DC electromotor is lifting a load of a mass of 200 g with 0.2 m/s velocity. What is
the power of the crane's electromotor if 10% of the overall power goes against the friction? How much is the current
drain of the 9 V electromotor if its efficiency is 80%? (4 points)
P. 3552. We try to measure the depth of a well on the basis of the delay of the splash of a stone we have dropped in.
What is the error of the depth measurement if the error of our time measurement is p %? Neglect the aerodynamic
drag and the time of sound propagation. When is it allowable to discard these data? (4 points)
P. 3553. Add forces of magnitude F and kF including an
angle with each other (k 1). At what angle , the angle of the resultant force and component kF, will be the
greatest? What is this angle? (5 points)
P. 3554. We release a solid ball and a cylinder from the top of a slope at the same time. Can they reach the bottom at
the same time as well? (4 points)
P. 3555. We stand in front of a wall. Between us and the wall, at the height of our ears, there is a whistle blowing, at
a frequency of 600 Hz. How fast must the whistle go towards the wall so that we can hear 3 beats a second? (4
points)
P. 3556. Inside the air-gap of a toroidal coil the magnetic field has a circular cross section and it can be considered
homogeneous. If charged particles are coming in a radial direction perpendicular to the magnetic field lines, do the
slower or the faster ones leave the magnetic field in a shorter time? (5 points)

P. 3557. A light beam is falling on the hypotenuse of a rectangular symmetric glass prism from the air. Choose the
angle of incidence so that total reflection will occur at both opposing sides (n=1.5). a) Determine the angle included
by the beams incoming and leaving the prism. b) What maximum value can we choose for angle , so that total
reflections still occur? (5 points)

P. 3558. In an atomic reactor the slow, thermal neutrons cause atomic fissions with a greater probability than the
faster ones. Therefore, the neutrons emerging from fission processes must be decelerated (moderated) with
deuterium oxide or graphite. Determine what fraction of its energy does a neutron lose in a straight elastic collision
with a 21H and a 126C
atomic nucleus. (4 points)
P. 3559. Estimate what percentage of the area of Hungary has to be covered with modern (50% efficiency) solar
panels if the current electric power need of the country (7 GW on average) is to be supplied by them. (5 points)
P. 3560. There is a 1 m long horizontal rod. One of its ends is fixed and on the other a body of a mass of 1 kg is
hung causing a 1 cm deflection. Estimate the force F under which the same, vertically placed rod collapses. (Hint:
the elastic energy of a bent rod is proportional to its length and inversely proportional to the square of the radius of
curvature.) (6 points)

Exercises and problems in Physics


November 2002
Please read The Conditions of the Problem Solving Competition.

Experimental problem

M. 237. Make a 1.5 m-long line pendulum using a table-tennis ball as the weight. How does the work done by the
aerodynamic drag (the energy lost) depend on the starting height h? What is the average power of the aerodynamic
force during a half swing? (6 points)
Theoretical problems
It is allowed to send solutions for any number of problems, but final scores of students of grades 9-12 are
computed from the 5 best score in each month. Final scores of students of grades 1-8 are computed from
the 3 best scores in each month.
P. 3561. According to a car safety advertisement a 50 km/h collision into a wall has the same result as falling off the
top of a four-storey building. What storey height did they think of? (3 points)
P. 3562. In a fruit farm the crates are conveyed on steel plates dragged by tractors. The mass of a steel plate is 20 kg
and 400 kg of fruit is piled on it. The friction coefficient between the plate and the soil is 0.6. To what extent does
the steel plate heat up on a 100 meter road if the internal energy of the steel plate is increased by 40% of the work
done by the friction? (3 points)
P. 3563. There are two cars following each other on a narrow straight road. Their speed is 72 km/h each. The leading
one begins to brake and stops with constant deceleration while his velocity decreases 5 m/s a second. The response
time of the other driver is 1 second, and he can decrease his velocity by 4 m/s a second. a) What distance should
there be at least between the two cars to avoid a collision? b) If they keep the minimally safe distance, how long will
it take them to be at a 22 m distance of each other after the fist one begins to brake? (4 points)
P. 3564. How many balloons of a 25 cm diameter can be inflated from a 0.1 m3 volume gas cylinder filled with
helium at a pressure of 1.5x107 Pa? The gas pressure in a balloon rises to 1.02x105 Pa when the temperature of the
gas reaches the temperature of the environment. The gas cylinder has been in the place where the balloons are filled
for days. (4 points)
P. 3565. We want to cool down 15 l of 80 oC water to 25 oC by putting 0 oC ice into it. What minimum volume
should the vessel have to prevent the water from overflowing at the rim? (3 points)
P. 3566. We want to throw a weight of 5 kg over a 1.5 m high wall, starting from ground level at a 2 m distance from
the wall. a) what should the direction of the 8 m/s initial velocity be to throw the weight the furthest beyond the
wall? What is this distance? b) What is the lowest energy to use for throwing the weight over the wall? What is the
direction of the initial velocity in this case? (5 points)
P. 3567. Determine the size of the two hatched areas in the figure without using the integral calculus, by some
simple physical reasoning. (5 points)

P. 3568. We fix a line pendulum with a pointlike weight of mass m to a horizontal metal ceiling. The period of the
pendulum for small amplitudes is T1. Then we put some electric charge on the weight and make it swing with a small
amplitude again. The period now is T2. What is the charge put on the weight? (The data: m= 5 g, T1=2.02 s,
T2=2.03 s, g=9.81 m/s2.) (5 points)
P. 3569. There is a 1.12 A electric current going through a working discharge tube filled with hydrogen gas. How
many electrons pass the cross-section of the tube in one second if the number of electrons leaving the cathode is
3x1018 a second? (4 points)
P. 3570. We connect an R resistance, an L inductor device and a C capacitor after a sinusoidal generator of voltage U
in a serial arrangement. The inductivity is adjustable. When it is increased, the current first increases then it begins
to decrease. The highest current reached is I0, and then the voltage of the coil is U0. Increasing the inductivity
further, the voltage of the coil reaches a maximum of Umax , and then begins to decrease. Determine the Umax /U0 ratio
and calculate its value when R=22XC
. (5 points)
Exercises and problems in Physics
November 2002
Please read The Conditions of the Problem Solving Competition.

Experimental problem

M. 238. Fill up a vertically standing funnel with water while closing its opening underneath. Then open the hole,
and let the water pour out. Measure the position of the water level as a function of time. How will the sinking rate of
the water level change? (6 points)

Theoretical problems
It is allowed to send solutions for any number of problems, but final scores of students of grades 9-12 are
computed from the 5 best score in each month. Final scores of students of grades 1-8 are computed from
the 3 best scores in each month.
P. 3571. There is a metal cube, which is empty inside. The length of its edge is 5 mm, and its wall thickness is 1 mm.
The density of the metal is 8400 kg/m3. What will happen to the cube if we keep it under water and then release it?
(3 points)
P. 3572. A certain amount of ideal gas is going through a thermal cycle (shown in the figure). What is the amount of
work done by the gas in one cycle? (3 points)

P. 3573. What amount of work is needed to shut a door made of solid wood of a mass of 24 kg, so that its edge
impacts against its case with a velocity of 5 m/s? (4 points)
P. 3574. How much heat is to be subtracted from 2 kg supercooled water of -5 oC, to make ice of it of the same
temperature? (4 points)
P. 3575. A dog of mass m is standing on a sledge of mass M. It is capable of jumping off the sledge with a relative
velocity of u, and then can run at a velocity of v after the sledge and jump on it again. Neglecting the friction of the
sledge on snow-covered horizontal ground, determine what maximum velocity the sledge and the dog can reach in
this way and how many times the dog jumps on the sledge in the meantime? (Let M=30 kg, m=10 kg, u=0.5 m/s and
v=4 m/s.) (5 points)
P. 3576. We put a solid cylinder on a fixed slope of an angle of
=30o. We pull the cylinder using a thread coiled around it in a perpendicular direction to the slope with a force of
F=x.mg. The cylinder rolls down the slope without sliding. a) Determine and plot the static coefficient of friction as
a function of x. b) What is the minimum value of x if the surface of the slope is very smooth? c) What is the
minimum value of the static coefficient of friction if the centerline of the cylinder moves with an acceleration of 2g?
(5 points)
P. 3577. What is the inductivity of a toroid coil with a rectangular cross section? The number of turns in the coil is
N, and the radius of the central circle is R. The lengths of the sides of the rectangle are a and b. The sides of length a
are parallel with the axis of the toroid. Data: N=1000, R=10 cm, a=6 cm, b=4 cm. (5 points)
P. 3578. The 0.1 mm diameter water droplets of a cloud are charged up to 10 V. The smaller droplets join into bigger
droplets of a diameter of 2.7 mm. What will their electric potential be? (4 points)
P. 3579. Ho much faster is a proton than an
-particle speeded up by the same accelerating voltage? The initial velocities are negligible. (4 points)
P. 3580. In a revolving cylindrical shape gymnasium of a space station `artificial gravitation' the same as the
terrestrial g is maintained. When the gymnasium is not in use, they slow it down (out of a false understanding of
economy) with constant deceleration to maintain only half of the usual value of gravity. How long does the
deceleration take if they don't want the carpets to slip from their places? (The static coefficient of friction between
the carpets and the floor is at least 0.1.) To what extent can the deceleration time be reduced if we do not insist on
constant deceleration? How much time is needed to achieve complete weightlessness this way? (6 points)

Exercises and problems in Physics


January 2003
Please read The Conditions of the Problem Solving Competition.

Experimental problem

M. 239. Cut out a circular disk of aluminium foil with a radius of R+h, press it on the surface of a cylinder of radius
R in a way that detached from the cylinder the foil forms a bowl of height h. Choosing different R values determine
with measurements the dependence of the steady falling rate of the bowl on the value of R. Determine the
dependence of the form factor of the aerodynamic drag on the R/h ratio.
(6 points)

Theoretical problems
It is allowed to send solutions for any number of problems, but final scores of students of grades 9-12 are
computed from the 5 best score in each month. Final scores of students of grades 1-8 are computed from
the 3 best scores in each month.
P. 3581. One of the biggest diamonds in the world weighs 44.5 carats and is almost pure carbon. How many carbon
atoms are there in this crystal giant?
(3 points)
P. 3582. On an air-cushioned table there are three equal disks of uniform mass distribution. Two of the disks are
touching each other motionless. The third disk is approaching these, and its velocity is perpendicular to the line
connecting the centers of the other two. Give the velocity ratios after the perfectly elastic and frictionless collision as
a function of angle shown in the figure.

(5 points)
P. 3583. A tube of a radius of R=20 cm is fixed with its axis horizontal. Inside it we slightly remove a solid sphere of
radius of r=6 cm from its place of equilibrium and then release it. What will be the periodicity of the resulted
motion, if the sphere rolls without sliding. At most what can the amplitude of the motion be, if the static coefficient
of friction is
=0.05?
(5 points)
P. 3584. The change of state of a certain amount of helium gas is described with the formula pV3=constant. At the
end of the process the absolute temperature of the gas decreases to the fourth of its original value and its internal
energy changes by 1800 J. During the process the lowest value of its pressure is 10 5 Pa. Plot the process in the p-V
diagram and indicate the parameters at the end points too.
(4 points)
P. 3585. There is an extensive metal plate bent at a right angle. We place a small body of mass m and of electric
charge Q in equal d distances from the two sides of the plate and then release the body. a) At what acceleration does
the body start off? b) What is its velocity after covering a distance of ? (The gravitational effect is neglected
here.)
(5 points)
P. 3586. In a space ship there is air of temperature T, pressure p0 and volume V. Suddenly a hole of cross section A
appears in the wall of the space ship and the air slowly escapes through it. How long does it take for the pressure to
decrease to the half of its original value? (Assuming that the temperature of the air inside doesn't change.)
(5 points)
P. 3587. There is a horizontal metal rod connected to a vertically standing conductor axle so that it can pivot around
the axle. The other end of the rod is resting on a conductor ring of radius l. The ring and the axle is connected, as
shown in the figure, with an R resistance. (The resistance of any other conductor and the friction is negligible.) This
device is in a vertical homogeneous magnetic field of magnetic induction B. How much force is needed at the
middle of the rod to ensure that the rod rotates at a constant angular velocity ? The data: R=0.1 k
, B=0.8 T, l=0.5 m,
=10 s-1.

(4 points)
P. 3588. There is an electric network of U=230 V effective voltage. We connect to it in cascade a 230 Ohm
resistance, an ideal diode and an ammeter, which measures the effective value of the electric current. What does the
ammeter show?
(3 points)
P. 3589. On a vertical wall there are circular bells fixed in the grid points of an imaginary quadratic lattice. If we
throw 10 mm balls at the wall, averagely every fourth throw sounds a bell. If we throw 30 mm balls, averagely every
second throw hits a bell. Assuming that the hits are completely random, determine the lattice spacing and the
diameter of the bells.
(4 points)
P. 3590. The alpha decay of the 238U is followed by two beta decay events. What are the proton and the nucleon
numbers of the great-grandchild of the 238U? What is the name of this element?
(3 points)
Exercises and problems in Physics
February 2003
Please read The Conditions of the Problem Solving Competition.

Experimental problem

M. 240. Investigate the monochromaticity of different LEDs (light-emitting diodes) with optical grating. Determine
in which interval is the wavelength of the emitted light.
(6 points)

Theoretical problems
It is allowed to send solutions for any number of problems, but final scores of students of grades 9-12 are
computed from the 5 best score in each month. Final scores of students of grades 1-8 are computed from
the 3 best scores in each month.
P. 3591. Through the 3.5 m wide exit of an underground station 70 people are leaving each minute on average. The
``population density'' is 0.4 heads/m2. How much is the average velocity of the people?
(3 points)
P. 3592. There is a circuit without any branches consisting of a galvanic cell, a battery and an ohmic resistance. The
voltages that can be measured at the battery and at the resistance are both 9 V. What voltage can be measured at the
galvanic cell (also 9 V) of non-zero internal resistance, and what can be said of the actual magnitude of the
resistance?
(4 points)
P. 3593. A horizontal disc magnet of radius R rotates with an angular velocity of
0 around a fixed vertical axis going through its center. A similar horizontal disc, initially motionless, falls from a
small distance on it and instantly sticks to it. (The centers of the two discs are closer to each other than R.) What is
the common angular velocity the two discs rotate with?
(4 points)
P. 3594. A line pendulum is diverted perpendicularly, and released without pushing. Which section in the figure does
the pendulum cover in a shorter time, AP or PB?

(5 points)
P. 3595. We prepare a hemisphere shaped depression inside a prism. The prism of mass M can freely move on the
horizontal table. We release a point-like body of mass m at point P of the resting prism. What force does the prism
exert on the small body in its state of angle
? (Friction is negligible everywhere.)

(5 points)
P. 3596. There is oxygen gas in a 3 liter tank of a pressure of 2.2 .106 Pa and a temperature of 80 oC, and in a 5 liter
one of a pressure of 1.3 .105 Pa and of a temperature of 5 oC. The two tanks are connected with a short pipe. What is
the common pressure inside the tanks after they reach the room temperature, 23 oC? How much gas has flown
through the pipe in the meantime?
(4 points)
P. 3597. A certain amount of noble gas picks up a Q amount of heat while its volume increases from V1 to V2, and its
pressure is proportionate to its volume. To what volume would the gas expand from the initial V1 volume if it
absorbed heat Q while preserving its initial pressure? (The data: V1=5 dm3, V2=8 dm3.)
(4 points)
P. 3598. The plates of area A of a plane-parallel capacitor can slide along a horizontal insulator thread without
friction. The mass of the left-side plate is m and its electric charge is Q, the mass of the right-side plate is 2m and its
electric charge is -2Q. Initially the pates are fixed and their distance is 3d.

a) What is the energy of the electric field between the plates?


b) At a given moment they are unfixed. What is their velocity when their distance is reduced to d?
(5 points)
P. 3599. In Debrecen in 1984 it was determined that the activity concentration of the beta decay of the 85Kr isotope,
generated as a possible product of nuclear fission, is 0.8 Bq/m3. Estimate how many krypton nuclei decay in one
hour in the atmosphere.
(5 points)
P. 3600. Two grounded metal plates of large extents are including an
angle with each other. In the bisector plane, in an r distance of the intersection line there is a thin stick of length L
(Lr) which is charged uniformly with an overall electric charge of Q. What force is exerted on the stick due to the
electrostatic induction, if a) =180o, b)
=18o.

(5 points)
Exercises and problems in Physics
March 2003
Please read The Conditions of the Problem Solving Competition.

Experimental problem

M. 241. Place onto each other two optical gratings of the same groove spacing (grating constant) with their grooves
including an angle
. Light the gratings with laser beam or white light, make an image of a tiny hole on the screen, then put the two
gratings before or after an imaging objective lens. What shall we see on the screen with different
angles (e.g. 0o, 30o, 45o, 60o, 90o)?
(6 points)

Theoretical problems
It is allowed to send solutions for any number of problems, but final scores of students of grades 9-12 are
computed from the 5 best score in each month. Final scores of students of grades 1-8 are computed from
the 3 best scores in each month.
P. 3601. The elements of a peculiar bead string are made of the same material. All the beads are of spherical shape
and have a cylindrical borehole in their middle. The peculiarity is that though the radii of the spheres are different,
the borehole length (the height of the cylinder) is exactly the same in all beads. What can we say about the masses of
the beads?
(3 points)
P. 3602. There is a conical frustum shape glass, broadening towards the top. Will the pressure at the bottom be
greater, when we pour water or when we pour oil of the same mass into the glass?
(3 points)
P. 3603. Inside a uniformly accelerating thin-walled sphere of radius R, which is rolling on horizontal soil, there is a
small body slipping around. What friction coefficient is required to ensure the small body to stay at a R/2 distance
from the soil?

(4 points)
P. 3604. The Helka motorboat traveling from Fonyd to Badacsony at a speed of 20 km/h emits a sound of 100 Hz,
which is reflected from a catamaran aproaching along exactly the same path as Helka goes. A sailor on the Helka
notices 7 beats in a second. What is the speed of the catamaran?
(5 points)
P. 3605. A diatomic gas of a certain mass gets from state A to state B on two ways shown in the figure. The ratio of
the amounts of heat absorbed in the two processes is Q2:Q1=54:49. a) Determine the ratio of the amounts of work
done in the two processes. b) What is the temperature of the gas in state B if it is 100 K in state A?
(4 points)
P. 3606. In a vertical, solid copper conductor cable of a radius of 2 cm leading to an electrolyzer there is a 100 A
electric current. From what distance of the axis of the conductor will the size of the generated magnetic induction
vector be 2.10-4 T?
(4 points)
P. 3607. What pressure is exerted by the Sun's light on an east-looking window on 22 march at 6 o'clock in the
morning if the window reflects 4%, absorbs 6% of the light and lets through the rest of it. The intensity of the
incoming sunlight is 1000 W/m2.
(4 points)
P. 3608. A photon of a wavelength of
0 collides with an electron moving perpendicular to the photon's path. After the interaction the electron stays still
and the photon's path is deflected by a angle. Determine the values of 0 and if the wavelength of the scattered
photon is
0/2.
(5 points)
P. 3609. What will happen to the energy of a compressed spring if it dissolves in hydrochloric acid in its compressed
state?
(3 points)
P. 3610. One of the biggest diamonds on Earth is of 44.5 carats and is almost pure carbon. Every carbon atom is
connected to 4 others with such bond angles as the ones of which the four points of a regular tetrahedron can be seen
from the tetrahedron's center. If we visualize the chemical bonds with rods connecting the atomic centers, and
putting all the rods into one long line, how far would this linearly arranged ``chemical bond chain'' reach? Hint: The
diamond structure can also be considered as a cubic face-centered lattice repeated with an offset along the body
diagonal at a quarter length of the body diagonal.

(4 points)
Exercises and problems in Physics
April 2003
Please read The Conditions of the Problem Solving Competition.

Experimental problem

M. 242. Measure the freezing point of the aqueous solution of glycerol as the function of the degree of dilution
(mass percentage of glycerol).
(6 points)

Theoretical problems
It is allowed to send solutions for any number of problems, but final scores of students of grades 9-12 are
computed from the 5 best score in each month. Final scores of students of grades 1-8 are computed from
the 3 best scores in each month.
P. 3611. Consider a pizza as a thin, homogeneous disk of radius r and mass m. We have already cut out and eaten a
20o slice of it. By what percentage of the radius has the center of the mass of the pizza shifted?
(3 points)
P. 3612. A bucket hung at the end of a rope is moving as a pendulum. Does the swinging period increase or decrease
if the water in the bucket drips away through a hole at the bottom of the bucket?
(5 points)
P. 3613. We have prepared a closed ring of iron wire and soldered two other wires on the end-points of one of its
quarter circles as shown in the figure. How much current flows in the wires leading to the ring if the resistance of a
quarter circle is 0.2
, and between the soldered points a voltage of 0.6 V can be measured?

(3 points)
P. 3614. Estimate in what thickness could the dry lands of the earth be covered by the wheat grains that the alleged
inventor of chess asked from the king as a reward. (He asked one grain on the first square and asked to double the
number of grains on every subsequent square.)
(4 points)
P. 3615. On a horizontal surface two bodies of the same mass start at the same time towards each other from a 4 m
distance and collide non-elastically. The initial velocity of the right side body, moving with constant velocity, is the
double of the initial velocity of the left side body, which moves with constant acceleration of 0.5 m/s2. a) What are
the initial velocities? b) What percentage of the mechanical energy is lost in the non-elastic collision?
(4 points)
P. 3616. The air pressure in a cylinder closed by a piston increases proportionally to the cylinder volume. In the
process the air absorbs heat of 90 kJ. How much work is done by the expanding gas, and by what amount does its
energy increase?
(4 points)
P. 3617. A capacitor charged up to a voltage of 100 V is discharged through a resistance. The discharging current
decreases by 60% every 2 seconds from the initial 100
A. a) What is the discharging resistance? b) What is the capacity of the capacitor? c) After how much time does the
current decrease to 0.41
A?
(5 points)
P. 3618. Two infinite plates of thickness d and of volume charge densities of +
and -
are placed next to each other. Calculate and plot the electric field strength and potential as a function of the distance
from the plates.
(5 points)
P. 3619. An electron beam enters a homogeneous magnetic field where the Lorentz force makes it circle with a
radius of R. The ``width'' of the magnetic field is
=R/5 and in a L=5R distance from it there is a fluorescent screen where the electrons impact on. What is the
deflection of the electron beam on the screen? What would happen if the accelerating voltage was decreased to its
a) fourth? b) twenty-fifth?

(4 points)
P. 3620. Two rubber threads of spring constant of 10 N/m each is connected to the two sides of a body of a mass of
1 kg standing on a horizontal frictionless surface. The rubber threads are stretched by a length of
and their ends are fixed. Then the body is displaced by a distance of 2 towards one of the fixing points and it
is released. Determine the period of the resulting oscillating motion.
(5 points)
P. 3621. There is gas in a cylindrical vessel closed up with a piston. The wall of the cylinder is made of insulator
material, but its base and the piston is made of metal and behaves like a plate capacitor. Initially the distance of the
plates is d0 and the pressure of the enclosed gas is the same as the air pressure outside. How does the distance of the
plates change if the ``capacitor'' is charged up to a voltage U? Assume that the temperature of the gas is constant.

(5points)
Exercises and problems in Physics
May 2003
Please read The Conditions of the Problem Solving Competition.

Experimental problem

M. 243. Measure what the pressure is inside a well inflated tyre of a bicycle without using a pressure gauge.
(Compare the result with the prescribed pressure value of a common car's tyre. Explain the difference.)
(6 points)

Theoretical problems
It is allowed to send solutions for any number of problems, but final scores of students of grades 9-12 are
computed from the 5 best score in each month. Final scores of students of grades 1-8 are computed from
the 3 best scores in each month.
P. 3622. Is it possible to contrive a kaleidoscope looking into which one could see a seven-point star?
(3 points)
P. 3623. We want to pump up 3 kg of petrol (
=860 kg/m3) per second from a big underground tank at a depth of 3 m. The cross-section of the outlet of the pump
is 10 cm2. What should the power of the pump be at the least?
(4 points)
P. 3624. The narrow tube with one of its ends sealed, shown in the figure, is in a vertical plane. In the 3L long
horizontal part of the tube a mercury column of length L blocks some oxygen gas of length L. The outside air-
pressure of p0 equals with the pressure of a mercury column of height L. Increasing the temperature of the
surroundings, the volume of the blocked gas doubles while the gas absorbs Q=7 J of heat from its surroundings.
a) How much work is done by the expanding gas?
b) How much heat would have been needed to triple rather than to double the volume of the gas?

(5 points)
P. 3625. The work done by some gas during its adiabatic expansion in a cylinder closed by a piston is 9446 J. After
the expansion we heat the gas until its temperature regains its original value. In the meantime the work done by the
gas is 6140 J. How much is the
=cp/cV ratio of the gas? Which gas can it be?
(4 points)
P. 3626. A thin-walled soap bubble filled with air is slowly heated. How much can the molar heat capacity of the gas
be in this process? (The outside air-pressure is constant. Neglect the evaporation and the saturation vapor pressure.)
(5 points)
P. 3627. Alice and Bob are arguing on what kind of crystal lattice develops in a noble gas when cooled to such a low
temperature that it solidifies. They agree that the densest possible array will develop. Alice says that the atoms will
be arranged in parallel planes and form square lattices in the planes so that the atoms sit just above the ``gaps'' of the
lattice below. Bob says that he would also apply this ``sitting in the gaps'' principle within the planes themselves and
would rather arrange the atoms in a lattice of regular triangles. Who is right? What is the ``space filling'' of the
spherical atoms in case A and B?
(5 points)
P. 3628. In a wood the trees are arranged randomly, so that there are 600 trees per hectare in average. The trunks of
the trees can be considered cylinders of a diameter of 30 cm. At an outing the children play a game where one of
them walks blindfold among the trees. The one blindfolded follows a straight line until he or she bumps into a tree
then changes his or her course randomly. Estimate what distance the blindfolded child walks between the bumps on
average, if he or she can also be considered a cylinder of a diameter of 30 cm.
(4 points)
P. 3629. How does the sum of gravitational energy and twice the kinetic energy change if the satellite is moved to a
100 km higher circular orbit?
(4 points)
P. 3630. Six point-like Q electric charges are placed in the vertices of a regular hexagon. What point charge is in the
middle of the hexagon if the system is in the state of equilibrium? What is the electrostatic energy of the system?
What kind of equilibrium is it?
(5 points)
P. 3631. After the Chernobyl-catastrophe the 131J activity of the thyroids of the local people was around 100 Bq.
How long does it take for this activity to decrease under 100 Bq? The physical half-life of the 131 nucleon number
iodine isotope is 8 days, and its biological half-life is 120 days.
(4 points)
Problem Solving Competition: 2003/2004
The competitions start annually and last from September to May, but you can enter any time during the academic
year.
In Mathematics, there are three different contests, in Physics there are two. Additionally, a new contest in
Informatics is launched. The conditions of the respective contests are slightly different. See below for details.
Every primary or secondary school student is eligible to participate in the competitions. Students in different grades
might find the same problems but in most cases their work is evaluated within their age group, they compete with
students of the same age only. Therefore, it is essential that the paper should indicate the 1 to 12 grade of the
contestant in the current school year. The KMaL contests are individual competitions, solutions produced by a
group are not accepted. If two papers turn out to be practically identical, none of them will be marked.
This year students are not allowed to participate in both competitions "B" and "C" at the same time.
MATHEMATICS

C contest: exercises for practice, easier than those in the B contest; 5 each month. Correct solutions worth 5 marks.
Age groups:
up to 10th grade students
11 to 12th grade students (preferably those not studying mathematics in a special advanced class. Those
in advanced classes are advised to take part in the B contest).
B contest: 10 problems each month. You can send any number of solutions, but only the highest six scores are
entered.
Age groups:
up to the 8th grade
9th grade
10th grade
11th grade
12th grade
A contest: advanced problems, 3 each month. More demainding than the B contest, for those who are preparing for
national or international competitions. Here there are no separate age groups.
PHYSICS

M contest: Experimental problems: One measuring task is set each month. Each of them is worth 6 points. The
report must contain a description of the method, the data obtained sufficient in quantity and quality, the analysis
of the data, and the estimation of the error. There are no separate age groups.
P contest: 10 theoretical problems each month.
Age groups:
up to the 8th grade;
9th grade;
10th grade;
11th grade;
12th grade.
Every age group may send solutions to all kinds of problems. In the P contest we evaluate only 3 problems up to the
8th grade and 5 problems from 9th - 12th grade.
INFORMATICS

Three programming problems are set each month. The solutions should be written as working programs in any high
level programming language, preferably Pascal or C. Do not send .exe files! There are no separate age groups,
competition is opened for everyone.
Deadlines, adresses

The deadline of mailing or e-mailing the solutions is indicated in every issue next to the new exercises and
problems. Deadlines: in Physics: 11th of the month following the publication of the current issue; in Informatics:
13th of the month following the publication of the current issue; in Mathematics: 15th of the month following the
publication of the current issue. Should that be a weekend or bank holiday, the deadline is the next workday.
Send your solutions to the following address:

KMaL Szerkesztsg (KMaL feladatok), Budapest Pf. 47. 1255, Hungary


or by e-mail to: solutions@komal.elte.hu.
Informatics solutions are accepted via e-mail only and should be sent to the following address:
infotech@komal.elte.hu.
The actual state of the contests appears on our web-site (http://komal.elte.hu/eredm/index.e.shtml) and it is updated
regularly. These data are not official, only for your information. The final results will appear in August on our
Internet home page and in the September issue of the following academic year. The cca 10 top contestans are
rewarded by a certificate in each category and this is going to be mailed to their schools, and their portraits,
additionally, will be presented in the December issue and the Internet.
Entry Form for the contests
The layout of the papers:
By ordinary mail:
Write the solutions to different problems on separate A4 sheets of paper. (This is important because
different people are responsible for the marking.)
The header of every sheet must contain the following in the upper left corner (see sample 1):

-the letter code (A, B, C, M, P) and number of the problem in red


-the full name and the grade of the sender
-the name of the school and the town (and country)
-the e-mail adress of the sender
Fold each sheet into four separatly so that the header should appear in the front side.
Solutions to geometry problems should include diagrams.
Enclose with your solutions a separate sheet listing your data and the contents of your mail. See sample 2.

Sample 1. Header of a sheet Sample 2. Enclosed


list
C. 593.
Varga 163 Rbert, 9th grade Varga 163 Rbert,
Rvai High School, Gyr 9th grade
e-mail: robi@revai.hu Rvai High School,
Denote the age of the captain by C, the age of the ship by S. When the age of the ship Gyr
was C, the age of the captain was C-(S-C)=2C-S. When the ship was 2C-S ... I send the following
3 papers in:
C. 591., C. 593.,
B. 3389.

By e-mail:
Send the solutions of different problems as separate e-mail messages.
The "subject" field of the e-mail message should contain the letter code and number of the problem.
Additional requirements concerning the Informatics solutions
o The solutions should be mailed separately to the following address: infotech@komal.elte.hu
o In the first few comment lines of each program do enter the following information:
your name and class
your school.
your town (country)
The content of the papers:

It is not enough to state the answer. Results with detailed explanations only will receive full credit. (Reference to
standard school math is accepted without proof.)
Exercises and problems in Physics
September 2003
Please read The Conditions of the Problem Solving Competition.

Experimental problem

M. 244. Measure the water content as percentage of some fruits.


(6 points)

Theoretical problems
It is allowed to send solutions for any number of problems, but final scores of students of grades 9-12 are
computed from the 5 best score in each month. Final scores of students of grades 1-8 are computed from
the 3 best scores in each month.
P. 3632. Two identical boats are approaching the shore of a lake. The two rowers both pull themselves to the shore
with the help of a rope. One of the ropes is fixed to a bitt on the shore, the end of the other is pulled by a man.
Which boat lands first if all three men can pull with the same force?
(4 points)
P. 3633. There is a man of a mass of 100 kg sitting on a motorbike of a mass of 150 kg. The distance of the axles of
the wheels (wheelbase) is 1.5 m. The common mass center of the man and the motorbike is at a 1 m height above the
ground level, and at a 0.6 m distance from the vertical line going through the rear axle. What force is exerted on the
rear wheel by the ground, when the motorbike starts off with an acceleration of a=2 m/s2? What acceleration is
needed to lift the forward wheel? What friction coefficient can ensure this acceleration?
(4 points)
P. 3634. We immerse a slender, 1 m long glass pipe into water up to its half height, then we close the upper end by
our finger. After this we slowly take the pipe out and turn it upwards (so the end closed by a finger gets to the
bottom, and the water on top). How long is the air column stuck under the water if the pressure outside is 105 kPa?
(4 points)
P. 3635. In a vessel there is a compound of 14 g Nitrogen and 9 g Hydrogen gas at a temperature of 17 oC and a
pressure of 100 kPa. What is the volume and the internal energy of the compound?
(3 points)
P. 3636. In a closed vessel of a volume of 4 l there is air of normal pressure and temperature and a solid body of a
volume of 500 cm3 and a mass of 1 g. How much air is to be pumped into the vessel to make the body float?
(3 points)
P. 3637. There is ice of a temperature of 0 oC in a vacuum flask and water vapour of a temperature of 100 oC is
loaded into it. What could the mass ratio of the ice and the vapour be to have only water in the flask after the thermal
equilibrium is reached?
(4 points)
P. 3638. We connect the end points of a 40 Ohm slide rheostat to the outlets of a 12 V battery, then we connect a
20 Ohm consumer between one end of the rheostat and its slider.
a) In what position of the slider does the consumer get a voltage of 6 V?
b) In this case, what percentage of the battery power output is the power of the consumer?
c) What is the power of the consumer when the slider is in the middle?
(4 points)
P. 3639. A thin ring of mass m and electric charge Q rotates around an axis perpendicular to its plane and going
through its center. The angular momentum of the ring is 7.5 .10-4 kg.m2/s. The ring is in a homogeneous magnetic
field of a field strength of 0.1 T and the lines of the magnetic induction are parallel with the plane of the ring. What
torque is exerted on the ring? The specific charge (charge-mass ratio) of the ring is Q/m=10-5 C/kg.

(4 points)
P. 3640. What kind of mirror of what focal length is it, in which at the distance of clear vision (25 cm) we can see
our face in a 1.5 magnification? How far is our face from the mirror?
(4 points)
P. 3641. The mass of a neutron star is about the same as that of the Sun and its density is about the same as that of an
atomic nucleus. How big is its radius? What is the acceleration of gravity on its surface?
(4 points)
Exercises and problems in Physics
October 2003
Please read The Conditions of the Problem Solving Competition.

Experimental problem

M. 245. Prepare sugar solutions of the same mass but of different concentrations. Measure how much time it takes
to heat the solutions with an immersion heater to a certain, not too high final temperature from a given initial
temperature. Determine how the specific heat of a solution depends on its concentration. (6 points)

Theoretical problems
It is allowed to send solutions for any number of problems, but final scores of students of grades 9-12 are
computed from the 5 best score in each month. Final scores of students of grades 1-8 are computed from
the 3 best scores in each month.
P. 3642. A passenger, being somewhat late, runs after the bus with a velocity of 5 m/s. He is at an 11 m distance
from the bus when it starts off with an acceleration of 1 m/s2. Where and when does he catch the bus up? (3 points)
P. 3643. Two resistances, a 60 ohm and an unknown one are connected to a power source in a series arrangement.
This way the power of the unknown resistance is 60 W. What is the voltage of the power source at the least? (4
points)
P. 3644. In three different tanks, there is air of temperatures 300 K, 500 K and 720 K, respectively. Allowing heat
exchange between the gases of 300 K and 500 K the common temperature is 420 K. Allowing heat exchange
between the gases of 300 K and 720 K the common temperature is 500 K. To what common temperature the 500 K
and 720 K gases would settle together? What is the ratio of the internal energies of the gases in the beginning? (4
points)
P. 3645. Inert gas of a certain mass expands under constant pressure from a volume of V1 to V2. In the meantime it
does work of 13 kJ in the expansion. How much heat would it absorb if the pressure were 35% higher? (4 points)
P. 3646. A homogeneous bar of mass M waggles (rotates uniformly in alternating directions) to and from around the
axis going through its center, while a ball of mass m bounces between the ends of the bar as shown in the figure. The
angular velocity of the bar is
2
/3 s-1 and the period of the movement of the ball is 1 second. (The mechanical loss and the duration of the collisions
are negligible.) a) What is the velocity of the ball at the highest point of its orbit? b) How long is the bar? c) What is
the m/M ratio? (5 points)
P. 3647. In country ``NOSI'' the system of units of measure deviates in a few points from the SI system. The time
unit is one hundred-thousandth of the day, and the unit of the electric charge is the hundred-thousandth part of the
charge of as many electrons as Avogadro's number. What is the value of the gravitational acceleration and the
constant k in Coulomb's law in this country? (4 points)
P. 3648. We make a loop of radius R by bending a cylindrical shape conductor cable of radius r
R and put it into a magnetic field of induction B perpendicular to its plane. Then we uniformly decrease B to zero in
time. How much does this circular conductor heat up if its conductivity is , its density is
, and its coefficient of specific heat is c? (4 points)

P. 3649. The intended period of revolution of a space probe around comet Virtanen is 6 days. Let us consider the
comet as a loose snowball of a diameter of 800 m with a density of 10 kg/m3. a) At what distance should the probe
revolve? b) What is the revolution time of the comet around the Sun if it orbits between the orbits of the Earth and
Jupiter? (5 points)
P. 3650. How thick an iron plate should be to ensure that any line perpendicular to its surface would go through an
atomic nucleus? (4 points)
P. 3651. In 1851 in the Paris Pantheon Foucault (1819-1868) the French physicist proved that the Earth rotates with
a 67 m long pendulum of a mass of 28 kg. Even if he hadn't simply let the pendulum loose, but had rather pushed it
perpendicularly to its original displacement with the proper velocity to ensure a uniform circular motion (conical
pendulum), he could have proven Earth's rotation. How? (5 points)
Exercises and problems in Physics
November 2003
Please read The Conditions of the Problem Solving Competition.

Experimental problem

M. 246. Measure the reflecting power of a glossy black surface as a function of the angle of incidence. Compare this
with the reflecting power of a glossy white surface. (6 points)

Theoretical problems
It is allowed to send solutions for any number of problems, but final scores of students of grades 9-12 are
computed from the 5 best score in each month. Final scores of students of grades 1-8 are computed from
the 3 best scores in each month.
P. 3652. Our axe has stuck fast in a clotty log. How can we cleave the log in spite of this? (3 points)
P. 3653. We can heat up a cup of cold cocoa drink by immersing it into hot water up to half-height. Whereas a cup of
hot cocoa drink cannot be quickly cooled by cold water the same way. Why? (4 points)
P. 3654. In a mercury thermometer at the temperature of 0 oC there is 210 mm3 of mercury, the diameter of the pipe
is 0.2 mm. How far are the degree marks on the scale from each other? (4 points)
P. 3655. There is a stick of length
sliding in a horizontal straight tube with a velocity of v0 without friction and then it slides into another tube where
the coefficient of friction is
. How long does it take for the stick to slow down and stop? (We can assume that the stick is pressing the tube
uniformly.) (5 points)
P. 3656. A small body of mass m hanging on a thread of length
is connected to two horizontal springs of elastic constant D. In the equilibrium position shown in the figure both
springs pull the body with a force of F0 while their length is d. What will the period of the motion be if the body is
displaced horizontally by a small distance a) in the plane of the figure? b) perpendicular to the plane of the figure?

(5 points)
P. 3657. There is a plate capacitor charged up to a voltage of U0 and then detached from the charger. The distance
between the plates is changed periodically: d=d0+d1sin
t. How much is d1 if the voltage of the capacitor changes according to U=U0(1+12sint)
? (4 points)
P. 3658. How much electric charge goes through resistance Rx if we close switch K? Let a) Rx=0 b) Rx=R.

(4 points)
P. 3659. In a thermally insulated tube of a radius of 1 cm there is a liquid of thermal expansion coefficient of 10 -3 K-1
flowing. Its velocity at the entrance is 0.1 m/s. At the middle of the tube a heater of a power of 10 kW is heating the
liquid. The specific heat capacity of the liquid is 1.5 kJ/(kg.K), and its density is 1500 kg/m3 at the entrance. How
much bigger is the volume rate of flow at the end of the tube than at the entrance in cubic meters? (4 points)
P. 3660. How many lines of the Hydrogen spectrum can the human eye see if it can sense the light between
wavelengths 380 nm and 760 nm? (3 points)
P. 3661. A square-shaped insulator plate of edge length d is uniformly charged with charge Q. A point-like body of
electric charge q is placed on the axis of symmetry of the plate at a d/2 distance from it. What force is exerted on the
point charge? (Hint: Compare the force exerted by a small piece of the plate and the flux of charge q crossing this
piece of surface.)

(5 points)
Exercises and problems in Physics
December 2003
Please read The Conditions of the Problem Solving Competition.

Experimental problem

M. 247. Connect the bulb of an electric torch of a given nominal power to a 4,5 V battery. Measure how the actual
power of the bulb changes after the connection during a long time. Determine the energy picked up by the bulb as a
function of time.
Theoretical problems
It is allowed to send solutions for any number of problems, but final scores of students of grades 9-12 are
computed from the 5 best score in each month. Final scores of students of grades 1-8 are computed from
the 3 best scores in each month.
P. 3662. When a jam-filled sweet roll is heated in a microwave oven, the jam gets hotter than the pastry. Why?
(3 points)
P. 3663. Two cats are running along two perpendicular streets of a town built on a plane. The mass of one (Culu) is
2 kg and its speed is 4 m/s. The mass of the other (Mulu) is 6 kg and its speed is 2 m/s. a) What is the speed of Culu
compared to Mulu? b) Which cat has the greater velocity in their common mass centre system, and how many times
is it greater? c) In which frame of reference is their kinetic energy at minimum? What is this value?
(4 points)
P. 3664. The aerodynamic drag exerted on a car driving at a speed of 72 km/h is three times higher in head-wind
than in back-wind. How many times is the aerodynamic drag higher in head-wind than in no wind?
(4 points)
P. 3665. We make a circular immersion heater of a radius of 3 cm of a thin heater coil, and then we dip it into water.
How long does it take for this heater connected to the 230 V electric network to heat up 0.5 of water from 10 oC to
60 oC, if the maximum of the generated magnetic induction in the centre of the circle is 2 .10-5 T and the efficiency of
the heating is 80%?

(4 points)
P. 3666. There are two ways to get some helium gas from state A to B (see figure). In which case will the ratio of the
work done to the heat absorbed be greater?

(5 points)
P. 3667. Two parallel rails running in a b distance from each other are connected through a capacitor of capacity C.
In
distance from the capacitor a metal wire of mass m is laid perpendicularly across the rails. The resultant frame is
then put into a homogeneous magnetic field so that the plane of the frame includes an angle
with the horizontal plane. The direction of the B magnetic induction vector is vertical. Friction and ohmic resistance
is negligible.

At what speed does the wire reach the end of the slope?
(5 points)
P. 3668. In the ideal oscillating circuit shown in the figure the capacity of the capacitor is 25
F, the voltage is 10 V and the inductance of the coil is 0.04 H. What will the highest value of the electric current be
in the oscillating circuit after closing switch K?
(4 points)
P. 3669. The mass of the astronauts in a space station cannot be checked with the scales used on the Earth. Imagine a
seat of a mass of 20 kg which, in an elastic suspension, oscillates with a frequency of 2 Hz. After the astronaut sits in
the seat the frequency decreases to 1 Hz. How much is the mass of the astronaut?
(4 points)
P. 3670. On a tabletop of some friction a table-tennis ball rolls clearly toward a perfectly smooth wall
perpendicularly to the plane of the wall. Can it happen that the ball collides with the wall exactly two times?
(Collisions happen in no time and they are not perfectly elastic.)

(5 points)
P. 3671. The cogs of a glass cog-wheel are optical prisms of congruent isosceles triangle shaped cross sections.
Their interesting property is that they can ``lead the light around'' the cog-wheel. What is the angle of refraction of
the prisms if they fit on the sides of a regular polygon of N sides. The refractive index of the glass is n=1.5. Let, for
example, N=12. Examine the case when N=3, too.
(5 points)
Exercises and problems in Physics
January 2004
Please read The Conditions of the Problem Solving Competition.

Experimental problem

M. 248. It is said that hot water placed in the deep-freezer freezes sooner than cold water. Check this statement with
water samples of the same amount (relatively small amounts) and of different temperatures.
(6 points)

Theoretical problems
It is allowed to send solutions for any number of problems, but final scores of students of grades 9-12 are
computed from the 5 best score in each month. Final scores of students of grades 1-8 are computed from
the 3 best scores in each month.
P. 3672. Two rockets are launched at the same time towards each other from their launch pads 60 km away from
each other. The speeds of the rockets are 116 km/h and 184 km/h, respectively. How far are they from each other one
and a half minutes before their collision?
(3 points)
P. 3673. In a water tank the water level is at height H. There is a little hole in the side of the tank at height h from its
bottom, from where the water squirts out horizontally. At what value of h does the jet of water hit the horizontal
ground furthest, and what is this distance?
(4 points)
P. 3674. Can three celestial bodies move uniformly in circular orbits so that they keep constant distances from each
other in the meantime?
(5 points)
P. 3675. Two thin solid disks of mass m and radius R can rotate at the ends of an axle of negligible mass. This
system is placed on a horizontal table and is rotated around its center so that the disks roll clearly on the table. The
centers of both disks move at a speed of v0 on a circular track of radius r. What is the entire kinetic energy of the
system?

(5 points)
P. 3676. Two point sound sources emit sounds of the same frequency in the same phase. The distance of the sound
sources is AB=40 m. If the frequency is changed between frequencies 670 Hz and 690 Hz, intensification can be
experienced at point C on line AB located 5 meters from A. a) At what frequency does this intensification happen?
b) What can we experience at point D which is located on a line perpendicular to AB and starting in C at a 12 m
distance from line AB? (The speed of sound is 340 m/s).
(4 points)
P. 3677. An ideal gas is going through a process that is shown in the figure. During the process its temperature rises
then decreases. What is the volume of the gas when it reaches its maximum temperature?

(4 points)
P. 3678. Two long parallel conductor cables at a 0.1 m distance of each other are electrically charged. The charge on
one of them is 10-7 C per meter and 2.10-7 C per meter on the other. What force is exerted on a 0.5 m long piece of
one of the cables?
(4 points)
P. 3679. Two long straight wires are connected to a thin-walled spherical metal shell of radius R directed towards the
centre of the sphere. The wires are perpendicular to each other. Current I is lead to the sphere in one of the wires and
in the other wire it is lead away from the sphere. What is the magnitude of the magnetic induction vector in the
centre of the spherical shell and what is its direction?

(5 points)
P. 3680. On a horizontal surface there are two coarse-surfaced solid balls of the same mass and radius rolling slip-
free towards each other along the same line with velocities v0=4.20 m/s. At a given moment the distance of the balls
is d=12.60 m. How long after this moment are they again in a distance d from each other, if their collision is
instantaneous and absolutely elastic? The friction coefficient is 0.16 everywhere and the rolling-friction and the air
drag are negligible.

(5 points)
P. 3681. To detect the electron neutrinos (
e) arriving from the Sun physicists use materials containing chlorine: e+\null37Cl \null37Ar+e
. Considering the conservation of energy and momentum, determine what is the energy content of such a neutrino at
the least. (Data: the mass of the chlorine nucleus is 39.945 60 ATE, the mass of the argon nucleus is 36.946
47 ATE.)
(5 points)

(3 points)
P. 3685. A square carpet of a mass of 20 kg is dragged from one room into another as shown in the figure. The width
of the corridor and the carpet is the same, 2 m. The friction coefficient is 0.1 in the first room and 0.2 in the other
and in the corridor it changes evenly from 0.1 to 0.2. The carpet presses the floor uniformly. What is the amount of
work that must be done to drag the carpet from the first room to the other?
(4 points)
P. 3686. Falling objects in air reach a constant velocity in more or less time. A table-tennis ball of a mass of 4 g, for
example, is falling with a velocity of 15 m/s. a) What is the velocity of a falling metal ball of the same size and of a
mass of 256 g? b) If the table-tennis and the metal ball is connected with a long line what is their common falling
velocity? (The aerodynamic drag is proportional to the square of the velocity.)
(4 points)
P. 3687. At the top of a slope of angle
there is a water tank in which the water level is at height H. In the side of the tank at height h there is a small hole
where a water jet squirts horizontally from the tank. At what value h, does the water jet impact onto the slope
furthest from the bottom of the tank, and what is this distance?
(5 points)
P. 3688. An alternating-current generator supplies 120 V effective voltage with a frequency of 60 Hz. When switch
K (shown in the figure) is disconnected, the current flowing through the generator leads by 20 o ahead of the voltage
on the generator. In state 1 of the switch the current follows the voltage by 10 o. In state 2 of the switch the effective
value of the current is 2.0 A. Determine the values of R, L and C.

(4 points)
P. 3689. A light source is placed at a 30 cm distance from a convergent lens of focal length of 20 cm on its optical
axis. A plane mirror is placed on the other side of the lens perpendicular to the optical axis. How far is the mirror to
be placed to get a real image between the light source and the lens?
(5 points)
P. 3690. A car is approaching from a great distance. Its two headlights, which are at a 120 cm distance from each
other, can be considered a single point source. How far is the car when even a man of the best eyesight cannot see
whether there are one or two sources of light? (Take the diameter of a wide open pupil as 5 mm and the effective
wavelength of the light as 550 nm.)
(5 points)
P. 3691. Under what conditions does the energy of a photon increase in an elastic collision with an electron? (Let us
assume that the collision takes place along a single line.)
(5 points)
Exercises and problems in Physics
February 2004
Please read The Conditions of the Problem Solving Competition.

Experimental problem

M. 250. Measure the torsion constant of a single hair. Take more measurements in different air-humidity conditions
and examine the damping of the oscillations as well.
(6 points)

Theoretical problems
It is allowed to send solutions for any number of problems, but final scores of students of grades 9-12 are
computed from the 5 best score in each month. Final scores of students of grades 1-8 are computed from
the 3 best scores in each month.
P. 3692. A group of children are riding home on a bus. The balloons in the hands of some kids are hanging already
while in the hands of others they are still about to lift. Suddenly the bus brakes. Which way are the balloons going to
move?
(3 points)
P. 3693. Swimming-spider and Wonder-spider are waiting on a table for their prey at a 20 cm distance from each
other. Suddenly they see a small caterpillar and at once they both cast their threads. At this moment the caterpillar is
20 cm away from Swimming-spider and 30 cm away from Wonder-spider. The hungry spiders pull the ends of their
threads with a velocity of 1 cms
while they keep their positions. The threads do not change their lengths and are tight all the way. When is the
caterpillar between the two spiders? What is its path like?
(4 points)
P. 3694. We stick a Scotch-tape (adhesive tape) on a tabletop. We grab one end of it and pull it back horizontally and
uniformly with a velocity of 10 cm/s. What is the velocity of the middle of the moving part of the tape?
(4 points)
P. 3695. In the circuit shown in the figure the electromotive force of the battery is 9 V and its internal resistance is
15
. The two identical voltmeters and the ammeter can all be considered ideal. What do the instruments show when
switch K is open and when it is closed?
(4 points)

P. 3696. The primary coil of a transformer is connected to a power source of a voltage of 230 V. In the unknown
resistance connected to the secondary coil a current of 0.2 A can be measured. If the two coils are interchanged the
current measured is 1.8 A. What is the unknown resistance? What is the ratio of the number of turns of the two
coils?
(4 points)
P. 3697. A pebble is thrown horizontally from the top of a 60 m high tower with an initial velocity of 20 m/s. The air
drag is negligible. What is the velocity of the pebble when it is at the same distance from its initial position and the
ground?
(4 points)
P. 3698. From a plastic cylinder of radius R a cylinder-shaped part of radius R/2 is cut out. The axes of the cylinder
cut out and the original cylinder are parallel and their distance is d. The resultant hollow cylinder is put on a slope
with its axis horizontal. At what slope angle can the hollow cylinder stand in a state of stable equilibrium on the
slope? (The friction is adequately large.)
(5 points)
P. 3699. One end of the L=1.2 m long homogeneous rod of mass m=10 kg, shown in the figure, is fixed to a hinge.
A cylindrical spring of spring constant D=200 N/m fixed to its other end keeps it in equilibrium exactly horizontally.
What is the elastic energy stored in the spring? Making the system oscillate vertically with a small displacement,
what will its period be?

(5 points)
P. 3700. In a vessel closed by a piston air is compressed from pressure p1 to pressure p2. The compression is
adiabatic first then at a certain pressure p* the process becomes isobar. When the gas cools down to its original
temperature the compression continues, again adiabatically. At what value of p* is the work done during
compression the smallest?

(5 points)
P. 3701. 0.9 g of water is dropped into a vessel of a volume of 5 l at a temperature of 0 oC and pressure of
1.013.105 Pa. Then the vessel is sealed. What is the pressure in the vessel at a temperature of 35 oC? At what
temperature does all the water evaporate, and what is the pressure in the vessel in this case?
(5 points)
Exercises and problems in Physics
April 2004
Please read The Conditions of the Problem Solving Competition.

Experimental problem

M. 251. In what way does resistance to rolling at the wheel of a bicycle depend on the air pressure in the tyres?
(6 points)

Theoretical problems
It is allowed to send solutions for any number of problems, but final scores of students of grades 9-12 are
computed from the 5 best score in each month. Final scores of students of grades 1-8 are computed from
the 3 best scores in each month.
P. 3702. A glass of a height of 4 cm and of a diameter of 3 cm is lying tumbled over in the horizontal kitchen sink.
The water level in the sink is such that, if we raised it by 25%, it would just cover the glass lying on its side. (The
wall thickness of the glass is negligible.) If we stood the glass up slowly, in a way that it always touches the bottom
of the sink, what would the water level be in the glass in the end? Would it rise from the bottom, if we released it?
(4 points)
P. 3703. All the bulbs drawn on the connection diagram shown in the figure radiate with the same brightness
(effective power). The resistance of Bulb 1 is 36 ohm. a) What are the resistances of the other bulbs? b) How will
the brightness of each individual bulb change if we connect point C first with point X and then with point Y using a
flexible wire? c) What is the output voltage of the battery, if the power of each bulb is equally 4 W (before
connecting)?

(4 points)
P. 3704. The length of both sections AB and EF is l1 in the figure, and their coefficient of thermal expansion is
1. The length of section CD is l2 and its expansion coefficient is

2. What must the ratio l1/l2 be to ensure that distance AF remains the same at all temperatures? (Points A, B, E and F
reside on the same line.)

(3 points)
P. 3705. A table-tennis ball made by gluing together its two hemispheres and filled with water is hung in a way that
the gluing line (which, for the sake of simplicity, is considered a single circular line) is in a horizontal plane. A small
air bubble is left at the top of the water at the atmospheric pressure. The thread it is hung on is pulled by a force of
F0. What load (force) the gluing line is to cope with?
(5 points)
P. 3706. The volume of water vapor of a temperature of 100 oC and a pressure of 50 Pa is beginning to decrease at
constant temperature. What is the pressure of the vapor when its volume is one fourth of the original?
(4 points)
P. 3707. Two electric point charges, Q1 and Q2 are both fixed on a long, horizontal insulator thread. Where on the
thread is it possible for a tiny bead of electric charge Q3 to be in the state of equilibrium in the electric field
generated by point charges Q1 and Q2, and what kind of equilibrium is it?
(4 points)
P. 3708. A plate capacitor of plate distance d is charged up to a voltage of 500 V. We push another plate capacitor of
the same size and same voltage of a plate distance of 35d
between its plates. a) What will the voltage of the capacitor of plate distance d be after the insertion of the other
capacitor? b) How many times is the energy of this system bigger than the original energy of the capacitor of plate
distance d?
(4 points)
P. 3709. Does the Earth's magnetic field affect the motion of a pendulum made of a metal thread?
(4 points)
P. 3710. What parent element has an isotope with a nucleus containing 120 neutrons, and having an electric charge
density of 5.34 PC/mm3?
(4 points)
P. 3711. The graph shows the magnitude of the velocity of a body moving on a slope measured by an instrument (V-
scope) as a function of time. At the bottom of the slope there was a bumper. With the help of the graph determine
a) the angle of the slope and the friction coefficient, b) the average force acting in the second collision, c) the
mechanical loss in the third collision. The mass of the body moving on the slope is 100 g, the instrument measures
the velocity every 30 ms.

(5 points)
Exercises and problems in Physics
May 2004
Please read The Conditions of the Problem Solving Competition.

Experimental problem

M. 252. Determine the force-dilation characteristics of a rubber band from a hat of a given length. Measure the
frequency of the small vertical oscillations under different loads. What connection can be shown between the
frequency-load function and the force-dilation characteristics?
(6 points)

Theoretical problems
It is allowed to send solutions for any number of problems, but final scores of students of grades 9-12 are
computed from the 5 best score in each month. Final scores of students of grades 1-8 are computed from
the 3 best scores in each month.
P. 3712. At the 1996 Olympic games Frank Fredericks ran 9.89 seconds in the 100 m race and 19.68 seconds in the
200 m. The same year in an indoor competition he ran the 100 m in 10.05 seconds and 200 m in 19.92 seconds.
a) Why is it that the indoor times are worse than those done outdoors? b) Why are the times in the 200 m less than
twice the times done on 100 m?
(4 points)
P. 3713. A jeep of a weight of 12 000 N is proceeding up a slope with a velocity of 10 m/s. The height of the slope is
5 m and its length is 30 m. What is the minimum power output of the engine of the jeep?
(3 points)
P. 3714. A good model for calculating the action of the springs of a car is a homogeneous rectangular plate of mass
m and of side lengths a and b supported by springs of spring constant D at its four corners. Determine the frequency
of the back-and-forth and the left-right sways, if a=3 m, b=1.5 m, m=100 kg, D=50 kN/m.
(4 points)
P. 3715. Water squirts upwards with a 10 m/s initial velocity from a vertical pipe of a cross section of 4 cm2.
Estimate the force the water jet exerts on a horizontal plate placed 1 m above the end of the pipe.
(4 points)
P. 3716. When an aeroplane takes off or lands in order to decrease the difference between the outside and inside
pressure air is removed from or pumped into the passenger cabin. After landing the pressure in the cabin is 95% of
the outside pressure. The air temperature is 22 oC both inside and outside. We open the pressure-balancing valve for
a short while then close it. With the help of a proper model estimate the resulting inside temperature if the heat
transfer at the wall of the plane is negligible.
(5 points)
P. 3717. In the circuit shown in the figure R1=60
, R2=30
and the internal resistance of the battery of voltage U0 is negligible. At what Rx value will the power on Rx be the
greatest? How much is U0 if this maximum power is 11.25 W?

(4 points)
P. 3718. Why does the apparent perpetuum mobile described below not work? Let two charges Q and -Q advance
towards each other in air. Exploit the work done by the attractive force, then push them both into an oil tank where
the attractive force is lower and using some energy gained previously pull them apart until they reach their initial
position and begin the cycle again ...

(5 points)
P. 3719. A radar station emits impulses of 10 -6 s duration, one thousand a second at a uniform rate. What is the
minimum and maximum range of the radar?
(4 points)
P. 3720. We segregate a parallel beam from the sunshine and let it through an optical grate of a grating constant of
0.01 mm. How wide are the spectra projected on a screen at a distance of 3 m? Can we see here mixed colors (purple
for example)?
(4 points)
P. 3721. A particle of a rest mass of m0 advances at a velocity of v and decays into two photons. a) What is the
minimum angle that can be contained by the paths of the two photons? b) If the two photons move in the opposite
direction, how much can their energy be (at most)?
(5 points)
Problem Solving Competition: 2005/2006
The competitions start annually and last from September to May, but you can enter any time during the academic
year.
In Mathematics, there are three different contests, in Physics there are two. Additionally, a new contest in
Informatics is launched. The conditions of the respective contests are slightly different. See below for details.
Every primary or secondary school student is eligible to participate in the competitions. Students in different grades
might find the same problems but in most cases their work is evaluated within their age group, they compete with
students of the same age only. Therefore, it is essential that the paper should indicate the 1 to 12 grade of the
contestant in the current school year. The KMaL contests are individual competitions, solutions produced by a
group are not accepted. If two papers turn out to be practically identical, none of them will be marked.
This year students are not allowed to participate in both competitions "K" and "B" at the same time.
MATHEMATICS

We have four contests in Mathematics this year.


K contest: this is a joint contest of KMaL and ABACUS, exclusively for students of grade 9 - beginning the
secondary school this year. 6 problems in each Month; each of them is worth of 6 points.
C contest: easy exercises for practice. 5 problems in each Month; each one for 5 points. There are three age
categories:
grades 1 to 8
grades 9 to 10
grades 11 to 12th (preferably those not studying mathematics in a special advanced class. Those in advanced
classes are advised to take part in the B contest).
B contest: this is the traditional contest of KMaL. 10 problems each month. You can send any number of solutions,
but only the highest six scores are entered.
Age groups:
up to the 8th grade
9th grade
10th grade
11th grade
12th grade
A contest: advanced problems, 3 each month. More demainding than the B contest, for those who are preparing for
national or international competitions. Here there are no separate age groups.
PHYSICS

M contest: Experimental problems: One measuring task is set each month. Each of them is worth 6 points. The
report must contain a description of the method, the data obtained sufficient in quantity and quality, the analysis
of the data, and the estimation of the error. There are no separate age groups.
P contest: 10 theoretical problems each month.
Age groups:
up to the 8th grade;
9th grade;
10th grade;
11th grade;
12th grade.
Every age group may send solutions to all kinds of problems. In the P contest we evaluate only 3 problems up to the
8th grade and 5 problems from 9th - 12th grade.
INFORMATICS

This year we have two contests in Informatics.


I contest: three problems every Month which can be solved in Pascal, C, C++, BASIC or Delphi. The solutions
should be sent to .
S contest: one advanced problem every Month which can be solved in Pascal, C, C++ or JAVA. Solving these
problems need deeper algorithmic thoughts and knowledge. The solutions should be sent to <t
.</t

Do not send .exe files! There are no separate age groups, competition is opened for everyone.
Deadlines, adresses

The deadline of mailing or e-mailing the solutions is indicated in every issue next to the new exercises and
problems. Deadlines: in Physics: 11th of the month following the publication of the current issue; in Informatics:
13th of the month following the publication of the current issue; in Mathematics: 15th of the month following the
publication of the current issue. Should that be a weekend or bank holiday, the deadline is the next workday.
Send your solutions to the following address:

KMaL Szerkesztsg (KMaL feladatok), Budapest Pf. 47. 1255, Hungary


or by e-mail to: .
Informatics solutions are accepted via e-mail only and should be sent to the following address:
.
The actual state of the contests appears on our web-site (http://www.komal.hu/eredm/index.e.shtml) and it is updated
regularly. These data are not official, only for your information. The final results will appear in August on our
Internet home page and in the September issue of the following academic year. The cca 10 top contestans are
rewarded by a certificate in each category and this is going to be mailed to their schools, and their portraits,
additionally, will be presented in the December issue and the Internet.
Entry Form for the contests
The layout of the papers:
By ordinary mail:
Write the solutions to different problems on separate A4 sheets of paper. (This is important because
different people are responsible for the marking.)
The header of every sheet must contain the following in the upper left corner (see sample 1):

-the letter code (A, B, C, M, P) and number of the problem in red


-the full name and the grade of the sender
-the name of the school and the town (and country)
-the e-mail adress of the sender
Fold each sheet into four separatly so that the header should appear in the front side.
Solutions to geometry problems should include diagrams.
Enclose with your solutions a separate sheet listing your data and the contents of your mail. See sample 2.

Sample 1. Header of a sheet Sample 2. Enclosed list


C. 593. Varga 163 Rbert, 9th grade
Varga 163 Rbert, 9th grade Rvai High School, Gyr
Rvai High School, Gyr I send the following 3 papers in:
e-mail: robi@revai.hu C. 591., C. 593., B. 3389.
Denote the age of the captain by C, the age of the ship
by S. When the age of the ship was C, the age of the
captain was C-(S-C)=2C-S. When the ship was 2C-
S ...

By e-mail:
Send the solutions of different problems as separate e-mail messages.
The "subject" field of the e-mail message should contain the letter code and number of the problem.
Additional requirements concerning the Informatics solutions
o In the first few comment lines of each program do enter the following information:
your name and class
your school.
your town (country)
The content of the papers:

It is not enough to state the answer. Results with detailed explanations only will receive full credit. (Reference to
standard school math is accepted without proof.)
Exercises and problems in Physics
September 2004
Please read The Rules of the Problem Solving Competition.

Experimental problem

M. 253. Measure what minimum torque is needed to break a wooden skewer. Carry out as many measurements as
you can.
(6 points)

Theoretical problems
It is allowed to send solutions for any number of problems, but final scores of students of grades 9-12 are
computed from the 5 best score in each month. Final scores of students of grades 1-8 are computed from
the 3 best scores in each month.
P. 3722. The mass center of the homogeneous plate shown in the figure is in point A. What is the ratio b/a?

(3 points)
P. 3723. Why does ice build up on the inner wall of the deep-freezer section of a refrigerator? Can it be prevented?
(3 points)
P. 3724. We want to flip over one of its edges a cube of edges l and mass m with a homogeneous mass distribution.
We lift the cube with vertical force acting in the mid point of one edge. a) Calculate and plot the necessary force F
as a function of height h. b) How much work is done while flipping the cube slowly over?

(4 points)
P. 3725. While heating up from 20 oC to 80 oC a 120 liter electric boiler filled entirely with water, water is dripping
through the safety valve. Can a half-liter vessel contain the water dripping out?
(4 points)
P. 3726. Two men are trying to start a broken-down car by pushing it. The mass of the car is 1750 kg and the mass of
the driver is 80 kg. To ignite the engine the car must roll at a speed of 8 km/h. When can the driver release the clutch
if one man pushes the car with a force of 335 N and the other one with 405 N? The gripping force between the tyres
and the road is 500 N. P. 3727. A certain amount of air heated at constant pressure absorbs 2.1 kJ of heat. a) To what
extent does the internal energy of the gas change? b) How much work is done by the gas?
(3 points)
P. 3728. On the sunny side of the Venus the air pressure is 9 .106 Pa and the temperature is 740 K. On the surface of
the Earth the pressure is 10 5 Pa and the temperature of the sunny side can reach 320 K. All these suggest that the
atmosphere of planet Venus is denser than Earth's atmosphere. Is this supposition true?
(4 points)
P. 3729. How much can the temperature of the water in a 50 mx25 mx2 m size pool be raised with the energy
released by a single gram of 235 Uranium isotope in a nuclear power plant?
(4 points)
P. 3730. In position A of the switch the capacitor of 684 nF is connected to a 40 V battery. We move the switch from
position A to B. The inductivity of the coil is 30 mH and its ohmic resistance is negligible. How much is voltage DB
0.3 ms after moving the switch?

(4 points)
P. 3731. The resistance of a piece of thin wire of length L is R. A square with a side length L is prepared of that thin
wire and the middle points of the sides are connected with the same kind of wire. This process can be continued
resulting in smaller and smaller squares, theoretically an infinite number of them. a) How long wire is needed to do
this? b) How much is the resultant resistance between points A and B?
(5 points)
Exercises and problems in Physics
October 2004
Please read The Rules of the Problem Solving Competition.

Experimental problem

M. 254. Measure the density of both a dry and a soaking wet skewer stick. Examine the time dependence of the
density of the stick when placed into water.
(6 points)

Theoretical problems
It is allowed to send solutions for any number of problems, but final scores of students of grades 9-12 are
computed from the 5 best score in each month. Final scores of students of grades 1-8 are computed from
the 3 best scores in each month.
P. 3732. An empty cube of an edge length of a=10 cm and wall thickness of d=2 cm is floating in water with half of
its volume immersed. What is the density of the material its wall is made of?
(3 points)
P. 3733. If we leave a metal barrel open in the garden for a few years then its bottom gets spherical. Why?
(3 points)
P. 3734. A small ball can move in a vertical plane along a semi-circle of radius R without friction. At what speed is
the ball to launch from point A so that its acceleration is 3g at point B? Where along its path is its acceleration
horizontal? What is the acceleration here?

(5 points)
P. 3735. If at sunset we see a half-moon from the Earth, what does the Earth look like from the Moon at the same
time?
(4 points)
P. 3736. h=0.95 m above a horizontal surface we spin a rim of a radius of R=0.2 m at an angular velocity of
0=5 s
-1
and release it without any initial velocity. After colliding with the horizontal surface the rim leaves the
surface at a velocity of v=2 m/s and angular velocity of
-1
1=3 s . a) What percentage of its kinetic energy is lost in the collision? b) At what angle does the rim leave the
horizontal surface?
(5 points)
P. 3737. We start two pendulum-clocks at the same time. Of the two only one is accurate, and at its 777th swing the
two clocks swing together again. By what percentage do we have to change the length of the inaccurate pendulum to
make it accurate?
(4 points)
P. 3738. A square shaped copper plate is lying on a roof. It does not slip because the friction is quite high. During the
day the temperature is higher and at night it is lower, therefore the plate expands and contracts. Estimate the distance
it moves from its place in one year. Data: The length of the side of the square is 1 meter, the slope angle of the roof
is 30o, the coefficient of friction is 1 and the plate presses the roof uniformly. The average difference in the day and
night temperature is 10 oC and the thermal expansion of the roof is negligible.
(5 points)
P. 3739. We make helium gas of 2 grams to go through the thermal cycle shown in the figure. The lowest
temperature of the gas in the cycle is 16 oC, the highest is 88 oC, and in the meantime the temperature is equal at
points A and B. a) What is the gas temperature at points A and B? b) How much work is done by the gas in this
thermal cycle? c) How much heat is absorbed and transmitted in one cycle by the gas?

(5 points)
P. 3740. What is the ratio of the electrostatic potentials on the surface and at the center point of a uniformly charged
sphere? (The potential is considered 0 at infinity.)
(4 points)
P. 3741. What is the ratio of the electrostatic potentials at one corner and in the center point of a uniformly charged
cube? (The potential is considered 0 at infinity.)
(5 points)
P. 3742. From a point sound source the power of the energy outflow is P. The sound velocity is v. What are the
density of energy and the energy flux (energy flowing across unit surface in unit time) in r distance of the source?
How does the amplitude depend on the position?
(4 points)
Exercises and problems in Physics
November 2004
Please read The Rules of the Problem Solving Competition.

Experimental problem

M. 255. Determine the moment of inertia of a cylindrical fruit-jar with respect to its generating (side) line. To
improve the accuracy of the measurement, execute it as many ways as possible.
(6 points)

Theoretical problems
It is allowed to send solutions for any number of problems, but final scores of students of grades 9-12 are
computed from the 5 best score in each month. Final scores of students of grades 1-8 are computed from
the 3 best scores in each month.
P. 3743. At a given time, the distance recorder of a car showed 24 942 km. At exactly two hours later the driver
noticed that it showed a symmetric number again. What was the average velocity of the car in this two-hour leg?
(3 points)
P. 3744. On a longer journey we drive 10% of the distance through inhabited areas at an average velocity of 40 km/h
and 90% of the distance we drive on country roads at an average velocity of 90 km/h. What is the average velocity
on the whole journey? How does this answer change if the percentages relate to time rather than distance, that is in
10% of the whole duration we drive in inhabited areas at an average speed of 40 km/h and 90% of the time we drive
at an average speed of 90 km/h on country roads? In which case do we get there sooner?
(4 points)
P. 3745. Can a cyclist riding at a velocity of 36 km/h turn in a hairpin bend of a radius of 21 m (
=0.5)?
(4 points)
P. 3746. Above a heater in upward streaming air there are water droplets floating at a velocity of 1 mm/s. If two
droplets join, at what constant velocity are they going to descend afterwards?
(5 points)
P. 3747. There are two solid balls of different radii but of the same composition. The mass of the bigger one is M.
The balls are linked together with a long thin thread and let fall from a height. After they fall with constant velocity,
what is the force pulling the thread? At what mass ratio is the pulling force greatest?
(5 points)
P. 3748. A flexible homogeneous rope is placed on a slope as shown in the figure. Determine the acceleration of the
rope at the moment of release. (The friction is negligible.)

(4 points)
P. 3749. We can see special processes of a diatomic ideal gas in Figures a) and b). Determine the molar heat
capacity of the gas in both processes.

(4 points)
P. 3750. To a charged capacitor of electric capacity C we connect a discharged capacitor of capacity nC (n
1) in a parallel configuration. Then we disconnect and reconnect them with reversed polarity. Compare the voltage
and electrostatic energy of the system in its final state to the initial voltage and electrostatic energy of capacitor C.
What proportion is the decrease of voltage and energy?
(4 points)
P. 3751. What is the ratio of the magnitude of the magnetic induction vector in the middle of a circular current and at
a point at distance r from it in the plane of the current if r
R?

(5 points)
P. 3752. What is the closest distance an alpha-particle of energy of 5.3 MeV can get to the nucleus of a copper atom?
(4 points)

Exercises and problems in Physics


December 2004
Please read The Rules of the Problem Solving Competition.

Experimental problem

M. 256. Take photographs of a working sparkler with sufficiently short exposure times, and estimate the speed of
the flakes shooting out with their help. (Be careful when carrying out the experiment!)
(6 points)

Theoretical problems
It is allowed to send solutions for any number of problems, but final scores of students of grades 9-12 are
computed from the 5 best score in each month. Final scores of students of grades 1-8 are computed from
the 3 best scores in each month.
(3 points)
P. 3753. Two schoolboys wearing ice-skates are standing facing each other. The 60 kg boy pushes his 40 kg mate so
that the other picks up a velocity of 3 m/s. How much work is done by them? How far are they from each other in
1.5 seconds? (Neglect friction and air drag.)
(4 points)
P. 3754. When is the initial rate of volume growth of 3 oC water higher, when it is cooled down to 0 oC or when it is
warmed up to 6 oC?
(4 points)
P. 3755. We are taking a photograph of the side of the front wheel of a bicycle passing in front of us. Because of the
finite exposure time the spokes look blurred. But there are sharp points on the image. Where are they?
(5 points)
P. 3756. A vertical water jet impacts on a solid horizontal plane with a velocity of 2 m/s. What is the velocity of the
water spreading over the plane?
(4 points)
P. 3757. Two positive and two negative point charges are placed in the corners of a square insulator frame. All the
charges are Q, and the sides of the frame are hinged together. a) How much work is needed to deform the frame into
a 60o rhombus? b) How does the magnitude of the electric field change in the center of the frame?
(4 points)
P. 3758. Increasing n times the resistance R connected to a battery the power on the resistor surprisingly does not
change. What is the internal resistance of the battery?
(4 points)
P. 3759. An aluminium and a copper wire of the same length and cross-section are connected to a battery in parallel.
Which of them begins to warm up faster? How much faster does it warm up?
(4 points)
P. 3760. We connect a resistance of 200
and a coil with an ohmic resistance of 4 in series to an electric network of 230 V and 50 Hz. In consequence we
can measure 150 V of effective voltage on the coil. a) How much is the inductivity of the coil? b) How much power
is absorbed by the coil and by the 200
resistance?
(4 points)
P. 3761. Where is the electric field strength greatest in a gold atom and how much is it?
(4 points)
P. 3762. A small steel rod due to some pulling force acting on one of its ends is accelerating uniformly from the state
of rest in the direction of its longitudinal axis. How many times does the rod cover the distance of its original length
when its length measured in the laboratory system is again equal to its original?
(5 points)
Exercises and problems in Physics
January 2005
Please read The Rules of the Problem Solving Competition.

Experimental problem

M. 257. Determine the collision number of the central linear collision of two identical coins. Execute the
measurement with different coin pairs too.
(6 points)

Theoretical problems
It is allowed to send solutions for any number of problems, but final scores of students of grades 9-12 are
computed from the 5 best score in each month. Final scores of students of grades 1-8 are computed from
the 3 best scores in each month.
P. 3763. In a car handling contest the task is to go along a straight road without spinning the wheels. The winner is
the person who stops exactly at distance s in the shortest time. What can the world record be if the coefficient of the
sticking friction between the tyres and the road is
0?
(4 points)
P. 3764. On which part of a window can frost-work develop if the window is a) an Italian single pane window? b) a
Hungarian double pane window? c) a Swedish triple pane window?
(4 points)
P. 3765. In two glasses there is liquid material of the same type, the volume of one is V1, its temperature of is T1, the
volume of the other is V2 and its temperature is T2. We mix the liquids and wait while the temperature settles. What
is the common temperature if we neglect any heat loss?
(4 points)
P. 3766. A certain amount of ideal gas goes through the thermal cycle shown in the figure. States A and B are fixed,
C can change, but the CA process must be isobaric. a) What is the maximum effective work done in the cycle if the
temperature is decreasing all along process BC? b) What is the efficiency of the machine doing this thermal cycle in
this case?

(5 points)
P. 3767. At the session of the Royal Society on 4 December 1679, Hooke, the Secretary, read the following letter
sent by Newton:
Scholastic scientists, attempting to prove the absurdity of the statement according to which the Earth would rotate
around its axis, argued as follows. Let us drop a heavy body from the top of a tower. If the Earth indeed rotated from
the west to the east, the Earth under it would turn to the east during the falling, and the body would be found not at
the bottom of the tower, but westwards from it. This argument is quite wrong, writes Newton, since it does not take
into account the initial velocity of the body. As the top of the tower is at a larger distance than its bottom, the initial
velocity of the body is actually larger then down below at the bottom. The body would be found, therefore, not to the
west, but to the east from the vertical line, dropped from the top of the tower.
Where will the body be found? (Let us assume for simplicity that the tower is on the Equator.)
(5 points)
P. 3768. In the connection shown in the figure switch K is initially open and the capacitor is uncharged. Then we
close the switch and let the big capacitor to be charged fully up and then we open the switch again. Determine the
currents in the resistances a) immediately after closing the switch. b) a long time after closing the switch.
c) immediately after opening the switch. (Data: U0=30 V; R1=10 k
; R2=5 k
.)

(5 points)
P. 3769. There is a 0.5
A proton beam coming from a 30 MeV cyclotron. a) How many protons impact into the target in one second?
b) How much energy is carried to the target in 10 seconds by the proton beam if the protons remain in the target?
c) How much would the temperature of the 0.01 kg leaden target rise in 10 seconds if heat removal were not
ensured.
(4 points)
P. 3770. A large concave mirror with a radius of curvature of 0.5 m is placed on a horizontal plate. We pour a small
amount of water into the mirror and place on it a plane-convex lens with a radius of curvature of 1.0 m whose plane
side just covers the water. Then we place a point-like light source above this set-up at a height of 0.3 m. Where does
the image of the light source develop? (The refractive index of water is 1.33 and the refractive index of glass is
1.50.)
(5 points)
P. 3771. Observed from Pluto its satellite Charon can always be seen in the same place (``Plutostationary'' satellite).
Between two subsequent sunrises on Pluto 6 terrestrial days and 9 hours pass. The radius of Charon's orbit is about
8.5 times the diameter of Pluto. Give an estimation of the density of Pluto.
(4 points)
Exercises and problems in Physics
February 2005
Please read The Rules of the Problem Solving Competition.

Experimental problem

M. 258. A grease- or oil-spot becomes unnoticeable on a sheet of paper if the illumination of the two sides of the
sheet is balanced out. Examine the illumination by a given light source (a torch for example) as a function of the
distance and the angle of incidence.
(6 points)

Theoretical problems
It is allowed to send solutions for any number of problems, but final scores of students of grades 9-12 are
computed from the 5 best score in each month. Final scores of students of grades 1-8 are computed from
the 3 best scores in each month.
P. 3772. We throw three ice cubicles of a temperature of 0 oC into a glass of 18 oC water. The volume of the water is
2 dl. What is the volume and the temperature of the water after the ice cubes of an edge length of 2 cm have melted?
(3 points)
P. 3773. The table below shows the measured coefficient of specific heat at constant volume and the molar mass of
some gases:
H2 N2 O2 HCl

cV (J/kg K) 10 112 741 653 573

M (g/mol) 2 28 32 36,5
a) What principle can be discerned from these measurement data? b) Is this principle in accordance with the taught
theory?
(4 points)
P. 3774. Two slopes of angles of 30o are turned face-to-face with each other with their lower edges making contact.
Determine all the points of the plane perpendicular to both slopes a small ball released from which its motion
becomes periodic with four bounces in one cycle. (Collisions are perfectly elastic and friction is negligible.)
(5 points)
P. 3775. A solid ball rolls off the top of a fixed hemisphere having a rugged surface. Where does it begin to slip?
What is the friction force at the moment of the first slip if
=
0=0.2; R=1 m; r=0.1 m; m=0.2 kg?
(5 points)
P. 3776. There is a smooth edged coin resting on a horizontal table top. Another coin of the same kind bumps into it.
The collision coefficient is 0.8 here. At what angle can the moving coin be deflected from its original course at the
most if neither of the coins gets a spin in the collision?
(5 points)
P. 3777. There is an insulator rod of length L and of negligible mass with two small balls of mass m and electric
charge Q attached to its ends. The rod can rotate in the horizontal plane around a vertical axis crossing it at a L/4
distance from one of its ends. At first the rod is in instable equilibrium in a horizontal electric field of field strength
E. Then we displace it from this position and leave it alone. a) Determine the maximum velocity of the ball closer to
the axis. b) In what position is the rod to be set so that displaced from that position it begins a harmonic oscillation,
and what is the period in this case?
(4 points)
P. 3778. Initially there is I0 electric current in a resistance connected to a power source of U0 open-circuit voltage.
The power output - let us consider it linearly changing - decreases to zero in T time. a) What is the overall energy
output of the power source of internal resistance Ri? b) In what time does the open-circuit voltage decrease to 75%?
The internal and external resistances can be considered constant.
(4 points)
P. 3779. How much energy is needed to remove an alpha-particle from a Uranium-238 nucleus? What conclusion
can be drawn from the value obtained? (Detailed atomic mass tables can be found on the internet, on pages such as
http://ie.lbl.gov/toi2003/MassSearch.asp.)
(4 points)
P. 3780. In a sinusoidal electromagnetic wave propagating in air the amplitude of the electric field strength is
0.06 Vm
, and its frequency is 300 MHz. a) What is the amplitude and wavelength of the magnetic induction vector in this
wave? b) In what way would the answer change if these values belonged to an electromagnetic wave propagating in
water instead of air? (At this frequency the relative dielectric constant of water is 81 and its magnetic permeability is
1 in good approximation.)
(5 points)
P. 3781. Prolonged observations of a binary star lead to the following conclusions: The duration of a revolution is 80
terrestrial years, the distance of the primary and the secondary stars is 23.12 astronomical unit. We can suppose that
both stars revolve on a circular orbit and the ratio of the radii is 0.848. What is the mass of the stars expressed in
Solar masses?
(4 points)
Problems in Physics, March 2005
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 11 April 2005.

M. 259. Prepare sodium chloride solutions of various mass percentages and immerse different metal electrodes in
them (Fe, Cu, Al etc.). Measure the initial electromotive forces and their temporal variations.
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 11 April 2005.

P. 3782. In a movie we see that the hero jumps off a bridge into a small boat proceeding with a constant velocity.
The horizontal velocity of the boat does not change when the hero jumps in it. Is this a trick picture or could it be a
real jump?
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 3783. We throw a solid iron ball of a mass of 0.2 kg previously heated in blue flame, into 0.15 l water of a
temperature of 13 oC contained in a copper calorimeter. The common temperature settles at 55 oC. What color was
the iron ball before it was thrown into the water.
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3784. In each of two big tanks there is 100 l of water of a temperature of 10 oC in one and 30 oC in the other. From
the warmer tank we pour 1 l of water into the colder one. After blending we pour 1 l of water back. How many times
are we to repeat this process to reach at least 5 oC temperature change in both tanks? (Neglect losses.)
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 3785. We cool down ideal gas of molar heat capacity of CV=20 J/(mol.K) at a constant pressure of 100 kPa. The
initial volume of 1 m3 of the gas is halved in the course of cooling. How much heat is emitted by the gas during
cooling? What kind of gas can it be?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3786. J. F. Jolly (1809-1884), a Munich teacher of physics, measured with his very sensitive self-made balance
that at a depth of 5.3 m the weight of a body is greater by one and a half millionth than that on the surface. How can
that be reconciled with Newton's gravitational law?
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 3787. We lean a cubic shaped box against the wall as shown in the figure so that it just does not roll over. The box
is filled with water exactly to its half and a wooden ball is floating on the water surface. The ball is started from the
wall and is approaching the other edge. What will happen?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3788. Two uniform disks can slide frictionless on the horizontal ground. The friction coefficient of the disks
between each other is . One of the disks is at rest, the other is pushed against it with a velocity of v. What can

the velocities of the disks be after the collision?


(5 points)
Statistics
P. 3789. In the heroic age of radio every night at the end of the broadcast the announcer warned the audience:
``Please don't forget to earth your aerials.'' Why was it important and how could that be done?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3790. An idealized model of a light source radiates uniformly between wavelengths of 400 nm and 800 nm with a
power of 100 W. Estimate how many photons a second are emitted from it.
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3791. Can a reference frame be chosen in a way that only either the magnetic or the electric field of an electron
beam of constant velocity can be detected?
(4 points)
Statistics
Problems in Physics, April 2005
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 11 May 2005.

M. 260. It is well known that a glass placed under a strong water jet cannot be filled entirely. Removing the glass
from under the jet it will only be partly filled with water. How does the amount of the remaining water in the glass
depend on the flow rate, the velocity of the jet and the position of the glass?
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 11 May 2005.

P. 3792. A collecting lens makes a 6 cm high real image of a 12 cm high object on a screen at a 45 cm distance from
the object. Determine the position of the lens and its focal length with plotting and calculation.
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3793. In theory at the North and South Poles days and nights last for exactly half a year. In fact, the length of a
day (the time between sunrise and sunset) is about 2 weeks longer in both places. Why?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3794. In an experimental device where controlled nuclear fusion is generated, a solid-state laser emits infrared
light in 1.1.10-11 s at the wavelength of 1060 nm with a power of 1014 W. For comparison: a school He-Ne laser emits
red light at the wavelength of 633 nm with a power of 10-3 W. For how many days should the He-Ne laser work to
emit the same number of photons as the solid-state laser does in 1.1.10-11 s?
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 3795. We have to cool down a 5 kg copper block of a temperature of 300 oC to the temperature of 30 oC. We can
use 20 oC water for the cooling supplied at an arbitrary rate. At what rate is the cooling water to be used so that the
smallest possible amount of water is used for the cooling? How much is this quantity? (Let us assume that the
temperature of the copper block changes only as a result of the effect of the water poured on it.)
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 3796. On a slope of height h a small body is sliding down without friction. It is connected to a point P at the
bottom of the slope with a push-and-pull spring of an elastic constant of D, which was initially not extended. The
body just stops at the bottom of the slope. What can the slope angle be? What is the acceleration when the body of
mass m starts sliding back?

(5 points)
Statistics
P. 3797. On a horizontal frictionless table a stick of mass M, length of L and of homogeneous mass distribution is
standing.
a) With what velocity had a small body of mass m slid into it, if the stick hit the table after a turn of an angle ?
b) How far was the mass center of the stick from the small body at this moment?
(The collision of the small body and the stick is perfectly elastic.) (Data: M=0.6 kg, m=0.2 kg, L=0.8 m, =60o.)
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 3798. A 0.8 m long rod joins to a vertical axle with a bearing at its middle. The rod has negligible mass and it is
frictionless. We thread point-like pierced balls of masses of 200 g on both of its ends. The two balls positioned
symmetrically on both sides of the axis are linked with a thin thread of a length of 0.2 m. At the ends of the rod there
are non-elastic bumpers. We spin this system with an angular velocity of 2 s-1 and then we burn the thread.
a) What path do the balls follow?
b) How much does the rod turn in 1 s after burning the fibre.
c) In what time does the rod turn by an angle of 180o?
d) What distance is done by the balls during the half turn of the rod?
e) What percentage is the mechanical loss?
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 3799. We touch a charged metal sphere of a radius of R with an uncharged metal sphere of a radius of r and then
the two are properly separated. Then we touch the previous metal sphere of radius R with another uncharged metal
sphere of a radius of also R. After this we arrange the three metal spheres at proper distances from each other in the
points of a regular triangle. What is the direction of the electric field strength in the middle of the triangle?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3800. A metal ring having three metallic spokes of lengths r=0.2 m is in a vertical plane and can spin around a
fixed horizontal axis in a homogeneous magnetic field of a magnetic induction of B=0.5 T. The lines of magnetic
field are perpendicular to the plane of the metal ring. Between the axis of the metal ring and its perimeter we
connect a consumer of a resistance of 0.15 with the help of two sliding contacts. We fix a thread of negligible
mass to the rim of the ring and wind it several times around the ring and to its end we fix a body of a mass of 20 g.
At a given moment we release the body of mass m. The friction is negligible everywhere, the resistance of the ring,
the spokes and the connected wiring is also negligible.
a) What is the torque exerted on the ring with the spokes by the magnetic forces when the body of mass m is moving
with a constant velocity?
b) What current is flowing through the consumer when the velocity of the body of mass m is 3 m/s?
c) What is the highest velocity of the body of mass m?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3801. What is the difference between the 3 cm wavelength component of the cosmic background radiation and the
same wavelength microwave radiation of the telecommunication satellites?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3802. What voltage is connected to the plane capacitor in vacuum, the plates of which are at 1 cm distance from
each other, when the electrons detaching from the negative plate impact to the positive one with a velocity that is
60% of the speed of light. Solve the problem with both relativistic and non-relativistic methods.
(4 points)
Problem Solving Competition: 2005/2006
The competitions start annually and last from September to May, but you can enter any time during the academic
year.
In Mathematics, there are three different contests, in Physics there are two. Additionally, a new contest in
Informatics is launched. The conditions of the respective contests are slightly different. See below for details.
Every primary or secondary school student is eligible to participate in the competitions. Students in different grades
might find the same problems but in most cases their work is evaluated within their age group, they compete with
students of the same age only. Therefore, it is essential that the paper should indicate the 1 to 12 grade of the
contestant in the current school year. The KMaL contests are individual competitions, solutions produced by a
group are not accepted. If two papers turn out to be practically identical, none of them will be marked.
This year students are not allowed to participate in both competitions "K" and "B" at the same time.
MATHEMATICS

We have four contests in Mathematics this year.


K contest: this is a joint contest of KMaL and ABACUS, exclusively for students of grade 9 - beginning the
secondary school this year. 6 problems in each Month; each of them is worth of 6 points.
C contest: easy exercises for practice. 5 problems in each Month; each one for 5 points. There are three age
categories:
grades 1 to 8
grades 9 to 10
grades 11 to 12th (preferably those not studying mathematics in a special advanced class. Those in advanced
classes are advised to take part in the B contest).
B contest: this is the traditional contest of KMaL. 10 problems each month. You can send any number of solutions,
but only the highest six scores are entered.
Age groups:
up to the 8th grade
9th grade
10th grade
11th grade
12th grade
A contest: advanced problems, 3 each month. More demainding than the B contest, for those who are preparing for
national or international competitions. Here there are no separate age groups.
PHYSICS

M contest: Experimental problems: One measuring task is set each month. Each of them is worth 6 points. The
report must contain a description of the method, the data obtained sufficient in quantity and quality, the analysis
of the data, and the estimation of the error. There are no separate age groups.
P contest: 10 theoretical problems each month.
Age groups:
up to the 8th grade;
9th grade;
10th grade;
11th grade;
12th grade.
Every age group may send solutions to all kinds of problems. In the P contest we evaluate only 3 problems up to the
8th grade and 5 problems from 9th - 12th grade.
INFORMATICS

This year we have two contests in Informatics.


I contest: three problems every Month which can be solved in Pascal, C, C++, BASIC or Delphi. The solutions
should be sent to i@komal.hu.
S contest: one advanced problem every Month which can be solved in Pascal, C, C++ or JAVA. Solving these
problems need deeper algorithmic thoughts and knowledge. The solutions should be sent to s@komal.hu.
Do not send .exe files! There are no separate age groups, competition is opened for everyone.
Deadlines, adresses

The deadline of mailing or e-mailing the solutions is indicated in every issue next to the new exercises and
problems. Deadlines: in Physics: 11th of the month following the publication of the current issue; in Informatics:
13th of the month following the publication of the current issue; in Mathematics: 15th of the month following the
publication of the current issue. Should that be a weekend or bank holiday, the deadline is the next workday.
Send your solutions to the following address:

KMaL Szerkesztsg (KMaL feladatok), Budapest Pf. 47. 1255, Hungary


or by e-mail to: .
Informatics solutions are accepted via e-mail only and should be sent to the following address: i@komal.hu and
s@komal.hu, respectively.
The actual state of the contests appears on our web-site (http://www.komal.hu/eredm/index.e.shtml) and it is updated
regularly. These data are not official, only for your information. The final results will appear in August on our
Internet home page and in the September issue of the following academic year. The cca 10 top contestans are
rewarded by a certificate in each category and this is going to be mailed to their schools, and their portraits,
additionally, will be presented in the December issue and the Internet.
Entry Form for the contests
The layout of the papers:
By ordinary mail:
Write the solutions to different problems on separate A4 sheets of paper. (This is important because
different people are responsible for the marking.)
The header of every sheet must contain the following in the upper left corner (see sample 1):

-the letter code (A, B, C, M, P) and number of the problem in red


-the full name and the grade of the sender
-the name of the school and the town (and country)
-the e-mail adress of the sender
Fold each sheet into four separatly so that the header should appear in the front side.
Solutions to geometry problems should include diagrams.
Enclose with your solutions a separate sheet listing your data and the contents of your mail. See sample 2.

Sample 1. Header of a sheet Sample 2. Enclosed list


C. 593. Varga 163 Rbert, 9th grade
Varga 163 Rbert, 9th grade Rvai High School, Gyr
Rvai High School, Gyr I send the following 3 papers in:
C. 591., C. 593., B. 3389.
e-mail: robi@revai.hu
Denote the age of the captain by C, the age of the ship
by S. When the age of the ship was C, the age of the
captain was C-(S-C)=2C-S. When the ship was 2C-
S ...

By e-mail:
Send the solutions of different problems as separate e-mail messages.
The "subject" field of the e-mail message should contain the letter code and number of the problem.
Additional requirements concerning the Informatics solutions
o In the first few comment lines of each program do enter the following information:
your name and class
your school.
your town (country)
The content of the papers:

It is not enough to state the answer. Results with detailed explanations only will receive full credit. (Reference to
standard school math is accepted without proof.)
Problems in Physics, September 2005
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 11 October 2005.

M. 262. Make different cylinder-shaped bodies from different materials of uniform density (wood, paraffin etc.)
such that the ratios of their heights (h) and diameters (d) are different. Examine at which density and ratio of h/d can
the cylinder float in a stable equilibrium position such that its symmetry axis is vertical.
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 11 October 2005.

P. 3813. How can a gold leaf electroscope be charged a) negatively, b) positively by using a plastic rod, which was
rubbed by a piece of fur?
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 3814. Given eight 600 resistors, how should they be connected if the equivalent resistance is 750 ?
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 3815. A car travels at a speed of 12 km/h towards south for five minutes, then it turns toward east and moves at a
speed of 25 m/s for 3 minutes, and finally it changes its velocity to 108 km/h and travels toward north-east for two
minutes. Calculate the length of its displacement and the average speed.
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 3816. Two bodies collide. Before the collision the linear momentum of one of them was , and the
other was at rest. After the collision can the linear momentum of the second body (which was initially at rest) be
? If yes, at which case?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3817. A uniform cylinder is placed to a slope inclined at an angle of . The symmetry axis of the cylinder is
horizontal. The coefficient of kinetic friction is 0.2. Find the acceleration of the cylinder.
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 3818. Can it ever happen that the total eclipse of the Sun is followed by a total eclipse of the Moon (or maybe in
reversed order)?
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 3819. The density of a uniform rod with cross-section A is , its specific heat capacity is c and the coefficient of
its linear expansion is . Calculate the amount of heat that should be added in order to increase the length of the rod
by l.
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 3820. Edison's first incandescent lamps were made of carbonized fibres of plants. Why was it important to
connect a resistor in series?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3821. Find the least size of that mirror in which a 1.7-m tall person can see himself from top to toe, if his head is
2 m away from the plane of the mirror, which makes a 30o angle with the vertical.
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 3822. The DLP chip (Digital Light Processor), developed by Texas Instruments, is a new display solution used in
modern projectors. Peter heard that the chip contains millions of hinge-mounted microscopic mirrors, and all of
them can be tilted (separately) into two positions (even 5000 times in a second) reflecting or not reflecting light onto
the screen. He lighted the rectangular chip of sides 17 mm and 9.5 mm nearly perpendicularly by a laser beam of
wavelength 633 nm. He observed that the reflected laser light formed a diffraction pattern of a grid of squares with
2.4 cm long sides on a screen 50 cm from the chip. Using these data find the length of the sides and the number of
the micromirrors in the chip.
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3823. Why don't you observe an apple 6 m away from you darker than another one 2 m from you? Isn't it true that
your eyes receive less light reflected from the apple further away?
(4 points)
Statistics

Problems in Physics, October 2005


Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 11 November 2005.

M. 263. Fill the washbasin with some water, wait until the water has a smooth surface than (using a rope or a chain)
suddenly pull out the plug and let the water drain away. Measure the time while the washbasin is emptied, as a
function of the amount of water. Endeavour to investigate both cases: when there is, and there is no whirl in the
water.
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 11 November 2005.

P. 3824. Two carts are connected with a piece of rope and stay at rest on a horizontal tabletop. Their masses are m1
and m2. A highly compressed spring is placed between the carts. (The rope keeps the spring in the compressed state.)
Than the rope is burnt, and the m1 mass moves with an initial speed of v1. Find the energy stored in the spring.
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 3825. By what amount does the area of a 20-Forint coin increase, if its diameter at 20 oC is 26.3 mm, and in our
pocket its temperature increases to 35 oC. (The coefficient of linear expansion is =1.84.10-5 oC-1.)
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 3826. A sample of diatomic ideal gas is confined in a 100 ml container at a pressure of 200 kPa. The average
kinetic energy of a molecule is 5 .10-20 J. Find the number of molecules and the number of moles of the gas in the
container.
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 3827. Can the rate of energy transfer in the storage (rechargeable) battery decrease if switch K is turned on. Under
what conditions does the power in the battery remain the same?

(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3828. A coin is observed from a distance of 22 cm.
a) What is the distance between the observer's eye and the image of the coin if a 5-dioptre lens is placed 10 cm away
from the eye of the observer.
b) By what factor is the image of the coin observed through the lens and formed on the retina is greater than the
image formed on the retina when the lens is not used.
c) Where should the lens be placed if we want the greatest image on the retina?
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 3829. A stone is thrown from the top of a vertical column at a certain angle above the horizontal. It strikes the
ground twice as far as it would have struck it if it had been thrown from the bottom of the column with the same
initial velocity. In this latter case the stone would fly during a time T. Find the height of the column.
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3830. A small engine, fixed to a vertical wall at a height of H, winds up a piece of thread with a constant speed of
v0. At the other end of the thread there is a small body which moves along the horizontal ground (friction is not
negligible). How far is the small body from the wall when it rises from the ground? Data: H=20 cm, v0=5 cm/s.

(5 points)
Statistics
P. 3831. A lasso made of a piece of metal wire is thrown around a stake fixed in the ground, and then the end of the
lasso is pulled with a constant speed. Suppose that the loop around the stake remains circular. Calculate the induced
current in the loop.
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 3832. At what speed should we move towards the red traffic-light in order to observe the light green?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3833. Can three point-like objects of different masses move in the gravitational fields of each other, such that the
distances between any two are equal and remain constant during the motion? What is the angular speed of this
rotating system?
(5 points)
Problems in Physics, November 2005
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 12 December 2005.
M. 264. Let us unplug a tungsten filament bedside lamp, which was on for a long time and measure the resistance of
the cooling filament as a function of the elapsed time. How long does it take the resistance to decrease to half of the
value of the resistance of the filament at the operating temperature.
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 12 December 2005.

P. 3834. Electric toothbrushes are becoming more and more popular. Calculate the cost of operating one during a
year if it dissipates a power of 2 W, and each day you spend 4 minutes cleaning your teeth. The price of 1 kWh
electric energy is 34 forints.
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 3835. In our car both the head and the rear lights are connected to a 12 V rechargeable battery through a single
30 A fuse. The two headlights are each rated 55 W, and the two deadlights are each rated 30 W, and one of them
goes wrong, while the fuse melts. We have spare bulbs, but the spare fuse that we have is rated 20 A. Can we use it?
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 3836. From a 5 m high hill a 6 kg sleigh slides down, and stops somewhere on the horizontal ground. Find the
work done while the sleigh is pulled back from this position to the top of the hill.
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3837. A wooden planck of mass m stays at rest on a horizontal surface (see the figure). A pointlike object of mass

m moves along the horizontal surface with a speed of , and slides onto the circular part of the
planck, than flies off (friction is negligible).

a) Find the velocity of the planck after the pointlike object left it.
b) Find the greatest height to which the pointlike object ascends.
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 3838. A 3.1030kg star and a 6.1030kg star revolve about their common centre of mass. The distance between them is
always 9.109m. Find the period of the motion of the stars.
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3839. A small test tube is placed into a high cylinder which is nearly totally filled with water. The test tube is
placed upside down into the water, and in its top a certain amount of air remains, such that the test tube floats. The
cylinder is closed by a piece of thin rubber. If the rubber is pressed, the test tube descends and if the excess pressure
on the rubber is ceased the test tube ascends. But it comes up only if it did not go below the depth of 2 m. Find the
height of the that part of the test tube which was above the water before the cylinder was closed by the piece of
rubber. (The mass of the cylinder-shaped test tube is 0.5 g, its inner cross section is 0.5 cm2, and its length is 5 cm.
The density of water is 1000 kg/m3, the density of glass is 2500 kg/m3, and the external pressure is 105 Pa.)
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 3840. A sample of gas was compressed to a volume of 20 l adiabatically so the gas did not release or absorbe heat.
The initial pressure was 101.3 kPa and was increased by 76.4% during the process. a) Calculate the change in the
energy of the gas. b) Find the change of the entropy of the gas. c) By what factor did the absolute temperature of the
gas increased?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3841. In the circuit shown in the figure switch K is turned off for a long time, then it is turned on for a long time.
How does the charge of the condenser change?
Data: C=10 F, , Rb1=0.2 , , Rb2=0.4 .
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3842. The rear-view window of a car can be rotated by a small pin, and after this rotation the image is much
fainter. Thus the headlight of a car behind us will not blind the driver of our car. How is the glass of the mirror
formed?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3843. A small pearl can move without friction along a circular rigid ring. the radius of the ring is R. Find the
possible position of the pearl on the ring if the ring is rotated with an angular velocity about its vertical diameter.
Examine the stability of the pearl.
(5 points)
Problems in Physics, December 2005
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 11 January 2006.

M. 265. If the screen of a colour monitor or a colour television is observed through a magnifying lens then blue,
green and red points or segments can be seen. Find the distance between two points or segments which have the
same colour in both cases, with using optical devices.
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 11 January 2006.

P. 3844. An electric kettle, rated at 6 W, is turned on for 25 minutes and 1.2 l water which was initially at a
temperature of 20 oC is heated. Find the final temperature of the water if the efficiency of the process is 0.7.
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 3845. In a football match can a goal be scored if the ball is kicked such that it undergoes only translational
motion, hits the goal-post, then bounces on the goal-line, and then nobody touches the ball.
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 3846. A hollow solid of revolution is rotated about its vertical axis of symmetry at an angular velocity of . What
is the shape of this solid if a small object is in equilibrium at any point on the interior surface of the solid. (Static
friction is negligible.)
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3847. To what potential should a spherical mercury drop be charged, if its electric potential energy is equal to its
energy due to the surface tension. The diameter of the mercury drop is 2 mm.
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3848. A point-like light-source is placed to the symmetry axis of a hemisphere shaped piece of glass of radius
20 cm 10 cm away from the plane surface. The refractive index of glass is 1.5. How long does it take for the light
ray whose angle of incidence is 60o to travel through the glass, and what is its direction after emerging from the
glass.
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 3849. Electromagnetic plane wave is incident on and normal to a 10 m2 black plane surface, and it is totally
absorbed by the surface. The greatest force exerted on the surface is 2 .10-18 N. Find the maximum of the electric field
of the wave.
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3850. Radio waves are sent from the equator to a geostationary satellite, which can always be seen above our
head. How long does it take the radio waves to reach the satellite, and what is the displacement of the satellite during
this time?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3851. A diffraction grating is illuminated by light of wavelength 598 nm. The distance between the lines in the
diffraction pattern formed on a screen 5 m away from the grating is 2 cm. Find the distance between two rulings.
How would the diffraction pattern change if half of the grating parallel to the rulings, or perpendicular to the rulings
was covered?
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 3852. With a special laser light impulses of an average wavelength of 600 nm are generated each of which lasts
for 5.10-15 seconds. Find the uncertainty of the wavelength of these photons.
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 3853. Find the velocity of the object if its increase of mass is 10%.
a) By what percent will the length of the object decrease in the direction of the motion?
b) If its rest energy is W0, what is its kinetic energy?
(4 points)
Problems in Physics, January 2006
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 13 February 2006.

M. 266. Make a ``magnetic pendulum'' using a piece of magnet and a piece of iron. Fix one of them to the table
while the other is swinging above it. Examine the motion of the bob of the pendulum as a function of the initial
deflection angle and the distance between the bodies at the equilibrium position.
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 13 February 2006.

P. 3854. An hour-glass is placed to one of the pans of a pair of scales which is balanced while the sand trickles
down. Does the equilibrium of the scales change when all the sand is in the lower chamber?
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 3855. Estimate whether the rotation of the Earth could be stopped if all the people living on the Earth lined up
along the equator, and marched in the appropriate direction.
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 3856. The air pressure inside the 8 l bell-jar of an air pump at 20 oC is 100 Pa. Are there as many oxygen
molecules left in the jar as the number of people living on the Earth?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3857. Thomas is long-sighted. He is able to see clearly only those objects which are at least 1 m away. Find the
power of the glasses through which he is able to read a book 25 cm away from his eyes.
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 3858. We would like to increase the length of a 160 cm long copper rod of cross section 4 mm2 by 1 mm. What is
the energy absorbed by the rod if
a) the rod is stretched;
b) the rod is heated?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3859. The angle of elevation of an inclined plane of length L is . The coefficient of friction on the top half of the
plane is 1 and on the bottom part 2. At the top of the plane a plate of length l<L/2 is released. (The contact
between the surface of the plate and the slope is uniform.) Under what conditions does the plate stop exactly when
the front of the plate reaches the bottom of the slope.

(5 points)
Statistics
P. 3860. There is a semi-cylinder of radius R and mass M at rest on a horizontal table. On the top of the semi-
cylinder there is a small cube of mass m=M/2. What is the force exerted by the sliding cube on the semi-cylinder in
the position of
=30o if a) the semi-cylinder is fixed?
b) if the semi-cylinder can slide along the table without friction?

(5 points)
Statistics
P. 3861. The internal part of a long-necked vase is a vertical cylinder, the diameter of its base is 3 cm and its volume
is 2 dl. The vase is filled with water such that the air column above the water amplifies the sound of a vibrating
tuning fork placed above the vase. Interestingly if the water from this vase is poured into another long-necked vase,
the air above the water again amplifies the sound of the tuning fork. The internal part of this vase is a cylinder with
base diameter 3 cm, and volume 3 dl. The bottoms of both vases are 1.7 cm thick, the speed of sound in air is
342 m/s, and the frequency of the tuning fork is smaller than 1 kHz.
a) Find the heights of the vases.
b) Find the volume of the water that was poured into the vases.
c) What is the frequency of the tuning fork?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3862. A ray of light enters into a spherical water drop. After refraction it is reflected at the internal boundary of
the drop, and then it leaves the drop at another point. a) Prove (numerically) that if the angle of incidence is greater
than a certain ``critical'' angle, then there exists another ray parallel to the original ray, and after leaving the drop the
two rays remain also parallel. Find this ``critical'' angle. b) What is the distance between the two parallel incident
rays if the refractive index of water is n=4/3, the angle of incidence of one of the rays is =45o and the diameter of
the water drop is 1 mm.
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 3863. Photons collide with electrons of negligible speed. The energy of the photons is equal to the rest energy of
the electrons. After the collision one of the electrons moves such that the angle between the original velocity of the
photon and the velocity of the electron is 45o. Find the speed of this electron.
(5 points)
Problems in Physics, February 2006
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 13 March 2006.

M. 267. Place a cuboid-shaped, soft, dry sponge to a horizontal tabletop, such that its greatest face is on the table.
Put a sheet of cardboard to the top of the sponge and load it gradually. How does the compression of the sponge
depend on the load? Then gradually cease the loading. What can be observed? Repeat the experiment with sponge-
balls.
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 13 March 2006.

P. 3864. It takes a certain time for a cylinder to slide down without slipping on an inclined plane with friction. Using
energy methods decide whether the cylinder would slide down during shorter or longer time if there was no friction.
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 3865. The speed of an object undergoing uniform circular motion is 4 m/s. The magnitude of the change in the
velocity during 0.5 is also 4 m/s. Find the angular velocity, and the centripetal acceleration of the object. What is the
radius of the circle?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3866. Two small bodies of masses m1, and m2 are attached to the two ends of an ideal spring of spring constant D.
The spring is stretched by l, and then the two bodies are released at the same time. Find the greatest speeds of the
two masses, the amplitudes of their oscillations, and the frequencies. Friction is negligible. (Data: m1=1 kg,
m2=2 kg, D=100 N/m, l=9 cm.)

(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3867. An unstretchable string of uniform density and constant diameter is suspended at one of its ends and is
hanging. At a length of L it breaks under its own weight. Is it conceivable that there is such shape of string which
does not get broken under its own weight however long it is?
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 3868. Two similar retorts are connected with a glass tube, and there is a mercury drop in the middle of the glass
tube. In one of the retorts there is helium gas and in the other one there is nitrogen. The temperature and the pressure
of the gases are both equal. The whole system is placed into hot water and initially the mercury drop moves towards
the left and then it goes back to the middle position. Which retort contains which gas?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3869. A sample of ideal gas is taken through the cyclic process shown in the figure. The temperature of the gas at
state A is TA=200 K. At states B and C the temperature of the gas is the same.

a) What is the greatest temperature of the gas during the cyclic process?
b) Graph the cyclic process in the T-V diagram.
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3870. Some part of a light beam enters into a spherical water-drop. After refraction and then two reflections at the
internal boundary of the drop the light beam leaves the drop at the same point where it entered initially. Find the
angle between the initial incident and the final refracted ray. The refractive index of water is n=1.33.
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3871. The strengths of the gravitational field of a spherical planet of uniform density at a depth and at a height of
h are the same. (Both distances are measured from the surface of the planet.) Find the ratio of the gravitational
potentials at these places.
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 3872. Two coils are placed to the same closed iron core. The number of turns of the two coils are equal, and the
sense of their winding is a) the same, b) opposite. The switch, which has been closed for a long time, is suddenly
opened. Find the current in the different branches right after turning off the switch (see figure).

(5 points)
Statistics
P. 3873. An particle of energy 6.00 MeV was emitted by the nucleus of a 218Po, and passed the nucleus of a copper
atom, and was deflected by an angle of 5o. What is the smallest distance between the particle and the nucleus of
the copper atom?
(5 points)
Statistics

Problems in Physics, March 2006


Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 11 April 2006.

M. 268. The blade of a simple hacksaw is usually about 3 cm long and at its ends there are small holes. Connect the
two ends of the blade with pieces of strong strings of different lengths. How does the bending of the blade (y)
depend on the distance between the holes x? Measure how does the tension in the string depends on the distance x.

(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 11 April 2006.

P. 3874. Explain how a level works. Instead of a level can we use any tube filled with water and having a small
bubble in it?
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 3875. Why does the refrigerator turn on more times in summer than in winter?
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 3876. You can barely hear if you clap your hands in knitted gloves. Why? What causes the sound when you are
clapping?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3877. The planes in airports are pulled by small lorries loaded by heavy concrete blocks. What is the greatest
acceleration of a lorry of mass m if it pulls a plane of mass 70 tons. Find the least mass of the lorry which is able to
move a plane of mass 70 tons, if the coefficient of static friction on wet concrete is 0.4 and on dry concrete is 0.8,
and the coefficient of rolling friction is 0.02.
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3878. A right circular cone shaped funnel rotates about its vertical symmetry axis at an angular speed of =10 s-1.
What is the position of that small object which rotates together with the funnel? Data: 0=0.2; half of the vertex
angle of the cone 30o.
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3879. One end of a chord is attached to a small body which undergoes circular motion on a horizontal frictionless
table. There is a hole on the table at the centre of the circle, the chord goes through the hole and the other end of the
chord is held by our hand. Pulling this end the body moves from the path of radius r1 to another path of radius r2. By
what factor does the kinetic energy of the body change? By what factor does the tension change?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3880. A space-shuttle revolves around the Earth along an elliptical path, the smallest distance between the Earth
and the shuttle is 6870 km (measured from the centre of the Earth), the speed of the shuttle at this position is
10 km/s. a) What is the greatest distance between the shuttle and the Earth (measured from the centre of the Earth)?
b) What is the least speed of the shuttle?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3881. Two similar inlined planes are attached to each other such that their edges at the bottom touch each other. A
small uniform disk of radius r is placed to the inclined planes horizontally. The disk is moved out of its equilibrium
position, and begins to oscillate without slipping. Find the period of the motion.
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 3882. There is a sample of diatomic gas in a container (whose volume is constant). The temperature of this gas
was increased greatly so some molecules fell into atoms (dissociated) and the pressure of the gas increased by a
factor of 9.2 and the internal energy of the gas increased to a value of 8.24 times the original internal energy.
a) What percent of the molecules dissociated? b) By what factor did the temperature of the gas (measured in
Kelvins) increased?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3883. During the fission neutrons are ejected with an initial speed of 2 .107 m/s. We would like to slow down these
neutrons in heavy water to a speed of 103 m/s. At least how many collisions must occur?
(4 points)
Problems in Physics, April 2006
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 11 May 2006.

M. 269. Measure the internal resistance of a digital multimeter, if it is used as a voltmeter. Does this internal
resistance depend on the range?
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 11 May 2006.

P. 3884. There is a layer of oil on the surface of water and a wooden board is floating in it, such that half of its
volume is submerged in the water and one-fourth of its volume is in the oil. What is the density of the board if the
density of oil is 70% of the density of water?
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 3885. Find the conditions for the system shown in the figure to be in equilibrium.
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3886. In the end of 2005 when the row broke out over the price of natural gas between Ukraine and Russia,
Hungary had a storage of 2.4.109 m3 (standard form) natural gas. In Hungary to store the gas, exhausted gas or oil
fields are used which are filled with water (e.g. near Hajdszoboszl) and the gas is compressed into these reservoirs
under a pressure of 200 bar.
a) At what maximum depth can these reservoirs be?
b) In Hungary what is the least useful volume of these reservoirs?
c) The stored gas is mainly methane. Estimate the total mass of the compressed gas.
d) Natural gas is cooled down under the temperature of -160 oC, and condensed. The density of the gas increases to
600 times of the density when the gas is at standard temperature and pressure. How many oil-tankers can be filled
with the gas described above if the volume of one tanker is 160 000 cubic metre?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3887. An object is projected horizontally with a speed of v0=10 m/s.
a) How much time elapses until the velocity and the displacement enclose an angle of 15o?
b) What is the greatest angle enclosed by the velocity and the displacement?
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 3888. A man is walking along a straight road from point A to point B with a uniform speed. Point O is on the
perpendicular bisector of the line segment AB, and at O there is a man who is beating a drum. Another day another
man is walking from A to B, with the same speed as the first man was walking, and plays the drum, while an
observer listens at point O. In which case does the observer count more beats while the man moves from A to B?
(The beating starts in both cases well before the man leaves A, and lasts at least until the man reaches B. The beating
is uniform, its period is the same in both cases and much smaller than the time needed to walk from A to B.)
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 3889. A syringe is filled with water. Its volume is 20 cm3, and the cross section of its interior part is 4 cm2. The
syringe is held vertically such that its nozzle is at its top, and its 100 g piston is pressed and moves with a constant
speed. The ejected water has an initial upward velocity of 2 m/s, and the cross-section of the beam of water at the
nozzle is 1 mm2. (Neglect the dissipated energy due to friction.)
a) Find the speed of the piston.
b) What is the total work done by us?
c) Express and graph the force exerted on the piston as a function of time.
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3890. A charged metal sheet is placed into uniform electric field, perpendicularly to the electric field lines. After
placing the sheet into the field, the electric field on the left side of the sheet will be E1=5.6.105 V/m and on the right
it will be E2=3.1.105 V/m (see the figure).

a) Find the total charge of the sheet if you know that a force of 0.08 N is exerted on it.
b) Find the area of the sheet.
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 3891. The resistance of each resistor of the electric circuit shown in the figure is R. Find the effective resistances
between any two junctions of the circuit.

(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3892. A diffraction grating is illuminated perpendicularly to its plane by light of wavelength 680 nm. The grating
spacing is 5.10-6 m.
a) How many diffraction maxima can be observed on a screen which is parallel to the plane of the diffraction
grating.
b) What is the angle between the incident beam and the direction of the furthest reinforcement?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3893. The electron of a hydrogen atom can be replaced by a muon for a short time. The new atom is called
muonium. (The muon is similar to the electron but its mass is 207 times greater than the mass of the electron, and its
decay time is very short. Find the radius of the muonium in its ground state. How much energy is needed to ionize
the muonium atom? Data: The radius of the hydrogen atom is about 0.05 nm, and its ionization energy is 2.2 aJ.
(4 points)
Problems in Physics, May 2006
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 12 June 2006.

M. 270. Join iron and copper wires to make a thermocouple. Use a sensible voltmeter and measure and plot the
voltage-temperature graph, than measure the temperature of your hand.
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 12 June 2006.

P. 3894. A car was travelling with a speed of 50 km/h, which is the speed limit in cities, when suddenly a child step
to the road in front of the car. The driver immediately began to break, and the car stopped right in front of the child.
With what speed would have the car hit the children if it had moved with a speed of 70 km/h, instead of 50?
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 3895. First the image of a right-handed screw is projected to an obscure glass screen. a) Will this image be right
or left-handed? b) If the image is observed from the other side of the glass screen what kind of screw do you see?
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 3896. A car starts from rest speeds up along a circular path and increases its speed at a constant rate. After
covering one-fourth of a circle what is the angle between its acceleration and the radius drawn to the car at that
moment.
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3897. The figure shows two protons which start to move at the same moment with an initial speed of v. Find the
smallest distance between the two protons. Data: v=106 m/s, d=10-9 m, =30o.
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3898. A horizontal disc of mass m=0,6 kg and radius R=10 cm can be rotated easily about a vertical axle. Along a
radius of the disc a sheet is fixed to the disc. (The mass of the sheet is negligible.) A horizontally fired bullet, whose
mass is m1=20 g, hits the sheet perpendicularly, and the disc begins to rotate at an angular velocity of =20 s-1. The
distance between the axle and the place of impact is r=8 cm. What was the initial speed of the bullet, if a) it is
embedded in the sheet; b) it bounced back totally elastically?

(5 points)
Statistics
P. 3899. A sample of ideal gas is taken through the cyclic process shown in the figure. At state X TX=373 K,
VX=5 dm3, and at state Z VZ=12 dm3, TZ=273 K. At which state of the process Z X will the pressure be the same as
the pressure at state Y?

(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3900. A body, whose initial temperature is T0 is put to thermal contact with the heat reservoirs of temperatures
and finally connected with the heat reservoir of temperature Tn=T0. Show that Clausius'
statement:

holds true. Qi is the heat absorbed by the body from that heat reservoir whose temperature is Ti. Assume that the
volume of the body cannot change.
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 3901. The capacitance of a parallel plate condenser is 70 pF, one of its plates is charged to +8,0 .10-7 C and the
other is to -3,2.10-7 C. Find the voltage between the plates.
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3902. By what factor would the dissipated power of an electric heating element change if it was connected to an
ideal diode in series and this system was connected to an alternating voltage supply of 230 V, 50 Hz? What would be
the root-mean-square value of the voltage across the electric heating element? What is the ratio of this value and the
maximum of the voltage?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3903. What can be the ratio of the linear momentum of the photoelectrons ejected by aluminum and the linear
momentum of the absorbed photons?
(5 points)
Problem Solving Competition: 2006/2007
The competitions start annually and last from September to May, but you can enter any time during the academic
year.
In Mathematics, there are three different contests, in Physics there are two. Additionally, a new contest in
Informatics is launched. The conditions of the respective contests are slightly different. See below for details.
Every primary or secondary school student is eligible to participate in the competitions. Students in different grades
might find the same problems but in most cases their work is evaluated within their age group, they compete with
students of the same age only. Therefore, it is essential that the paper should indicate the 1 to 12 grade of the
contestant in the current school year. The KMaL contests are individual competitions, solutions produced by a
group are not accepted. If two papers turn out to be practically identical, none of them will be marked.
This year students are not allowed to participate in both competitions "K" and "B" at the same time.
MATHEMATICS

We have four contests in Mathematics this year.


K contest: this is a joint contest of KMaL and ABACUS, exclusively for students of grade 9 - beginning the
secondary school this year. 6 problems in each Month; each of them is worth of 6 points.
C contest: easy exercises for practice. 5 problems in each Month; each one for 5 points. There are three age
categories:
grades 1 to 8
grades 9 to 10
grades 11 to 12th (preferably those not studying mathematics in a special advanced class. Those in advanced
classes are advised to take part in the B contest).
B contest: this is the traditional contest of KMaL. 10 problems each month. You can send any number of solutions,
but only the highest six scores are entered.
Age groups:
up to the 8th grade
9th grade
10th grade
11th grade
12th grade
A contest: advanced problems, 3 each month. More demainding than the B contest, for those who are preparing for
national or international competitions. Here there are no separate age groups.
PHYSICS

M contest: Experimental problems: One measuring task is set each month. Each of them is worth 6 points. The
report must contain a description of the method, the data obtained sufficient in quantity and quality, the analysis
of the data, and the estimation of the error. There are no separate age groups.
P contest: 10 theoretical problems each month.
Age groups:
up to the 8th grade;
9th grade;
10th grade;
11th grade;
12th grade.
Every age group may send solutions to all kinds of problems. In the P contest we evaluate only 3 problems up to the
8th grade and 5 problems from 9th - 12th grade.
INFORMATICS

This year we have two contests in Informatics.


I contest: three problems every Month which can be solved in Pascal, C, C++, BASIC or Delphi. The solutions
should be sent to i@komal.hu.
S contest: one advanced problem every Month which can be solved in Pascal, C, C++ or JAVA. Solving these
problems need deeper algorithmic thoughts and knowledge. The solutions should be sent to s@komal.hu.
Do not send .exe files! There are no separate age groups, competition is opened for everyone.
Deadlines, adresses

The deadline of mailing or e-mailing the solutions is indicated in every issue next to the new exercises and
problems. Deadlines: in Physics: 11th of the month following the publication of the current issue; in Informatics:
13th of the month following the publication of the current issue; in Mathematics: 15th of the month following the
publication of the current issue. Should that be a weekend or bank holiday, the deadline is the next workday.
Send your solutions to the following address:

KMaL Szerkesztsg (KMaL feladatok), Budapest Pf. 47. 1255, Hungary


or by e-mail to: .
Informatics solutions are accepted via e-mail only and should be sent to the following address: i@komal.hu and
s@komal.hu, respectively.
The actual state of the contests appears on our web-site (http://www.komal.hu/eredmeny/index.e.shtml) and it is
updated regularly. These data are not official, only for your information. The final results will appear in August on
our Internet home page and in the September issue of the following academic year. The cca 10 top contestans are
rewarded by a certificate in each category and this is going to be mailed to their schools, and their portraits,
additionally, will be presented in the December issue and the Internet.
Entry Form for the contests
The layout of the papers:
By ordinary mail:
Write the solutions to different problems on separate A4 sheets of paper. (This is important because
different people are responsible for the marking.)
The header of every sheet must contain the following in the upper left corner (see sample 1):

-the letter code (A, B, C, M, P) and number of the problem in red


-the full name and the grade of the sender
-the name of the school and the town (and country)
-the e-mail adress of the sender
Fold each sheet into four separatly so that the header should appear in the front side.
Solutions to geometry problems should include diagrams.
Enclose with your solutions a separate sheet listing your data and the contents of your mail. See sample 2.

Sample 1. Header of a sheet Sample 2. Enclosed list


C. 593. Varga 163 Rbert, 9th grade
Varga 163 Rbert, 9th grade Rvai High School, Gyr
Rvai High School, Gyr I send the following 3 papers in:
e-mail: robi@revai.hu C. 591., C. 593., B. 3389.
Denote the age of the captain by C, the age of the ship
by S. When the age of the ship was C, the age of the
captain was C-(S-C)=2C-S. When the ship was 2C-
S ...

By e-mail:
Send the solutions of different problems as separate e-mail messages.
The "subject" field of the e-mail message should contain the letter code and number of the problem.
Additional requirements concerning the Informatics solutions
o In the first few comment lines of each program do enter the following information:
your name and class
your school.
your town (country)
The content of the papers:

It is not enough to state the answer. Results with detailed explanations only will receive full credit. (Reference to
standard school math is accepted without proof.)
Problems in Physics, September 2006
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 11 October 2006.

M. 271. An inclined plane is placed to the table next to the edge of the table. Where does the ball, which rolls down
the plane, hit the ground? (The angle of elevation of the plane can be varied.) Consider the following two cases:
a) the ball on the plane covers the same constant distance of l;
b) the ball on the plane starts at the same hight of h.
Find the angle at which the ball hits the ground at the furthest point.
(6 points)
Statistics
Problems with sign 'P'
Deadline expired on 11 October 2006.

P. 3904. The volume of a rubber ball is 600 cm3. When it floats on the surface of water 80% of its volume is above
the water. a) Find the average density of the ball. b) If the ball is pushed down, and immersed in the water, what is
the force with which it can be kept under the water?
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 3905. A body is hanging on a spring attached to the ceiling of an elevator. Suddenly the lift starts moving and then
it moves with a constant upward speed. How does the elongation of the spring change?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 3906. A 2-kg brick falls 5 m and then a worker catches it and brings it into rest in a distance of 0.5 m exerting an
upward constant force. a) Find the force exerted by the worker. b) Find the average power of the worker.
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 3907. Estimate how much more it costs to cover the distance by car between Miskolc and Srospatak if the lights
are on than if they are turned off. The total power dissipated in the lights is 50 W, the average speed is 60 km/h and
the efficiency of the engine is 25%.
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 3908. A solar furnace is a huge concave mirror which is always turned towards the Sun. A piece of metal, which is
to be melted, is placed to the focus of the mirror. What can be the greatest temperature at the focus of the solar
furnace?
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 3909. How would you connect the capacitors whose capacitances are 1 F, 2 F, 3 F and 4 F, such that
their equivalent capacitance is 1 F?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 3910. Calculate the current that flows through the battery shown in the figure. Find the resistor in which the
dissipated power is the greatest.

(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3911. A point-like charge undergoes uniform circular motion around another fixed, point-like charge of opposite
charge. Find the potential energy of the moving charge in terms of its kinetic energy. Calculate the ratio of the total
energy and the kinetic energy.
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 3912. Two long straight wires are hanged by 1.2-m long insulating threads as shown in the figure. A 1-m long
piece of both wires has the mass of 20 g. The currents have the same magnitude in the wires. Find the current in the
wires if the angle between the threads is 2o. What is the direction of the currents?
(4 points)
Problems in Physics, October 2006
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 13 November 2006.

M. 272. Measure the work done while a slinky is raised by its uppermost turn. Observing the distance between the
turns find the height of the centre of its mass.
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 13 November 2006.

P. 3913. At which point should the right triangle of sides 3 dm, 4 dm and 5 dm, be suspended if its hypotenuse is
vertical. The triangle is made of a piece of thin wire.
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3914. Find the current in the wire between points A and B.

(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3915. The track of motorcycle-race is circular and unbanked. There are two bikers on the road one travels along a
path of greater radius than the other. They both lean toward the centre at the same angle. Which one completes the
lap first?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3916. A small ball is thrown from a height of 1 m, and 2 m away from a vertical wall. The ball bounces on the
ground and on the vertical wall totally elastically and then it flies back to its initial position of throwing. Find the
initial speed of the ball if it was thrown at an angle of 45o with the horizontal. (Air drag can be neglected).
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 3917. A tram, filled with stones, moves along a on a horizontal straight track. Its total mass with the stones is M.
How much work is done while a stone of mass m is thrown out of the tram with a horizontal speed of v with respect
to the tram if it is thrown backwards or if it is thrown forward. Find the kinetic energy of the stone in both cases.
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 3918. A beam of mass M and of length l is attached to a pivot hinge where the friction is negligible as shown in
the figure. At 3 of the beam a spring is attached to it and its other end is connected to the wall. (The spring has a
spring constant D and it can both pull an push.) Find the period of the beam for small displacements.
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 3919. There is a vertical cylinder filled with a sample of ideal gas in a thermostat. A horizontal piston which can
move easily, splits the cylinder into two parts. The volume of the upper part is 4 times as much as the volume of the
part below. If the cylinder is placed to a thermostat at a temperature of 400 K the ratio of the volumes of the upper
and lower parts will be 3:1. Find the ratio of the number of molecules of the gas in the two parts of the cylinder.
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3920. A large vertical insulating sheet is charged uniformly. The surface charge density is . A small neutral
body of mass m is suspended on a long insulating thread of length l next to the sheet. Then the small body is given a
charge of q, and left alone.
a) Find the greatest angle between the thread and the vertical.
b) Find the greatest speed of the small body.
c) Find the period of the motion. Data: l=1 m, m=10-3 kg, q=10-8 C, =10-6 C/m2.
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 3921. An electron revolves along circular path in uniform magnetic field of 1 T. Find the radius of the circle. The
kinetic energy of the electron is a) 5.1 keV, b) 510 keV, c) 51 MeV.
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 3922. How much energy is needed to split the nucleus of a into four alpha-particles.
(4 points)
Problems in Physics, November 2006
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 11 December 2006.

M. 273. The display of a solar cell powered calculator turns off if some part of the solar cell is covered. (Use a
calculator which does not have a back-up battery.) Find the limit case, and examine the relationship between the area
of the uncovered surface and the intensity of light. Shading the uncovered part of the solar cell with semi-permeable
foils investigate how the absorption of light depends on the number of layers.
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 11 December 2006.

P. 3923. In a thermally insulated container there was some water at a temperature of , then 1 kg ice at
temperature was added. How much water was initially in the container if
a) there was no phase change;
b) the total amount of ice melted;
c) the total amount of water froze?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3924. If a bulb, rated at 15 W and 230 V, and another bulb rated at 100 W and 230 V are connected in series and a
voltage supply of 230 V is applied the 15 W bulb operates as if it was connected to the 230 V voltage supply, but the
100 W bulb does not operate at all. Explain the phenomenon.
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3925. What is the colour of the sky above our head in the day-time observed
a) from the ground;
b) from a sail-plane;
c) from a jet fighter;
d) from a space station revolving around the Earth;
e) from the Moon?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3926. The two ends of a rubber string of negligible mass are fixed at the same height, such that the string is un-
stretched. A small object is attached to the string in its midpoint, thus the angle of depression of the string is =30o.
Then the small object is charged and vertical electric field is applied. Initially the depression angle of the string
increases to 1=45o, then the electric field is changed and the depression angle increases to 2=60o. By what factor
is the electric field in the second case more than that of in the first case?

(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3927. Two small moons revolve around a planet. The period of one of them is 24 hours and the period of the other
is 81 hours. The second moon is 2.5 times further from the surface of the planet than the first one. Find the average
density of the planet. (The moons revolve along circular paths.)
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3928. Sid has a very good sense of music. One day when he walked home he was surprised to experience that the
change in the pitch of the sound of the horn of a passing car changed exactly by one major second (a whole tone).
When he got home he could calculate the speed of the car. Did the driver keep the speed limit in towns?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3929. A disc of mass m=12 kg and of radius R=0.1 m slides down without rolling along smooth, frictionless
inclined plane, which ends in a horizontal plane without break. The disc starts at a height of h=1.25 m (it has no
initial speed and it does not rotate), and lands on the top of a cart of mass M=6 kg, which can move easily. The
coefficient of kinetic friction between the cart and the disc is =0.4. The disc begins to roll without sliding when it
is in the middle of the cart.
a) How long is the cart?
b) What is the greatest speed of the cart?
c) How long does it take for the disc to go through the cart?

(5 points)
Statistics
P. 3930. The circuit of a carbon arc lamp is shown in the figure (to ignite the lamp the carbon electrodes are touched
together, then they are slowly drawn apart.) The voltage across the gap between the carbon rods as a function of the

current can be given by the following formula: , where A and B are constants.
a) If the voltage of the battery U0. can be considered constant what is the resistance of the multiplier Rmax , that
should be connected in series to ignite the lamp.
b) Find the stable current if the resistance of the multiplier is R<Rmax .
Data: A=30 V, B=20 W, U0=100 V, R=50 .
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 3931. What is the greatest and the smallest speed with which a comet revolving around the Sun could strike the
Earth if there was no air around the Earth?
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 3932. Why can those radioactive isotopes (natural) exist in the Earth which have much shorter half-life than the
age of the Earth?
(4 points)
Problems in Physics, December 2006
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 11 January 2007.

M. 274. Measure how the torque exerted by a clothes peg depends on the angle between the prongs of a clothes peg.
How much mechanical work is to be done to open the prongs of the peg completely.
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 11 January 2007.

P. 3933. A wheel, which has five spokes, turns 1200 in every minute. It is illuminated by a fluorescent lamp operated
from a mains electricity supply. What is its apparent number of turns?
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 3934. The plates of a parallel plate condenser are horizontal and a small charged oil drop is floating between
them. In what direction will the drop move if the plates of the condenser, which are connected to a battery which
supplies constant voltage, are moved closer to each other?
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 3935. A piece of ice has a shape of a cone and it floats in water, such that its symmetry axis is vertical. What
fraction of its height is above the water?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3936. Observing from the Earth by what factor does the diameter of the Moon seem to be greater than that of the
Mars?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3937. Two wagons of masses m1 and m2 are moving towards each other along a horizontal path. Their speeds are
v1 and v2 respectively. a) What is their common velocity after they are hitched? b) What is the maximum
compression of each buffer if the spring constant of all the four buffers are the same D? c) If the sum of the masses
of the two wagons is constant at what ratio of the masses will the maximum compression be the greatest?
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 3938. The U-shaped body of mass M shown in the figure is at rest and lies on a smooth horizontal surface (e.g. on
ice). Its centre of mass is the midpoint of the semicircle of radius R. The length of the straight arms of the U is 2R.
A small disc of mass m slides tangentially to point A on one of the arms, with a velocity of v.

a) Where will point A be when the disc is at point B on the other arm?
b) Draw the path of the two bodies.
c) Find the velocity versus time and acceleration versus time functions for both bodies.
(Friction and air drag are negligible everywhere. Data: M=m=1 kg, R=0.1 m, v=0.5 m/s.)
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 3939. Two 100- resistors are connected in series, and they are operated from a supply which generates constant
voltage. A variable resistor is connected to one of the 100- resistors in parallel. Find the resistance of the variable
resistor when it dissipates the greatest power.
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3940. Two voltage supplies are connected parallel to the same resistor. The electromotive force of one of them is
U1, and its internal resistance is R1. The emf of the other is U2, and its internal resistance is R2. What is the resistance
R of the resistor if it is to dissipate the greatest power?

(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3941. A diatomic ideal gas is taken through the cyclic process shown in the figure. In state 1 the pressure of the
gas is 100 kPa and its temperature is 350 K. In state 2 the pressure is 300 kPa. What is the efficiency of the cycle?

(5 points)
Statistics
P. 3942. A lab animal is injected with a solution which contains a radioactive isotope of half-life 15 h. The activity
of the solution is 2100 Bq. 5 hours later a sample of blood is taken from the animal and it was found that the
activity of 3 cm3 of the animal's blood is 0.25 Bq. How many liters of blood does the animal have if during the
elapsed five hours half of the solution was absorbed by its body?
(4 points)
Problems in Physics, January 2007
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 12 February 2007.

M. 275. Let a small disc of magnet slide along a long inclined plane made of aluminum. Measure the speed of the
disc when it is uniform as a function of the angle of inclination of the slope. Determine the coefficient of kinetic
friction.
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 12 February 2007.

P. 3943. John showed his friends that with his glasses he can collect the Sun's rays and light a piece of paper. When
the Sun is shining why don't his glasses burn the skin near his eyes?
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 3944. A spiral spring is hanged at one of its end such that its loops do not touch each other, and then it is
connected to a voltage supply and current flows through it. Will the spring be compressed or stretched? What
happens if it is connected to an alternating voltage supply?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3945. Find the elongation of that spring which pulls a cart of mass M with a constant force, and the mathematical
pendulum which is attached to the cart makes an angle of with the vertical. The mass of the bob on the pendulum
is m and the spring constant is D. Friction and the mass of the spring are negligible.
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3946. An elevator cab, whose total mass with its passengers is 600 kg, ascends uniformly. The mass of the
counterweight is 300 kg. The mechanical power of the motor is 10 kW and the efficiency is 80%.
a) Find the speed of the lift.
b) Calculate the tension in the rope which pulls the lift.
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3947. A spiral spring of negligible mass and spring constant D lies un-stretched on a smooth horizontal plane. Its
length is l0, and one of its end is fixed to a vertical axle, while the to other a point-like disc of mass m is attached.
Another disc of mass m collides elastically with the disc attached to the spring. The initial velocity of the moving
disc is v and is perpendicular to the axis of the spring. Find the smallest radius of curvature of the path of the disc
attached to the spring. Data: D=64 N/m, l0=1 m, m=0.5 kg, v=8 m/s.

(5 points)
Statistics
P. 3948. A plane flies at a height of 10 km and the state of weightlessness is created for 20 seconds. The plane
ascends for 10 seconds and then descends for 10 seconds and returns to the initial height of 10 km.
a) Calculate the angle of elevation at the beginning of the weightlessness, if the speed at this time is 900 km/h?
b) To what height does the plane ascend?
c) What is the speed of the plane at the highest point?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3949. What is the period of that space probe which orbits a 100 km above the surface of the Mars. For how long
can the space probe, ``see'', remain in radio-contact with the lander? First the lander was bouncing on the surface of
Mars, which has rare atmosphere. After the first bounce it raised 20 metres. What is the elapsed time between two
bounces?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3950. A sample of nitrogen gas was taken through the cyclic process shown in the figure. By what factor is the
energy released by the gas in the isochoric process is greater than the work done by the gas in the isobaric process?

(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3951. Cloud droplets of diameter 0.01 mm are charged to a potential of 1 mV and unite into droplets of diameter
0.1 mm. What is the voltage of this new droplet? By what factor is the speed of fall of the big droplet greater than
the that of the small one?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3952. The back wall of an aquarium has a reflective surface and it is 30 cm from the front wall. The width of the
walls is negligible. A fish swims in the water exactly halfway between the two walls. The fish is observed from a
direction which is perpendicular to the walls. a) How far from the front wall do you see the fish? b) How far do you
see the image of the fish? The refractive index of water is 1.33.
(4 points)
Problems in Physics, February 2007
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 12 March 2007.

M. 276. Measure how the time while the sand runs to the bottom bulb of an hourglass change if you vary the angle
between the symmetry axis of the hourglass and the vertical.
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 12 March 2007.

P. 3953. In a pot there is salt water of weight 40 N, and an object weighing 60 N is floating in it. Find the area of the
base of the pot if the height of the water in it is 25 cm. The weight of 1 l salt water is 10 N.
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 3954. Cars of length l travel with uniform velocity of v and pass a road sign. The distance between them is x. The
greater their speed the greater the distance between them. The relationship between their speed and the distance
between them is given by the function x= v2, where is constant, characteristic to all cars. What is the velocity at
which the most cars go past the road sign during a given time?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3955. There are two samples of gas in a thermally insulated cylinder. One of them is Argon at a temperature of
300 K, and the other is Nitrogen at a temperature of 400 K. There is a thermally insulated wall between them. The
two gases have the same pressure and the same volume. Then the wall between the gases is taken away, and the two
gases mix.
a) Does the energy of the system change?
b) What will be the common temperature?
c) How does the pressure change?
d) Does the entropy of the system change?
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 3956. There are three small discs of masses m1=0.2 kg, m2=0.3 kg, m3=0.52 kg on a horizontal air-cushioned table,
and they are tied with thin massless threads of length L=60 cm, as shown in the figure. a) Find the distances between
any of the discs and the centre of mass of the system. b) The system is made to rotate about the centre of mass at a
constant angular speed of =10 s-1. Calculate the tensions in the threads.

(5 points)
Statistics
P. 3957. Estimate the number of electrons which pass the cross section of the ring on the finger of the fan while he
or she is waving on a rock-concert.
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3958. There is a point-like light-source in a metal sphere whose surface reflects light. The light-source is at the
midpoint of a radius of the sphere. After two reflections where will be the image of the light-source if it is shaded as
shown in the figure. Where will be the image if the shading-cap is rotated by 180 o? Draw a figure of the special rays
too.

(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3959. Estimate how far would the Earth move away from the Sun because of its radiation in a 100 years. The
power of the radiation of the Sun is P=3.8.1026 W.
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 3960. A vertical cylinder of radius R is fixed on a horizontal, ideally smooth tabletop. There is a string attached to
the bottom of the cylinder, while to the other end of the string a small disc, whose mass is m, is fixed. The small disc
is given a velocity v0 which is perpendicular to the tightened string. The disc slides on the tabletop while the string is
wound round the cylinder. a) What is the velocity of the small disc when it hits the wall of the cylinder? (Give both
the direction and the magnitude.) b) What is the tension at this moment? (Data: R=1 m, l0=2 m, r=2 cm, m=5 g.)

(5 points)
Statistics
P. 3961. A beam of carbon ions of velocity 10 km/s is shot into magnetic field of 0.01 T, perpendicularly to the
magnetic field. It is found that the ions move along two circular paths. The radii of the paths are 134 mm, and
124 mm. What is the mass of the two different ions? How do they differ from each other?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3962. A + meson of negligible initial velocity decays to a + (muon) and a neutrino. With what energy does the
neutrino move?
(The rest mass of neutrino can be considered zero. The rest energy of the + meson is 140 MeV, and the rest energy
of the muon is 106 MeV.)
(5 points)
Problems in Physics, March 2007
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 11 April 2007.

M. 277. Measure in which case will a cup of milk coffee be colder: if cold milk is poured into the hot coffee
immediately and then the mixture is left to cool down for a while, or if the hot coffee is left to cool for the same time
as in the previous case, and then cold milk is is added.
(6 points)
Statistics
Problems with sign 'P'
Deadline expired on 11 April 2007.

P. 3963. Find the mass of the object which is to be raised to a height of 1 metre such that the change in its energy is
the same as the absorbed energy when 1 litre of water is heated by .
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 3964. Where does the linear momentum of the swinging child come from? (Initially she is sitting on the swing
without moving and her feet do not touch the ground.)
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3965. From the top of a rough sphere of radius R a small ball of radius r and of mass m rolls down with no initial
speed. Where will the ball begin to slide and what is the frictional force at the moment when it begins to slide if
R=1 m, r=0.1 m, m=15 kg, and the coefficient of static friction is = 0=0.2?
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 3966. Two waves of the same amplitude are generated by two point-like wave sources. The waves are in phase,
their frequency is 5 Hz and their speed is 2 m/s. What can you observe at the point which is 40 cm from one of the
sources and 60 cm from the other.
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3967. In a container there is mixture of helium and hydrogen gas. What is the ratio of the masses of the two gases
if the partial pressures of the two gases are equal.
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3968. The tap in the garden was closed at 8 o'clock in the evening, but unfortunately it was closed inappropriately.
The water flowing out of it forms a downward narrowing beam as shown in the figure. The beam of water has a
circular cross-section, the diameter of the circle is 6 mm at one point and 4 cm below it is only 3.4 mm. How much
water was wasted if the tap is closed properly at 8 o'clock next morning. (The viscosity of the flowing water can be
neglected.)

(5 points)
Statistics
P. 3969. Electric currents of magnitude I flow in two loops made of insulated wires, their direction is shown in the
figure. The shapes of the loops are regular n-gons. In which case will the magnetic field be greater at the centre of
circle that is circumscribed around the n-gon?
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 3970. An electron is shot into uniform magnetic field of magnitude B=10-3 T the width of which is d=2 cm. The
velocity of the electron is perpendicular to the magnetic field lines, the angle between the velocity of the electron
and the normal of the boundary is =30o.
a) What is the least velocity of the electron if it goes through the region of magnetic field of width d?
b) What is the speed below which the electron cannot go through the magnetic field of width d?

(5 points)
Statistics
P. 3971. In 1611, before the law of refraction was discovered by Snell, Kepler published the book Dioptrice in
which he describes his investigation about the refraction of light entering from air into a rock-crystal. He found that
the angle between the extension of the incident ray and the refracted ray is proportional to the angle of incidence

: , where k is a constant (in case of the rock crystal ).


a) Verify Kepler's formula for small angles.
b) Aim a beam of monochromatic light to a rock crystal prism the apex angle of which is small, such that the
beam is nearly perpendicular to the surface of the prism. Using Kepler's formula determine the angle between the
incident ray and the ray which leaves the prism.
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 3972. With what percentage will the shortest wavelength of a continuous x-ray spectrum change if the voltage of
the x-ray tube is increased by 10%?
(4 points)
Problems in Physics, April 2007
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 11 May 2007.

M. 278. Examine experimentally when will the pendulum stop sooner if there is a smaller or a greater bob at the end
of the thread? Does the time while the bob stop depend on the material of the bob?
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 11 May 2007.

P. 3973. Because of the hot weather air-condition was on for about 3 hours every day in July. The rate of energy
absorbed from the room is 1800 W, the device is operated from a voltage of 230 V such that the useful rate of energy
of the device is 240% of the rate of energy drown from the power supply. How much does the monthly bill increased
if the price of 1 kWh energy is 36 Ft.
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 3974. A body of mass m1=2 kg slides down from the top of an inclined plane (the angle of inclination is =20o.)
A cart of mass m2=1 kg is attached to this body with a thread of length =1.6 m as shown in the figure. The thread
initially is straight. Along the first part of the slope, the length of which is /2, friction is negligible, along the
second part, the length of which is /2, the coefficient of friction is =0.6. How far will the two objects be when
the cart reaches the pulley?

(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3975. There are switches at both ends of a long corridor. The lamp in the middle of the corridor can be turned off
or on with both switches.
a) Draw the circuit.
b) What fraction of the time is the lamp on if one of the switches is turned at every 2 minutes and the other is
switched in every three minutes.
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3976. A disc of radius R is moved with a constant u velocity on an air-cushioned table. Another small disc collides
with it elastically with a speed of v0=0.3 m/s, the velocities of the discs are parallel. The distance d shown in the
figure is equal to R/2, friction between the discs is negligible.
a) For which u will the small disc move perpendicularly to its original motion after the collision?
b) What will be the speed of the small disc in this case?

(5 points)
Statistics
P. 3977. tional acceleration if the radius of the sphere is 10 km, and the centre of the sphere is 11 km below the
surface of the Earth. Calculate the change in the gravitational acceleration exactly above the oil field and 20 km
away from this point.
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 3978. A rod of mass m and length =1 m slides down on a slope such that one of its end slides along the slope
and the other slides along the horizontal without friction. Initially the rod touches the incline, the figure shows a
snapshot of the motion later.
a) Find the speed of the endpoints A and B when the rod reaches the horizontal position.
b) What are these speeds when the rod encloses an angle of 30o with the horizontal.

(5 points)
Statistics
P. 3979. Two pointlike charges of charge Q and -4Q are fixed at a distance of L.
a) At which point will the electric field be zero.
b) At which point will the net potential be zero?
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 3980. A pair of wire is used to transfer power of 100 kW to a distance of 100 km, such that the decrease in the
voltage can be maximum 2%. The wire is made of copper the resistivity of which is 1.7 .10-8 m, the diameter of the
wire is 20 mm. Calculate the voltage.
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3981. A generator of constant voltage but of variable frequency is connected to a series RLC circuit. Gradually
changing the frequency the current reaches a maximum, when the voltage across the inductor is U1. If the frequency
is further increased the current decreases, but the voltage across the inductor still increases. Later the voltage across
the coil reaches its maximum of U2 and then it decreases.

Determine the quotient of in terms of R, L and C.


(5 points)
Statistics
P. 3982. Recently the nuclear technology is appropriate to transfer an element to another. Describe a method how to
produce stable lead from stable bismuth.
(5 points)
Problems in Physics, May 2007
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 11 June 2007.

M. 279. On windy days the overhead tram wires can easily begin to swing. The period of the oscillation depends on
how much the wires sag. Model the wire with a single chain of the given length, which swings. Measure for small
amplitudes how the period depends on the sag of the chain.
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 11 June 2007.

P. 3983. A racewalker on the training walked between point A and point B. First he walked from A to B taking
120 steps in each minute then he turned back at B and went back to A taking 90 steps in each minute. He turned back
at A and went to B again and took 60 steps per minute, and finally he turned back at B and stepped only 45 in one
minute until he got back to A. It took him 1 hour and 3 minutes. What is the distance in steps between the points A
and B? What is the average steps that the walker took in one minute?
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 3984. Estimate how much does the height of the mercury column change in Torricelli's experiment
a) if the device is brought from the room of tempereture to the balcony where the temperature is ;
b) if the device is kept in the room but some drops of water is inserted into the tube.
(In his famous experiment Torricelli created a metre long tube sealed at the top end, filled it with mercury, and set it
vertically into a basin of mercury. The column of mercury fell to about 76 cm.)
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3985. Two objects of mass m are connected with a rope of length as shown in the figure. The rope can slide in a

tube which forms a quarter of a circle, and which is fixed to the edge of the table. Initially of the rope hangs
vertically. Friction is negligible.
a) If the system is released, how long does it take for the object on the right handside to descend a distance of ,
and at that time what are the speeds of the objects?
b) What would be the speeds of the object after covering the same distance if the mass of the rope was m as well?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3986. A sample of ideal gas of 0.3 mol is taken through the cyclic process shown in the figure. The temperature of
the gas at state 3 is 900 K, and at state 4 600 K.

a) Find the temperature of the gas at states 1 and 2.


b) What is the work done by the gas during one cycle?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3987. A converging lens of focal length f is used to create a real image on a screen placed at a distance of d from
the lens. Graph the number of possible images as a function of d.
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3988. A small charged bead of mass m and of charge q can move on a frictionless horizontal rod. A pointlike
charge Q whose charge is opposite the charge on the bead, is fixed at a point which is at a distance of d from the rod.
The bead is a bit displaced from its equilibrium position and then released. Find the period of the resulted oscillatory
motion.
Data: Q=10-8 C, q=-10-8 C, m=1 g, d=10 cm.
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 3989. A proton moving with 60% of the speed of light is scattered elastically on another proton which was
initially at rest. After scattering the angles of deflection of the two protons measured from the direction of the
motion of the initially moving proton are the same. What is this scattering angle and what are the speeds of the
protons?
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 3990. If two uniform bodies are moved closer to each other along the line which joins them, then the gravitational
force exerted between them usually increases. Is this always true? Give examples for the opposite.
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3991. A solid cylinder of mass m and radius R is rotated with an angular speed of 0 as shown in the figure and
placed carefully to a long enough slope at a distance of s measured from the bottom of the slope. The incline angle
is . How far from the bottom will the cylinder move and with what speed will it reach the bottom if
a) =30o and =0.2;
b) =20o and =0.4?
Data: s=2 m, R=0.2 m, 0=100 s-1.
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 3992. A hemisphere of mass M and of radius R can slide on the horizontal tabletop without friction. A small
object of mass m slides down from the top of the hemisphere without friction.

a) To what speed will the hemisphere be accelerated?


b) With what speed and where will the small object reach the table?
(5 points)
Statistics

Problem Solving Competition: 2007/2008


The competitions start annually and last from September to May, but you can enter any time during the academic
year.
In Mathematics, there are four different contests, in Physics and in Informatics there are two. The conditions of the
respective contests are slightly different. See below for details.
Every primary or secondary school student is eligible to participate in the competitions. Students in different grades
might find the same problems but in most cases their work is evaluated within their age group, they compete with
students of the same age only. Therefore, it is essential that the paper should indicate the 1 to 12 grade of the
contestant in the current school year. The KMaL contests are individual competitions, solutions produced by a
group are not accepted. If two papers turn out to be practically identical, none of them will be marked.
This year students are not allowed to participate in both competitions "K" and "B" at the same time.
MATHEMATICS

We have four contests in Mathematics this year.


K contest: this is a joint contest of KMaL and ABACUS, exclusively for students of grade 9 - beginning the
secondary school this year. 6 problems in each Month; each of them is worth of 6 points.
C contest: easy exercises for practice. 5 problems in each Month; each one for 5 points. There are three age
categories:
grades 1 to 8
grades 9 to 10
grades 11 to 12th (preferably those not studying mathematics in a special advanced class. Those in advanced
classes are advised to take part in the B contest).
B contest: this is the traditional contest of KMaL. 10 problems each month. You can send any number of solutions,
but only the highest six scores are entered.
Age groups:
up to the 8th grade
9th grade
10th grade
11th grade
12th grade
A contest: advanced problems, 3 each month. More demainding than the B contest, for those who are preparing for
national or international competitions. Here there are no separate age groups.
PHYSICS

M contest: Experimental problems: One measuring task is set each month. Each of them is worth 6 points. The
report must contain a description of the method, the data obtained sufficient in quantity and quality, the analysis
of the data, and the estimation of the error. There are no separate age groups.
P contest: 10 theoretical problems each month.
Age groups:
up to the 8th grade;
9th grade;
10th grade;
11th grade;
12th grade.
Every age group may send solutions to all kinds of problems. In the P contest we evaluate only 3 problems up to the
8th grade and 5 problems from 9th - 12th grade.
INFORMATICS

This year we have two contests in Informatics. There are no separate age groups, competition is opened for
everyone.
I contest: three problems every Month which can be solved in Pascal, C, C++, BASIC or Delphi.
S contest: one advanced problem every Month which can be solved in Pascal, C, C++ or JAVA. Solving these
problems need deeper algorithmic thoughts and knowledge.
Please do not send .exe files!
Deadlines, adresses

The deadline of mailing or e-mailing the solutions is indicated in every issue next to the new exercises and
problems. Deadlines: in Physics: 11th of the month following the publication of the current issue; in Informatics:
15th of the month following the publication of the current issue; in Mathematics: A, B and C contest - 15th, K
contest - 10th of the month following the publication of the current issue. Should that be a weekend or bank holiday,
the deadline is the next workday.
Send your solutions to the following address:

KMaL Szerkesztsg (KMaL feladatok), Budapest 112, P.O.B. 32. H-1518


or by e-mail to: .
Informatics solutions are accepted via e-mail only and should be sent to the following address:
.
The actual state of the contests appears on our web-site (http://www.komal.hu/eredmeny/index.e.shtml) and it is
updated regularly. These data are not official, only for your information. The final results will appear in August on
our Internet home page and in the September issue of the following academic year. The cca 10 top contestans are
rewarded by a certificate in each category and this is going to be mailed to their schools, and their portraits,
additionally, will be presented in the December issue and the Internet.
Entry Form for the contests
The layout of the papers:
By ordinary mail:
Write the solutions to different problems on separate A4 sheets of paper. (This is important because
different people are responsible for the marking.)
The header of every sheet must contain the following in the upper left corner (see sample 1):

-the letter code (A, B, C, M, P) and number of the problem in red


-the full name and the grade of the sender
-the name of the school and the town (and country)
-the e-mail adress of the sender
Fold each sheet into four separatly so that the header should appear in the front side.
Solutions to geometry problems should include diagrams.
Enclose with your solutions a separate sheet listing your data and the contents of your mail. See sample 2.

Sample 1. Header of a sheet Sample 2. Enclosed list


C. 593. Varga 163 Rbert, 9th grade
Varga 163 Rbert, 9th grade Rvai High School, Gyr
Rvai High School, Gyr I send the following 3 papers in:
e-mail: robi@revai.hu C. 591., C. 593., B. 3389.
Denote the age of the captain by C, the age of the ship
by S. When the age of the ship was C, the age of the
captain was C-(S-C)=2C-S. When the ship was 2C-
S ...

By e-mail:
Send the solutions of different problems as separate e-mail messages.
The "subject" field of the e-mail message should contain the letter code and number of the problem.
Additional requirements concerning the Informatics solutions
o In the first few comment lines of each program do enter the following information:
your name and class
your school.
your town (country)
The content of the papers:

It is not enough to state the answer. Results with detailed explanations only will receive full credit. (Reference to
standard school math is accepted without proof.)
Problems in Physics, September 2007
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 11 October 2007.

M. 280. Drop some oil to the surface of water. Plot the graph of the diameter of the patch of oil as a function of the
quantity of the dropped oil.
What is the width of the oil layer spread out on the surface of water?
Examine the phenomenon at different temperatures.
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 11 October 2007.

P. 3993. Pour some soda water or soft drink to a glass and drop some raisins into it.
Observe what happens in the next few minutes.
Explain your observation.
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 3994. A 60 kg boy notices a nice fruit on a tree. Even with stretched arms he cannot reach it, he is a 0.5 m below
the fruit. The boy crouches down - his centre of mass descends 0.4 m - and then he leaps up. Thus he just reaches the
fruit. Assume that he exerts a constant force on the ground while he touches it.
a) What is this force at least?
b) What is the average power of the boy?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3995. A 2 kg lead ball and a big medicine ball of mass 2 kg are dropped from the same height. The lead ball
reaches the ground in 2 seconds and the medicine ball hits the ground with a speed of 10 m/s.
Calculate the work done on the medicine ball by the air drag.
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3996. A courier runs from the end of an 80 m long marching troop to its front, and then it runs back to the end
with the same speed. During this the marching troop covers a distance of 150 m. Calculate the distance covered by
the courier.
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3997. The mass of the body which is hanging on the rope attached to the movable pulley is four times as much as
the mass of the body which is fixed to the ground. At a given instant the fixed body is released. To what height does
it ascend? (The mass of the pulleys and the ropes is negligible.)
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3998. A cylinder with a piston in it encloses some air. Initially the volume of the air is V=0.1 m3, its temperature is
27 oC, and its pressure is p=113 kPa. The system is operated as a heat engine, while the air is taken through a cyclic
process which consists of two isobaric processes at pressures of p and 2p and two isochoric processes at volumes
of V and 3V.
a) What is the work done by the gas in the cyclic process?
b) What is the efficiency of this heat engine?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 3999. Explain the formation of frost and freezing rain.
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 4000. A coil is connected to an alternating emf of voltage 24 V and of frequency 50 Hz. The reading on the
ammeter connected to the coil in series is 10 mA. If a 1 F capacitor is connected to the coil in series the ammeter
shows 10 mA again.
What would be the reading on the ammeter if the coil was connected to a 24 V dc voltage supply?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4001. Two objects are placed to the principal axis of a thin converging lens. One is 20 cm from the lens and the
other is on the other side of the lens at a distance of 40 cm from the lens. The images of both objects are in the same
plane. What is the focal length of the lens?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4002. The starting isotope of a decay chain is 238U and the stable final isotope of this decay chain is 206Pb. How
many decays, and how many decays occur in the decay chain?
(3 points)
Problems in Physics, October 2007
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 12 November 2007.

M. 281. According to a housewife if water at a temperature of 100 oC, is poured from the kettle to the cup from a
height of 15-20 cm, than the water in the cup will be colder than if the water is poured at the height of the rim of the
cup.
Check with measurement whether she is right or wrong.
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 12 November 2007.
P. 4003. On a running training the runners run at a speed of v=5 m/s along a straight path, forming an L=35 m long
column. Their coach runs towards them at a speed of u=2 m/s. The first runner turns back and runs in the same
direction as the coach, still at a speed of v, when he meets the coach, and so do all the runners when they meet their
coach.
a) How much time elapses between the turn of the first and the last runner?
b) How long is the column when they all run in the same direction as the coach?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4004. The kinetic energy of a cart of mass 4 kg, moving on a straight horizontal track is 50 J. It collides with
another cart of mass 6 kg, which was at rest, and they are coupled.
By what amount does the kinetic energy of the system of the two carts decreased?
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 4005. The walls of a room, which has a shape of a cuboid, are plane mirrors. The distance between the walls are a
and b. A horizontal beam of light is generated at one of the walls, the angle between the light beam and this wall is
alpha.
How much time elapses until the light reaches the same wall?
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 4006. The two ends of a uniform thin rod of length 2l and of mass m can move without friction along a circular
path of radius R. The rod is released from the vertical position.

Find the force exerted by the ends of the rod on the path when the rod passes the horizontal position.
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4007. In a sample of Helium gas an atom of speed 800 m/s reaches another atom of speed 600 m/s, which moves
in the same direction, and they collide elastically. What can be the angle between the velocity vectors after collision?
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4008. On the dashboard of modern cars the warning sign shows that the roads are icy even when the thermometer
measuring the outside temperature shows 3 oC. Explain how can the surface of the road cool down below 0 oC, even
under these circumstances.
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4009. The voltage of the rechargeable battery of a car is 12 V. In order to generate sparks in the spark plug a
voltage of 5 kV is needed. How is it possible to produce 5000 V from 12 V direct voltage?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4010. Two capacitors of capacitances C1 and C2 are given charges of Q1 and Q2, respectively and connected in
series such that the the positively charged plate of one of them is connected to the negatively charged plate of the
other. What is the voltage between the plates of the two condensers which are not connected, and what are the
voltages between the plates of each condenser?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4011. Below the fixed end of the insulating horizontal thread, at a distance equal to the length of the thread there
is a fixed charge, which has the same charge as the charge of the small body of mass m at the end of the thread as
shown in the figure. The body is released and when it is at the lowest position the angle between the thread and the
horizontal is 30o.
a) Find the mass of the moving body.
b) Find the tension at the lowest position.
c) By what factor is the acceleration of the body at the lowest position is greater than the initial acceleration?
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4012. A plane mirror is placed 25 cm away from a concave spherical mirror perpendicularly to the principal axis
of the concave mirror. Where should we place a candle if the images of the flames formed by the two mirrors are at
the same distances from the object? The radius of then concave mirror is 40 cm.
(4 points)
Problems in Physics, November 2007
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 11 December 2007.

M. 282. By means of a compass measure the magnetic induction of a bar magnet as a function of the distance r
measured from the centre of the magnet. The measurements should be carried out along two lines:
a) the longitudinal axis of the bar magnet;
b) perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis.
You may use that the horizontal component of the magnetic induction of the Earth is 2.10-5 T.
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 11 December 2007.

P. 4013. By what percentage the gravitational force of the Earth is smaller at the height where the International
Space Station orbits than at the surface of the Earth?
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 4014. Heat is continuously added to a sample of air in a cylinder closed by a piston, and the air is expanding at
constant pressure. What fraction of the added heat increases the internal energy of the air, and what fraction of the
added heat is converted to work?
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 4015. A physicist hanged a cylinder-shaped container of base 100 cm2 to a spring. He slowly poured water into
the container and found that the surface of water remained at the same level. Find the spring constant D of the
spring.
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4016. The axle of a pulley of mass m=1 kg is attached to the end of a spring of spring constant D=200 N/m whose
other end is fixed to the ceiling. A rope of negligible mass is placed to the pulley such that its left end is fixed to the
ground and its right end is hanging freely from the pulley. At one moment we begin to pull the endpoint A at the
right end of the rope by a constant vertical force of F=15 N. Friction can be neglected between the rope and the
pulley.
a) What is the initial elongation of the spring?
b) Find the greatest elongation of the spring.
c) Find the maximum displacement of point A.
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4017. A tube of external diameter 2R and of unknown width is hanged by two threads of length as shown in the
figure. If the tube undergoes torsion oscillatory motion, the period T of the motion can be measured. Find the width
of the wall of the tube.

(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4018. Calculate the lattice constant of a body-centered cubic iron crystal using the molar mass of iron, the density
of iron and the Avogadro number.
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4019. A parallel plate condenser of charge Q consists of two vertical square-shaped plates of sides a, which are at
a distance of d. Between the plates, parallel to them, there is another square-shaped metal plate which has the same
size as the plates of the condenser and its width is d/3. Find the work done while this plate of density is pulled out
of the plates.

(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4020. A physicist works in a laboratory where the magnetic induction is 5 mT. She wears a golden necklace which
encloses an area of 0.02 m2, and which has a resistance of 0.01 . What is the maximum of the current that flows in
the necklace if the the magnetic induction decreases uniformly to 1 mT in 1 ms?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4021. The sharp image of the vertical filament of a bulb is projected to a white wall. How does the image change
if a diffraction grating which consists of vertical slits is placed in the way of the light, right in front of the lens, or
right behind the lens? Where can the wall be seen pure blue?
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4022. Protons of kinetic energy 5.00 MeV are scattered totally elastically on the nuclei of an unknown element of
negligible speed. The protons are deflected by 90o and their kinetic energy is 4.23 MeV.
a) What is the mass of the nuclei and what kind of chemical element's nuclei are they?
b) What is the direction of the motion of these nuclei with respect to the direction of the motion of the incident
protons?
(5 points)
Statistics

Problems in Physics, December 2007


Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 11 January 2008.

M. 283. Fill a carton of juice with some water and tilt it such that its shortest edge is at rest on the table and if it is
left it turns back to its original equilibrium position. Measure the maximum angle of tilting as a function of the mass
of the water poured to the carton.
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 11 January 2008.

P. 4023. Would the longest night of the year last longer or shorter in Hungary if the Earth had no atmosphere?
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 4024. The power rating of resistor R3 shown in the figure is 15 W. The reading on the ammeter is 500 mA and the
reading on the voltmeter is 10 V. Find the resistances of R1 and R3. What is the electromotive force of the supply?

(3 points)
Statistics
P. 4025. A handhold mirror contains a plane mirror on one of its side and a concave mirror of radius of curvature of
30 cm on its other side. You hold the plane mirror 15 cm from your face and notice a spot. By what factor will the
image of the spot be enlarged if you turn the mirror, but still keep it at a distance of 15 cm from your face?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4026. In 1993 in the Spanish city Salamanca Javier Sotomayor won the high jump with a height of 245 cm, which
was a new world record. Estimate the initial speed of the jump.
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4027. The volume of a balloon, filled loosely with Helium, increases if it is taken to a warm room from a cold
street. Somebody stated that if we measure the increase of the upthrust exerted on the balloon, we can estimate the
heat absorbed by the balloon. Is he right?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4028. The bore diameter (inner diameter of the cylinder) of an older-type four-cylinder, four-stroke automobil
engine is 92 mm. The piston stroke length is also 92 mm. The average gauge pressure in the cylinder during power
stroke is 5.6.105 Pa. The number of revolution of the main axle is 4500 rev/min. Calculate the ``theoretical'' power of
the engine.
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4029. A 2 kg body, moving on a frictionless horizontal track, reaches another object of 3 kg made of the same
material, moving in front of the 2-kg object, and collides with it totally inelastically. Their common speed after the
collision is 4 m/s. Due to the collision the temperature of the two objects, which was initially the same, is increased,

though only by 0.006 oC. The specific heat capacities of the two objects are the same: .
a) What were the initial speeds of the colliding objects before the collision?
b) What percent of the initial kinetic energy is transferred to increase of the internal energy of the two objects?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4030. A house, situated 100 m to the South of a straight road running East--West, contains a television set which
is receiving signals from a distant transmitter, also situated South of the road, operating at a frequency of 60 MHz.
A bus, travelling along the road in a westerly direction, causes the received signal to fluctuate in intensity, the rate of
fluctuation is 2 Hz when the bus is opposite the house and (temporarily) reduces to zero when it is 200 m further
along the road. Find the speed of the bus and the direction of the transmitter.
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4031. A positron of speed , collides with an electron which was initially at rest, and they annihilate.
One of the created photon travels perpendicularly to the original direction of the velocity of the positron.
a) In what direction is the other photon emitted?
b) What is the ratio of the energies of the two photons?
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4032. A uniform metal disc is rotated about an axle, which goes through its centre and which is perpendicular to
it. The disc is in uniform magnetic field, the magnetic induction is parallel to the axis of rotation. Usually
electromotive force is induced between the rim of the disc and its axle. Though if we are clever we can rotate the
disc in such way that no e.m.f. induced between the rim and the axle. How should we rotate the disc if the magnetic
induction at the disc is 10-8 T.
(5 points)
Statistics

Problems in Physics, January 2008


Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 11 February 2008.

M. 284. Make cylindrical lenses by filling bottles of different diameters with water. How does the position of the
focus depend on the diameter of the bottle?
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 11 February 2008.

P. 4033. Three cells are connected in series. Their electromotive forces are 2 V, 10 V, and 5 V; their internal
resistances are 0.2 , 0.3 , and 0.5 . Calculate the voltage across the third cell and graph this terminal voltage as
a function of the external resistance connected to the circuit.
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4034. A body of mass m=1.8 kg is placed to an inclined plane, the angle of inclination is =30o, and is attached to
the top end of the slope wit a thread which is parallel to the slop. Then the slope is moved with a horizontal
acceleration of a. Friction is negligible.

a) Find the acceleration if the body pushes the slope with a force of .
b) Find the tension.

(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4035. A ball, dropped from a height of 1.5 m, is bouncing for 3 seconds. At what rate should the ball be bounced
in order to make it reach the height of 1.5 m?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4036. A small body of negligible size slides with a speed of v onto a long cart, which can move easily. The mass
of the small body and the cart are the same. In the middle of the cart there is a slope which has a shape of a circular
arc of central angle of 45o and of radius R. The small body slides along the slope and then it falls exactly to the end
of the cart. What is the length of the cart? (Friction is negligible.)
Data: v=5 m/s, R=0.4 m.

(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4037. A cylindrical pot is slowly filled with water. The centre of mass of the empty pot is at a height of 10 cm, the
mass of the pot is 1 kg, and its diameter is 20 cm. What is the height of the water in it, if the centre of mass of the
system is at the lowest position? Where is the centre of mass at this case with respect to the level of water?
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4038. In modern wastewater treatment plants water is thickened first to gain biomass which is rich in organic
materials. With the help of bacteria, biogas is produced, and biogas is held in liquid sealed containers. (The
container is similar to an upside-down glass which is placed to water.) If the amount of gas is increasing, then the
container ascends, if the amount of gas is decreasing then it descends. The gas cannot escape because of the liquid at
the bottom of the tank. For safety reasons the height of the liquid h must be at least 1 metre, and the top of the tank
can be maximum H=6.5 metres above the the level of the water outside.
60% of the produced gas is metan, and 40% is carbon-dioxide. The volume of the empty cylinder shaped container
is 2000 m3, the gauge pressure of the confined gas is 50 mbar, and the maximum temperature of the gas in a hot
summer day can be 60 oC.
a) Find the mass of the moving part in tons.
b) How many cubic metre gas can be put to the container at a pressure of p=1.013 bar and at a temperature of 20 oC?
c) How much heat is released if the total amount of gas is burned?
The average external pressure is p0=1.013.105 Pa.
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4039. There is a sample of gas of mass 192 g, in a container of volume 80 l at a temperature of 402 oC and at a
pressure of 4.2.105 Pa. The specific heat capacity of the gas at constant volume is 124.5 J/K.
a) What is the number of the degrees of freedom of the molecules?
b) What kind of gas can be in the container?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4040. Design a circuit using a battery of 6 V and several LED-s of different colours, whose forward voltages 2 V,
3 V, and 4 V voltages, and their current is 10 mA. The probability that resistor goes wrong in one year is 1% and the
probability that a LED goes wrong in one year is 3%. What is the probability that the circuit operates without going
wrong in the first year.
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4041. A thin uniform rod of length 2 and of mass m can move along a vertical circle of radius R without friction.
Determine the frequency of the small amplitude oscillatory motion of the rod about the equilibrium position.

(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4042. A filament lamp rated at 40 W transforms 2% of the total energy to visible light. Suppose that the time of
the emission of one photon is 10-14 second. Find the average number of visible photons emitted by the filament at the
same time.
(4 points)
Problems in Physics, February 2008
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 11 March 2008.

M. 285. Roll a ball with a speed of v0 towards a heavy pot or pan. How does the angle , shown in the figure,
depends on the distance b (which is called the impact parameter), and how does it depend on the speed v0?
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 11 March 2008.

P. 4043. A ball of weight 2 N can be kept under the water with a force of 8 N. What percent of the volume of the ball
is not in the water when the ball is floating on the surface of water?
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 4044. Due to the bad sealing there is some rainwater between the two sheets of the glass window of a train. The
water formed a layer of height 2--3 cm. Observing the position of the water layer, what kind of conclusions can be
deduced about the motion of the train?
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 4045. Two resistors of resistances 600 ohms and 400 ohms are connected in series and they are connected to a
90 V voltage supply. The voltmeter connected across the 600 ohm resistor reads 45 V. What is the resistance of the
voltmeter?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4046. The figure shows a smooth vertical path. On the left-handside there is a ramp, the incline angle is =45o,
than it is continued with a semi-circle of radius R, and then there is a parabola at the end. The symmetry axis of the
parabola is vertical, and the parabola is open above. If a body travel through the path without friction, the normal
force exerted on it does not change abruptly at the border of the semicircle and the parabola.
a) What is the height h of the parabola?
b) What is the least height H, measured from the ground, at which an object should be released in order to go
through the whole path?

(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4047. A uniform density rod of mass m and of length is standing vertically on a frictionless surface. The rod is
moved out of its unstable equilibrium position.
a) What will be the speeds of the two ends of the rod when it reaches the ground?
b) What is the kinetic energy of the rod at this instant?
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4048. Inside a spherical container of mass M=385 kg and of cross-section A=1.6 m2 there is a hanging weight,
which can slide easily, above a spring, winded round a thin stick. The mass of the weight is m=1.5 kg, and the spring
constant is D=155 N/m. (At the beginning the spring is unstretched.) The container is falling from a weather balloon,
which is at high altitude, without initial speed. At the beginning of the fall the hanging of the weight is ceased. At
what distance from the bottom of the weight should the electric sensor be placed in order to switch on the device
which opens the parachute when the container reaches a speed of v=80 m/s? Assume that the density of air is
constant.
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4049. A sample of diatomic gas of certain mass is taken from state A to state B as shown in the figure; p0=105 Pa,
V0=2 dm3.
a) Determine the pressure and the volume of the gas at the intermediate state C until which only QAC=3150 J heat
was added to the gas.
b) By what factor does the internal energy of the gas changed during process A C?
c) How much work was done by the expanding gas during process A C?

(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4050. One of the sides of the frame shown in the figure can move. The frame is in uniform magnetic field of ,
which is perpendicular to the plane of the frame. At the time of t=0 the magnetic field begins to decrease as

.
With what speed should the side of the frame be moved in order not to induce electric current in it?

(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4051. Draw the image of the segment, shown in the figure, formed by the thin converging lens.
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4052. The window of a room is covered by black paper. There is a square-shaped hole on the paper, through
which the red light of the setting sun - nearly perpendicularly - is projected onto the opposite white wall. The
distance between the wall and the window is 3.2 m. What is the size and the shape of the light spot on the wall if the
area of the square is
a) 1 dm2;
b) 1 mm2;
c) 10-10 m2?
(5 points)
Statistics

Problems in Physics, March 2008


Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 11 April 2008.

M. 286. Measure the vacuum which is made by a vacuum-cleaner.


(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 11 April 2008.

P. 4053. A train goes through a 1100 m long tunnel with a speed of 72 km/h, in one minute. What is the length of the
train?
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 4054. In winter moist can often be seen on the traditional window panes of houses. The moist, or fern frost
appears on the inside pane of some windows, or on the outside pane of some others.
What do the extent and the position of the condensation or deposition of water vapour depend on?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4055. One end of a long, thin elastic sheet of negligible mass is attached to the rim of a horizontal table, and a 3-
kg object is fixed to its other end. At the equilibrium position the end of the sheet descends by 6 cm below the
horizontal. Then the object is raised by 4 cm above the horizontal.
How much work is done while the object is raised?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4056. An object of mass m is projected vertically up with a speed of v0. At the same moment another object of
mass M, which is initially above the projected one, is dropped from a height of h. The two pointlike objects collide
totally inelastically, and they stick to each other.
With what speed will they hit the ground?
(Data: m=1.25 kg, v0=19 m/s, M=2 kg, h=20 m.)
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4057. What percent of the surface of the Moon can be seen from that chinesse Moon-probe, which orbits about
the Moon with a period of 127 minutes along a circular path. The shape of the Moon can be considered as a sphere.
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4058. On the first part of a horizontal path of length L friction is negligible. The coefficient of friction of the other
long enough part of the path is .
a) What should be the initial speed of a pointlike object if the time of its motion along the path is the shortest?
b) What is the covered distance in this case?
(Data: L=18 m, =0.2.)
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4059. The Little Prince (the main character of the novel written by Antoine de Saint-Exupry) lives on the
spherical planet named B-612, the density of which is 5200 kg/m3. The Little Prince noticed that if he quickens his
pace, he feels himself lighter. When he reached the speed of 2 m/s he became weightless, and began to orbit about
the planet as a satellite.
a) Suppose that the asteroid does not rotate. What is the radius of the planet?
b) What is the escape speed on this planet?
c) Suppose that the asteroid rotates about its axis, and one day is twelve hours. What is the least speed of the little
Prince at which he should run in order to orbit about the asteroid?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4060. The figure shows a disc and a trolley. The mass of the disc is m=5 kg, its radius is R=0.2 m, the mass of the
trolley is M=8 kg, and its length is L=1 m. The trolley can move easily, and the disc does not slide on the trolley. The
string which rolls down from the massless pulley attached to the disc is horizontal and the mass of the weight
attached to its other end is also m. How long does it take for the disc to roll down from the trolley if it was released
from rest at the middle of the trolley. The radius of the pulley is r=R/2? How much distance does the weight
descend?

(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4061. How can you heat 1 kg mineral water which is at a temperature of 0 oC, to at least 60 oC with using 1 kg
water at a temperature of 100 oC?
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4062. A cloud of average temperature 5 oC consists of water drops of average radius 25 nm. These small drops
continuously coalesce to greater spheres of average radius 1 mm. What is the temperature of the raindrops formed?
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4063. What should be the least frequency of the gamma-ray which is able to split a deuteron of negligible initial
speed? What can be the speed of the released proton and neutron?
(5 points)
Statistics

Problems in Physics, April 2008


Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 13 May 2008.

M. 287. Blow air through a straw steadily and measure the speed of the flowing air.
(6 points)
Statistics
Problems with sign 'P'
Deadline expired on 13 May 2008.

P. 4064. Hansel and Gretel live in Gingerbread street 21. Once Gretel visited Little Red Riding Hood, she left home
at 10 past 8. Gretel was walking at a constant speed of 3 km/h. Hansel noticed that Gretel left Little Red Riding
Hood's present at home, so at 20 past 8 he also left home and ran after Gretel at a speed of 5 km/h to give her the
present. He was lucky and reached Gretel before she got to Little Red Riding Hood's house. At least how far does
Little Red Riding Hood live from Gingerbread street 21?
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 4065. By what percent does the resistance of a mercury column increase if it is placed into another tube in which
its length increases by p percent?
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 4066. An object can be hanged to a 5-m long wire of diameter 2 mm, and the wire does not break. However, if the
object is displaced a bit and begins to swing, the wire breaks. Why? If another piece of wire having the same length
and material but wider diameter is used, the speed of the swinging object can even be 7 m/s. Calculate the least
diameter of this wider wire.
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4067. You may put your finger 1-2 mm close to the side of the flames of a burning candle. Why?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4068. In a circus performance one of the acrobats falls freely from a height of 10 m. When and with what speed
should the other acrobat jump up from the springboard, such that they pass each other halfway, with having the same
speed? Plot the position versus time and velocity versus time graphs of the motions of both acrobats.
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4069. The figure shows a circular trough in a vertical plane. A small object is started at point A with a vertically
downward initial velocity, such that it runs along the trough until it reaches point B, at which it takes off, and then it
falls back exactly to point A. What is the maximum value of the angle ? (Air resistance is negligible.)

(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4070. A sample of ideal gas of 1 mole expands at constant pressure, during which it absorbs 100 J thermal energy,
and its temperature increases by 4 oC. What kind of molecules may the gas contain?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4071. Newton recognized that if the object and image distances are not measured from the pole of the spherical
mirror but from another point the curved mirror formula can be written in the following form: t*.k*=f2. (t* and k* are
the new object and image distances, respectively.) From which point did Newton measured the image and the object
distances?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4072. Two pointlike particles of charge Q are fixed at two of the vertices of an equilateral triangle of sides . At
the third vertex a third particle of mass m and of charge q is released.
What is the initial acceleration of this particle, and with what speed does it pass one of the the points which is at a
distance of 2 from both the fixed charges? How does the result change if the effect of the gravitational force is
considered as well while the particle moves along a vertical line?
Data: =10 cm, m=10-3 g, Q=10-8 C, q=10-9 C.
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4073. An electrometer is charged to 3 kV. Then the electrometer is touched with an - initially neutral - metal ball,
mounted on an insulating rod, and then the metal ball is taken away and earthed. The process is repeated 10 times,
and finally the electrometer reads 1.5 kV. After this, at least how many times must the above process be repeated in
order that the electrometer reads less than 1 kV?
(5 points)
Problems in Physics, May 2008
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 11 June 2008.

M. 288. Fill a U shaped tube with water up to some height; both ends of the tube are open and the arms of the tube
are vertical. Examine how the period of the oscillating water in the tube depends on the total height of the water l.
Try to find the damping constant (the ratio of two consecutive amplitudes) as well.
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 11 June 2008.

P. 4074. Two students run along a circular path. While Andy runs three laps, Bob runs four laps. While they are
running both of them can see only the next one-third of the path. They start running at the same time at the same
starting point and they also stop running at the same time and at same position. In what fraction of the running time
can they see each other?
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 4075. Can a satellite be placed above Budapest (such that it is on the line which joins the centre of the Earth and
the centre of the city)?
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 4076. There is 1 litre water in a 2-l pot, the base of which has an area of 1 dm2. How much work is done if a high
cylinder shaped glass of cross section 0.5 dm2 is pushed down to the bottom of the pot. The glass has negligible
mass and its base is below.
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4077. A 60-g and an 80-g ball are fixed to the ends of a 28-cm rod of negligible mass. The rod is balanced by a
pivot such that it is horizontal and stays at rest. With what angular acceleration does it start to move, if the pivot is
placed 2 cm closer to the heavier ball?

(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4078. A hollow copper sphere is floating on the surface of water which is at a temperature of 20 oC and 1% of the
volume of the sphere is above the water. To what temperature must the water be heated in order to submerge the
copper ball totally. (Look up how the density of water depends on the temperature of water in a data table.)
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4079. There is a sample of neon in a cylinder which is closed by a piston. The gas is compressed such that its
volume decreased to two-thirds of the original volume. The p, V graph of the process is a straight line segment. In
the final state the pressure of the gas is twice as much as it was originally.
a) By what factor did the absolute temperature of the gas increased?
b) How much thermal energy was absorbed by the gas from its environment?
c) How can this process be realized?
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4080. Determine the equivalent resistance of the very long resistor sequence shown in the figure.
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4081. A neutral and a charged capacitor which have the same capacitance are connected in parallel.
a) To what fraction of the original energy does the total energy of the system decrease, after connecting the
condensers?
b) What happens to the ``lost energy''?
c) What is the correct answer to the previous question if all the conductors are superconductors.
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4082. ``Stationary'' electrons are bombarded with photons which have the same energy as the rest energy of the
electrons. At most what can the maximum speed of the ``knocked'' electrons be?
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4083. A 1400 year-old carbonized tree is used as sample for radiocarbon dating. The sample is contaminated by
coal which does not contain radioactive carbon isotope. Will the physicist, who carries out the measurement and
does not know that the sample is contaminated, find the sample older or younger than it really is? How old will the
sample be determined by the physicist if it contains 30% non-radioactive coal?
(5 points)
Problem Solving Competition: 2008/2009
The competitions start annually and last from September to May, but you can enter any time during the academic
year.
In Mathematics, there are four different contests, in Physics and in Informatics there are two. The conditions of the
respective contests are slightly different. See below for details.
Every primary or secondary school student is eligible to participate in the competitions. Students in different grades
might find the same problems but in most cases their work is evaluated within their age group, they compete with
students of the same age only. Therefore, it is essential that the paper should indicate the 1 to 12 grade of the
contestant in the current school year. The KMaL contests are individual competitions, solutions produced by a
group are not accepted. If two papers turn out to be practically identical, none of them will be marked.
This year students are not allowed to participate in both competitions "K" and "B" at the same time.
MATHEMATICS

We have four contests in Mathematics this year.


K contest: this is a joint contest of KMaL and ABACUS, exclusively for students of grade 9 - beginning the
secondary school this year. 6 problems in each Month; each of them is worth of 6 points.
C contest: easy exercises for practice. 5 problems in each Month; each one for 5 points. There are three age
categories:
grades 1 to 8
grades 9 to 10
grades 11 to 12th (preferably those not studying mathematics in a special advanced class. Those in advanced
classes are advised to take part in the B contest).
B contest: this is the traditional contest of KMaL. 10 problems each month. You can send any number of solutions,
but only the highest six scores are entered.
Age groups:
up to the 8th grade
9th grade
10th grade
11th grade
12th grade
A contest: advanced problems, 3 each month. More demainding than the B contest, for those who are preparing for
national or international competitions. Here there are no separate age groups.
PHYSICS

M contest: Experimental problems: One measuring task is set each month. Each of them is worth 6 points. The
report must contain a description of the method, the data obtained sufficient in quantity and quality, the analysis
of the data, and the estimation of the error. There are no separate age groups.
P contest: 10 theoretical problems each month.
Age groups:
up to the 8th grade;
9th grade;
10th grade;
11th grade;
12th grade.
Every age group may send solutions to all kinds of problems. In the P contest we evaluate only 3 problems up to the
8th grade and 5 problems from 9th - 12th grade.
INFORMATICS

This year we have two contests in Informatics. There are no separate age groups, competition is opened for
everyone.
I contest: three problems every Month which can be solved in Pascal, C, C++, BASIC or Delphi.
S contest: one advanced problem every Month which can be solved in Pascal, C, C++ or JAVA. Solving these
problems need deeper algorithmic thoughts and knowledge.
Please do not send .exe files!
Deadlines, adresses

The deadline of mailing or e-mailing the solutions is indicated in every issue next to the new exercises and
problems. Deadlines: in Physics: 11th of the month following the publication of the current issue; in Informatics:
15th of the month following the publication of the current issue; in Mathematics: A, B and C contest - 15th, K
contest - 10th of the month following the publication of the current issue. Should that be a weekend or bank holiday,
the deadline is the next workday.
Send your solutions to the following address:

KMaL Szerkesztsg (KMaL feladatok), Budapest 112, P.O.B. 32. H-1518


or by e-mail to: .
Informatics solutions are accepted via e-mail only and should be sent to the following address:
.
The actual state of the contests appears on our web-site (http://www.komal.hu/eredmeny/index.e.shtml) and it is
updated regularly. These data are not official, only for your information. The final results will appear in August on
our Internet home page and in the September issue of the following academic year. The cca 10 top contestans are
rewarded by a certificate in each category and this is going to be mailed to their schools, and their portraits,
additionally, will be presented in the December issue and the Internet.
Entry Form for the contests
The layout of the papers:
By ordinary mail:
Write the solutions to different problems on separate A4 sheets of paper. (This is important because
different people are responsible for the marking.)
The header of every sheet must contain the following in the upper left corner (see sample 1):

-the letter code (A, B, C, M, P) and number of the problem in red


-the full name and the grade of the sender
-the name of the school and the town (and country)
-the e-mail adress of the sender
Fold each sheet into four separatly so that the header should appear in the front side.
Solutions to geometry problems should include diagrams.
Enclose with your solutions a separate sheet listing your data and the contents of your mail. See sample 2.

Sample 1. Header of a sheet Sample 2. Enclosed list


C. 593. Varga 163 Rbert, 9th grade
Varga 163 Rbert, 9th grade Rvai High School, Gyr
Rvai High School, Gyr I send the following 3 papers in:
e-mail: robi@revai.hu C. 591., C. 593., B. 3389.
Denote the age of the captain by C, the age of the ship
by S. When the age of the ship was C, the age of the
captain was C-(S-C)=2C-S. When the ship was 2C-
S ...

By e-mail:
Send the solutions of different problems as separate e-mail messages.
The "subject" field of the e-mail message should contain the letter code and number of the problem.
Additional requirements concerning the Informatics solutions
o In the first few comment lines of each program do enter the following information:
your name and class
your school.
your town (country)
The content of the papers:

It is not enough to state the answer. Results with detailed explanations only will receive full credit. (Reference to
standard school math is accepted without proof.)
Problems in Physics, September 2008
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 13 October 2008.

M. 289. Investigate how the time of falling of different rectangular shaped sheets of paper depends on the ratio of
the sides of the rectangle, if the height from which they are dropped is kept constant. Also keep the area of the
rectangles constant and make sure that the plane of each sheet is horizontal when it is dropped.
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 13 October 2008.

P. 4084. An axe is wedged in a piece of wood. In which case will the wood be split more easily: if the support is hit
X) by the poll (butt) of the axe, or
Y) by the piece of wood?
a) It does not matter by which of the above the support is hit.
b) The support is to be hit by that one which has the smaller mass.
c) The support is to be hit by the piece of wood, because in this case the piece of wood stops, and the axe will
penetrate into the wood even more deeply, due to its inertia.
d) In case Y because the axe is made of iron thus its mass is greater.

(3 points)
Statistics
P. 4085. A sample of Nitrogen gas is confined into a container at a temperature of 300 K, and at a pressure of
6.105 Pa.
What will the pressure in the container be if 20% of the mass of the Nitrogen is released, and the temperature is
increased by 10oC.
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 4086. A black box has two leads. If a zero-centre ammeter and a rechargeable battery of 6 V voltage, whose
internal resistance is negligible, are connected to the leads as shown in the figure, the ammeter reads 1 A. If the
terminals of the battery are swapped, and connected again into he circuit, then the measured current is 0.5 A.
What is in the box?

(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4087. Two satellites of equal mass revolve about the Earth. One of them is at a height of 1000 km and the other is
at a height of 2000 km.
Which one has greater kinetic energy and by what factor is it greater than that of the other?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4088. The diameter of the rotor blade of a 1-kg model helicopter is 0.4 m. (The rotor blade rotates about a vertical
axis.) Estimate the power of the motor which is able to make the helicopter float at a constant height. The density of
air is 1.3 kg/m3, the air drag exerted on the body of the helicopter is 10% of the total weight. Consider the speed of
the air moved by the rotor blade constant at the whole surface which is swept by the blade.
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4089. The depth of water in a swimming-pool is 2 m. An incandescent lamp is operated 3 m above the surface of
the water. Exactly below the lamp a 1 diopter lens, which has small diameter, is moved up and down. How far is the
lens from the surface of the water when the sharp enlarged image of the filament of the lamp appears at the bottom
of the pool?
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4090. A 20-cm long, thin ruler of mass 0.05 kg is lying on the top of a horizontal air-cushioned table. At one
moment the ruler is at rest and then at one end of the ruler a horizontal force of magnitude 0.1 N is exerted on it,
perpendicularly to the longest side of the ruler. Find the acceleration of the other end of the ruler at which it starts to
move.
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4091. An incandescent lamp emits visible light in the wavelength region of 400 nm and 700 nm. Is it true that the
energy of any emitted photon is greater than the average kinetic energy of the atoms of the noble gas with which the
bulb is filled? Does the answer depends on with what type of gas the bulb is filled?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4092. A laser emits light impulses of wavelength 580 nm and of energy 20 J, which last for 0.5 ms. This light is
aimed perpendicularly at a sheet made of caesium, and is focused to a circle of diameter 12 mm. 90% of the light is
absorbed and 10% is reflected.
a) How many photons hit the metal sheet during one impulse?
b) Find the pressure of light.
c) Find the maximum of the speed of the electrons which are ejected by the caesium sheet.
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4093. The light mill (Crookes radiometer) consists of an airtight glass bulb, in which the air pressure is very low,
and in which there are four vanes mounted on a vertical spindle, about which they can rotate. The vanes are polished
on one side and black on the other. Why and into which direction do the vanes rotate when they are exposed to light?

(4 points)
Problems in Physics, October 2008
Please read the rules of the competition.
Problems with sign 'M'
Deadline expired on 11 November 2008.

M. 290. Measure the magnitude of the torque needed to screw down the top of a plastic water or soft drink bottle.
How does this depend on the maximum torque applied during the unscrewing process of the top?
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 11 November 2008.

P. 4094. The hinged rod of weight G shown in the figure is supported by the horizontal, slippery floor. Find the
magnitude and the direction of the forces acting at the hinge and at the floor.

(3 points)
Statistics
P. 4095. The traffic in some part of a three-lane motorway is restricted to only one lane. In this part the cars move
uniformly at a speed of 54 km/h and 11-m long gaps are formed between them.
a) What is the speed of the cars before the one-lane part, if the gap between them is 2 m?
b) What will the length of the gaps between the cars be after the one-lane part if the cars speed up to a velocity of
126 km/h?
Let us consider the length of each car 4 m.
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4096. An object is 20 cm away from a concave mirror, and it is within the focal length of the mirror. If the mirror
is changed to a plane mirror the image moves 15 cm closer to the mirror.
a) What is the focal length of the concave mirror?
b) Calculate the enlargement.
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 4097. The wedge, shown in the figure, has a mass of m and an angle of and can slide without friction along the
horizontal tabletop. A block of mass m is placed onto the wedge, and it slides down without friction. At what angle
will the magnitude of the acceleration of the wedge be at least one-third of the acceleration due to gravity?

(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4098. A spaceship gets into an interplanetary dust cloud. The average mass of the grains of the cloud in a cubic
metre is is 0.02 mg. The speed of the spaceship with respect to the cloud is 10 km/s, the area of its cross section
which is perpendicular to its speed is 50 m2. The collision between the grains and the spaceship is totally inelastic.
What must the thrust of the engine be in order not to change the speed of the spaceship?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4099. A sample of water of mass m1 and of temperature t1 is in a thermos flask, and warmer water of mass m2 and
of temperature t2 is poured to it. After the themal equilibrium is reached the temperature is measured. Next time,
because we are curious, we swop the two samples of water, so the colder water of mass m1 and of temperature t1 is
poured into the thermos in which there is the other sample of water of mass m2 and of temperature t2. Surprisingly it
is found that the equilibrium temperature in the second case is different from the one measured in the first time.
a) How can you explain this difference?
b) The difference between the two equilibrium temperatures is 1.9 oC. What can you deduce from this?
Data: m1=300 g, t1=20 oC, m2=600 g, t2=80 oC.
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4100. A wall divides the cylindrical, thermally insulated container of volume 20 litres into two parts as shown in
the figure. There is vacuum in the left part which is closed by a thermally insulated fixed piston, and in the other part
there is Nitrogen gas at a pressure of p=5.105 and at a temperature of 300 K. (The external pressure is 105 Pa.) The
door on the wall opens because of the excess pressure, and the gas expands immediately. Then the fixing of the
piston is ceased, and the gas is pushed back into its original place.
a) How much work was performed during the compression of the gas?
b) What are the temperature and the pressure of the gas at the end of the process?

(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4101. Several batteries, all having the same electromotive forces and the same internal resistances, were
connected first in parallel and then in series and a resistor of resistance 129 was connected into the circuit. It was
found that in case of the series connection the terminal voltage across each battery is 10% less than in case of the
parallel connection. How many batteries were used?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4102. Is it possible that an electron undergoes uniform straight line motion while it travels through a region of
perpendicularly crossed electric and magnetic fields? The electric field is E=3 kV/m and the magnetic induction is
B=10 T.
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4103. The mass of a two-engine plane is m. Because of some breakdown there is a considerable difference

between the thrusts of the engines, which is . Despite of the breakdown the pilot managed to drive
the plane horizontally along a straight line.
a) What is the force exerted on the vertical surface of the tail if the distance between the tail and the centre of mass
is one and a half times the distance between the two engines?
b) Why and by what angle did the pilot have to lean the plane?
The plane is symmetrical, and it can be assumed that after the breakdown air resistance is exerted at the plane of
symmetry.
(5 points)
Problems in Physics, November 2008
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 11 December 2008.

M. 291. Measure the resistance of a 40 W tungsteen filament lamp at different temperatures. (Between -15 oC and
+40 oC.) Determine the temperature coefficient of the resistance. It is advisable to use a digital ohmmeter. Do not
use the mains power (220 V AC).
(6 points)
Statistics
Problems with sign 'P'
Deadline expired on 11 December 2008.

P. 4104. 1 kg broken ice is placed into a 2-l container, which has rigid walls, and then the container is sealed
hermetically. While the temperature remains 0 oC the total amount of ice melts. By what percent does the pessure of
the air enclosed in the container change?
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 4105. Water and oil of equal mass can be poured into a square-based prism. In which case will the force exerted
on the vertical faces of the prism be greater?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4106. A biro (ballpoint pen), which contains a spring, is pressed against a support at the bottom of an inclined
plane as shown in the figure, and then suddenly it is released. The table below shows our measured data, the distance
covered by the ballpoint pen as a function of the angle of inclination of the plane :

Using this table determine the initial speed of the biro and the coefficient of kinetic friction between the plane and
the biro.

(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4107. A small beetle of mass m is slowly crawling out from the bottom of a hemi-sphere shaped shell. The mass
of the shell is M and its radius is R. How much work does the beetle perform until it reaches the rim of the hemi-
sphere? (The coefficient of static friction between the beetle and the shell is large enough.)

(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4108. An ice-hockey player hits the puck with an initial speed of v0 towards the board fence. The mass of the puck
is m and its radius is R. The puck is not rotating and the angle between the velocity and the board fence is . The
component of the velocity of the puck which is perpendicular to the board fence changes by a factor of k (k<1).
What will the rotational energy of the puck be after the collision with the board fence? The coefficient of kinetic
friction between the board fence and the puck is and the friction on the ice is negligible.
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4109. Using a bubble blower a lot of bubles of different sizes can be blown. These bubbles descend slowly.
Assuming that all bubbles have the same thickness wall, which bubbles descend more quickly, the ones which have
greater radius or the ones which have smaller radius?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4110. The horizontal part of the U-shaped tube shown in the figure is 10 cm, and its vertical branches are long
enough. The cross section of the tube is 1 cm2. First, 20 cm3 water is poured into the tube, then 20 cm3 oil is poured
into the left branch. , . The whole system is accelerated towards the
left, at an acceleration of a. Determine and graph the difference between the level of water and the level of oil as a
function of the acceleration.

(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4111. The wheel of a tractor is moving at a velocity of v. The diameter of the wheel is D. From any point of the
rim of the wheel pieces of mud can flake off. What is the longest time during which a piece of mud may reach the
ground? At what position does the piece of mud which falls in the longest time is released from the wheel?
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4112. A particle of charge Q and of negligible initial speed is accelerated through a potential difference of U. The
particle reaches a region of uniform magnetic field of induction B, where it undergoes circular motion. What is the
magnetic momentum of the ``circular current''?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4113. A spherical cap of radius r and of width d, is placed onto the top of the sphere of the Van de Graaff
generator, the radius of which is R. The spherical cap is made of aluminum foil of density . At what voltage value
will the spherical cap ascend from the sphere of the Van de Graaff generator?

(5 points)
Problems in Physics, December 2008
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 12 January 2009.

M. 292. Determine experimentally how the retarding force exerted on a balloon falling in air depends on the speed
of the balloon.
(6 points)
Statistics
Problems with sign 'P'
Deadline expired on 12 January 2009.

P. 4114. In which ball game is the ratio of the number of shots which hit the goal posts or the crossbar to the number
of all shots is greater: in water polo or in handball? Why? (In both ball games the goal posts are at the same
distances, and the goalposts and crossbars in both games have approximately the same thickness.)
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 4115. The third meter shown in the figure reads 6 V. What do the other meters measure and what are their
readings? What is the voltage across the power supply? (The meters can be considered ideal ones.)

(3 points)
Statistics
P. 4116. Prove that the following statement of Galilei (Galilei: Discourses and Mathematical Demonstrations
Relating to Two New Sciences; Leyden (1938).) is true: ``The ratio of the elapsed time intervals while a point-like
object slides without friction along the same lengths of slopes but of different angles of elevation is the same as the
ratio of the reciprocals of the square roots of the corresponding heights of the slope.''
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 4117. In one of the pans of a two-pan balance there is a beaker containing some water and in the other pan there is
a stand onto which an aluminium cylinder of mass 108 g is hanged. The balance is in equilibrium. If the thread is
extended such that the aluminium cylinder is totally immersed into the water, the equilibrium is ceased. Find the
mass of the weight which is to be put into the pan at the right in order to balance the scale.

(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4118. The plank of mass 2m shown in the figure can move without friction along a horizontal surface. The length
of the thread of the pendulum fixed to the plank is L=20 cm, and the mass of the (point-like) bob at the end of the
thread is m. The bob is displaced such that the angle between the thread and the vertical is =60o, and then it is
released.
a) Find the velocity of the bob when the thread is vertical.
b) Find the velocity of the plank when the angle between the thread and the vertical is 45o.
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4119. The weighing scale with which the mass of animals can be measured is a cage which has pressure sensors
below its four vertices on its bottom. These sensors continuously transmit the measured data to a computer. From the
measured data can the computer calculate the mass of the moving animal in the cage? Is it possible to find the mass
if the animal is leaping during the measurement?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4120. An easily moveable trolley of mass M and of length L is at rest on the horizontal tabletop. At the end of the
trolley there is a frog of mass m. What must the initial speed of the frog be at which it has to leap in the direction of
measured from the horizontal in order to land exactly at the other end of the trolley? (Data: M=0.6 kg, m=54 g,
L=81 cm, =45o.)

(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4121. A piston, which can move without friction, closes a sample of Helium in a vertical, thermally insulated
cylinder, which is closed at its bottom, and the cross-section of which is A=2 dm2. Above the piston there is a fixed
stand to which an unstretched spring of spring constant D=2000 N/m is attached, whose bottom end is at a distance
of d=2 dm from the piston when the volume of the gas is V0=8 dm3. The external pressure is p0=105 Pa, g=10 m/s2.
The gas confined in the cylinder is heated with an electric heating element which is automatically controlled such
that the piston is continuously moving with a constant speed of v0=5 cm/s.
a) Determine and plot the instantaneous power of the heating element as a function of the time, while the volume of
the gas increases from V0 to V1=18 dm3.
b) Determine the heat transferred by the electric heating element to the expanding gas in the process.

(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4122. What quantity of charge and into which direction moves through the piece of conductor AB, if the switch is
closed?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4123. A 5 dioptre converging lens and a concave mirror of radius 40 cm are at a distance of 40 cm. The two
optical devices have the same principal axis. The mirror is facing towards the lens with its reflecting side. There is a
small beetle 30 cm away from the lens on the side which is opposite to the mirror.
What type of image - or images - are formed about the beetle by the optical system? What is the magnification?
(4 points)
Problems in Physics, January 2009
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 11 February 2009.

M. 293. Measure how the resonant frequency of a plastic ruler (or some similar object), which is fixed at one of its
ends, depends on the length of the ruler.
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 11 February 2009.

P. 4124. It is well known that a bowl of meat-soup cools down more quickly if there is a spoon in it. Why?
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 4125. It is often seen in crossroads where there is a traffic light that when the light shows green the front of a
starting car rises up a bit. And also when the light goes red the back of a stopping car rises a bit. What is the
explanation for these phenomena?
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 4126. A cube of uniform density is slid from one end of the table to the other. What is the maximum of the
coefficient of the kinetic friction if the performed work is less than the work done while the cube is slowly rolled
along its edges from one end of the table to the other?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4127. A battery of electromotive force 6 V and of internal resistance 8 and a rechargeable battery of e.m.f. 6 V
and of negligible internal resistance are connected in series.
a) What is the resistance of the resistor which is to be connected to the system in order to measure a voltage of 6 V
across it?
b) What is the terminal voltage across the battery in this case?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4128. The pressure of the water supply of a city is maintained by a 24-m high water column. What is the daily
electrical energy consumption of a city which has 50 000 citizens if the average water consumption of a citizen is
100 litres per day, the efficiency of the pumps is 80%, and the efficiency of the electric motors is 92%?
What is the average electrical power input of the water plant?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4129. The bob of a simple pendulum is displaced and then released. What can be the greatest angle of
displacement, if the maximum force exerted by the thread is twice the weight of the bob, and the thread is not to be
broken?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4130. The horizontal cylinder shown in the figure and the piston in it, which can move without friction, are
adiabatically insulated. The mass of the piston is 10 kg, the area of its cross-section is 50 cm2. The temperature of
the air confined in the cylinder is 27 oC, its initial pressure is equal to the atmospheric pressure. The cylinder is
slowly turned into the vertical position. By what value does its temperature change?

(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4131. Water which is at rest can be supercooled even to a temperature of -10 oC, without the water becoming a
solid. If it is disturbed some part of it suddenly freezes. What is the amount of this suddenly freezing part?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4132. What is the amplitude of the electric field of the light emitted by a He-Ne laser whose power is 10 mW?
The cross section of the beam is 1 cm2.
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4133. What is the greatest angle of elevation of a slope onto which a cylinder which has an elliptical cross section
can be placed, such that it stays at rest, provided that friction is big enough? The semi-major axis of the ellipse is a
and its semi-minor axis is b.

(5 points)
Problems in Physics, February 2009
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 11 March 2009.

M. 294. Measure the ratio at which the different washing-up liquids decrease the surface tension of water.
Does this ratio depend on the concentration of the liquid?
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 11 March 2009.
P. 4134. There is an iron load of mass 10 kg at the end of one of the arms of a balance and at the end of the other
arm there is a wooden load of mass also 10 kg. Which end of the lever will tilt downward? To which arm and what
size of iron weight must be hanged onto the scale in order to balance it?
(The density of iron is 7800 kg/m3, the density of wood is 600 kg/m3 and the density of air is 1,3 kg/m3.)
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 4135. Why does the second hand of a clock have a ``tail''?

(3 points)
Statistics
P. 4136. The power in the resistor R2 shown in the figure is 250 W. What are the resistances of the resistors R1 and
R2? What is the reading on the third meter? What is the voltage across the power supply?

(3 points)
Statistics
P. 4137. A small ball is pushed along a horizontal tabletop, and totally elastically bounces off an inclined plane
placed in the way of the ball. Moving upwards, how many times will the ball bounce on the incline? (Neglect the
rotation of the ball.)
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4138. A disc of radius 25 cm and of uniform density can swing (with a small amplitude) about a horizontal axle
which is perpendicular to the plane of the base of the disc.
a) What is its period in seconds if the axle is 25 cm from the centre of the disc?
b) Where must the axle be placed in order that the period is to be 1 s?
c) Where must the axle be placed in order that the period is to be the minimum?
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4139. In a spherical container of radius R there is a sample of ideal gas containing N molecules each having a
mass of m. Supposing that they move randomly in all directions at the same speed of v derive the basic equation of
the kinetic theory gases, so determine the pressure of the gas.
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4140. The centres of two small metal balls, whose radii are equal, are initially at a distance of r. If both balls are
given different magnitude and opposite charges, and then they are released, they begin to move towards each other.
They touch each other and then they move away from each other again. When the distance between their centres is
4r, then the force exerted between them is one-twentieth of the initial force exerted between them. The initial charge
of one of the balls was 2.10-7 C. Calculate the initial charge of the other ball.
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4141. A rechargeable battery of 12 V is connected to a coil of self inductance 20 H and of resistance 30 . What
is the rate of change of the current when the current through the coil is 200 mA? How much energy is stored in the
coil when the equilibrium is established?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4142. An object is at a distance of d from a screen. The convex lens, placed between them, forms the sharp image
of the object at the screen at two different positions, the distance between these positions is s.
a) Find the focal length, f, of the lens.
b) Suppose that d is known very precisely. When will the uncertainty in the measurement of s cause a greater error in
the calculation of f if the value of s is greater or if it is smaller?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4143. The large hadron accelerator in CERN accelerates protons of initial energy 450 GeV to a final energy of
7 TeV, according to the plans. During the acceleration what is the increase of the speed of the protons in m/s?
(Round the result to integers.)
(4 points)
Statistics

Problems in Physics, March 2009


Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 14 April 2009.

M. 295. Drop a pebble into a container filled with water. Measure the greatest horizontal distance to which the water
splashes as a function of the speed at which the pebble hits the water. Carry out the experiment with at least two
pebbles which have different size.
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 14 April 2009.

P. 4144. Using simple equipment, how can you measure the mass of an object which is greater than 120 kg, with a
scale which can measure maximum 120 kg?
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 4145. A passenger train passes a railroad-crossing at a speed of 72 km/h, and it blows a whistle at a frequency of
170 Hz. What is the pitch interval which is sensed by an observer standing next to the railroad-crossing?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4146. One end of a compressed spring is attached to a wall, and the other is attached to an object which can slide
along a rough horizontal surface. The initial compression of the spring is 24 cm, and the system is left alone in this
position. When the spring is in the unstretched position the mechanical energy of the system is half of the original
energy. How far can the object move from the initial position?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4147. Will the energy of air in a cold room change when a stove in the room is heated?
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 4148. A sample of ideal gas is taken from state A to state B in two different ways. The two states has the same
temperature.

a) First it is compressed adiabatically (AC), and then it is cooled down such that its volume remains constant (CB);
b) First it is heated at constant volume (AD), then it is compressed isobarically (DB).
In which case do we perform less work? At state C or at state D will the temperature of the gas be greater?
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4149. A 25 cm-long simple pendulum is hanging vertically inside a small car which is at rest. The mass of the bob
is 2 grams, its charge is 5.10-8 coulomb. The vehicle is in uniform electric field, and then it will travel in this field.
The electric field points vertically upward and its magnitude is 400 kN/C. The vehicle is started at an acceleration of
4.5 m/s2. Air resistance is negligible.
a) Find the maximum speed of the bob with respect to the vehicle.
b) What must the strength of the cord be in order not to be broken during the motion.
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4150. One half of the space between the two plates of a parallel plate capacitor is filled with a dielectric of
permittivity 1 and the other half is filled with another dielectric of permittivity 2, first as shown in figure a) and
second as shown in figure b). In which case will the capacitance of the capacitor be greater?

(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4151. Can an electric field be created such that the electric field lines are parallel but their density is not constant
a) in vacuum,
b) in a dielectric?
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4152. The filament of an incandescent lamp of power 100 W is made of Tungsten. The operation temperature of
the lamp is 2400 K. Consider the filament a black body and give an estimation for the surface area, the cross section,
and the length of the filament.
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4153. When the nucleus of a Beryllium atom is hit by a proton, the nucleus of a Lithium atom and an particle
were initiated. Determine the energy liberated in the reaction.
(4 points)
Statistics

Problems in Physics, April 2009


Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 11 May 2009.

M. 296. Give an estimation for the diameter of the grains of a known material, - for example playground sand -
according to the rate of its settling process in a known liquid.
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 11 May 2009.

P. 4154. Andrew and Ben are running uniformly along a circular track. If they run in opposite directions between
two meetings Andrew steps 225 and Ben steps 220, while if they run in the same directions they have to step ten
times as much. Ben is quicker then Andrew.
a) How many steps is one lap for Andrew and for Ben?
b) Determine the ratio of the speeds of the two runners.
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4155. The electrical power of a vacuum cleaner is 1 kW. According to its description its airflow is 52 litre/s. The
diameter of the tube is 3 cm. What percent of the total power is used to accelerate the air?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4156. Why can a water strider or a blade of a razor float on the surface of water?
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 4157. What is the least horizontal force which can turn over a cube which is on a horizontal tabletop? Examine
the following three cases:
a) 0;
b) =0.2;
c) =1.
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4158. A uniform solid disc of radius 10 cm and of mass 5 kg is rotated at an angular speed of 120 1/s along its
horizontal symmetry axis, and carefully, without giving any initial speed to it, it is placed to a horizontal surface.
The coefficient of friction between the disc and the surface is 0.4.
Determine the work done by the frictional force on the disc, while it covers a distance of 5 m:
a) with using the definition of work done;
b) with using the work-energy theorem.
(Neglect air resistance and rolling friction, and calculate with g=10 m/s2.)
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4159. Two loud speakers, in the open air, emit the same frequency of sound in phase. One of them is at the origin
of the coordinate system, and the other is at the point x1=0, y1=2.4 m. An observer is standing at the point x2=40 m,
y2=0, and then along a straight line parallel to the y axis he walks to the direction of positive and negative y. While
he is walking he finds that the intensity of sound decreases to both directions. What can the frequency of sound be?
Along the same line can he find similar points?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4160. A heat engine, operating with monatomic ideal gas undergoes the cyclic process shown in the figure.

Find the efficiency of the engine in the following cases:

a) ;
b) V1=2V0;
c) V1=3V0.
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4161. The capacitors arranged as shown in the figure are all neutral. At a certain instant switch K1 is closed.

a) Find the voltage across each capacitors after switch K1 is closed.


b) After a short time switch K2 is closed as well. Determine the energy of the condensers.
c) How much heat was generated in the system after closing switch K2?
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4162. A magnetized needle can swing horizontally inside a solenoid whose symmetry axis is horizontal. The
length of the solenoid is 25 cm, and the number of its turns is 100. When there is no current in the solenoid the
needle makes 10 total swings in each minute due to the magnetic field of the Earth. Now the solenoid is placed such,
that its symmetry axis is perpendicular to the magnetic meridian. The needle makes 51 swings in each minute when
the current in the solenoid is 1 A.
a) What is the horizontal component of the magnetic field of the Earth at the location of the experiment?
b) How many swings does the needle make if the direction of the current in the solenoid is changed? (Its magnitude
remains the same.)
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4163. Use a converging lens of diameter d and of power D dioptre and project the image of the Sun onto a white
screen.
a) What is the size of the Sun on the screen?
b) By what factor will the image of the Sun on the screen be brighter than the rest of the screen which is directly
shone by the Sun?
The angle subtended by the Sun is 32 arcminutes.

Data: D1=12 m-1, d1=35 mm; and , d2=60 cm.


(4 points)
Statistics

Problems in Physics, September 2009


Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 12 October 2009.

M. 298. Measure how long it takes for an ice cube, made of tap water, to melt if it is in a glass of tap water, which is
at room temperature, and if it is in a glass of salt water (saline water), which has the same amount as the glass of tap
water and also it is at the same room temperature. Repeat the measurements such that a small weight is frozen into
the ice cube, and the cube is completely submerged in both the tap water and the saline water. It is worth dying the
cubes with some food colour.
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 12 October 2009.

P. 4174. If the sheets of two exercise books, facing each other, are shuffled into each other, and then the two exercise
books are pressed together with two fingers, then even an adult is unable to pull the two exercise books apart. What
is the reason for this phenomenon?
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4175. Which of the points, marked by A, B, C, D, of the circuit shown in the figure, are at the same potential.
Between which two points is the potential difference the greatest?
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4176. A child sitting on a sleigh slides along an inclined plane, which has an angle of elevation of 10 o. There is a
small forward wind which exerts a force of 10.5 N on the child in the direction of the motion. The total mass of the
child and the sleigh is 65 kg, and the coefficient of kinetic friction between the sleigh and the snow is 0.15.
a) If the sleigh starts from rest swat will the final speed of the sleigh be at the end of the 125 m long inclined plane?
b) How long does it take for the sleigh to reach the bottom of the inclined plane?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4177. A uniform rod of mass m=0.5 kg and of length =80 cm is hanged with two threads. What will the
acceleration of point A and the tension in the left thread be right after cutting the thread on the right?

(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4178. A piece of chocolate is dropped into a glass of soda water. The density of the chocolate is 1,2 g/cm3 and its
volume is 2 cm3. Carbon-dioxide bubbles begin to stick to the surface of the chocolate. What is the least total
volume of the bubbles when the piece of chocolate begins to ascend?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4179. Determine the ratio of the specific heat capacity of the mixture of 20 g Helium and 8 g Hydrogen at
constant pressure to the specific heat capacity of the same gas at constant volume.
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4180. A point-like body of mass m and of charge Q is initially at rest on the horizontal tabletop as shown in the
figure and is given a v0 vertical, upward speed. There is a horizontal E electric field exerted on the object. With what
speed does the object hit the table when it falls back, and what is the distance between the starting point and the
point where it hits the table?

(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4181. The width of the uniform magnetic field, shown in the figure, is =5 cm, the induction of the field is
B=0.167 T. A proton enters into the field perpendicularly to the field lines, and after passing the magnetic field it is
deflected by an angle of =30o.
a) Determine the speed v0 of the proton and the time while it passes the magnetic field.
b) What voltage is to be applied in order to stop the proton in a distance of s=10 cm, and how long does it take to
stop the proton?
c) Suppose that another proton enters into the magnetic field at a speed of v1=2.106 m/s, and at the angle , shown in
the figure. What is the least angle , if the particle bounces back from the magnetic wall?

(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4182. A pointlike discharge lamp of power 5 W emits monochromatic light of wavelength 425 nm. The cathode of
a photocell is placed 1 m from the light source, perpendicularly to the light rays. The radius of the cathode is 0.5 cm
and the work function of its material is 2 .10-19 J. A capacitor of capacitance 2 nF is connected to the anode and the
cathode of the photocell.
a) What is the energy of one photon emitted by the discharge lamp? How many photons hits the cathode of the
photocell in each second?
b) What is the maximum of the speed of the electrons which leaves the cathode?
c) What will the voltage of the capacitor be?
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4183. The halflife of the radioactive isotope of lead, whose atomic mass number is 214, is 26.8 minutes. How
long has it been decaying if only one-thousandth of the original atoms are present in the sample?
(4 points)
Problems in Physics, October 2009
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 10 November 2009.

M. 299. Measure the coefficient of dynamic friction between a sponge and a sheet of glass in case of different forces
with which the sponge and the glass are pushed together. Investigate the dry and the wet sponges as well.
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 10 November 2009.

P. 4184. What is the temperature measured in Celsius degrees when the Reaumur and the Fahrenheit thermometers
show the same value and what is this value?
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4185. A bird can fly in the air at a constant speed v. There is a wind of speed v1 blowing from the North. Into what
direction should the bird fly in order to move in the East--West direction? What is its speed with respect to the

Earth? Data: , .
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4186. When someone travels with the underground is it easier to walk facing towards the engine or facing
backwards the engine when the train starts to move. Why?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4187. How do the objects shown in the figure move, if m1=2 kg, m2=8 kg, m3=1 kg? The mass of the pulley and
the ropes is negligible.

(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4188. A razor blade is floating on the surface of water in a glass. The blade is made sink by moving the glass.
How does the level of the water change during this?
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4189. 10 cm3 water is poured into a container of volume 400 cm3 at normal atmospheric pressure and at room
temperature (20 oC). Then the container is closed hermetically and heated to a temperature of 150 oC. By what
amount will the volume of the water change? (Do not consider the change in the volume of the container.)
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4190. A cube shaped room of sides 4 m is heated by a stove of power 6 kW. The outside temperature is -10 oC. To

what temperature will the room be heated if the coefficient of heat transfer is 2.1 ?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4191. A sample of Helium gas is cooled down at a pressure of 10 5 Pa. The gas gives off 5 kJ heat. By how many
litres did the volume of the gas decrease?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4192. The metal (hollow) spheres of radii R, 2R and 3R are placed into each other such that their centres are at the
same point. The inner sphere is given a charge of Q, the middle one is charged to 2Q, and the outer one is charged
to 3Q. a) Find the potentials, measured from the common centre of the circles, at a distances of R, 2R, 3R and 4R, if
the potential at the centre is taken to be zero. b) What is the energy of the electric field in the regions between the
spheres and outside the spheres? (R=10 cm, Q=2.10-6 C.)
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4193. What is the distance between the optical axis of a glass sphere of radius R and that light ray which travels
parallel to the optical axis and which leaves the glass at the point where the optical axis intersects the sphere? (The
refractive index is 1.6.)
(4 points)
Problems in Physics, November 2009
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 10 December 2009.
M. 300. Measure the cooling curve (temperature--time graph) of a sample of warm water. Do not stir the water.
Measure the temperature in the middle of the sample of water, next to the wall of the container and near the surface
of water as well.
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 10 December 2009.

P. 4194. How can a neutral metal object be charged negatively with the help of a positively charged object?
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4195. The voltage of the power supply of the circuit shown in the figure is 15 V. When the switch is open the
voltmeter reads 10 V and the ammeter reads 200 mA.
a) Find the resistances of all the resistors.
b) What are the readings of the meters when the switch is closed?
c) Find the dissipated power at each resistor when the switch is open and when it is closed.

(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4196. A hard sheet making an angle of 45o with the horizontal is placed below a falling marble. The marble falls
from a height of 2 metres and collides totally elastically with the hard sheet. Where must the sheet be placed in order
to make
a) the horizontal distance covered by the marble until it hits the ground the greatest;
b) the time until the marble hits the ground the greatest?

(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4197. Lead shots of mass 241 g are placed into a glass flask of volume 500 cm3, at a temperature of 0 oC, and then
the flask is fully filled with water of temperature 0 oC. Then the temperature is raised to 25 oC. Find the mass of the
water which flows out of the flask. The expansion of the glass flask is negligible. Be careful: the expansion of water
is not linear.
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4198. A small block of mass m=1 kg is placed to a plank which moves on a horizontal frictionless surface, as
shown in the figure. The mass of the plank is M=4 kg, and its length is L=0.8 m. The coefficient of friction between
the plank and the block is =0.4.
a) What is the least constant force F0 with which the plank must be pulled in order to make the block slide down
from it?
b) How long does it take for the bock to slide down if the pulling force is F1=3 mg?
c) Till the instant when the block fell off the plank what percent of the force F1 increased the internal energy of the
system?

(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4199. A long uniformly charged rod, made of some insulating material, is bent into a semicircle in the middle of
the rod. What is the electric field at the centre of the semicircle O?

(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4200. Two alike discharge lamps are operated from the mains, 230 V and 50 Hz, and they are both connected to
inductors in series. The inductors are alike. A condenser is connected in series to one of the discharge tubes. With
this arrangement it is ensured that when the current through one of the lamps is maximum, then the current through
the other one is minimum and vice-versa. (Antistroboscopic navigation.) In both branch the RMS value of the power
is 8 W. What is the total ohmic resistance of the discharge tube and the inductor together when the system is
operated? Find the capacitance of the condenser and the inductance of the coils?
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4201. A beam of light travels through a piece of wedge-shaped glass, and is deflected more than 2 o from its
original direction of travel. The refractile index of glass is 1.5. Find the angle between the two boundary planes of
the wedge-shaped glass.
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4202. A Geiger--Mller tube (GM tube) is used to detect radiation, which is emitted by a pointlike high-energy
source, during 1 minute. The table below shows the distance between the source and the window of the GM tube, r,
and the averages of the detected number of strikes, N, (decreased with the backround radiation).
r [cm] 1 3 6 9

N [1/min] 487 196 72 41


Estimate the number of strikes per minute when the source is placed at a distance of 12 cm from the window of the
GM tube.
Hint: The length of a GM tube is between several cm-s and some dm-s. There are strikes in the whole length of the
tube, but the process can be modelled such that the strikes are at a sensitive surface at some distance from the
window. The source is usually placed perpendicularly to the window in the symmetry axis of the GM tube.
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4203. Will the critical mass of Uranium change if it is ,,diluted'' with another material which does not interact
with neutron?
(4 points)
Problems in Physics, December 2009
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 11 January 2010.

M. 301. If a flat pocket of vanilla-sugar or other (for example filled with backing powder) pocket is thrown onto a
horizontal tabletop, then the pocket does not bounce back, instead, after the collision it begins to slide, and then it
stops. Measure how the braking distance depends on the speed of the pocket right before the impact, and on the
angle (measured from the horizontal) at which it hits the table.
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 11 January 2010.

P. 4204. What is the colour of the sky in the daytime on the Moon? Observed from the Moon what is the colour of
the Earth and of the Mars?
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4205. In a straight glass tube, closed at one end, a certain amount of air is enclosed by a mercury line. The glass
tube is inclined at an angle to the vertical. Does the relative change of length of the enclosed air column depend on
if the temperature is changing?
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4206. The length of the newest Indian nuclear submarine is 112 m, its mass is 6000 tons, its maximum speed is
44 km/h and its maximum power is 85 MW. Using these data and the data in the table estimate the
a) maximum thrust of the submarine,
b) the diameter of the body of the submarine.
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4207. Two tennis balls of mass 60 g are attached with a massless rubber thread, and held in the vertical position as
shown in the figure. In this position the unstretched length of the rubber thread is 40 cm. The upper ball is slowly
raised vertically upward, until the lower ball just becomes unsupported by the ground. At this time the length of the
thread is 1 m. The rubber thread exerts a force which is proportional to its extension.
a) How much work is done while the upper ball was raised?
b) Releasing the upper ball at what speed will it hit the lower one?
c) How much time elapses between the release of the upper ball and the collision?

(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4208. Three marbles of mass 4m, m and 3m can slide without friction along a horizontal rod. (There are holes in
the balls.) At a certain moment the middle marble is given an initial speed of v0=5 m/s towards the right. After the
totally elastic collisions determine the
a) velocities of the marbles;
b) the ratio of the kinetic energies of the marbles.

(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4209. As an average we take breath 18 times in every minutes, and approximately 500 cm3 is inhaled in each
breath. The O2 content of the inhaled air is 21%, and that of the exhaled air is 16%. The temperature of the air in the
lungs is the same as the body temperature.
How many grams of O2 is consumed in a day?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4210. 1 kg water of temperature 80 oC is poured onto 10 kg ice of temperature -30 oC which is in a thermally
isolated container, and then 5 kg water vapour at a temperature of 120 oC is added.
What is the final state of the system?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4211. A current of I is flowing in a wire which is in the centre of an infinitely long straight metal tube. The radius
of the tube is r the width of its wall is d (d r), and the young modulus of its material is E. By what amount does
the radius of the tube change if a current of magnitude I is started in the tube which current is opposite to the current
in the wire. Does the radius increase or decrease?
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4212. The ratio of the components in a mixture, which consists of two elements, is to be determined. The atomic
number of the elements are big, their atomic mass numbers are the same. and the amount of the sample is only
0.8 mg. We know that both elements decay when they are bombarded by neutrons. They behave similarly when
absorbing neutrons. The half-life of element A is half an hour and the half-life of element B is an hour. Right after
the neutron irradiation the emission is measured. At this time -- subtracting the background -- 400 particles are
measured in 10 seconds, and after an hour only 145 particles are measured during 10 seconds.
Determine the mass of the element A and the mass of the element B in the sample.
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4213. It is often stated about the line spectrum of Hydrogen that the lines of the Lyman series is in the ultraviolate
region, the lines of the Balmer series are in the region of visible light, and the lines of the Paschen and other series
are in the infrared region. However, this is not exactly true, because not all the lines of the Balmer series can be seen
by the naked eye.
Using the Bohr model of the atom find how many of the lines in the Balmer series belong to the region of visible
light, and which are they?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)

Problems in Physics, January 2010


Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 10 February 2010.

M. 302. Measure the coefficients of static and dynamic friction between a sleigh and the snow. (If there is no snow,
between the sleigh and the ground.)
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 10 February 2010.

P. 4214. A freight train, undergoing uniform motion, passes the semaphore next to the rails in 4 seconds. Then it
passes a 40-m long train, which moves with the same speed as the freight train but into the opposite direction, also in
4 seconds. What is the speed of the freight train in km/h?
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4215. A body is attached to a vertically hung soft spring. The body is released and the time during which the body
reaches the lowest point of its path is measured. How many times does this time more than the time while an object,
which falls freely without any initial speed, covers the same distance?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4216. A sample of Helium gas is taken through the process A B, shown in the figure, p0=105 Pa, V0=3 dm3.
Determine the pressure and the volume of the gas at state C, until which QAC=3700 J heat is added to the gas.
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4217. If the pair of plates, which is to deflect the charges, in the cathode ray tube is uncharged, then the electrons,
which are ejected from the electron gun, travel through the tube with a constant velocity and they hit the screen with
this speed. What can be stated about the speed of the electrons with which they hit the screen when there is a
constant amount of charge on the pair of plates?
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4218. What is the current in the wires which join the points A and X, and the points X and Y, shown in the figure?
Data: R=6 , U=24 V.

(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4219. The piece of rigid wire, shown in the figure, and which can freely turn about the vertical axis of PQ, is
placed into uniform horizontal magnetic field. B=0.05 T, r=0.05 m, =0.3 m. A current of I=10 A flows in the wire
and the mass of one metre-long wire is 10 dkg. What is the period of this piece of wire when it is oscillating with
small amplitude?

(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4220. An immersion heater is rated at 350 W when it is run on a sinusoidal electricity supply of voltage 230 V.
a) What is the smallest and the greatest instantaneous power of the immersion heater when it is operating?
b) What is the maximum value of the instantaneous current that flows through the heater?
c) Why is it not allowed to turn on the heater before immersing it into the water?
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4221. The base of a glass prism is an isosceles triangle. The angle between the equal sides is 40 o and the refractive
index of the glass of the prism is 1.5. What should the angle of incidence of the light beam incident on one of the
congruent faces of the prism be in order that the refracted ray is to be parallel to the base of the isosceles triangle.
What is the answer if the prism is placed into water of refractive index of 1.33, or into bensole of refractive index
1.6?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4222. Three times ionized UF6 molecules are accelerated through a voltage of 5 kV, and then through a small hole
they are led to a region of magnetic field of induction 1 T. The induction vector is perpendicular to the velocity of
the molecules.
a) What is the path of the ions? Give the characteristic parameters of the paths of the ions which contain the 238 and
the 235 isotopes of the Uranium.
b) In this way the two Uranium isotopes can be separated. During the Second World War the available ion sources
could produce an ion current of 1 mA. How long would it have taken to separate 1 kg pure 235U isotope with this
method?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4223. A high energy proton collides with a 73Li nucleus of negligible speed. The angle between the emitted
2 alpha particles is 90o. At least what was the speed of the proton?
(5 points)
Problems in Physics, February 2010
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 10 March 2010.

M. 303. Place an inclined plane to the rim of the table and let a paper cylinder roll down along the incline. Observe
the path of the cylinder flying off the table. Investigate what the distance between the table and position where the
cylinder reaches the ground depends on, and how it depends.
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 10 March 2010.

P. 4224. Two bulbs, rated at 230 V 40 W and 230 V 60 W, are connected in series to a voltage supply of 230 V.
Which bulb will be brighter and why?
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4225. Two balls are started at the same time, one of them starts from rest at the top of the inclined plane, the angle
of inclination is , and the other is projected from point O, and they reach point P at the same time. At what angle
does the second ball have to be projected?

(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4226. What happens to the compass placed as shown in the figure, if a) the switch is
turned on,
b) then keeping the switch on, the the wiper of the variable resistor is moved in the direction shown by the arrow.
c) then, still keeping the switch on, the bar of soft iron is pushed into the coil.
d) finally the switch is turned off.

(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4227. The density of an imaginary planet is 5 .103 kg/m3, its radius is 5000 km. Inside the planet there is an
enormous spherical hole, the radius of which is 1000 km, and whose centre is 3000 km from the geometric centre of
the planet. What is the acceleration of that meteoroid which at one moment is at a distance of 6000 km from the
geometric centre of the planet and the line segment which joins the centre of the planet and the meteoroid makes an
angle of 60o with the line segment between the centres of the planet and the hole.
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4228. Determine and graph the heat of vaporization of water as a function of temperature between 0 oC and
100 oC. The data that can be used are: the specific heat capacity values of water and water vapour, and the specific
latent heat of vaporization of water.
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4229. The heating system keeps the temperature of a flat at about 20 oC. Outside the weather is cold and damp:
the temperature is 0 oC, and the relative humidity is 95%. What will the relative humidity of the air in the room be
after airing the room, when the temperature reaches again the value of 20 oC? Approximately what amount of water
must be vaporized in a flat of area 50 m2 and of height 3 m, in order to reach the 50% relative humidity, pleasant for
the human mucous membrane.
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4230. Uniformly charged square-shaped sheets of sides a and of charge Q, are used to build a cube. What is the
electrostatic repelling force exerted on each face of the cube?
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4231. Metal pieces of wires, of resistance R are used to build a cube system as shown in the figure. The cubes
make a long chain, which can be considered infinite. What is the equivalent resistance between points A and B?

(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4232. A 2-m long metal rod falls, because of the gravitational pull, but it falls with a constant speed of 50 m/s
because its motion is damped. What can the maximum voltage be between the two ends of the rod?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4233. The inside of a half cylinder is silver-coated. The radius of the cylinder is R=6 cm. At a distance of h=4 cm
from its symmetry axis there is a narrow beam of light. At what point does this beam of light focused?

(5 points)
Problems in Physics, March 2010
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 12 April 2010.

M. 304. Measure the maximum force that can be exerted on an egg along its longer axis, and along the direction
perpendicular to this axis, without breaking the egg. How much does the the egg become indented until the moment
of break?
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 12 April 2010.

P. 4234. The speed of a cyclist along the horizontal road is 16 km/h, 12 km/h upward and 24 km/h downward. Once
the cyclist went from the village to the town, and it took 3 hours to get to the town and to go back to the village.
How far is the city from the village?
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4235. The distance between the cars in a long queue of cars is 15 m and the average length of a car is 5 m. The
speed of the car-queue is 72 km/h. How long does it take after an accident to develop a 10 km-long car-queue
consisting of standing cars if the distance of the cars is 3 m?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4236. A vertical rod of mass 4 kg is hanging on a rope and a 3-kg cat is grasping the bottom end of the rod. The
rope is cut off and the frightened cat begins to run up on the rod. While the rod is falling vertically, the cat remains at
the same height, with respect to the ground. Calculate the acceleration of the rod.
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4237. A path is made to a uniform density cube of mass m, and of edge a, such that when the cube rolls along the
path without skiding, its centre moves along a straight line (``square wheel''). At the ``top'' of the path a horizontal
initial velocity of v0 is given to the centre of the cube. The static frictional force is big enough, so the cube do not
slide anywhere. What is the speed of the centre of mass when the cube touches the lowest point of the path? (The

moment of inertia of the cube with respect to its centre of mass is )

(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4238. A thin-walled plexy cylinder of mass M and of radius R can rotate freely without friction about its
horizontal axis. Inside there is a solid rubber cylinder of mass m and of radius r. What is the period of the motion of
the system when the rubber cylinder is displaced a little from its equilibrium position? It can be assumed that the
rubber cylinder rolls without sliding inside the plexy one.
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4239. A tractor is used to transport hay bales from point A to the stable denoted by B as shown in the figure. The
farmer has to be in a hurry in order to finish the transport before an approaching big thunderstorm. Find the best
route for the tractor if the speed of the tractor on the arable land is 75% of its speed on the meadow. (Numerical
solutions are also acceptable.)

(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4240. A man in a small dinghy approaches from a great distance the wave-breaker dam, in which there are two
holes 8 m apart. Waves of wavelength =6 m hit the other side of the dam. What must the path of the dingy be if
the man in it wants the dingy to be rocked the least?

(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4241. A sample of ideal gas is taken through the cyclic process shown in the figure.
a) What is the relation between T1, T2 and T3?

b) Express the efficiency of the heat engine which carry out this cyclic process in terms of and .
c) In case of air between what values can this efficiency vary?

(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4242. A candle is burning in a vertical cylinder standing on the table. The inner wall of the cylinder has a reflexive
surface. The height of the cylinder is 30 cm, its diameter is 12 cm, and the centre of the candle light is at a height of
14 cm, 2 cm away from the axis of the cylinder. From which direction will the image of the candle light, which
becomes three times wider, be on the top of the cylinder?
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4243. The number of turns of a solenoid (straight coil) of length L=0,5 m is N=2000, the area of its cross section
is A=16 cm2, and it has an iron core of relative permittivity of r=2500. At a moment the current in the coil changes
at a rate of 100 A/s. What is the induced voltage in that long straight wire of length 2 =20 cm (the wire is next to
the centre of the coil)
a) which is perpendicular to the axis of the coil, if its two ends are equidistant from the coil, and its centre is at a
distance of from the coil?
b) which has the same direction as the previous one, and one of its end is at a distance of from the axis of the coil?
(5 points)
Problems in Physics, April 2010
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 10 May 2010.

M. 305. Measure how the refractive index of salt solution depends on its concentration.
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 10 May 2010.

P. 4244. A cat carefully approaches a plane mirror at a speed of 1 m/s. To her utmost surprise she realizes that her
mirror image is moving away from her at a speed of 5 m/s, instead of approaching her, as she would expect. What
can the explanation of this strange experience of the cat be?
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4245. Why do we shorten our steps in winter, if the pavement is slippery?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4246. From an air gun a bullet is shot horizontally through the middle of a Plasticine sphere of 5 dkg, which is
initially at rest on the edge of a table of height of 80 cm. The Plasticine sphere and the bullet of mass 0.5 g lands
8.2 m away from each other on the ground. In another experiment, in which the Plasticine sphere has three times
bigger diameter, the bullet does not get through the sphere, but stops just at its surface. Determine the initial speed of
the bullet, provided that it decelerates uniformly in the Plasticine in both cases.
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4247. As the figure shows, a small object is dropped to a fixed, frictionless slope of angle of elevation =30o
from a height h. The time of the fall is t1. After a totally inelastic collision the object slides down the slope. It covers
the same distance s=h on the slope during the time t2. Determine the ratio of t1/t2.

(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4248. In calm weather a rope, which is attached to a spherical balloon filled with Helium, hangs vertically and
tight. In wind, however, in one case the rope makes an angle of 20 o with the vertical, and in a second case an angle
of 55o. Determine the ratio of the wind speeds in the two cases, provided that the air drag is proportional to the
square of the speed of the wind.
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4249. The two ends of a flexible rope of uniform density are fixed at the same height, as shown in the figure.
Starting from the equilibrium position, we perform the following two experiments:
I. We pull down the midpoint of the rope till it reaches point A. (At this time the rope almost has a V-shape.)
II. From the equilibrium position we pull up the midpoint of the rope to the point B. (So now the shape of the rope is
like an upside down V.)
The total work we did in the two processes is W. How much work is needed to lift the midpoint of the rope to the
point C?

(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4250. A cylindrical container is divided into two parts by a massless, frictionless, thermally insulating piston. In
one part of the container there is 40 g Hydrogen, in the other part there is 20 g Neon, both in standard conditions.
a) Which gas, and to what temperature should be heated in order that the piston moves to the middle of the cylinder,
provided that the temperature of the other gas does not change?
b) What is the final pressure of the gas which was heated?
c) How much heat was transferred to the gas?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4251. Two alike pendulums of length L are suspended at the same point. At the end of both pendulums there are
small spheres of mass m. If both spheres are given the same Q charge, the threads move apart as it is shown in the
figure.
a) Determine the mass m of the spheres.
b) In another experiment the sphere on the right is changed to another one of the same charge, but three times bigger
mass. How should the charge of the left sphere be changed, so that in equilibrium the distance between the two
spheres remains L? (The mass of the left sphere is not changed.)

(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4252. A strongly short-sighted man wore on both eyes glasses of power -12 dioptres. The lenses were 2 cm from
his eyes. In a cataract operation plastic lenses were implanted in his eyes, with which now he can see sharply the
book held 25 cm away from his eyes. He is surprised by the fact, that he sees not only better than before, but he sees
the book and the letters inside also bigger than before, with the glasses.
a) How much larger does the man see now the objects, which are 25 cm from his eyes, than before the operation he
saw the objects, which were 25 cm away from his glasses?
b) Determine the power of the glasses (in dioptres) he needs to see sharply the Moon in the sky.
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4253. How many electrons should be removed from a metal sphere of radius 1 cm, so that its electrostatic energy
equals the energy loss due to mass defect? What would the electric potential of the sphere be in this case?
(4 points)
Problems in Physics, May 2010
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 10 June 2010.

M. 306. Measure how the force between two bar magnets, which lie along the same line, depends on the distance
between them.
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 10 June 2010.

P. 4254. A group of amateur astronomers observes a newly discovered binary star. According to their observations
the two stars look like a pair of bright points, whose path is the ellipse shown in the figure. Ester, the most
enthusiastic member of the group, recently learned Kepler's laws in the high-school. According to her knowledge the
celestial bodies really move along elliptical paths, but the attractive centre is not at the symmetry centre O of the
ellipse but at one of its foci. She suspects that the two stars revolve about an invisible black hole, which has much
greater mass than that of the stars, and which is at the focus of the ellipse. Can Ester be right? How would you
explain the observation?

(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4255. What is the direction and the magnitude of the least force which must be exerted on a small object of mass
m being at rest at the top of the horizontal table? The coefficients of static and kinetic frictions are equal and .
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4256. A rubber cord is stretched out between two walls. At the point of the cord C a force of F along the direction
of the cord is exerted.
a) What is the displacement of point C if the cord can be characterized with a spring constant D?
b) At which point of the cord must the force F be exerted when the displacement of C is the greatest?

Data: F=5 N, a=40 cm, b=10 cm, .

(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4257. In a hollow hemisphere a thin ring rolls down without slipping, starting from one endpoint of one of the
horizontal diameters. At what speed does it reach the bottom point of the sphere? The radius of the ring is r=2 cm
and the radius of the hemisphere is n=4 times as much as that of the ring. The hemisphere is fixed and the plane of
its cross section is horizontal.
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4258. Three rods, among which any two are perpendicular to each other, are placed onto a rough surface and form
a pyramid. The vertex of the pyramid supports a weight of Q. What are the forces exerted by the rods, if they have
equal lengths, and if they have different lengths? (The weight of the rods is negligible with respect to the weight Q.)
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4259. Why is it possible to turn a somersault after jumping up into the air -- having enough momentum -- and
then fall back onto our feet?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4260. An object of mass m can move without friction along the horizontal axis of X. With a thread of length L
another object of mass m is connected to it. This object can move only along the vertical axis Y. Initially this object
is at the origin of the axes, and the other is at a distance of L on the X axis. Than the objects are left to move. To
what speeds will the object accelerates due to the gravitational force? What types of motion do they undergo?
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4261. A cylinder of radius 15 cm and of length 50 cm is closed at one end, and 40 cm from the closed end a piston
confines a sample of air in standard conditions. The air inside is heated by a heater of power 100 W, which has an
efficiency of 80%. How long does it take for the air to push the piston out of the cylinder?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4262. An electron is shot at an initial speed of v0=4.107 m/s into a parallel plate condenser halfway between the
plates. The distance between the plates and the length of the plates are unknown, and a constant voltage of U=500 V
is applied between the plates. If a uniform magnetic field of induction B=6.25.10-5 Vs/m2 is also applied between the
plates, in the appropriate direction, the electron goes through the plates without changing the direction of its motion,
at a constant speed.
a) Determine the electric field between the plates of the parallel plate condenser.
b) Find the distance d between the plates.
c) If the magnetic field is ceased the speed of the electron increase by 6% when passes the condenser. What is the
length of the plates L?

(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4263. The rate of change of the current in a toroidal coil is 10 A/s. The number of turns of the coil is 2000, its
cross section is 2 cm2, and the radius of its central circle is 0.5 m. At what acceleration does a proton or an electron
starts to move if it is initially at the centre of the toroidal coil?
Hint: The electric field generated by the varying magnetic field of the toroidal coil is similar to the magnetic field
generated by a circular current.
(5 points)
Problems in Physics, September 2010
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 11 October 2010.

M. 307. Measure the refractive indices of different liquids (e.g. water, glycerin) in the following way: place a
concave mirror (a watch glass can also be used) to the table create the sharp image of a filament lamp, hanging from
the ceiling, on a screen made of tracing paper (translucent paper). Then pour some liquid into the mirror and find the
sharp image of the filament lamp again. Measuring distances determine the refractive index of the liquid.
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 11 October 2010.

P. 4264. By what percent would the value of the acceleration due to gravity change on the North-pole if the radius of
the Earth was increased by 1%, while its mass remained the same.
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4265. A 200 m-long car convoy is travelling at a speed of 10 m/s. From the end of the convoy a motorbike starts
to move to the front of the convoy at a speed of 20 m/s.
a) How long does it take to reach the front of the convoy?
b) How long does it take to go back?
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4266. The pulling force that an electric engine can exert when its speed is 57.6 km/h is 310 kN. The voltage is
3.6 kV, and the current in all the eight electric motors is 230 A. Determine the efficiency of the engine.
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4267. The original length of a spring is 25 cm. It elongates 2 cm if a force of 1 N is exerted on it. A container is
filled with water and one end of the spring is fixed 30 cm above the surface of the water in the container. A wooden
block of mass 32 g and of density 0.4 g/cm3 is hanged onto the other end of the spring. The height of the block is
5 cm. To what depth does the block emerges into the water?

(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4268. A physics teacher often went to skate to a nearby frozen lake. Once he could reduce his speed to one third
of its original value along 16 m skidding, and then it took him 1 more second to stop. How much distance did he
cover during the braking. On another day he had the same initial speed and suddenly he noticed a crevasse in the ice
20 m in front of him. At what distance from the crevasse could he stop, if his reaction time is 0.1 s, and he used his
familiar braking technique.
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4269. 4 kJ heat is added to a sample of gas whose original temperature is 300 K. Both the volume and the
pressure of the gas is doubled, and the gas does 1 kJ work on its environment during the process. The graph of the
process on the p-V diagram is a straight line.
a) How many moles of gas are there in the sample?
b) How many atoms constitute one molecule of the gas?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4270. The switch in the circuit, shown in the figure has been closed for quite a long time. (U=100 V, C=2 F,
R1=20 , R2=30 , R3=12 .)
a) Determine the charge on the capacitor.
b) The switch is opened. What amount of charge flows through the resistor R1 after opening the switch?
c) How much work is done on the resistor R1 after opening the switch?

(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4271. There is a pair of parallel, horizontal, conducting rails in uniform vertically downward magnetic field of
induction B=0.5 T. The two rails are at a distance of =10 cm and they are connected to a rechargeable battery of
potential difference U0=12 V. A metal rod of mass m=50 g, and of resistance R=2 , is placed onto the rails,
perpendicularly to them. The coefficient of friction between the rod and the rails is =0.3.
a) What is the initial acceleration of the rod when switch K is closed?
b) What would the final speed of the rod be if the rails are very long?
c) Estimate, (try to give a precise estimation) the covered distance, and the time during which the speed of the rod

increases from to .

(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4272. We have 4 alike, ideal diodes in order to rectify the sinusoidal voltage of the mains. The r.m.s. value of the
mains is 230 V, and its frequency is 50 Hz. (Any number of diodes can be used up to 4.)
a) What circuit would you build in order to make a half-wave rectifier?

b) What circuit would you build in order to make a full-wave rectifier?

c) Determine the r.m.s. value of the voltage in both cases.


(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4273. Two unknown impedances are connected in parallel to the mains, of voltage 230 V and of frequency 50 Hz.
The maximum value of the current in the main branch is 20 A. The current through one of the impedances leads the

current in the main branch by an angle of , and through the other impedance the current lags behind the current in

the main branch by an angle of .


a) What are the instantaneous current values in the two branches at t=0.01 s, if the current in the main branch is zero
at t=0?
b) What are the values of the inductance and the capacitance in the two branches?
(5 points)
Problems in Physics, October 2010
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 10 November 2010.

M. 308. Close the top end of a glass tube, open at its both ends, and push it vertically into a bucket of water.
Suddenly open the top end of the tube. Examine how the height of the first highest water level depends on the length
of that part of the tube which is immersed into the water. Use several tubes of different diameters.
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 10 November 2010.

P. 4274. It is known that we can look through the glass of an ordinary window. What happens when the glass
cracks? The crack can be noticed immediately. What is the reason?
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4275. The pressure of a sample of ideal gas in a container of 10 litres is 1.6 MPa, and its temperature is 25 oC.
How many numbers of moles of gas are there in the container? What is the density of the gas if 10% of the mass of
the gas is Helium and the rest is Nitrogen?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4276. At what angle can a ladder of weight G be leaned against the vertical smooth wall, if a man of mass m can
safely climb up on it? The coefficient of static friction between the ground and the ladder is 0.
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4277. The wedge shown in the figure can slide without friction on a horizontal tabletop. The mass of the wedge is
M and its angle of elevation is =30o. A body of mass m slides down without friction along the wedge, the path of
the body makes an angle of =60o with the ground. Find the ratio of the masses, m/M.

(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4278. A U-shaped communicating vessel, made of a bent glass tube, contains water. The part of the tube which is
filled with water is 30 cm long. The difference between the levels of the water in the two parts of the tube is 1 cm
when the communicating vessel is in a vehicle which accelerates uniformly.

What is the acceleration of the vehicle if the length of the part of the tube which is horizontal is 10 cm? What would
have the difference between the lengths of the water columns been, if a V-shaped communicating vessel had been
used in which the total length of the tube which is filled with water was also 30 cm?
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4279. A rubber ball is dropped in a lift, which is at rest, from a height of 2 meters, and first it bounces back to a
height of 162 cm. How much time elapses between the first and the second bounces? Then the experiment is
repeated, such that the lift accelerates upward with a constant acceleration of 1 m/s2. Will the rebouncing heights and
the time between two consecutive bounces change? If yes, how?
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4280. On object is projected horizontally from a tower and it hits the ground 40 m from the foot of the tower at an
angle of 45o. (Air-drag is negligible.) a) From what height is the object projected? b) From what height should the
object be projected with the same initial horizontal speed, in order that the ratio of the horizontal and vertical
displacements of the object should be the reciprocal of those of the former ones?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4281. Using six different resistors the tetrahedron ABCD was soldered. If a battery is inserted between two
vertices (for example A, B) and a sensitive ammeter is inserted between other two vertices (C, D), then we
experience with a surprise that the ammeter reads zero, independently of the two vertices of the tetrahedron which
were chosen first.

What is the relation between the six resistances?


(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4282. Suppose that Aluminum balls of different sizes get into the space from the International Space Station. The
smaller or greater mass balls cool more quickly?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4283. The bindings of Deuterium and Tritium nuclei are not so strong as that of the nucleus of the Helium, that is
why quick neutrons are ejected when Tritium is bombarded with an electrically accelerated beam of Deuterium. The
reaction is the following: 2H+3H 4He+n. (The kinetic energy of the deuteron is negligible with respect to its
binding energy.) Determine the kinetic energy of the quick neutrons.
(4 points)
Problems in Physics, November 2010
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 10 December 2010.

M. 309. Nowadays many household devices or toys are operated with button cells. Buy two different and unused
button cells and determine by measurement their
a) electromotive forces;
b) internal resistances;
c) electrical energy.
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 10 December 2010.

P. 4284. A man carries a beam on his shoulder. The centre of mass of the beam is not above his shoulder, thus he
places his arm onto the beam in order to balance it. Someone states that the force which is exerted on his shoulder is
greater than the weight of the beam. Is he right?
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4285. The capacitance of an electrolyte condenser of a flash, which is to store energy, is 3300 F, and its
operating voltage is 350 V. What percent of the stored energy can be used for the flash, if the discharging process is
ceased in the discharge tube at 50 V.
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4286. Waves are generated from a wave source, (the phase angle is zero when they are started.) and they travel
along a straight line at a speed of 1 m/s. When a point, in the wave, has zero displacement, the closest point which
has the maximim displacement is at a distance of 1 m.
a) Find the wavelength and the frequency.
b) What is the distance between those points whose phase difference is 270o?
c) Measured from the initiation of the waves, when will the phase of the point 5 m from the wave-source first be
180o?
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4287. An object, which decelerates uniformly along a circular path, looses two-thirds of its speed while it covers a
half circle. From this stage, what fraction of the whole circular path does it cover until it stops, and how long does it
take?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4288. A spring of length , is hang and when an object is attached to it, its length changes to 2 . (The extension
of the spring is proportional to the force and its mass is negligible.) When the object, attached to the spring,
undergoes uniform circular motion along a horizontal path, the length of the spring is L What are the radius of the
circle and the angular speed of the object?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4289. An ice floe is floating in the sea. The part which is above the water is a prism of height 0.5 m. A 200-kg seal
climbs onto the floe, which sinks 5 cm deeper into the water. How many seals, which have the same mass, can the
floe hold without sinking totally into the water? What is the volume of the ice floe?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4290. A thin, strong steel cable is stretched horizontally, with a great force, above a street. A rope dancer walks
along the cable. When she covers one-fourth of the length of the cable, (she is at point N) the trisecting point of the
cable (H) is 10 cm below its original position. What will the decent of the point N be, when the rope dancer is at
point H? (The mass of the cable is negligible, the deflection of the rope is very small with respect to the length of the
cable, and the tension in the cable can be considered constant.)

(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4291. Two soap bubbles are stuck to each other. One half of the gained shape has a radius of R=6 cm and the other
half has a radius of r=2 cm.
a) What is the sphere-radius of the spherical cap which separates the two parts?
b) What is the difference between the pressures in the two parts? The surface tension of the soap solution is (
=0.029 N/m.)
c) By what factor is R greater than r in case of two other bubbles which stick together, if the sphere-radius of the cap
separating the two parts is R?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4292. The blood pressure of a healthy man is 120/80 Hgmm. When intravenous (IV) therapy is carried out, some
solution is given directly to the vein. From what height should the IV solution be given in order to make the fluid
flow into the artery. What is the blood pressure in the vein if the IV solution flows back when the solution bag is
below the height of 40 cm?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4293. In a dry sauna the temperature is 100 oC, while in a concert hall, which has 2000-times bigger volume, the
temperature is 20 oC. By what factor is the internal energy of the air in the concert hall bigger than that of in the
sauna?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4294. An initially stationary, charged, pointlike object can move along a horizontal surface, without friction. Not
far from the object there is a long vertical solenoid. The current in thee solenoid is uniformly increased from zero to
a given value, and then it is decreased also uniformly to zero again. At the end of this process to which direction will
the charged object move with respect to the point P, shown in the figure?
(6 points)
Problems in Physics, December 2010
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 10 January 2011.

M. 310. Put a ping-pong ball onto the surface of the water in a glass, filled halfway. We experience that the ball
moves next to the wall of the glass. Then fill the glass up to its rim, and place the ball again to the water. We can see
that the ball moves to the centre of the glass. Examine experimentally, whether we experience the same or not if
instead of the glass we use a wider vessel, for example a pot? What is the width of that vessel in which the
experiment still ``works''? How does the time during which the ball moves to the wall, depends on the initial
distance between the ball and the wall?
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 10 January 2011.

P. 4295. When a ruler is supported from below, 15 cm from one of its ends, then the ruler can be balanced with two
alike coins, placed 5 cm from the end of the ruler. When the support is placed 1 cm from the same end of the ruler it
can be balanced with six alike coins, at the same position. How long is the ruler?
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4296. At what speed must a pebble be thrown at a height of h, and at an angle of 30o, measured from the
horizontal, if it is to hit the ground at an angle of 45o. (Air drag can be neglected.)
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4297. A double cone which ``rolls up'' on a slope is a well known playful experiment. The slope is made of two
lathes. The angle between the inclined plane determined by the two lathes and the horizontal is , and the angle
between the steepest line along the inclined plane and a lath is . What is the half vertex angle of that double
cone which can roll up on this slope?
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4298. A carpet runner is placed onto a long straight inclined plane parallel to the steepest line in the plane, from
the bottom of the slope till its top. The carpet is thin and flexible, and it cannot slide down because of the friction,
but it can easily be lifted, it does not stick to the plane. The top end of the carpet is rolled, a bit, and this hoop of
carpet is released. The hoop rolls down the slope with greater and greater speed, while its diameter increases, and
finally it reaches the bottom of the slope during a time of t1. If a solid cylinder is released at the top of the slope, it
reaches the bottom in a time of t2. a) Which motion lasts longer the motion of the carpet or the motion of the
cylinder? b) Calculate the ratio of t1/t2.
(6 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4299. A thin, solid uniform rod of length L is placed into a right-angled corner of a wall, and its point A at the
bottom of the rod is moved at a uniform velocity of vA, such that the rod always remains in the plane which is
perpendicular to the wall and the floor. How far will the bottom end of the initially vertical rod be from the wall,
when the top end is disconnected from the wall? (Data: vA=3.5 m/s, L=2 m.)
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4300. After leaving the runway a supersonic fighter begins to ascend along a straight line of angle of elevation
of 30o. Due to the the abrupt sound wave the grass in the fields around the runway spread out in a parabolic shape.
What is the speed of the fighter?
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4301. The radius of a thin ring of mass M floating in space is R.
a) At which point of the straight line which goes through the centre of the ring and which is perpendicular to the
plane of the ring will the force exerted on a small pointlike object be the greatest? (Where will the gravitational field
strength be the greatest?)
b) If a pointlike object of mass m (m M) is released at such a point, what is its relative speed at which it crosses
the ring?
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4302. There is some Oxygen gas in a vertical, long enough, metal, cylinder, above a piston of mass m=60 kg, and
of cross section A=2 dm2. The cylinder is closed at its top and the piston hangs on a thread of length 0=11.2 dm.
The initial pressure and temperature of the gas are equal to the pressure and temperature outside the cylinder,
p0=105 Pa T0=273 K, respectively. The wall of the cylinder is a good heat conductor, and the piston can move in the
cylinder without friction. By what amount will the total energy of the system change if the thread breaks?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4303. What is the resistance of the resistor R shown in the figure if a) there is no current in the branch AB; b) the
current in AC is the greatest; c) the potential difference between points a and C is maximum; d) the power at R is
maximum; e) the current in branch DC is maximum; f) the current in AB is the maximum? (Data: U1=60 V,
U2=20 V, R1=80 , R2=320 .)

(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4304. There are more spectral lines in the emission spectrum of glowing gases, than in the absorption spectrum of
cold gases. So there might be several lines which can be found in the emission spectrum, and which cannot be seen
in the absorption spectrum of cold gases. Why?
(4 points)
Problems in Physics, January 2011
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 10 February 2011.

M. 311. Make a connection between two simple pendulums of the same lengths, with a wooden skewer, which is
attached to the threads. Displace one of the pendulums in the plane determined by the two pendulums and measure
how long it takes for this pendulum to stop and for the other to swing with the greatest amplitude. How does this
time depends on the distance denoted by x shown in the figure?

(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 10 February 2011.

P. 4305. Why do transparent objects, like glasses, have shadows?


(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4306. It is a well known fact, that it is easier to reach the same speed with a bicycle in tailwind and harder in
headwind than in calm weather. What happens when the direction of the wind is perpendicular to the direction of the
motion?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4307. Two pointlike elastic balls, which have the same mass, are projected vertically upward with the same initial
speed; the second ball is started 4 s later than the first one. a) What will the velocities of the two balls be right before
and after the first collision? (Air drag can be neglected.) b) Determine and graph the distance between the position
of the first collision and the ground as a function of the initial speed.
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4308. The bottom end of a smooth inclined plane of angle of elevation =60o, and of length 3R is attached to a
cylinder, which has a semicircular cross section of radius R=0.5 m. In the path there is no break. From the top of the
inclined plane a pointlike object of mass m=0.2 kg slides down with zero initial speed. a) What will the kinetic
energy of the object be at the highest point of the curved part of the path? b) Where will the object hit the inclined
plane? (Friction and air drag are negligible.)

(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4309. There is some water in a container which is on a table. The bottom of the container is connected with a tube
to the interior part of a black box which is next to the table and which is as big as a cupboard. If a little more water is
poured into the container, then the original level of the water decreases, and if some water is taken out of the
container the level of water in it increases. What can be in the black box?
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4310. An air gun is modelled such that initially there is some compressed air in a container of volume V1, at a
pressure of p1. In the barrel there is a small projectile of mass m right in front of the container's opening. a) How
long should the barrel be in order to accelerate the projectile to the greatest speed? b) What can the maximum speed
of the projectile be? (Neglect friction and the leaking of the high-pressure air.) Data: m=0.51 g, the inner diameter of
the barrel is 4.5 mm, p1=2 MPa, V1=1 cm3.
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4311. Consider a classroom at a temperature of 25 oC in which the air pressure is the normal atmospheric
pressure. Estimate the distance (in nm) between a) two nearby Oxygen molecules; b) two nearby Nitrogen
molecules.
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4312. Three open conductor rings, made of thin wire, are placed concentrically on the horizontal tabletop as
shown in the figure. The current which flows in the middle ring is varied in time. Find the induced emf in the
greatest ring when the induced emf between the ends of the smallest ring is U0.
(6 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4313.
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4314. In 1923 Gyrgy Hevesy determined the age of a piece of rock which contained Uranium. For this he
measured the ratio of the atoms of 238U to the atoms of 206Pb in the rock, which was 2:3. How old did he find the
rock? The half-life of Uranium is 4.51.109 years.
(4 points)
Problems in Physics, February 2011
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 10 March 2011.

M. 312. Measure the speed of ripples of certain frequency on the surface of water. How does this speed depends on
the depth of the water?
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 10 March 2011.

P. 4315. Two balls of masses m1=0.173 kg and m2=0.2 kg are moving and the direction of their motion is
perpendiculer to each other. Their speeds are v1=10 m/s and v2=5 m/s, respectively. After the collision the ball of
mass m1 stops. What will the speed of the ball of mass m2 be after the collision?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4316. Two filament bulbs rated at 6 V; 0.5 A and at 4 V; 0.4 A are to be operated from a 12 V rechargeable
battery. The bulbs should be operating at their ratings. Plan a possible circuit using the appropriate resistors. How
much energy is lost?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4317. A skewer of mass m=1 g is hanged with a short thread attached to a fixed point P. A long thread is attached
to the bottom end of the skewer, and it is kept in equilibrium with a horizontal force. In this case the angle between
the skewer and the vertical is . a) Find the angle between the short thread and the vertical. b) Find the tension in
the short thread, if =45o.
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4318. Determine with the help of a computer (with numerical method) how much shorter does it take for an iron
ball of diameter 10 cm to fall from the balkony of the leaning tower of Pisa, which is at a height of 50 m, than a
wooden ball of the same diameter.
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4319. In a soap film experiment an originally semicircle shaped thread of length L can be deformed to two
semicircles with a force of F exerted at the middle of the thread. Calculate the surface tension.

(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4320. A lead bal of mass M hangs on a thread of length L. A lead bullet of mass m, and of horizontal velocity v
hits the ball exactly at its centre. The bullet penetrates into the ball. Initially their temperature is the same. a) What is
the greatest angle of deflection of the thread? b) At most how many degrees does the temperature of the lead
increases? The specific heat capacity of lead is c.
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4321. The thermal mean speed of neutral elementary particles is 2.7 km/s at a temperature of 22 oC. What is the
average speed of these particles in the reactor container of a nuclear power station, where the temperature is 315 oC?
What can these particles be?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4322.
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4323. The wire shown in the figure contains a U-shaped part, and is placed to the metal stands such that it can turn
easily. Each part of the U-shaped part has a length of =10 cm, and a mass of m=0.15 g.The wire is raised to
horizontal position, and a long straight wire, which is parallel to the middle part of the U, is placed below it at a
distance of h=2 mm. The two wires are connected in series to a current source. What should the current in the wire
be, in order to keep the displaced U-shaped part in the horizontal when it is released?

(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4324. One end of a thread of length l=1 m is attached to an inclined plane of angle of elevation of =30o.
A point-like body of mass m=1 kg is attached to the other end of the thread as shown in the figure. The body is
released without initial speed, such that the thread is tight and horizontal. The coefficient of friction between the
slope and the body is =0.2. a) Determine the maximum speed of the sliding body. b) Find the tension in the thread
when the angle between the thread and the horizontal is first =60o. c) In which position of the thread will the
tension be maximum?
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4325. A three end thoroid, containing an iron core, is connected into a circuit as shown in the figure. What will the
current through switch K be right after closing the switch, if the initial current in the circuit was I0? (The ohmic
resistance of the coil is negligible with respect to R.)

(6 points)
Problems in Physics, March 2011
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 11 April 2011.

M. 313. Measure the coefficient of friction between the tabletop and the body of a biro, which has a push button
with a spring in it at one of its ends. Only tape measure is allowed to use.
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 11 April 2011.

P. 4326. A vessel, filled with water, is placed to a very accurate scale, and the reading on the scale is 308.48 g.
A block which hangs on a spring balance is totally immersed into the water. Now the reading on the scale is
336.43 g. What is the reading on the spring balance if it was 1.75 N before the block was immersed into the water?
What is the density of the block?
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4327. One of the trains of the M2 metro line in Budapest consists of 5 cars. When the train starts, each car uses
300 A current from the 800 V voltage supply. How much does it cost to accelerate this train for 10 seconds, if the
price of 1 kWh is 18 euro cents?
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4328. When will the electricity bill of the Vzmvek (Hungarian public utility company providing water) be
greater, if the same amount of water flows from the tap at the groundfloor or at the tenth-floor?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4329. The jib of a tower crane is L=40 m long and it rotates about one of its ends in a horizontal plane at a
constant angular speed of =0.03 s-1. On the jib a trolley moves away from the fixed end of the jib at a speed of
u=0.08 m/s, with respect to the jib.
a) Determine the speed of the trolley with respect to the ground as a function of time.
b) Graph the path of the trolley with respect to the ground as it moves along the jib.
c) Determine the velocity of the trolley with respect to the ground as a function of time.
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4330. A thin, L=2 m long rod of mass m is standing vertically on a horizontal frictionless plane. Next to its bottom
endpoint A there is a pointlike object of mass m at rest. The rod fells out of its unstable equilibrium position, such
that the paths of the small body and the rod are always in the same plane. What is the greatest speed of the small
body?

(6 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4331. One third of the space in a hollow sphere of inner diameter 8 cm is filled with water. The sphere is floating
freely in a space station. What is the position of the water if the material of the sphere is
a) glass, to which water totally adheres,
b) silver, and the contact angle between the silver and the water is 90o?
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4332. Two balls, made of soft copper alloy of specific heat capacity 400 J/(kg.K), collide head on. The initial
speeds of the two balls, A and B, were the same and oppositely directed. After the collision ball A stops and ball B
bounces back with the same speed as it had before the collision. Because of the collision the temperature of the balls

increased with C. At least what was the speed of the balls before the collision?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4333. Is it possible that there exists a real gas, such that one of its isotherm intersects one of its adiabat at several
different points on the diagram?
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4334. In a container which is equipped with a piston there is a mixture of Oxygen and Nitrogen gas at a
temperature of T=77.4 K. Keeping the temperature constant the mixture is slowly compressed. The pressure of the
mixture as a function of the volume changes as shown in the figure, where V1=15 dm3 s p1=56.3 kPa.
a) How much Oxygen and Nitrogen are there in the container?
b) Determine the coordinates of that single point on the isotherm, where the graph has a cusp.

(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4335. The electromotive force of the voltage supply in the circuit, shown in the figure, is U0=9 V and its internal
resistance Rb is unknown. The resistances of the meters and the resistor are also unknown. When the switch is closed
then the measured current increases to twice of the previous value, and the reading on the voltmeter decreases to half
of the original value.
a) By what factor is the resistance of the voltmeter greater than that of the resistor?
b) What are the readings on the voltmeter before and after closing the switch?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4336. An electron of negligible initial speed is accelerated through a potential difference of a million volt. To what
final speed will it accelerate, by what factor does its mass increase and what will its de Broglie wavelength be?
(4 points)
Problems in Physics, April 2011
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 10 May 2011.

M. 314. Measure how the temperature of a pot of water placed to a gas stove changes as a function of the elapsed
time,
a) If there is a lid on the pot;
b) if there is no lid on the pot.
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 10 May 2011.

P. 4337. According to the ``Atlas of explorations and inventions'' the the viking ships were 24 m long, 5.2 m wide
and they emerged into the water to a depth of 1.8 m. Estimate the carrying capacity of the ships if the depth to which
they emerged increased by 10% when they were fully loaded.
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4338. Determine how the centre of weight (mass) of a trapezium shaped sheet can be constructed.
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4339. Similar rubber bungs are stick together as shown in the figure. The bodies are placed to a pair of rails,
which encloses a small angle with the horizontal. The distance between the rails is equal to the height of the original
bungs. We experience with a surprise that one of the bodies always reach the bottom of the slope, and the other
always gets derailed. Which one? (The bodies roll without sliding.)

(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4340. A small ball of mass m=0.4 kg is hanging on a thread of length =1 m, and touches another ball of mass m
and of the same radius. This second ball is on a horizontal plane and is attached to one end of a horizontal spring of
spring constant D=10 N/m, as shown in the figure. Initially the spring is unstretched and its other end is fixed. The
simple pendulum is deflected at an angle of =20o, and it is released without any initial speed.
a) At what speed do the two balls collide? What is the percentage error that is made if the speed of the ball is
calculated from the formula of the period of the pendulum.
b) How much time elapses until the pendulum gets back again to the position where its displacement is the greatest,
having collided with the other ball totally elastically? (Friction is negligible.)

(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4341. A long slope of angle of elevation is made of solid rubber cylinders which can easily revolve about their
fixed axles. The rollers, which have mass of m and radius R, are close to each other, but they do not touch each
other. To what maximum speed can a crate of mass M be accelerated? (The coefficient of friction between the crate
and the rollers is big enough.)

(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4342. There are three vases on the table, none of them is taller than 40 cm. The hole in all of them is a vertical
cylinder. The first vase can be filled with 2 dl water, the second one with 3 dl, and the third with more than 6 dl
water. The area of the cross section of the first vase is 10 cm2, the area of the cross section of the other two vases is
20 cm2. There is the same amount of water in each vase. It can be observed that if a specific tuning fork is placed
just above the vases, its sound is getting louder. The width of the bottom of each vase is 1 cm, the speed of sound in
air is 340 m/s, and the frequency of the tuning fork is less than 1 kHz.
a) What is the amount of water in each vase?
b) What is the frequency of the tuning fork?
c) What is the height of the third vase?
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4343. The three cylinders shown in the figure have the same cross section. In the cylinders there is the same type
of ideal gas, and all the cylinders are closed with easily movable pistons of the same mass. The pistons are rigidly
attached to each other. Initially the three samples of gas have the same density, the same temperature of t=27 oC, and
the same height of =20 cm.
How much do the pistons rise if the temperature of the gas in the middle cylinder is increased to t'=117 oC, while the
temperature of the gas in the two bordering cylinders is kept constant?

(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4344. A capacitor and a resistor of big resistance, through which the capacitor is charged slowly, are connected in
series to a battery of electromotive force 4.5 V. The voltage across the capacitor is 3 V one minute after the closing
the circuit. What will the voltage across the capacitor be
a) after 2 minutes;
b) after 3 minutes?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4345. A converging lens of optical power 2 dioptre and of diameter 8 cm is stick to one end of a 30 cm long
cardboard tube, and a concave lens of optical power -5 dioptre and of the same diameter is stick to the other end of
the tube. The tube is held such that it points towards the Sun with the converging lens. A screen is placed first at a
distance of 10 cm from the diverging lens, and then at a distance of 20 cm.
What can be seen on the screen?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4346. A hundred years ago in 1911 Rutherford wrote in his article, that the speed of an particle, which is
moving towards the centre of a gold atom, decreases to zero at that distance, measured from the centre of the gold
atom, where its electric potential energy is equal to its initial kinetic energy. The electric potential energy is partly
due to the positive charge at the centre of the atom, and partly due to the negative charge which is uniformly
distributed in the atom. The radius of the gold nucleus is 10-10 m.
What is this particular distance, if the speed of the particle is 2.107 m/s?
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4347. What is the energy of the photon which can create a positron when it collides with an electron at rest?
The rest mass of the electron (and the positron) is 510 keV.
(6 points)
Problems in Physics, May 2011
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 10 June 2011.

M. 315. Measure how long it takes for a single pulse initiated at one end of a slinky, which is stretched along a
horizontal tabletop, to travel back. Examine how the speed of the pulse depends on the previously fixed length of the
slinky. Initiate both transverse and longitudinal short pulses.
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 10 June 2011.

P. 4348. A tree on the opposite shore of a smooth surface of water of width of several tens of meters covers a house,
which is behind the tree, such that only the top of the chimney of the house can be seen. Observing the image of the
tree reflected from the surface of water the image of top of the chimney cannot even be seen. How can it happen?
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4349. The gauge pressure of the tire of a car is 250 kPa at a temperature of 10 oC. How and by what amount does
this gauge pressure change if the temperature increases to 25 oC? The ambient air pressure is 100 kPa the volume of
the air in the tire cannot increase at this pressure.
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4350. A ball collides with another, stationary ball. The collision is head on and elastic. The change in the velocity
of the moving ball is 20 m/s. The ratio of the masses of the moving and the stationary ball is 3:5. What was the
initial speed of the moving ball?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4351. A rod of length L=35 cm, and of negligible mass is held at an unstable equilibrium on a horizontal
frictionless plane. Small balls of mass m=0.2 kg are attached to the ends of the rod. At a certain instant the rod is
released. a) What are values of the kinetic energy of the balls when the ball initially at the top hits the ground?
b) What are the velocities (both magnitude and direction) of the balls when the angle between the rod and the
vertical is 60o?

(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4352. A rough inclined plane of height h=2 m, and of angle of elevation 20 o consists of two parts. The two parts
have the same length but the friction is different on them. At the bottom of the slope a small body was pushed, and it
slid to the top of the plane and then it slid back and it just stopped at the end of the slope. a) What was the initial
speed of the small body at the bottom of the slope? b) What is the coefficient of friction along the bottom part of the
slope if the coefficient of friction at the top is 2=0.3?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4353. Two very long plastic rods are placed perpendicularly at a distance of d. They are both charged uniformly,
their linear charge density is . Calculate the repelling force between them.

(6 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4354. A 12 cm long bar magnet is placed vertically above the centre of a horizontal, fixed, open conducting ring,
such that the lower end of the magnet is 4 cm from the centre of the ring. The magnet is dropped and when its lower
end reaches the plane of the ring the induced e.m.f. between the ends of the ring is +2 V. What are the magnitude
and the polarity of the induced e.m.f. at the instants when the centre of the magnet, and when the upper end of the
magnet passes the centre of the ring?

(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4355. ccording to www.mavir.hu on 1. December 2010 the average daily electrical power demand of Hungary
was 5151 MW, but between 7 and 22 hours it was 496 MW greater than this, and in the rest of the day it was
827 MW smaller. If all the electrical energy was generated in nuclear power stations (the power generated by
nuclear power plants is constant) then the variation of the power demand could be compensated by pumped-storage
hydroelectric power plants. Estimate the size of the water reservoirs that are needed if they are placed to a height of
a) 20 m,
b) 500 m.
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4356. a) Two diffraction gratings are placed onto each other such that their slits are perpendicular to each other.
Can light pass through them?
b) Two perpendicular polarisers are placed onto each. Can light pass through them?
c) What happens if a third polariser is placed between the two mentioned in question b)?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4357. An electron enters to a region of uniform electric field, which is perpendicular to its velocity. The speed of
the electron is 60% of the speed of light. When it leaves the region where there is electric field the angle between its
original and final velocity is 45o. a) What is the speed of the electron when it leaves the region of the electric field?
b) What is the displacement d of the electron, if the electric field strength is E=510 kV/m? (The rest energy of the
electron is m0c2=510 keV.)

(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4358. In the Universe there are more Neon than Argon atoms. On the contrary in the atmosphere of the Earth
there are 500 times as much Argon as Neon atoms. How can it happen?
(4 points)
Problems in Physics, September 2011
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 10 October 2011.

M. 316. Measure how the number of revolutions of the electric motor of a toy depends on the input voltage. (The
number of revolutions can be measured for example with a hand made stroboscope).
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 10 October 2011.

P. 4359. The figure shows the velocity-time graph of a lift in a mine. To what depth does the lift goes down?
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4360. What can an observer on the Moon experience, when the eclipse of the Moon can be seen from the Earth?
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)

P. 4361. A car travelled at a speed of , when a pedestrian stepped down from the sidewalk. The driver
braked suddenly and the accident was avoided. The braking-distance was 6.25 m.
a) The car in the next lane could only stop in a distance of 9 m. What was the speed of this car if the accelerations of
the two cars were the same.
b) What were the braking times of the two cars? c) What is the ratio of their initial kinetic energies if their mass is
the same?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4362. 10 cm from a tap the diameter of the narrow water stream, flowing from the tap, is 2 mm. How long does it
take to fill a half-litre mug?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4363. A simple heating system (in which there is no pump) can be the following: two tubes connect the boiler in
the cellar and the radiator in the room above, allowing the water to flow in a closed path. One of the tubes connect
the bottom of the boiler with the bottom of the radiator and the other connects the top of the radiator and the top of
the boiler. In which direction and why will the water flow if the water is heated in the boiler?
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4364. The figure shows two rods, a copper one and an aluminum one, which comes out of a wall. At
a temperature of 20 oC the length of the copper rod is 2 m, and the length of the aluminum one is 1 m. The gap
between them is 1.3 mm.
a) At what temperature will the gap disappear?
b) What is the size of the gap at a temperature of 0 oC?

(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4365. In a container there is a sample of air at a pressure of 5.105 Pa, and at a temperature of 350 K. The air is
compressed at constant pressure to 4/5 of its original volume, while a 1000 J work is done.
a) What will the temperature of the air be?
b) What is the change in the internal energy of the sample of air?
c) What is the density of the compressed air?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4366. The area of the bottom of a cylinder-shaped vessel is 78,5 cm2. The height of the water coloumn in it at
a temperature of 18 oC is 15 cm. Then the temperature of both the vessel and the water is increased to 48 oC.
a) Will the hydrostatic pressure exerted to the bottom of the vessel increase or decrease? What percent is the
change?
b) Will the gravitational potential energy of the water, with respect to the bottom of the vessel, increase or decrease?
What percent is the change? (Neglect the evaporation of water!)
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4367. An easily moveable, airproof piston of negligible mass closes a cylinder shaped container, made from some
good heat-conducting material. The area of the base of the cylinder is 1,0 dm2. In the cylinder, below the piston,
there is 2 ml water at room temperure, and a very little air. The cylinder is immersed into some liquid, the
temperature of which is 100 oC, and is kept in it for a long time. What happens? At what height will the piston be at
rest?
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4368. Two resistors of resistances 1 k and 4 k are connected in series to a 220 V voltage supply of negligible
internal resistance. Across the 4 k resistor a moving coil voltmeter reads 147 V. What would be the reading on this
voltmeter if it was connected to measure the voltage across the other resistor?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4369. A pointlike light-source is moving parallel to the principal axis of a converging lens of focal length f at
a distance of f/4 from the principal axis. How far is the light-source from the lens at that moment when its speed is
equal to the speed of the image of the light-source?
(6 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)

Problems in Physics, October 2011


Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 10 November 2011.

M. 317. Cut sectors of different central angles and of radius a=10 cm from A4 sheets of paper, and carefully fold
and glue them such that they form right circular cones. The gained cones have different vertex angles, Let be the
half of the vertex angle. If they are dropped from a great height they will fall with constant speed. Measure how this
terminal speed depends on the half of the vertex angle .

(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 10 November 2011.

P. 4370. A plane covers a distance of 2 km in 15 s when it flies downwind and in 20 s when it flies into the wind.
Calculate the speed of the plane in km/h, and the speed of the wind.
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4371. A pebble shot by a slingshot has an initial vertical, upward speed of 50 m/s. If there was no air drag
a) where would the pebble be after 7 seconds;
b) What would its speed be at that moment;
c) How much distance would it cover in 7 seconds?
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4372. Two trolleys of mass 2 kg, lying along a line, are at rest on a horizontal tabletop. On one of them there is a
spring as well as shown in the figure. The trolley on the left is given an initial speed of 5 m/s, and it collides with the
other one on the right. What is the energy stored in the spring when it is the shortest?

(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4373. Bodies of mass m=0.5 kg, resting on a horizontal frictionless tabletop, are connected with an unstretched
spring of length L=20 cm, and of spring constant D=16 N/m. The mass of the spring is negligible. At a certain
moment the bodies are given an initial speed of v0=0.36 m/s, towards the wall on the right. The body at the right
collides with the wall totally elastically.
a) What is the greatest compression of the spring during the motion?
b) After the collision with the wall how much time elapses until the moment when the bodies are the closest?
c) Will there be any other collision with the wall later? How will the system of bodies move if a long enough time
elapses? d) What is the change in the linear momentum of the system after all collisions occurred?

(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4374. In a garden a spherical sprinkler is used at the end of the hose, from which the speed of the flowing water is
the same to every direction. The water beam which is directed vertically upward reaches a height of h. Once the
sprinkler is placed to the ground and at another time to a height of h. By what factor will the watered area be greater
in the second case? (Neglect air resistance and consider the pressure in the sprinkler constant.)
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4375. A sample of ideal gas of constant mass is taken through the cyclic process shown in the figure. Plot this
cyclic process on the (p,T), and (E,V) diagrams instead of the (p,V). (E is the internal energy of the gas.)

(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4376. Two capacitors of capacitances C1=180 pF and C2=20 pF were connected in series, and their free terminals
were connected to the terminals of a rechargeable battery which could supply a constant e.m.f. of U0=24 V. (The
dielectric between the plates of both condensers was air.) Thus in both capacitors some energy was stored. Later the
energy stored in the condensers was increased, with the same amount in both. This was done by filling totally the
space between the plates of the capacitor of capacitance C2 by glass, the relative dielectric constant of which is r.
The connection of the capacitors and the other capacitor of capacitance C1 were not changed.
a) What was the relative dielectric constant r of the glass which was used?
b) By what amount did the energy of the condensers increase? (The relative dielectric constant of air is 1.)
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4377. A real coil was connected to an ohmic resistor of resistance 600 in series. The voltages across the coil
and the resistor are 200 V and 100 V, respectively. What are the inductance and the resistance of the coil if the root-
mean-square value of the voltage supply is 230 V and its frequency is 50 Hz.
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4378. In a particle accelerator a charged particle was accelerated to a speed of 80% of the speed of light. What
will its speed be if it is further accelerated and its kinetic energy is doubled?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4379. The atomic mass number of Radium is A=226, its halflife is 1622 years. What is the activity of 1 g Radium?
(Earlier this was the base of the unit of activity: 1 curie was the activity of 1 g radium.)
(3 points)
Problems in Physics, November 2011
Please read the rules of the competition.
Problems with sign 'M'
Deadline expired on 12 December 2011.

M. 318. Measure how the visible transmittance of several piled sheets of paper depends on the number of sheets.
(The intensity of light can be measured for example with a grease-spot photometer.)
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 12 December 2011.

P. 4380. At least what is the mass of the atmosphere around the Earth, if the mean radius of the Earth is 6370 km,
and the average air pressure at the surface of the Earth is 100 kPa?
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4381. The uniform density prism of mass M, shown in the figure is at rest on the surface of the ice of a skating
rink. What is the greatest force with which it can be moved such that it does not rise? (Friction is negligible.)

(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4382. The bob of a 2-m long pendulum undergoes circular motion in a horizontal plane. At most how long does it
take to cover a complete circle?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4383. A sonic boom is observed if the sound emitted by an airplane in a short time reaches the observer at one
instant.
a) How can this happen? At what speed must the plane fly?
b) Three years ago, in November 2008, the Space Shuttle Endeavour could land only in California because of the
wrong weather conditions. Interestingly the observers heard two sonic booms. How could this happen?
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4384. A small ball of mass m=0.1 kg is attached to a =1 m-long thread and is hung to a horizontal peg. The
small ball is at rest and another small ball of mass M=0.2 kg, is projected from the ground and collides with it, such
that the collision is totally elastic and head on, and after the collision the ball at the end of the thread completes a
whole circle around the peg. The distance between the peg and the ground is 2 .
a) What is the least distance of x shown in the figure?
b) What is the initial velocity of the projected ball? (Speed and direction.)

(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4385. Water is heated in a thermally insulated container with an immersion heater. During 60% of the heating
time the water, initially at a temperature of 19 oC, the water comes to the boil, and then some part of the water is
boiled down, 18 g in each minute becomes steam.
a) What per cent of the water boils down?
b) What is the power of the immersion heater in watts?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4386. A sample of ideal gas of some mass is taken through the cyclic process shown in the figure. The
temperature of the gas at state A is TA=200 K, and at state C is TC=1800 K.

a) By what factor is the pressure at state B greater than at state D?


b) What temperature belongs to the isotherm which goes through the centre of the circle?
c) Prove with calculations that the temperatures at state B and D are the same.
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4387. A triangle is made from thin insulating rods of different lengths, and then the rods are charged uniformly.
(The charge density along the rods is the same.) Where will the electric field strength be zero?
(6 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4388. Given the resistances of the resistors R1 and R2. Choose the resistance of the resistor R, such that the
equivalent resistance of the circuit shown in the figure,
a) is also R;
b) is a given R0 value. (What values can be given for R0?)

(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4389. In order to make a flat coil, which have 200 turns, a piece of wire of negligible resistance is wound around
a rectangular frame of area 50 cm2. The frame is rotated about one of the symmetry axis of the rectangle, which is in
the plane of the rectangle. The frame is in magnetic field of induction 0,1 T, which is perpendicular to the axis of
rotation. A bulb rated at 6,3 V, and 3 W, and a coil of resistance 10 , and of inductance 50 mH, are connected to
the ends of the rotating coil in series.
a) What should the number of revolutions of the coil be, in order to gain 6.3 V voltage across the bulb.
b) At what phase angle does the current lag behind the voltage across the 50 mH coil?
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4390. The wavelength of one of the spectral lines of a star is 591.26 nm, the corresponding wavelength in the
laboratory is 592.00 nm.
a) Is the star moving towards us or away from us?
b) What is the rate of change of the distance of the star measured from us?
(4 points)
Problems in Physics, January 2012
Please read the rules of the competition.
Problems with sign 'M'
Deadline expired on 10 February 2012.

M. 320. Drill (or in any other way make) a small hole to the bottom of a 1.5 litre plastic bottle, and fill the bottle
with water to a height of H. Measure how the time T during which the water flows out of the water depends on the
diameter of the hole and on the height of the water H. According to theoretical reasons T is proportional to some
power of H. According to the measured data what is this exponent?
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 10 February 2012.

P. 4402. We have 8 Christmas-tree bulbs, rated at 14 V and 3 W, and among old lumbers bulbs rated at 110 V and
10 W, 24 W, 40 W and 60 W are found. Which one should be connected in series with the 8 Christmas-tree bulbs,
also connected in series, in order that all the nine bulbs operate properly, when they are connected to a 220 V voltage
supply?
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4403. At three different locations of a scout camp there are three troops, each at a distance of 1 km from another.
Electric bells are to be installed in order that any of the troops can give signal to another troop. Draw the circuit
diagram. How much wire is needed? a) At each location there is a battery, a bell and two press-buttons. b) Instead of
the three batteries only one is available.
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4404. A floating wooden-cube of density 600 kg/m3, and of edge 10 cm, is pushed down very slowly right below
the surface of the water a) in a lake; b) in a vessel the area of the bottom of which is 3 dm2. Plot the force as
a function of the displacement of the cube, and calculate the work done in both cases.
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4405. A small object of mass m=0.4 kg is threaded onto a vertical ring of radius r=30 cm, and of centre O. The
object can move frictionless along the ring. One end of a spring of spring constant D=16 N/m, and of unstretched
length 30 cm is attached to the small object and its other end is fixed to point A on the horizontal diameter of the
path. Find the speed of the object when it passes the lowest point of the path C, if it is released from rest at point B.
In this case what is the force exerted by the object on the ring, and what is the direction of its acceleration at
point C?

(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4406. A sound source is at rest and emits a sound of frequency f0=250 Hz for some time. The driver of the car
which is moving towards the source at a speed of v, detect this sound the frequency of which is f'=263 Hz, and he
hears the sound exactly as long as he covers a distance of s=82 m, along a straight line. a) What is the speed of the
car? b) For how long did the sound source emit the sound?
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4407. In district heating pipes there are two metal wires embedded in the insulating foam surrounding the pipe.
The wires run parallel to the axis of the pipe (see photo on back cover). What is the purpose of these wires, when are
they needed?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4408. Somewhere in the desert there is a cylinder shaped vessel containing gas, and at the top of the vessel there
is an easily moveable piston which separates the gas inside and the ambient air without any leakage. Early in the
morning when the temperature is 0 oC the bottom part of the piston is at a height of 2 m, measured from the bottom
of the cylinder. During the military attack later in the morning a bullet accidently made a hole in the cylinder at
a height of 2.2 m. What fraction of the mass of the gas leaks out if during the day the temperature can increase even
to 60 oC?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4409. The capacitor of capacitance C=12.5 F in an ideal resonant circuit is charged to U1=400 V, and then the
circuit is closed. The inductance of the coil is 0.5 H. a) Give the current as a function of time. b) In what time
intervals will the energy of the capacitor be maximum?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4410. On a sunny day, when there was no cloud on the sky, someone observed an interesting phenomenon. There
was a plastic triangle shaped ruler next to the window on the table, and observing the ruler a pattern of coloured
band was seen on it, similar to that of formed on the surface of oil on wet asphalt. a) Could this phenomena be the
result of the interference of the reflected light-beams from the bottom and the top of the ruler, as in case of the oil-
spot? b) If not, what might the explanation be?
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4411. In a sample initially there are equal number of atoms of two radioactive isotopes A and B. Three days later
there are 3 times as much nucleides of isotope A than of isotope B, the halflife of which is 1.5 days. What is the half-
life of isotope A?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4412. Experiments carried out in cloud chambers make it possible to observe the path of charged particles moving
in uniform magnetic field. Is it possible that during a charged particle decays to two other particles the circular paths
which touch each other, and which are shown in the figure can be seen in the cloud chamber? (The declaration of the
particles are negligible on the examined part of the motion.)

(6 points)
Problems in Physics, February 2012
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 12 March 2012.

M. 321. Measure the torsional stiffness of the parts of a skewer of different lengths such as 10, 15 and 20 cm
(torsional stiffness is the ratio of applied torsion moment to angle of twist) a) with torsional swings, b) with static
method.
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 12 March 2012.

P. 4413. Every morning two runners run along the running track of a stadium. If they run in the same direction 11
times more time elapses between the two moments when they meet then when they run in the opposite direction.
(Their speeds are constant.) What is the ratio of the speeds of the two runners?
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4414. Is it true that the attractive force exerted by the Earth on the Moon is less than that of exerted by the Sun on
the Moon? If yes, why does the Moon rotate about the Earth instead of about the Sun?
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4415. A sample of water is initially has a temperature of 14 oC. It is heated to its boiling point at atmospheric
pressure, and then it is boiled down. What per cent of the added thermal energy is the work done by the expanding
gas?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4416. A train travels at a speed of v0, then it slows down uniformly during a time of T, and then it stops. In one of
the wagons there is a small object on the floor. How much distance does this small object cover on the floor, and
how long does it move? The coefficient of friction is .
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4417. The best vacuum which can be created in a laboratory at room temperature is 10-10 Pa. How many
molecules are there in 1 cm3 of this ``void''? (In the interstellar medium there is 1 proton in each cm3)
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4418. One end of a thin L-shaped tube is sealed, and the tube is held in the vertical plane. The mercury column of
length H/2 confines some air (as shown in Figure 1.), the temperature of the confined air is T1=279 K. The external
air pressure p0 is equal to the hydrostatic pressure of a mercury column of height H=76 cm. a) Determine the
pressure of the confined air.

Figure 1
b) The tube is turned by 90o, and the air is cooled down such that the air is in the horizontal arm of the L-shaped tube
as shown in Figure 2. What is the temperature T2 of the air now?

Figure 2
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4419. A beam of electrons of speed v0 enters into a region of uniform magnetic field of induction B,
perpendicularly to the magnetic induction, as shown in the figure. The region of magnetic field has a circular cross
section of radius R. Passing the magnetic field, at most what angle do the electrons of the beam deflect with respect
to their original path? (Suppose that the magnetic field is weak.)
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4420. The root-mean-square (r.m.s.) value of the voltage of the 50 Hz mains is 230 V. The r.m.s. value of the
voltage across a condenser of a series RLC circuit is 100 V, and that of across the ohmic resistor is 200 V. The r.m.s.
value of the current in the circuit is 200 mA. What is the relative permeability constant of the iron core of the coil, if
the length of the coil is 8 cm, its cross section is 4 cm2 and its number of turns is 300?
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4421. An object is moved at a speed of v along the principal axis of a converging lens. What is the speed of the
moving image, when the enlargement is N?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4422. A pion ( +) is a subatomic particle the mass of which is 273 times as big as that of an electron. One of its
possible decay mode is a decay into a positron (e+) and an electron-neutrino ( e): . What is the
minimum speed of that pion which decays such that the positron and the neutrino will have perpendicular velocities?
(Assume that the rest mass of the neutrino is 0, so it is a particle for which the relation between its energy and its
linear momentum is E=pc.)
(6 points)
Problems in Physics, March 2012
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 10 April 2012.

M. 322. Measure how long it takes to a single pulse generated at one end of a horizontal Slinky, to travel back to the
place where it was initiated, if the Slinky is stretched differently. Examine how this time depends on the distance
between the turns.
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 10 April 2012.

P. 4423. Can the energy of a charged condenser be increased without giving more charge to it?
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4424. A 20-litre plastic can contains petrol. The can is floating on the surface of the water of a lake, such that one-
third of the volume of the can is out of the water. The mass of the empty can is 0,78 kg. The density of petrol is

720 , the density of plastic is 1300 . Approximately how many litres of petrol are there in the can?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4425. A small object is mounted to the perimeter of a hoop of radius r. The mass of the object and the hoop is the
same. The hoop is placed into a fixed semi-cylinder shaped rough trough of radius R, such that the small mass is at
the top. Find the least r/R ratio such that the equilibrium state of the hoop is stable.
(6 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4426. On a smooth horizontal tabletop there is a spring, one of its end is braced, and at the other end there is a ball
of mass M=1.15 kg at rest. Another ball of mass m=1.00 kg hangs on a vertical thread of length =0.30 m and
touches the previoussly mentioned one. The ball on the thread is displaced to the horizontal and released without any
initial speed. The velocity of the ball at which it reaches the horizontal is parallel to the symmetry axis of the spring.
The collision of the two balls is totally elastic. a) What should the spring constant of the spring be, in order that the
second collision of the balls occurs at the same position as the first one did? b) How much time elapses between the
two collisions? c) After the first collision what is the maximum distance between the two balls? (Friction and the
mass of the spring are negligible.)

(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4427. An iron rod of length L is hung at a common point with threads of length which are attached to the two
ends of the rod. The rod is displaced a bit in the plane of the threads. What is the length of the threads if the period
of the swinging of the rod is the least, and what is this period?

(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4428. In two containers of equal volume there are two samples of gas: Helium and Hydrogen. The samples have
equal internal energy and equal number of particles. a) What is the ratio of the pressure of the gases? b) What is the
ratio of the average speed of the particles?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4429. It is not suggested to turn off the projectors used nowadays. After the lamp was switched off the cooling fan
is working for some minutes and only then the projector is allowed to unplug. Edith states that this is unnecessary,
``If the lamp is not on, it cannot be warmer, and the lamp endures at working temperature. So if we do not want to
use the projector, it can be unplugged.'' Is Edith right?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4430. In the circuit shown, R=1 k , C=10 mF. What is the terminal voltage of the battery if the condenser stores
4,5 J energy after it was charged?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4431. One side of an old phonograph record was thoroughly wiped, thus this side was charged evenly to a charge
of Q=1 C. The phonograph rotated the record of diameter d=300 mm, the number of revolution of the turntable
was f=78/minutes. What is the magnetic induction at the centre of the record? Compare the orders of this magnetic
induction and the magnetic induction of the Earth.
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4432. Two lenses are placed such that their principle axes are common, and they are at a distance of 5 cm. One of
them is a converging lens of optical power of 10 dioptres and the other is a diverging lens of optical power of -5
dioptres. A small filament lamp is placed 20 cm from the converging lense, not on the side at which there is the
diverging lens. Where should the screen be placed in order to gain the sharp image of the filament on it? Where will
the image be if the filament lamp is placed closer to the converging lens by one-sixth of the initial 20 cm distance?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4433. If a certain heavy metal is illuminated by UV light of wavelength of 185 nm, electrons are ejected from it at
a speed of 1.00.106 m/s. a) Which is this metal, and who discovered it? b) What is the speed of the electrons if UV
light of wavelength 254 nm is used to illuminate it?
(4 points)
Problems in Physics, April 2012
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 10 May 2012.

M. 323. A beam of water, which hits a vertical plane surface perpendicularly, spreads out such that it has a parabolic
boundary. (E.g. water coming from the shower hitting the side of the bathtub.) Measure how the focal length of this
parabola depends on the speed of the water.

(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 10 May 2012.

P. 4434. A pointlike lightsource ascends at a speed of v=0.8 m/s in a deep lake. There are no waves on the surface of
the water. At what rate does the diameter of the circle created by the diffracted light on the surface of the water
change? (The refractive index of water is n=4/3.)
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4435. There are 2 moles of Oxygen gas at a pressure of 0.2 MPa in a 15-liter container. What is the average speed
of the molecules of the gas?
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4436. A tour boat departed at Sifok travelled at a constant speed of 18 km/h, first moved towards the North for a
quarter of an hour, then it turned and travelled another quarter of an hour towards the West, then again turned and
travelled a quarter of an hour towards the South, and then finally it travelled towards the East for a quarter of an
hour.
a) Consider the curvature of the Earth and estimate how far will the tour boat be from the starting point at the end of
the tour.
b) The mass of the boat is 500 tons. By what amount was the weight of the boat smaller when the boat travelled
towards the East than when it travelled towards the West?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4437. The two endpoints of an 8-m long weightless thread are fixed at the same height at a distance of 4 m. An
object of mass 10 kg is hung onto the thread and can move frictionless.
a) What is the magnitude of the horizontal force that must be exerted on the object to keep it at rest on the thread
exactly below one of the endpoints of the thread?
b) If the object is released from this position to what speed can it speed up?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4438. A uniform solid disc of mass m=5 kg, and of radius R=10 cm is rotated at an angular speed of 0=120 1/s
about its symmetry axis, which is horizontal, and then it is carefully placed to the horizontal ground, such that it has
no initial speed. The coefficient of friction between the disc and the ground is =0.4.
Determine the work done by the frictional force on the disc, while the disc covers a distance of s=5 m. Show that the
result is the same if the work-kinetic energy theorem is used or if the product of the force and the displacement is
calculated.
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4439. A sample of Oxygen gas of mass 32 g is compressed at a constant pressure from a volume of 8 litres to a
volume of 7 litres. During the process the gas is cooled down such that the pressure of the gas remains constant. At
the final state the temperature is 40 oC smaller than at the initial state.
a) What was the initial and final temperature of the gas?
b) What is the pressure of the gas?
c) How much work was done in joules?
d) What is the amount of heat released by the Oxygen?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4440. A hemispherical insulating shell is charged positively, and is fixed. The charge distribution on the shell is
uniform. At a point on the symmetry axis, which is exactly at a distance of the radius measured from the centre of
the hemisphere O, a small negatively charged bead is released. The speed of the bead is v0 when it reaches the
centre O.
What will the speed of the bead be when it reaches the shell? (Neglect the effect of gravity.)

(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4441. How much charge flows through the wire AB shown in the figure if the switch is closed and long enough
time has elapsed.
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4442. Radium decays into Radon by emitting an alpha particle: . The rest mass of
the emitted alpha particle is 6.6.10-27 kg and its kinetic energy is 4.8 MeV. The half-life of radium is 1600 years.
a) What is the speed of the emitted alpha particle?
b) What is the activity of 1 kg 226Ra?
c) Determine the power of the radioactive source.
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4443. A soap film of surface tension is created in the frame, shown in the figure. The diameter of the frame is
. A piece of unstretched hair of length , and of young modulus E joins the points P and Q. By what amount will the
hair be elongated if the film in the right hand side is pricked by a hot pin. (The two endpoints of the hair are fixed
and its weight is negligible. For small angles use the approximation: sin - 3/6.)

(6 points)
Problems in Physics, May 2012
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 11 June 2012.

M. 324. Measure the coefficient of kinetic friction between the tyre of a bicycle wheel and the dry asphalt.
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 11 June 2012.

P. 4444. The distance between two town is exactly 60 km along the highway. Some part of the highway goes
through inhabitated area, where the speed limit is 50 km/h. In the uninhabitated area the speed limit is 90 km/h. If
the speed limits are kept the shortest time to get from one of the town to the other is 46.6 minutes. What is the ratio
of the lengths of the highway which is in the uninhabitated and in the inhabitated regions?
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4445. The figure shows a right circular cone of uniform density and of height 56 cm. Where is the centre of mass
of that truncated cone which is gained if the original cone is cut into two at the midpoint of its height, and the top
part of the cone is removed?
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4446. A slow neutron collides with a stationary one, such that the angle between the direction of the original
motion and the direction of the neutron's motion is . In which direction does the stationary neutron begin to move
after the collision?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4447. What are the resistances of the resistors R1 and R2, shown in the figure, if the voltage supply is 40 V, and the
power dissipated on resistor R is 80 W, the readings on the ammeter and on the voltmeter are 3 A and 30 V,
respectively.

(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4448. The speed of sound in carbon dioxide is 1.3 times as much as that of in air. Two children, sitting 2 and
2 metres from the opposite sides of a balloon which is filled with carbon dioxide, and hanged in the height of the
heads of the children, found that the balloon ``reinforce'' their whisper the most, exactly at this position.

Estimate the diameter of the balloon.


(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4449. A space probe is to be shot from a point of the interplanetarial space at some speed with respect to the Sun,
which is exactly half the speed at which the object would have circular path through the same point.
a) With respect to the Sun into which direction must the space probe be launched if it is to move away from the
starting point the least?
b) With respect to the Sun into which direction must the space probe be launched if it is to move away from the
starting point the most?
c) By what factor will the greatest distance between the probe and the starting point be greater in case of b) than in
case of a)?
(Any effects except for the gravitation of the Sun are negligible.)
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4450. The amount of water vapour in the air of the wind reaching a mountain is 12 g/m3, the temperature of air is
20 oC. Along the slope of the hill the ascending air cools down, and half of its water vapour content precipitates as
rain. Estimate the temperature of the air descending on the other side of the mountain.
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4451. A sample of diatomic, ideal gas is taken through a cyclic process. The cyclic process can be composed of
such open processes that the specific heat capacity of the gas during the certain processes does not change. The
cyclic process is shown in the graph of the figure. The algebraic sum of the absorbed and delivered heat by the gas
up to an instantaneous state, (Q), is shown on the horizontal axis, and the total amount of work done by the gas on
its environment up to reaching the certain instantaneous state, (W*), is shown on the y axis.

a) Using the graph, determine the efficiency of the cyclic process.


b) What types of processes build up the cyclic process? Reason your statements.
c) Let the pressure of the gas at state 1 be p0, and its volume be V0. Using these parameters plot the cyclic process on
the p-V diagram.
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4452. In a long thin iron rod uniformly changing magnetic induction can be created. The induced voltage in a wire
around the rod is U=10 mV. A wire is put around the rod such that into one half of it a resistor of resistance R1=10 k
, and into the other half a resistor of resistance R2=20 k are inserted.

a) What is the reading on the ideal voltmeter connected to the A and B terminals of the resistors?
b) What would be the reading on a voltmeter of resistance Rm=100 k ?
Does the measured voltage depend on to which side of the rod the meter is placed?
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4453. The density of the energy of the electric field inside a straight cylinder shaped metal rod is constant, its
magnitude is J/m3; the density of the energy of the magnetic field inside the rod at a distance
of r=2 cm from the symmetry axis of the rod is J/m3.
a) What is the resistivity of the material of the rod?
b) What kind of metal was the rod made of?
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4454. The volume of a cubic aquarium, which is filled with water halfway, is V=8 litres. Salt is carefully dissolved
in the water such that the refractive index of the water, with respect to light which illuminates the water from below,
changes with the height h measured from the bottom of the aquarium as a function of n(h)=n0-kh2, where n0=1.35 is
the refractive index at the bottom and k=2 m-2 is a constant.
The aquarium is illuminated by a light-beam perpendicularly to one of its side. On the other side a screen is moved.
The screen always remains parallel to that side of the aquarium which is illuminated by the light. How far is the
screen from the aquarium, when only a thin sharp, horizontal line of light can be observed on it?
(6 points)
Problems in Physics, September 2012
Please read the rules of the competition.
Problems with sign 'M'
Deadline expired on 10 October 2012.

M. 325. Charge a capacitor of known capacitance (e.g. 2200 F) to a given voltage (e.g. 9 V), and then discharge it
through a resistor of known resistance (e.g. 47 k ). Measure and plot the graph of the voltage across the condenser
as a function of the elapsed time. How long does it take for the voltage to decrease to
a) one half;
b) one fourth of its initial value?
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 10 October 2012.

P. 4455. A body rolling along a horizontal surface reaches a slope. (The slope joins the horizontal smoothly.) In
which case will the body get higher, if there is friction or if there is no friction? Reason why.
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4456. A liquid in glass thermometer, which is at room temperature initially, is put to warm water, and it is
observed that the level of the liquid in the thermometer initially decreases one or two degrees, before it begins to
increase.
What can the reason of this behaviour be?
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4457. A one end of a thread of length is tied to a small iron ball, whilst the other end is fixed at a height of
above a tabletop. The ball is displaced such that the thread is horizontal and is kept at this position by an
electromagnet. At a height of above the tabletop another small iron ball, similar to the one at the end of the thread,
is also kept by an electromagnet. The two electromagnets release the balls at the same moment. The two balls begin
to move at the same instant.
Which one reaches the tabletop first?

(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4458. Three young men would like to go to the disco club, which is at a distance of 8.8 km. The speed of the
bicycle with one person is 20 km/h, with two people it is 16 km/h. Three people cannot go together on one bicycle,
and their speed is 4 km/h on foot. How can they all get to the disco club in one hour?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4459. A certain amount of ideal gas contains Helium atoms and Oxygen molecules. The mass of the mixture is
20 gram, its volume is 18.63 litres at a temperature of 27 oC and at a pressure of 200 kPa.
How many moles of Helium and how many moles of Oxygen are there in the gas?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4460. 31.4 J of heat is given to a sample of ideal gas. Because of this the gas expands from a volume of 0.3 litres
to 0.8 litres, at a constant pressure of 1.57.104 Pa.
a) Determine the change in the internal energy.
b) What is the degree of freedom of the gas?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4461. What is the relationship between the values of the capacitance of the capacitors of C1, C2,C3, C4, if the
equivalent capacitances between the points A and B are the same in both the cases of a) and b)?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4462. A resistor of resistance R=8 is operated with the aid of the variable resistor of resistance R0=30 in the
circuit shown in the figure. The e.m.f. of the voltage supply is U0=24 V, and its internal resistance is negligible.
a) Where is the pointer of the variable resistor when the voltage across the resistor is 12 V?
b) In this case, what percentage of the total dissipated power is the power dissipated in the resistor?
c) Between what values can the dissipated power in the resistor be varied? Between what values can the power given
off by the voltage supply vary?

(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4463. Is it true that the energy of any photon of the visible light emitted by an incandescent lamp is greater than
the average kinetic energy of an atom of the noble gas which fills the bulb?
Maybe the answer depends on what type of gas is in the bulb?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4464. A certain type of alpha-radiation can penetrate to a depth of 4 cm to a sample of air at a pressure of 105 Pa.
To what depth would it penetrate into a sample of less dense air at a pressure of 10 3 Pa? (The -particle -- being a
``heavy'' particle -- hardly changes its direction while it interacts with the atoms, so its path is approximately a
straight line.)
(5 points)
Problems in Physics, October 2012
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 12 November 2012.

M. 326. Hang a horse-shoe or a bar magnet above a compass, and rotate the magnet slowly by 360o, and observe the
changes of the compass. Carry out the experiment at different distances between the compass and the magnet, and
describe the behaviour of the compass.
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 12 November 2012.

P. 4465. Why can your breath be seen in cold weather?


(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4466. The trolley pole of electric train engines - big current flows through them - often sparks. The same current
flows through the wheels into the rails as well. Why doesn't the wheels spark?
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4467. A police car parking on the hard shoulder of a highway, is passed by a car at a speed of 108 km/h. (This is
the greatest speed at which this car can travel.) After a short time it turns out in the police car that the passing car is
a stolen one. The police car starts to chase the car ten seconds after the stolen car passed it. The maximum speed of
the four-wheel drived police car is 162 km/h. The coefficient of static friction between the road and the wheels
is 0.4. In order not to reach the traffic in the city it would be good to catch the escaping car in a distance of 1.5 km.
Is it possible?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4468. A circular piece of radius r is cut out of a disc of radius R as shown in the figure. At what ratio of r/R will
the centre of mass of the remaining piece be closer to the centre of the disc than R/100?

(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4469. Two balls of masses m1 and m2 are hanged at the same point, with threads of equal lengths, and displaced
towards the left and the right with the same angle measured from the vertical. They are both released at the same
moment, and collide totally inelastically. The positions of the balls are described by their height above the horizontal
plane which is through the lowest point of their paths. (Air resistance is negligible.) Give the ratio of the greatest
height reached by the balls after the collision to the initial height.

(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4470. The containers of A and B are connected by a short and thin tube. The volume of container A is three times
as much as that of container B. Initially in both containers there is air at a temperature of 20 oC and at a pressure of
105 Pa. Then container A is heated to a temperature of 100 oC, and is kept at this temperature while the temperature
of B is still 20 oC. By what percent does the mass of the gas in each container change, and what will the pressure be
in them?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4471. Two batteries of voltage 3 V is connected in parallel. Their internal resistances are 3 , and 2 . Then an
external resistor of resistance 10 is connected to the batteries. What will the terminal voltage and the current
through the batteries be?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4472. There are two coils wined around the same closed iron core. Their inductances on this iron core are
measured to be 4 henry, and 9 henry. Then the two coils are connected in series. What will the equivalent inductance
be?
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4473. 0.06 mass percent of the human body is potassium, and 0.012% of this is the potassium isotope of atomic
mass number 40. This isotope is radioactive, it decays, and its half life is 1.3 miliard years. How many decays
occur in each second in the body of a 60-kg man due to the potassium in the human body?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4474. Estimate the size of that Aluminium ball which can stay at rest in the Solar system. Where can it stay at
rest? (Neglect the effect of planets and moons and the particle currents in the Solar system.) The solar luminosity is
3.8.1026 W, its mass is 1.989.1030 kg, and the density of Aluminium is 2700 kg/m3.
(5 points)
Problems in Physics, November 2012
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 10 December 2012.

M. 327. Measure the speed of a descending balloon, which is filled with air, as a function of the diameter of the
balloon. (Do not change the balloon, just alter the amount of air in it.)
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 10 December 2012.

P. 4475. During the siege of the fortress of Eger the defenders used cannons to shoot the Turkish troops surrounding
the fortress. Once the cannonball reached the top of its path 2 seconds after its projection, and during 3 further
seconds its speed became 50 m/s. Estimate the initial speed and the direction of the projection of the cannonball.
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4476. Kate invited her friends to her birthday party. She wanted to endear herself to her friends by making them
some ice-cream. She mixed the ice-cream powder with water at 4 o'clock in the afternoon, her friends were invited
to come to 6 o'clock, and she was a bit worrying whether the ice-cream will be ready or not. In order not to worry so
much, she measured how fast the initially 25 oC ice-cream mixture cools down in the freezer. She observed that after
10 minutes the temperature of the ice-cream was 21 oC. Was she able to serve the ice-cream to her friends in the
party if the party lasted until 10 at night, and the ice-cream must cool down to at least -6 oC? (Suppose that the heat
extraction of the freezer is uniform, and the thermal properties of the liquid ice-cream and the ice-cream are the
same as those of the water and ice.)
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4477. A small incandescent lamp, rated at 2 W/20 V, is to be operated with the aid of a 100-ohm variable resistor
and a voltage supply of voltage 40 V. How can this be done?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4478. A cyclist is riding his bicycle all out while he goes uphill at a speed of v1=12 km/h, and he can go downhill,
on the same slope, at a speed of v2=36 km/h. What is his top speed on the level road, if his maximum strength to ride
the bike is independent of the speed of the bicycle?
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4479. An easily moveable, insulated piston, of cross section A=2 dm2 and of mass m=5 kg, confines some air in a
vertical thermally insulated cylinder. The air is heated by a heating element of power 200 W.

a) What is the speed of the piston?


b) By what amount does the internal energy of the air change in 2 s?
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4480. In a long straight coaxial cable the centre conductor has a radius of r1, and the outer metallic shield has an
inner radius of r2, and an outer radius of r3. (Between the two conductors there is a dielectric insulator.) In the two
conductors the current of I flows in the opposite direction. Determine the magnetic induction vector B around the
cable as a function of the distance r measured from the symmetry axis of the cable.
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4481. A big piece of positively charged metal sheet is illuminated by light of wavelength . The surface charge
density of the metal is , and the work function of the metal is W.
a) At what greatest distance from the metal can electrons be found?
b) At what speed do the electrons moving back to the sheet hit the sheet?
(Data: =2.10-6 C/m2, W=0.41 aJ, =400 nm.)
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4482. Why are the dark lines in an absorption spectrum not exactly black?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4483. If it was possible to create a vacuum tube along the magnetic equator of the Earth, the protons and electrons
in this tube would - theoretically - orbit along circular path, due to the magnetic field of the Earth.
a) Estimate the speed and the direction of their motion.
b) What would the energy of these particles be in eV?
c) Can particle beams having the above calculated energy be created nowadays?
d) How much would the light, which travels along the same ``circle'' due to appropriately placed mirrors, overtake
the particles travelling in the tube in one circle?
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4484. Estimate the pressure on the wall of a small cube of edge d, due to a neutron confined in the cube.
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4485. Two alike balls are suspended next to each other and can swing in the plane of the figure on threads of
length . One ball is displaced by a distance of d and then released (d ). The balls collide inelastically, their
velocities decrease by a factor of k at each collision, with respect to the system of their centre of mass (0<k<1 is the
collision number).

How will the balls move? What will the amplitude of the swings be after many collisions?
(6 points)
Problems in Physics, January 2013
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 11 February 2013.

M. 329. Discharge a pencil-sized battery (AA) or rechargeable battery of the same size through a resistor of constant
resistance. Measure how much charge flow through the resistor, and how much energy is delivered by the battery.
(6 points)
Statistics
Problems with sign 'P'
Deadline expired on 11 February 2013.

P. 4497. The length of a glass tube, which is closed at one end is =100 cm. Holding it vertically with its closed end
at its top, it is immersed into mercury to half of its height. What is the height of the mercury in the tube? The
atmospheric pressure is H=75 Hgcm.
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4498. A plano-convex and a plano-concave lens exactly fit to each other along their curved surfaces. The
refractive index of the material they are made of is 1.5, and the focal length of the plano-convex lens is 40 cm.
a) What is the power of each lens?
b) What is the radius of the curved surfaces of the lenses?
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4499. The mass of an empty balloon is measured with a sensible electronic scale. The mass is 3.7 g. After blowing
the balloon the reading on the scale was 4.5 g. The ,,perimeter'' of the balloon, whose shape could well be
approximated as a sphere, was measured as 73 cm.
a) How much air was blown into the balloon?
b) What is the excess pressure inside the balloon, if the temperature in the room is 25 oC?
c) What is the drag force exerted on the balloon, when it descends uniformly?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4500. A small bead can slide from A to B along the paths shown in the figure. The paths are circular arcs lying in
a vertical plane, and they are symmetrical about the straight line through the points A and B. The angle between the
straight line and the horizontal is 45o.

a) Along which path will the bead reach point B in a shorter time, and what can we state about the final speed in
each case, if there is no friction?
b) What can be stated about the final speeds if friction is not negligible, and the coefficient of friction is the same in
both paths?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4501. A fixed U shaped small narrow tube is turned upside-down and a thread of length is hanging in it as
shown in the figure. Initially the length of the thread is /2 in each side. This is an unstable equilibrium since
friction is negligibly small.

a) If the thread begins to slide to one side what will its speed be when it is straight?
b) What will the speed of the thread be when its momentary centre of mass is just at the same level as that end of the
thread which is moving up?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4502. A disc is given a push and slides on the top a horizontal table. It stops in a distance of L0. When the disc is
placed to the rim of the table, which is at a height of H, and is given the same initial speed it reaches the ground at
a distance of d from the table.
a) What is the kinetic frictional coefficient between the table and the disc?
b) At what distance from the table will the disc reach the ground if initially it is not exactly at the rim of the table but
at a distance of L from the rim, (L<L0), the disc is given the same initial speed, and slides towards the rim of the
table.
(Data: H=L0=d=0.8 m; L=0.6 m.)
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4503. The pressure and the volume of a sample of 0.4 moles Helium gas is doubled. Initially its pressure was
105 Pa, and its volume was 10 dm3. Determine those quantities from the list below which can be given uniquely:
a) The work done on the gas;
b) The heat given to the gas;
c) The change in the energy of the gas.
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4504. The n-storey symmetrical tower shown in the figure was built from dominoes of length . How long are
the balconies of the tower if each domino is pulled out as much as possible?

(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4505. The values the resistance of the resistors connected to the voltage supply of U=120 V, as shown in the
figure are unknown. When the switch is closed the reading on the voltmeter changes by 16 V, and the power
dissipated by the resistor R1 changes by 51.2 W.

a) Using the condition given to the change in the voltage determine the ratio of the resistances: R1/R2.
b) What are the values of the resistance of the resistors R1 and R2?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4506. A stationary electron and a positron, which travels at half of the speed of the light, collide. What is the
frequency of the two photons which born after the annihilation, if they travel in the direction of the initial velocity of
the positron?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4507. Two small balls are threaded to a horizontal frictionless rod which is attached to the wall. The heavy ball of
mass M is moving towards the wall, and the other light ball of mass m (m M) is at rest at a distance of L measured
from the wall. After the totally elastic collision, the light ball of mass m moves towards the wall and collides with it
elastically. Then it moves towards the heavy ball and collides with it and the process is repeated. To what distance
can the heavy ball approach the wall? (The two balls can be considered as pointlike objects.)
(6 points)
Problems in Physics, February 2013
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 11 March 2013.

M. 330. Investigate how balls of different radii, and possibly made of the same material (for example glass or
bearing balls), roll along slopes which are covered by some soft, elastic material like foam rubber. Determine the
percentage value of the loss in the kinetic energy with measurement.
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 11 March 2013.

P. 4508. The average speed of the tourists when they walk from the shelter house to the hilltop was 1.5 km/h, whilst
on the way back it was 3.5 km/h. The average speed for the whole distance from the shelter house back to the
shelter house was 2 km/h. What fraction of the total time of the excursion did the tourist spend on the hilltop having
a rest?
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4509. How long is the shadow of a 1 m long rod which is fixed perpendicularly to the ground at the equator
a) at noon, on the 21-st of March;
b) 2 hours later after noon on the 21-st of March?
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4510. At the end of an initially vertical, hinged rod of negligible mass there is a small heavy sphere. The rod is
displaced from its unstable equilibrium position. What is the angular displacement of the rod at the moment when
there is no force exerted on the rod?

(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4511. A sample of monatomic ideal gas is taken through the process shown in the V-T diagram of the figure. At
state A the pressure of the gas is p0, its volume is V0 and its temperature is T0=200 K.
a) Draw the graph of the process on the p-V diagram.
b) Find that state E of the process on the p-V diagram for which it is true that the works done by the gas during the
processes A E and E D are equal.
c) What is the temperature of the gas at state E?
d) By what factor the absorbed heat in process A E is greater than that of in process E D?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4512. The mass of a plastic slinky is 60 g, its height is 6 cm, and the number of its turns is 40. If it is suspended at
one of its end its length is 106 cm. What is the spring constant of one turn of the slinky in N/m?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4513. Two small insulating discs of mass m are placed to the horizontal tabletop, such that initially the distance
between their centres is x0=5 cm. A small metal sphere of charge Q=8.10-8 C is fixed at the top of each disc.

One of the discs if fixed to the tabletop and the other is released, and it slides. The coefficient of friction between the
disc and the tabletop is = 0=0.3. Neglect the electrostatic interaction between the charges and the tabletop.
a) What will the distance x1 be between the centres of the two discs at the moment when the speed of the sliding disc
is maximal?
b) What will the distance xm between the two discs be after the sliding discs stops?
c) What is the relationship between x0, x1 and xm?
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4514. The readings on the voltmeter and the ammeter connected to the circuit shown in the figure are 10 V and
200 mA, respectively when the switch is open. If the switch is closed the reading on the ammeter increases by 0.1 A,
and the voltage across resistor R2 increases by 10 V.

a) What are the resistance values of the resistors?


b) What is the voltage of the voltage supply? c) What is the reading on the voltmeter when the switch is closed?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4515. The opposite sides of the vertical conducting frame shown in the figure are parallel, and the top part is
connected through a resistor of resistance R=2 ohm. The frame is in uniform magnetic field of B which is
perpendicular to the plane of the frame. B=0.8 T. The distance between the parallel, vertical sides of the frame is
=20 cm, and the mass of the piece of conductor of negligible resistance, which can slide along the vertical wires
without friction is m=200 g. The piece of conductor is released with zero initial speed.
a) Graph the net force exerted on the piece of conductor as a function of the speed of the conductor.
b) Estimate how much time elapses while the speed of the conductor changes from 4 m/s to 4.2 m/s. How much
distance does it cover during this?
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4516. A domestic appliance is connected to the power station by a wire of resistance 12 ohm. The power of the
appliance is 1 kW. What is the efficiency of the transmission of electrical energy in case of 230 V, and in case of
10 kV?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4517. Four similar rods of uniform density are connected with frictionless hinges, and this frame is placed to
a horizontal smooth tabletop, such that its shape is a square. Vertex P is acted upon by a horizontal force in the
direction of the diagonal, and due to this force it begins to move at an acceleration of aP. What is the acceleration of
the opposite vertex Q at which it begins to move?

(6 points)
Problems in Physics, March 2013
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 10 April 2013.

M. 331. Hang a tennis ball to the end of a thread and with this pendulum measure how much work is done by the air
drag during one complete swing. How does this work depend on the initial displacement of the ball? Can we deduce
from the measured data anything about which power of the velocity the air drag is proportional to (in case of smaller
and bigger speeds)?
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 10 April 2013.

P. 4518. A ball of mass m bounces between two parallel walls, such that its velocity v is perpendicular to the
walls.The collisions with the walls are totally elastic. What is the average force exerted by the ball on the walls, if
the distance between the walls is d?
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4519. Recently, one of the greatest sensation was Felix Baumgartner's stratosphere jump. The Austrian sky-diver
jumped out of the capsule, lifted by a Helium balloon, at a height of 39045 metres and opened his parachute after
falling for 4 minutes and 17 seconds. According to the video which can be seen on the world wide web, in the first
part of his motion his speed changed as it is shown in the table below:

a) Plot the speed-time and the acceleration-time graphs of the motion in the first 64 seconds.
b) His greatest registered speed was 1300 km/h, which is 1.2 times the actual speed of sound. Estimate when would
he reach this record, if only the effect of gravity is counted.
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4520. The bodies arranged as shown in the figure are at rest; m1=1 kg, =30o. The rope attached to the body of
mass m1 is horizontal.
a) Determine the magnitude of m2.
b) Suppose that the rope which fixes the body of mass m1 brakes. What is the acceleration of the bodies when they
begin to move?

(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4521. A sample of air of volume V1=3 dm3 and of pressure p1=6.104 Pa is confined to a fixed vertical cylinder
which is closed at its bottom by a piston of cross section A=1 dm2, which can move frictionlessly. The piston is
connected to the closed end of the cylinder with a spring, designed for both compression and tension, of length
L0=0.6 m and of spring constant D=1000 N/m. The system is in equilibrium in this position. The external air
pressure is p0=105 Pa.
a) Find the mass of the piston.
b) The air in the piston is heated slowly. How much heat must be added to the confined air in order to reach that
state when the spring does not exert any force on the piston?

(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4522. News: Each saved cubic metre of natural gas protects the environment from the emission of 1.7 kg of
carbon-dioxide gas. 97% of the natural gas is methane.
a) What is the temperature of the methane if 1.7 kg carbon-dioxide is emitted during the burning of 1 cubic metre of
methane at normal pressure?
b) How many kg Oxygen is used and how much water vapour is gained?
c) By what amount is the calorific value of 1 cubic metre of methane smaller than its heat of combustion?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4523. Five alike =0.5 metre long pendulums are made of electrically insulating threads and of small metal
spheres of mass m=50 milligram. Each small sphere is given the same type of electrical charge of Q=10-7 coulomb,
and the pendulums are hung at the same point. Reaching the equilibrium position, because the mutual repulsion the
small spheres will be on the circumference of a horizontal circle.
a) What is the radius of this circle?
b) What would the number of revolution of the rotation of the pendulums be, if they were to rotate about a vertical
axis going through the point at which they are hung, and the small spheres were to move along the circumference of
the above described circle such that the spheres had no charge on them?

(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4524. The pointer of the linear variable resistor (rheostat), shown in the figure is initially at the middle of the
rheostat. How do the readings on the meters change if the pointer is slowly moved towards the right? The resistance
of the variable resistor is R and the internal resistance values of the voltmeter and the ammeter are RV and RA,
respectively.

(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4525. The flux linkage of a circular loop of wire of radius 10 cm and of cross section 0.5 mm2, which is in
uniform perpendicular magnetic field, is 6.28.10-3 Vs. What will the tension in the loop be when a current of 10 A
begins to flow in it?
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4526. Which planet covers greater part of the Sun during its transit: the Venus observed from the Earth, or the
Earth observed from the Mars? What is the ratio of the two covered parts?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4527. By what factor the ,,efficiency'' of the Sun is greater than that of the nuclear power station at Paks? More
precisely: how much more energy is liberated during the fusion of 1 kg Hydrogen into Helium, than during the
fission of 1 kg Uranium?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4528. An unexpansible, flexible heavy rope is hung to two nails, held at the same height as shown in the figure.
The rope is at rest in this position. The length of the rope between the nails is and the deepest point of this part of
the hanging rope is at a depth of h, measured from the level of the nails. How long is the rope? (Friction is
negligible.)

(6 points)
Problems in Physics, April 2013
Please read the rules of the competition.
Problems with sign 'M'
Deadline expired on 10 May 2013.

M. 332. Fix a piece of thin flexible steel sheet (for example the blade of a knife or a saw) into a vise, such that at
most 10 cm long part of it sticks out of the jaws of the vise. The end of the blade which sticks out can be round or
pointed, it is not necessary to use a rectangular blade. Pluck the part of the blade which sticks out. Measure how the
frequency f of the plucked blade (the pitch of the emitted sound) depends on the length of the midline of the
oscillating part of the blade.

(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 10 May 2013.

P. 4529. The colour of coffee in a mug is black, but its foam is either white or cream-coloured. Why?
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4530. A converging lens creates an upside-down image of height K=4 cm about an object of height T=2 cm.
Determine the focal length of the lens with construction.
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4531. How should a given amount of shots be distributed between the cart and the scale, in order that the tension
in the string is to be the greatest? (The mass of the pulley is negligible.)

(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4532. The bulbs connected as shown in the figure are alike, their power-rating is P when the voltage across them
is U. What are the values of the voltage and the power across them, in case of open (ny) and closed (z) switches? Fill
in the table.

(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4533. A student standing on the moving bus did not hold on to anything, and fell off when the bus took a bend. At
what angle should he have to lean in order not to fall off, if the bus travelled at a speed of 30 km/h in the bend of
radius 25 m?

(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4534. What is the value of the resistance of the variable resistor R shown in the figure, when
a) the condenser is uncharged;
b) the voltage across the condenser is exactly half of U?

(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4535. The attached photograph (which can also be seen in the first cover of this journal) shows a phase of the
descending Moon. Using the sizes of the figure determine how many days before the picture was taken was a full
Moon.

(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4536. The theoretical limit of the efficiency of wind turbines is the so called Betz-limit is 59.3%. There are other
losses, but the most modern wind turbines efficiency is approximately 84% of the Betz-limit.
a) How many megajoule kinetic energy is carried during 1 second by an air flow of speed of 27 km/h to that wind
turbine which is at a height of 100 m, and which has 44 m-long blades?
b) What is the maximum output power of the turbine at this wind speed?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4537. I bought a cylinder shaped piece of cheese in a shop. At the cash-desk I put it onto the conveyor belt such
that its horizontal symmetry axis was perpendicular to the rim of the conveyor belt. When the conveyor belt began
to move the cheese also began to move. What was the speed of the centre of the cheese, if the speed of the conveyor
belt was 60 cm/s?

(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4538. A frictionless slope, having a cross section of a quadrant of radius R=20 cm, is attached to a moveable cart
as shown in the figure. The horizontal surface of the cart is rough, the coefficient of friction is =0.8. A point-like
object falls freely from a height, measured from the plateau of the cart, of h=2R onto the top of the slope, and arrives
tangentially. It slides along the path and just stops at the end of the cart. How long is the cart?

(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4539. The base of a solid 4r-high right cylinder is a circle of radius r. One side of the surface of a tale made of
hard but flexible material is slippery, whilst on the other side the frictional coefficient is . The two parts are
separated by a straight line. The cylinder is placed to the slippery side of the table (with its circular base on the
tabletop), and is given a push perpendicularly to the separation line. Will the cylinder fall when it reaches the
separation line or not, and if yes how, if a) =0.2; b) =0.7; c) =1.4? (The rotational inertia of a cylinder of

mass m, radius of r and height of 4r about a horizontal axis through its centre of mass is .)
(6 points)
Problems in Physics, May 2013
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 10 June 2013.

M. 333. The temperature of air in a small flask, which is covered by soot, is measured with a thermometer. Place the
flask next to a filament lamp, rated at a high power, and measure how the temperature depends on the distance from
the lamp.
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 10 June 2013.

P. 4540. 1 kg ice at a temperature of -30 oC is placed into a thermally insulated vessel filled with water of
temperature 30 oC. Is it possible that no phase change occurs?
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4541. How long is the shadow of a 1 m long rod, which is fixed perpendicularly to the ground at the equator,
a) at noon, on the 21-st of June;
b) 2 hours later after noon on the 21-st of June?
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4542. Find the equivalent resistance of the resistor system shown in the figure (between the two endpoints) if the
resistance of each the resistor is R.

(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4543. When blowing soap bubbles, it can often be seen that the colourful soap bubbles lose their colour and
darken just before they burst. What is the reason for this phenomenon?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4544. Using an electronic kitchen scale, which shows grams, the same 1 g is gained for the weights of a rubber, a
pencil and a pen. The pencil and the pen together weigh 2 grams, and the total weight of the pencil and the rubber is
also 2 grams. Measuring the three items together the scale reads 3 grams. The total weight of the pen and the rubber
is also 3 grams. How can this happen? What can the range of the mass of each item be? What can be stated about the
total mass of the three items?
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4545. Two cylinder shaped vessels of cross section A are fixed vertically to a trolley, which was initially at rest.
The two vessels are connected with a thin horizontal tube which is equipped with a tap. The distance between the
axes of the vessels is L. The vessel in the left hand side is filled with some liquid of density ; and at this time the
total mass of the system at rest is m.

After opening the tap what is the speed of the cart at the moment when the speed of the water levels in the vessels is
v? (Rolling friction, friction in the bearings and air-drag are negligible.)
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4546. The top part of a thermally insulated, vertical cylinder of cross section A=0.5dm2 is fixed. There is a sample
of Helium gas in the cylinder and initially its pressure is p0=105 Pa, its length is 0=50 cm. The bottom part of the
cylinder is closed with an initially fixed thermally insulating piston of mass m=10 kg. The external air pressure is
also p0. Then the piston is released, and it can move frictionlessly in the cylinder.
a) What is the length of the helium confined in the cylinder when the speed of the piston is maximum?
b) What is the maximum speed of the piston?
c) What is the greatest length of the confined gas?

(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4547. A simple pendulum of length is hanging above the horizontal, grounded metal floor at a height of . Its
period is T1=2.00 s. How much charge was added to the bob of mass m=25 gram, if the period of the pendulum
decreased to T2=1.96 s?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4548. A metal sphere is initially charged to a potential difference of U0, and is hung by a totally insulating thread.
Then it is left in the air of resistivity . How long does it take that the voltage of this
condenser decreases to U0/2?
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4549. A thyristor is an electrical element made of semiconductor, and can be used in many different ways. Its
current-voltage characteristics is quite strange. (See figure 1.)

The thyristor is connected as shown in figure 2, and the voltage U0 is slowly increased from zero to Umax , and then it
is slowly decreased back to zero.

Graph the current as a function of the voltage U0, if

a) and ,

b) and .
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4550. Two alike long, straight wires of diameter d, are at a distance of ; their resistance is negligible
and (L D). One ends of the wires are connected through a battery of voltage U, and the other ends of the wires are
connected through a resistor of resistance R. What is the value of R if the electric and magnetic forces exerted
between the wires are equal?
(6 points)
Problems in Physics, September 2013
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 10 October 2013.

M. 334. Place a chain made of same links to the table such that some part of the chain hangs down from the
tabletop. When will the whole chain begin to slide down from the table? Using the result give an estimation to the
coefficient of static friction between the table and the chain. Check your estimation with measurement as well!
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 10 October 2013.

P. 4551. There is a massless piston, which can move frictionlessly, in the middle of a 1-metre long, horizontal tube,
closed at both of its ends. In the left chamber there is a sample of Oxygen gas, and in the right chamber there is
Hydrogen gas at the same tempereture. The mass of the hydrogen is one-fourth of that of the Oxygen. Where is the
equilibrium position of the piston?
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4552. A fisherman sitting in his boat drops his pipe into the water. The change in the level of the water is the same
as if he drops his pipe into the water when he stands on the shore. What is the density of the pipe?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4553. The operation of a hot air balloon is to be modelled by a small candle and a light plastic bag. Estimate the
minimum volume of the ascending bag which is in a room of temperature 20 oC, if the average temperature of the air
in the bag is 80 oC, and the total mass of the candle, the bag and the other equipments is 12 grams.
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4554. There are two tables next to each other. How much work is done on that flat parcel, which is pulled from
one of the tables to the other? The coefficients of dynamic friction between the parcel and the two tabletops are
different.
Data: m=18 kg; =0.8 m; 1=0.1; 2=0.4. ( The weight of the parcel is distributed evenly along the surfaces of the
tables that are in contact with the parcel.)
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4555. There is a 4-m long, 1.2 kg chain, wound small, at the bottom of a 2-m deep lake. At least how much work
is to be performed while the chain is pulled out totally from the lake, by holding one of its end, and moving it
vertically? The density of the material of the chain is 3000 kg/m3.
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4556. There is a spring of spring constant D=240 N/m between two easily rolling carts of masses m1=2 kg and
m2=3 kg. The spring is kept at a compressed position by a thin thread and the compression of the spring is
=15 cm. The common speed of the two carts is v=2 m/s. What will their velocities be after the break of the thread?

(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4557. A 0.6-kg iron cylinder is attached to the end of the spring shown in the figure, and a disc shape magnet of
mass 0.2 kg sticks to the bottom of the iron cylinder. Initially the spring, the spring constant of which is 64 N/m, is
unstretched, and then the system is released. During the oscillation the magnet does not fall off.
a) What is the period of the oscillation?
b) What is the greatest speed of the magnet?
c) What is the minimum force between the magnet and the iron cylinder?

(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4558. There is some water and its saturated vapour above it in a container, containing a piston, at a temperature of
370 oC. The total mass of the water and its vapour is 2 kg. The initial volume of the water and its vapour together is
8 dm3.
a) What is the volume of the vapour?
b) The piston is moved into the vessel, while the temperature is kept constant, and the volume of the container is
decreased to 5 dm3. What will the volume of the water vapour be in this case?
c) By how many molecules did the amount of vapour decrease?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4559. A pen dosimeter, which contains 5 cm3 air at standard conditions, and which has a capacitance of 1 pF, is
charged to 1000 V, initially. What is the absorbed doze, if after the exposure, the voltage drops to 900 V? The
average ionization-energy of air is 6.88 aJ and its density is 1.3 kg/m3.
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4560. Bones of Woolly Mammuth were found in North-America. The activity C-14 originated from the youngest
bones is 21% of that of in a living animal today. How many years ago did the Woolly Mammuth become extinct in
North-America?
(4 points)
Problems in Physics, October 2013
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 11 November 2013.

M. 335. Measure how the rate of evaporation of vinegar depends on its temperature.
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 11 November 2013.

P. 4561. The accuracy of the measurement of the mass of a steel bearing ball is 1% and that of its diameter is 3%.
Using these data what accuracy can be deduced for the density of the steel, from which the ball is made?
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4562. We would like to carry 600 bricks to a certain distance. If n bricks are carried together then our speed is

. We would like to finish this task in the shortest time. How many bricks should we carry together
in one go?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4563. A steam funicular railway is to be built to Hill Gellrt. The top of the hill is 84 m higher than its foot. The
total length of the straight slope is 140 m. There are two cars of equal masses, hung by cables at the two sides of a
pulley, and one of them travels uphill whilst the other one travels downhill. In each car 40 people can travel. The
funicular is loaded the most when there are 40 people in the car which is travelling up, while the other car is empty.
The mass of each car is 5 tons. The average weight of a passanger is 70 kg. The coefficient of rolling friction on the
iron rails is 0.005. Calculate the output of the steam engine in horse power, if one trip lasts for one minute. (The
stiffness and the mass of the cable, the rotational inertia of the pulley, and air drag can be neglected in this
estimation.)
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4564. It is known that the atmospheric pressure at a height of 5.5 km is half, and at a height of 11 km is one-
quarterth of the pressure measured at see-level (10 5 Pa). What is the density of the air at the top of a 3000 metre tall
hill, at a temperature of -20 oC?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4565. Any object projected in airless space (e.g. on the Moon) at an initial speed of v0 travels along a parabolic
path. How far is the focus of this parabola from the position of the projection? What is the angle of the projection,
when the focus of the parabola is at the same height as the initial position of the object?
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4566. A model car of mass m=12 kg travels on a horizontal rough surface along a circular path of radius R=5 m. It
starts from rest and for a while it has a constant tangential acceleration of a0=2 m/s2, and when its acceleration
reaches the value of , then it continues its motion along the circular path at constant speed.
a) Measured from the starting instant, when will the car reach the point at which it started?
b) What is the maximum of the static frictional force?
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4567. There is a well-illuminated goldfish at rest in an aquarium, which has thin walls, 12 cm away from the wall.
With the help of a lens, which has a power of 10 dioptres, an enlarged image is to be formed on a screen. The image
should be five times as big as the fish. Where should the lens and the screen be placed? (The refractive index of
water is 1.33.)
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4568. There is a resistor of resistance R and a capacitor of capacitance C connected in parallel in a black box.
Somebody states that this arrangement at a certain frequency cannot be differentiated from that black box which
contains an appropriately chosen resistor and capacitance which are connected in series. Is he or she right?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4569. A hollow insulating sphere of radius R is charged uniformly to a charge of Q. There is a small hole on this
sphere. What is the electric field strength at the centre of this hole?
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4570. Enrico Fermi thought that the active zone of the nuclear reactor built in 1942 should contain a system of
uniformly arranged Uranium and graphite mixture, such that the uranium and the graphite are in powdered form and
mixed evenly. Le Szilrd suggested an inhomogeneous arrangement. According to this spheres were made from the
metal Uranium, which were surrounded by graphite blocks. From that time onward all the nuclear reactors has
inhomogeneous active zones. Why?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4571. The height of the slope shown in the figure is 30 cm, and its base is 40 cm. A solid cylinder of uniform
density, which has the same mass as the slope, rolls down along the slope without slipping. What is the least value of
the coefficient of friction between the inclined plane and the horizontal ground if the slope does not slip?

(6 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)

Problems in Physics, November 2013


Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 10 December 2013.

M. 336. Mount an axle to the cap of a half-litre PET-bottle, and measure the period of the swinging bottle about this
axle. Vary the amount of liquid in the bottle and determine the amount of liquid in the bottle for which the period is
the greatest.

(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 10 December 2013.

P. 4572. A vehicle covers equal distances at speeds of 1 m/s, 2 m/s, 3 m/s, 4 m/s and 5 m/s. What is its average speed
calculated for the total distance covered?
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4573. The coefficient of static friction between the fixed inclined plane of angle of inclination and the block of
mass M, shown in the figure, is . The radii of the two alike pulleys are r and R (R>r), there is no friction at the
axles, and the mass of the pulleys is negligibly small with respect to the other masses. Two pieces of rope are
vertical, and one is parallel to the slope. The mass of the block at the bottom is m. At what m/M mass-ratio can the
system be in equilibrium?
Data: =30o, =0,2 and .
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4574. A right triangle shaped wedge of mass m=0.5 kg and of angle 30o is placed to the top of a fixed slope of
length =1.8 m, and of angle of elevation =30o, as shown in the figure. The vertical height of the wedge is exactly
half of the height of the slope H. The wedge is loaded with the small block of mass m as shown in the figure.
This system is assembled in two samples. In case of one of them the small block is fixed to the wedge and in the
other case the block is not fixed. The two wedges are released from rest at the same time. Friction is negligible at
any surfaces.
a) Determine the ratio of the times during which the wedges reach the bottom of the slopes.
b) What are the forces exerted by the small blocks on the wedges in the two cases?

(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4575. According to Julie some space probes are accelerated by the so called swing-by (or gravitational slingshot)
effect, and to use the gravity assistance the space probe just has to pass a planet appropriately. According to Joe the
space probe accelerates only when it approaches the planet and it slows down to its original speed while it moves
away from the planet, because in the gravitational field of the planet the potential energy depends on only the
distance measured from the centre of mass of the planet. So the effect only increases the average speed of the probe,
but this is also advantageous. Who is right?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4576. The outer radius of a spherical shell, made of insulating material, is r2=0.2 m, and its inner radius is
r1=0.15 m. The relative dielectric constant of its material is r=8.4. The shell is charged positively, and the charge is
distributed evenly such that the charge density is =10-5 C/m3. Measured from the centre of the spherical shell
where are those points at which the magnitude of the electric field strength is
a) E1=3.103 V/m,
b) E2=3.104 V/m?
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4577. What is the equivalent resistance of the infinite resistor chain, shown in the figure, between the points A
and B? Plot the equivalent resistance versus q graph.

(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4578. There is a glowing filament 30 cm from a 5-dioptre converging lens, whilst on the other side of the lens, on
the same principal axis, 50 cm away from the lens there is a -2 dioptre diverging lens. Where should the screen be
placed if we would like to find the image of the filament? What is the size of the image of the 2-cm long filament?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4579. Traces of Argon were found in one of the most ancient stone of the Earth. The stone was powdered in
vacuum, and it was found that the number of Argon atoms is 1/10000 of the number of Potassium atoms. The
atoms are radioactive and their half-life is 1.18 .109 years. 11% of the daughter elements are atoms which are
stable. Now 0.0118% of all the potassium atoms is isotopes. How old is the stone?
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4580. A thin, light, elastic rod sticks out of the wall of an old house. In which case will its end be bent more, if a
pigeon sits to its middle or if a blackbird of mass one-quarterth of the mass of the pigeon sits to the end of the rod?
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4581. A frictionlessly moveable piston of mass m confines n=0.25 moles of diatomic gas at a temperature of
T1=300 K in a vertical cylinder, closed at its bottom, of cross section A=2 dm2. The piston is at a distance of h1=3 dm
from the bottom and the ambient pressure is p0=105 Pa.
The gas is heated in two steps. The first step lasts until the piston reaches the stoppers, in this stage the piston is
h2=5 dm from the bottom of the cylinder. The added heat in the second step, which begins when the piston reaches

the stopper, is times as much as the added heat in the first step.
a) Determine the mass m of the piston.
b) What is the total force exerted by the stoppers on the piston at the end of the second heating step?
c) Plot the pressure of the gas as a function of the absolute temperature.

(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4582. An astronaut in the International Space-station attaches himself to the four vertices of a regular tetrahedron
shaped frame with 4 springs. The mass of the springs and their rest length are negligible, their spring constants are
D1=150 N/m, D2=250 N/m, D3=300 N/m and D4=400 N/m. - For the sake of simplicity - the astronaut is considered
pointlike, its mass is m=70 kg. What is the period of the oscillation of the astronaut if he is displaced from his
equilibrium position and released?

(6 points)
Problems in Physics, January 2014
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 10 February 2014.

M. 338. A horizontal towel rail can hold the towel even if the two parts of the towel hanging on the two sides of the
rail are different (see the figure). Measure how the ratio of 1/ 2, when the towel is just about to slip on the rail,
depends on the wetness of the towel (the amount of soaked up water).

(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 10 February 2014.

P. 4594. Compare the sight of a sparkler on the christmas tree, with the splendour light of the firework show at the
new year's eve.
a) In case of the sparkler why can't we observe such expanding, glowing fireballs or fire-wheels (glowing sharpnels
which spred out in a plane) as we can see in case of the fireworks?
b) Is it possible to observe elliptical ``fire-wheels'' during a firework display?
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4595. Can the kinetic energy of a dropped ball in Joules be the same as the height measured in metres from which
it was dropped?
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4596. A cylinder of radius R is lying against the back wall of the bed of a truck, of height h<R. What can the
greatest acceleration of the truck be in order that the cylinder does not fall over the wall? (Friction is negligible.)
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4597. There is a cylinder in horizontal, wedge shaped, right angled trough as shown in the figure. The cylinder is
carefully pulled with an increasing horizontal force by means of a piece of thread wound around it. What happens if
the coefficient of friction is
a) =0.5;
b) =0.3?

(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4598. Jill and Jack organise a ``rolling bicycle race'' along a long enough slope. Their bicycles are alike and none
of them pedals the bicycle. Jill weighs 50 kg, Jack is 100 kg, and the mass of the bicycle is 15 kg. The cross
sectional area of Jack is one and a half times as much as that of Jill. Who will reach greater terminal speed?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4599. A two-litre bottle with a hand sprayer is filled with liquid to three-quarters of the bottle. After pumping it, in
the bottle a gauge pressure equal to the ambient air pressure can be reached. The volume fraction of the water-air
mixture, which is slowly sprayed out, is 1:10. The temperature and the density of the effused air can be
approximated with those of the ambient air.
a) Estimate at least how many times the bottle must be pumped, in order to spray out 0.5 litre water?
b) In how many doses can all the liquid be sprayed out of the bottle?
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4600. A soap bubble is blown with a relatively short drinking straw of diameter d, and then the bubble is left to
deflate through the same straw. In one case when the diameter of the bubble was D the time during which the bubble
deflated was 8 seconds. Estimate the time during which a bubble deflates
a) if its diameter is also D, and it is deflated through a wider straw of diameter 2d;
b) through a straw of diameter d, if its greatest diameter was 2D?
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4601. An easily moveable, thermally insulated piston of negligible mass confines a sample of air of volume V0=8
litre, at a temperature of T0=300 K, into a thermally insulated cylinder of cross section A=1dm2. The cylinder is fixed
to a horizontal table. The pressure of the confined air is the same as the atmospheric pressure p0=105 Pa. A piece of
thread is attached to the centre of the piston, it lies in the line of the axis of the cylinder and leads through a pulley. A
weight of mass m=25 kg is attached to the other end of the thread as shown in the figure. Holding the weight, any
part of the thread is straight, but loose.

The weight is released without any push. To an accuracy of 1% determine the


a) temperature of the air in the cylinder, when the weight is at its lowermost position;
b) the acceleration of the piston at the lowermost position of the weight;
c) the greatest speed of the piston during the process. (The mass of the thread and the pulley and friction are
negligible.)
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4602. Two lenses of optical power of 10 dioptres are placed such that their principal axis coincide. There is a
well-illuminated object 12-cm from one of them - the other lens is on the other part of the lens. The other lens forms
a virtual, 50-times magnified image of the object. By what distance does this lens need to be moved in order to
create a 50-times magnified image on a screen?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4603. Calculate the equivalent resistance of the resistor chain shown in the figure between the points a) A and B;
b) A and C the resistor chain is infinite in both directions and each resistor has a resistance of R.

(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4604. There are two big, same size, uncharged metal sheets in the same plane, lying parallel and very close to
each other. The sheets are connected through a piece of wire, and then a pointlike charge Q is placed next to them as
shown in the figure. What will the amount of charge on each metal sheet be?
(6 points)
Problems in Physics, February 2014
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 10 March 2014.

M. 339. Determine what percentage of the volume of a sugar cube is the volume of the sugar.
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 10 March 2014.

P. 4605. The terminal voltages of the power supplies shown in the figure are constant, and the values of the terminal
voltage are: U1=15 V and U2=45 V. The resistances of the resistors are R1=10 and R2=20 .

a) What are the readings shown by the meters, which are considered ideal?
b) Solve the problem, if the two meters are swapped over.
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4606. The motion of a pointlike mass can be split to two parts. In the first part its average speed is v1, and in the
second its average speed is v2. For the whole motion the average speed is the geometric mean of the speeds v1 and v2,
which is: . Determine the ratio of the covered distances in the two parts of the motion.
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4607. The bow of a police boat rises high above the water, whilst the boat is hurrying to a certain place. Does the
amount of rise depend on the speed of the boat? Sketch the forces exerted on the boat.
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4608. In order that the draught does not slam the door, a flat cylinder shaped object is placed between the door
and the threshold, preferably close to the hinge of the door. The symmetry axis is of the cylinder is vertical. To what
angle can the draught close the door if the coefficient of kinetic friction between the door and the object is 1 and
that of between the object and the threshold is 2?

(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4609. Both ends of a horizontal thin tube are closed. There is a mercury thread of length h at the middle of the
tube. The length of the air columns in both parts is , and the pressure of both air columns is equal to the gauge
pressure of a mercury column of height H. The tube is placed to a tumble dryer, the symmetry axis of which is
vertical, and the tumble drier is started to spin.

Give the displacement of the mercury thread as a function of the angular speed , if the temperature is constant.
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4610. There is a sample of ideal gas in a cylinder shaped container. The symmetry axis of the cylinder is
horizontal and at one end it is closed by frictionlessly moveable piston. Initially the volume of the gas is V1, its
temperature is T1 and its pressure is p1, which is the same as the ambient (and later on as well constant) air pressure.

The sample of gas is taken through the following processes n times: It is heated at constant pressure to a temperature
of T2, and then it is cooled back to the temperature of T1 keeping its volume constant at its reached value. While the
gas is heated at constant pressure an external constant force is exerted on the piston, which force is different at the
different heating steps. During the whole process the total work done is W.
a) To what value will the volume of the gas increase after the n-th step?
b) What is the total work W done by the external force?
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4611. An insulating rubber thread of spring constant D is attached to the ceiling of a room of height h. The floor
of the room has a big enough area, and it is made of metal, which is earthed. A light small metal sphere is attached to
the other end of the insulating rubber thread; the original length of the rubber thread is . If the sphere is
charged to Q then the length of the thread increases to a length of 0.75 . Is it possible to increase the charge on the
sphere very slowly to 3Q, such that the sphere does not touch the floor? (The electrostatic effect of the ceiling and
the walls are negligible.)
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4612. An object, which is at a distance of 30 cm from us, is observed through a lens. When the lens is close either
to us or to the object then the object seems to have its original size, but when the lens is in between these two
positions the object appears bigger.
a) Where is the lens when the object appears the greatest?
b) What is the focal length of the lens, if when the object appears the greatest, its observed size is twice as big as its
original size?
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4613. A uniform, 1-metre long uninsulated resistance wire, the cross section of which is everywhere constant, is
connected to a power supply, the terminal voltage of which is stabilized. One terminal of a resistor, whose resistance
is the same as the resistance wire is connected to the end of the resistance wire, whilst the other terminal is moved
along the resistance wire.
Where is the pointer of the moving terminal, when the power dissipated on the resistor is one-quarterth of the
maximum power dissipated at the resistor?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4614. The linear charge density of a very long, straight, vertical insulating thread is =8.10-7 C/m. A very small
metal ball of charge q=6.81.10-8 C is suspended by a very thin insulating thread of length =10 cm, which is at
a distance of d0=5 cm from the other thread. The metal ball is fixed with an insulating equipment at the position in
which the thread is vertical. At a given moment the ball is released from its fixed position without any push.
Determine
a) the maximum distance between the vertical metal thread and the ball;
b) the angle between the vertical and the supporting thread of the ball, when the speed of the ball is maximum.
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4615. A slinky, a helical spring (used as a toy which is able to travel down a flight of steps) whose unstretched
length is negligibly small, obeys Hooke's law with a good approximation, and it has a considerable elongation due to
its own weight.

a) The slinky of mass m resting on the table is slowly raised at its top end until its lower end just raised from the
table. The length of the spring at this position is L. How much work was done during lifting the spring?
b) If the slinky is released from this position, interestingly its lowermost turn does not move until the whole spring
reaches its totally compressed length, (see the figure). What is the initial speed of the slinky at which it begins to fall
right after reaching its totally compressed position?
(6 points)
Problems in Physics, March 2014
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 10 April 2014.

M. 340. Using the free software called Audacity, determine the coefficient of restitution of a table tennis-ball and
multiple different surfaces.
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 10 April 2014.

P. 4616. Rowers training on Tisza, begin rowing 1.5 hours before the dusk. The speed of the water is 3.6 km/h, and
the speed of the rowing boats is 6 m/s with respect to the water. How far from their departure can they row, if they
have to arrive back to the dusk?
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4617. A student went by bicycle to Saddle City from Frame Village. He planned to go with an average speed of
18 km/h. Because of the heavy traffic, in the first third of his journey his average speed was only 15 km/h.
a) What should his average speed be in the remaining part of his journey, if he is to arrive at the planned time?
b) What should his average speed be in the remaining time, if his speed was 15 km/h in the first one-third of the time
of his journey?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4618. In three different containers there are three samples of air at three different temperature values of 300 K,
500 K and 720 K. Allowing heat transfer between the 300 K and the 500 K samples of gas, the common temperature
would be 420 K, and allowing heat transfer between the 300 K and the 720 K samples of gas the common
temperature would be 600 K. What would be the common temperature of the samples of air of initial temperatures
of 500 K and 720 K? What is the ratio of the initial internal energy values of the three samples of gas?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4619. Mary sits on the perimeter of a merry-go-round undergoing uniform circular motion. Matt stands on the
ground 12 m from the centre of the merry-go-round. Matt observes Mary coming towards him at a speed of 1 m/s.
What is Matt's speed from the point of view of Mary?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4620. A uniform density sphere of radius r=10 cm rolls down with zero initial speed from the top of a hemisphere
of radius R=2r. The hemisphere is fixed to a horizontal plane. The coefficient of friction between the two spheres is
=0.2.

a) Where will the rolling sphere begin to slip?


b) What is the speed of the centre of the sphere at the moment when it begins to slip?
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4621. A sample of ideal gas is taken through the process shown in the figure. At its initial state V1=2 dm3,
p1=105 Pa, T1=300 K. At its final state V2=8 dm3, p2=2.5.104 Pa. What is the highest temperature of the gas during the
process and at which state is it reached?

(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4622. N=100 alike galvanic cells are connected to form a battery as shown in the figure. The electromotive force
of each cell is U0, and each of them has an internal resistance of Rb. How should the cells be arranged in order that
the dissipated power at an external load of resistance R is the greatest, if
a) R=Rb;
b) R=4Rb;
c) R=5Rb?

(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4623. A magnetized pin, axed through its centre of mass, swings 24 times in one minute if its axle is vertical.
How many swings does the pin make if its axle is horizontal and
a) parallel to the magnetic meridian;
b) perpendicular to the magnetic meridian?
The declination of the magnetic field at the position of the observation is 60o.
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4624. Some sparks were observed between the prongs of a fork which was inadvertently put into a microwave
oven. The prongs were 5 cm, and the space between them was 4 mm. The frequency of the electromagnetic field
was 2.45 GHz. Estimate the magnitude of the electromagnetic induction at the location of the fork. (In the air the
maximum electric field that it can tolerate without breakdown is approximately 3 kV/mm.)
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4625. The image of the Sun is projected to a white screen by means of a converging lens. What kind of data are
necessary, in order to state by what factor the image of the Sun brighter than the part of the screen which is
illuminated by the Sun?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4626. There are two alike initially uncharged spheres of radius r at a distance of d r, as shown in the figure.

a) Switch is closed. What is the force exerted between the two spheres?
b) What would be the force between the two spheres, if in the previous experiment instead of closing switch ,
switch was closed?
c) Determine the force exerted between the spheres if both switches are closed.
(6 points)
Problems in Physics, April 2014
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 12 May 2014.

M. 341. Beat several egg whites until stiff. Measure by what factor did the volume of the egg white increase. What
is the average volume of the bubbles? Estimate the number of bubbles.
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 12 May 2014.

P. 4627. Holding a blown-up balloon in our hands, after some time we feel that the balloon heats our hand. How can
it be?
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4628. A car travelling on road 4 had an average speed of 75 km/h between the cities Szolnok and Kisjszlls,
which are at a distance of 50 km, and between Kisjszlls and Karcag, which are at a distance of 10 km, its average
speed was 80 km/h. Can this car cover the total distance from Szolnok to Debrecen in 1.5 hours if in the remaining
64 km between Karcag and Debrecen it is not allowed to exceed the speed of 90 km/h?
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4629. An object is left to move along a horizontal surface, on which friction is not negligible. At one moment its
kinetic energy is 900 J, and 2 s later it is only 400 J, while the object covers a distance of
.
a)
By what factor will the further distance until the object stops be greater than the distance
?
b)
How long does it take to cover this distance?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4630. A sack of sand is lying on a light carpet on a horizontal surface. With the help of the carpet the sack of
mass M
is to be pulled from a smooth surface to a rough one. How much work is done if the coefficients of kinetic friction
between the surfaces and the carpet are: 1, and 2? The weight of the sack is not uniform, but we know that the
centre of mass of the sack is at a distance of s1, and s2
from the ends of the bag.

(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4631. A step ladder is placed to the smooth horizontal surface of ice. The cross section of the ladder is the same
everywhere and the angle between its legs is =60
. The hinge which connects the two legs of mass 5 kg and of length of 2 m is frictionless. The thin, initially tight
safety rope breaks.

a)
What is the angle between the legs of the ladder, when the hinge does not exert any force?
b)
What is the force exerted on the ice by the ladder at this moment?
c)
At what speed does the hinge hit the ice?
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4632. A sample of low pressure gas of given mass, is taken from state A
to state B, along the process AB
as shown in the figure. How much work is done?

(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4633. The working substance of a heat engine is a sample of monatomic ideal gas of specific mass. The gas may
be taken through the cyclic process ABCA
or ADEA
as shown in the figure. What is the ratio of the two efficiencies?
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4634. At two vertices of a regular hexagon of side a=12
cm, there are two charges of charge Q=6.4108 C, and at a third vertex there is a charge of Q
, as shown in the figure. What is the direction and the magnitude of the electric field strength at the centre of the
hexagon and at those vertices at which there is no charge?

(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4635. What is the resistance of the resistor R connected into the circuit shown in the figure, if the voltage across
the condenser is

a)
UC=0
;
b)
UC=U2
?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4636. The width of the slits in a diffraction grating is one-n
-th of the grating constant. The diffraction grating of grating constant d is illuminated perpendicularly by
monochromatic laser light of wavelength , and the diffraction pattern is examined on a screen at a distance
of Ld
. Give the position of the different order diffraction lines on the screen.
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4637. A chocolate bunny wrapped into aluminium foil is suspended by a piece of insulating chord and is charged.
The bunny slowly looses its charge due to the conducting ability of air. During the discharging process, what is the
magnetic field around the bunny like? (It can be assumed that the conducting ability of air is the same everywhere.)
(6 points)
Problems in Physics, May 2014
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 10 June 2014.

M. 342. Measure the instantaneous speed of a table-tennis ball, which was dropped in static air, and plot the speed
both as a function of the distance covered and as a function of the elapsed time. What will the terminal speed of the
ball be?
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 10 June 2014.

P. 4638. An object is projected up at an initial upward speed of 12 m/s on the Moon. What will the speed of the
object be at the moment when the half of the time of the upward motion elapsed? And what will its speed be when it
is halfway of its upward motion?
(3 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4639. A uniform density cube of mass m=2.7
kg is on the horizontal tabletop. What should the least force be, in order that the cube turns about one of its edge?
The coefficient of static friction is big enough, so the cube does not slide while it is turning. What is the least value
of the coefficient of static friction?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4640. The internal energy of an ideal gas is the sum of the kinetic energies of the randomly moving molecules of
the gas. The change in the internal energy of the gas is indicated by the change of the temperature of the gas. When
the gas is given some energy in an ordered way, then it is called work, and if the energy is given in a disordered way
then it is called thermal energy transfer. Which characteristics (states) of the ideal gas, the mass of which is kept
constant, remain the same
a)
if only thermal energy is added;
b)
if only work is done;
c)
if the work done by the gas is continuously the same as the thermal energy added to the gas?
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4641. An inclined plane of angle of elevation
is placed to a horizontal surface, and then an object of mass m is placed to the top of the inclined plane. The small
mass can slide on the slope without friction. With the help of the horizontal plane it is assured that the slope
accelerates in the vertical direction at an acceleration of a<g
.
a)
Determine the horizontal and the vertical components of the acceleration of the object sliding down the slope, and
the equation of the path of the sliding object. (The object is always in contact with the slope.)
b)
How long does it take for the object to reach the bottom of the slope, if the length of the slope is L
?
c)
What is the force exerted by the object on the slope?
Data: =30
, L=1.5 m, m=4 kg, a=6 m/s2
.
(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4642. A simple pendulum of length =20
cm, is deflected to the horizontal, and is given an initial vertically downward speed of v0=2
m/s. What is the angle between the thread and the vertical at the moment when the thread becomes tight again right
after that it was loose?

(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4643. Both ends of a horizontal thin tube are sealed. In the middle of the tube there is a Mercury thread of
length h
. The length of the air columns in both ends of the tube is , and the pressure of the air in both parts is the gauge
pressure of a Mercury column of height H. The tube is put into a centrifuge, which has a vertical axle, and is
rotated at an angular speed of
.
What can the period of the oscillatory motion of the Mercury column be, provided that the temperature is constant
and the oscillation is small? It can also be assumed that h
is small with respect to
, so the Mercury column does not break.

(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4644. A roll of paper of radius r=55
mm is fixed to the wall of the bathroom. The roll is held by a frame of wire with two hinges, such that the hinges
are at the same height and are at a distance of d=15 mm from the wall. The two side edges of the frame both has
the length of =90 mm, and this is the distance between the hinges and the axis of the paper roll. The paper roll
can be rotated about the middle part of the frame with negligible friction. Due to its weight the structure touches
the wall when it is at rest. The coefficient of friction between the tiles of the wall and the paper is =0.2
. The end of the paper is pulled at a uniform downward speed.
a)
In which case is it necessary to exert a greater force, if the free end of the paper is next to the wall, or if it is further
away from the wall?
b)
What is the ratio of the two forces?
c)
What is this ratio if the radius of the paper roll is r=100
mm?
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4645. An object of mass 0.1 g is fixed to the end of a thin, initially horizontal quartz thread. The declination of the
thread is 0.2 mm. The structure is placed into the space between the horizontal plates of a capacitor as shown in the
figure. The distance between the plates is 3 cm. The object is given a charge of 107
C.
a)
What should the applied voltage across the plates of the capacitor be in order that the quartz thread gains back its
initial undeformed equilibrium position?
b)
The motion of the object is started with turning on the previously calculated voltage across the plates. What is the
amplitude and the frequency of the initiated oscillatory motion?

(4 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4646. What is the shape of the rounded end of that glass rod, which converges all the light rays entering onto the
round glass surface parallel to the axis of the rod to one point inside the rod? Determine the equation of the surface
as a function of the refractive index of the glass n
and the focal length f
.
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4647. An ,,observer'' moving at a speed of v0
in uniform magnetic field of magnetic induction of B0, detects an electric field of E0=v0B0, if v0c
.
Does the opposite phenomenon exist? Does the observer moving in uniform electric field detect magnetic field?
(Only high-school knowledge is to be used.)
(5 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)
P. 4648. Three thin insulating rods, which all can be considered infinitely long and which are in the same plane,
crossing each other such that they form an oblige triangle, are charged uniformly to the same density of charge.
Where should a point-like charge be put, if it is to be in equilibrium?
(6 points)
Solution (in Hungarian)

Problems in Physics, September 2014


Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 10 October 2014.
M. 343. Measure the damping of a pendulum, which has a 50 g bob suspended ``bifilarly'' by two threads. The
pendulum is released from the horizontal. Measure and plot the period of the pendulum, and the angle of its
maximum displacement as a function of the number of swings.

(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 10 October 2014.

P. 4649. We observe the full Moon with a telescope. Somebody shades half of the objective lens in fun. What kind
of change can be observed in the image of the telescope?
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 4650. There is a mixture of 12 grams Helium and 16 grams Oxygen in a 25-litre bottle. What is the density and
the pressure of this gas at a temperature of 27
C?
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 4651. A wedge is driven into a log. The angle at the thin end of the wedge is 24
. What is the least value of the coefficient of static friction between the wedge end the wooden log, if the wedge gets
stuck in the log?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4652. The voltage measured between points A
and B in the circuit consisting of eight resistors, each having a resistance of 100 , is 50 V
.

What is the power dissipated in the system of eight resistors?


(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4653. There is a small (point-like) object at the topmost point of a fixed sphere of absolutely smooth surface. If
this object is slightly displaced from its equilibrium position it slides frictionlessly along the surface of the sphere
for a while, and then leaving the sphere it falls down.

a)
How much distance is covered by the small object along the surface of the sphere until it leaves the sphere?
b)
Measured from the vertical diameter of the sphere, at what distance L
will the object hit the horizontal surface?
The radius of the sphere is R=1.5
m.
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4654. What is the least force that must be applied in order to overturn an ice cube skidding on ice? (Friction is
negligible.)
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4655. A piece of thread is wound around the rim of a very light disc if radius r=0.1
m. An object of mass m=100 g is attached to the free end of the thread. The disc has a horizontal axle at its centre
and also there is a rod of negligible mass fixed to it. There is a small object of mass M attached to the end of the
rod at a distance of R=0.2
m from the centre of the disc.
Initially the system is at rest in the position shown in the figure. Suddenly the support of the object of mass m
is taken away, and the small object of mass M just reaches the position indicated by the broken line, enclosing
a 60 angle with the vertical. After some lightly damped swings the rod reaches its equilibrium position, at which
the angle between the rod and the vertical is
.

a)
What is the mass M
of the object at the end of the rod?
b)
What is the measure of the angle
?
c)
If the system is displaced a bit from its equilibrium position, what is the period of the oscillation?
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4656. Three threads of equal length are hung at the same point and at the other end of each thread there is a small
sphere, each having the same mass. The same charge is given to each of them. What is the radius of the circle at
which the spheres are at rest?

Data: =20
cm, m=1.3 grams, Q=1.2107
C.
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4657. A thermally insulated cylinder of cross section 1 dm2
, containing some air, is attached to the ceiling. Initially the volume of the air is 3 litres, and its temperature is 300 K.
The piston which confines the gas into the cylinder is also thermally insulated and has a mass of 10 kg. Another 10-
kg object is attached with a rope to the piston and hangs 10 cm above the ground. The air is slowly heated until its
volume reaches the value of 4.4 litres.

a)
What is the temperature of the gas at the final state?
b)
How much heat should be added to the gas?
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4658. How many neutrons arise one day from one nuclear reactor at Paks, and from the nuclear training reactor of
the Budapest University of Technology and Economy (BME)? (Suppose that both reactors are operated continuously
for 24 hours.)
Data: The thermal power of one reactor at Paks is 1485 MW, and the maximum thermal power of the training
reactor at the Budapest University is 100 W. During one fission 185 MeW is released and the average of the arising
neutrons during one fission is 2.43.
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 4659. Inside a thin shell hollow metal sphere of radius 20 cm there is a metal ball of radius 10 cm. The centres of
the ball and the sphere coincide. The inside ball is earthed with a very long wire, which is led through a small hole in
the outer sphere. The outer sphere is given a charge of 108
C. What will the potential of the outer sphere be?
(6 points)
Problems in Physics, October 2014
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 10 November 2014.

M. 344. Paper tubes are made from A4 sheets of paper, such that the shorter sides of the paper are glued together
(overlapping approximately a 1 cm wide stripe). Placing the tubes to a horizontal tabletop and applying a load along
its symmetry axis, examine at which load will the tubes collapse. How does the critical load depend on the height of
the tube?

(6 points)
Statistics
Problems with sign 'P'
Deadline expired on 10 November 2014.

P. 4660. What can you observe if you look through a piece of densely weaved tulle curtain, or through the fabric of
an old-type (made of silk) open umbrella and watch a distant light source?
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 4661. A car and a lorry moves along two straight perpendicular roads towards the cross-roads. The speed of the
lorry with respect to the car is 90 km/h. The speedometer of the car reads 72 km/h. At the instant when the speeds
were measured the lorry was 600 m and the car was 800 m from the cross-roads. Which vehicle reaches the cross-
roads sooner, if both move uniformly?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4662. The goal-keeper is just about to kick off the ball. The kick lasts for t=0.01
s, during which the goalkeeper exerts an average force of F=850 N on the ball lying on the ground. If there is no air
drag, the kicked ball would reach the ground in t=3 s and it would be =45
m further.
a)
What is the greatest height that the ball could reach?
b)
According to the official rules of association football the mass of the ball must be between 410 g and 450 g. Is the
match played according to the rules?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4663. A rigid rod of mass M
can rotate about a horizontal axle which is attached to the rod at its trisecting point. A point-like object of mass m
is attached to the end of the rod closer to the axle, and a pan of negligible mass is attached to the other end. The rod
stays at rest and is horizontal.
What is the initial speed of the object of mass m
if another object of mass m is dropped into the pan from a height of h
? The dropped object stays in the pan, and friction is negligible.
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4664. Mr. Tompkins (The chief character of the book titled Mr. Tompkins in Wonderland written by George
Gamow) in his dreams enters to Wonderland where the laws of physics are nearly the same as in our Universe,
,,only'' gravity differs from the usual Newton's laws. When he woke up in the morning he remembered that there are
several planets revolving around the single Sun of Wonderland, and there are three ,,Kepler's laws'' which hold true:
1. The planets revolve along elliptical paths, and the Sun is at the centre of these paths.
2. During the motion of the planet the ray drawn to the planet ...(unfortunately Mr. Tompkins forgot the end of this
law.)
3. The period of each planet is the same (independently of the lengths of the major and the minor axes of the
ellipses).
What can the law of gravity be in the physics book of Wonderland, and what may the end of Kepler's second law be?
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4665. There is a sample of air at standard conditions in the vertical cylinder shown in the figure. The piston moves
without friction and its mass is the same as that of the pan on the other side of the pulley. In which case will the
movement of the piston be greater, if the same amount of sand is poured to the top of the piston or into the pan?
(The temperature remains the same.)
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4666. How will a beam of light travel after it passes a diverging lens if its extension passes a point on the
principal axis of the lens which is on the other side of the diverging lens at a distance of twice the focal length,
measured from the lens?

(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4667. At each vertex of a regular tetrahedron there is a point-like charge, they all have the same magnitude and
they are alike charges. What should the magnitude of that opposite point-like charge be, which is placed at the centre
of the tetrahedron, in order that the net electrostatic force exerted on each charge is zero? What is the interaction
energy of the system?
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4668. The cross-sections of wires made of constantan and chrome-nickel are the same 1 mm2
. Estimate the temperature to which they warm up in a vacuum tube if a current of 1 A flows through them. (The
wires are placed into the tube separately.) The ambient temperature is 20
C.
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4669. Uranium-238 is an alpha-decaying isotope, its half-life is 4.5-billion years. How many atoms are there in
that Uranium block in which on average one atom decays in each
a)
second;
b)
hour;
c)
day;
d)
year?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4670. The diameter of a solenoid of length =2
m is D=2 cm. The solenoid has N=2000 turns, its axis is vertical and an upward direct current of I=10 A flows in
it. (The circuit is closed far away from the coil.) Electrons are projected towards the axis of the coil perpendicularly
to it, at an initial speed of v=2.5106 m/s. What is the radius of the paths of the electrons at the point which is at a
distance of d=2
cm from the turns of the coil.
(6 points)
Problems in Physics, November 2014
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 10 December 2014.

M. 345. Measure how the height of the water in a vertical conical funnel decreases as a function of time.
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 10 December 2014.

P. 4671. The solar powered Flip Flap, which resembles to a plant with seesawing leaves, is a well known toy.
Observing the toy it can be seen that the small plastic flower emerging from a plastic pot is moving left and right,
while the two plastic leaves bounces up and down. When the flower is at its furthest position to the right the leaves
are at their lowermost point and when the flower is at its left extreme position the leaves are at their uppermost
position.

The toy is exposed to light and is weighed with very sensitive (ideal) scales. When will the scales show the greatest
weight?
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 4672. A solid sphere of volume 1 dm3
made of Aluminium is connected with a thin thread to a wooden sphere made of pine tree, which has a density of
0.5 g/cm3
. The spheres are fully immersed into water and they are at rest.
a)
What is the volume of the wooden sphere?
b)
What is the tension in the thin thread connecting the spheres?
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 4673. What is the speed of sound in a sample of Hydrogen gas which is cooled down with liquid air to
a temperature of 141 C
?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4674. A small bead can move frictionlessly on a helix-shaped piece of wire. The symmetry axis of the helix is
vertical, its radius is 10 cm, and its pitch is 20 cm. The bead is released at one point of the path. What will its
acceleration be after descending 1 complete turn?
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4675. The height of a safe of mass M=1000
kg is =1 m. The safe has a shape of a cube and it has uniform density. The safe is standing on four small legs, in
a garage, next to the door of the garage. The coefficient of friction between the legs of the safe and the rough
surface of the tiles of the garage is 1=0.9. Outside the garage the ground is a bit smoother, and the coefficient of
friction between the ground and the legs is 2=0.5
.

The carrier team uses a horizontal cable at a height of h


, and an engine driven winch, to pull out the safe from the garage. The winch (which is to be attached to a strong
coloumn) can exert a maximum force of 6000 N. The most-educated (from physics) member of the team states that
a stronger winch should be used, because if the weight of the safe is multiplied by the average of the coefficients of
friction 7000 N is gained, which exceeds the maximum load of the winch, even if at the beginning with the help of
some muscle force two legs of the safe is slid to the smoother ground.
Is the ``Physicist'' of the team right?
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4676. The density of a uniform sphere of radius R
is 1, except for a smaller spherical region at which the density is 2 The distance between the centres of the two
spheres is s
.

a)
What is the acceleration due to gravity along the line which joins the centres of the spheres at a point which is at
a distance of dR
from the centre of the greater sphere?
b)
Let s=R/2 and r=R/4 be. In this case the acceleration due to gravity at point K is 10% greater then at point T
shown in the figure. What is the ratio of 2/1
?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4677. The figure shows an easily moveable cart, on the top of which there is a slope of angle of elevation of
=30
, which ends in a circular path. The total mass of the cart with the slope is M=0.5 kg. The path is frictionless
everywhere. A small pointlike object of mass m=0.3 kg is placed to the top of the slope, which has a height of 2R
, and is released without pushing it to any direction.

a)
What will the displacement, the velocity and the acceleration of the small object and the cart be, when the small
object is at the top of its ascending motion if the central angle of the circular path is =120
?
b)
What will the displacement and the velocity of the small object and the cart be at the moment when the small
object leaves the circular path if =90
?
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4678. A frictionlessly moving piston, which has negligible heat capacity and which is made of some heat
conducting material, divides a thermally insulated container into two parts. Initially the chamber at the left contains
a sample of diatomic gas and in the chamber at the right there is a sample of monatomic gas, such that the two
samples of gas have the same V0
volume, the same p0 pressure and also the same T0 temperature. There is an electric heating element in the left
chamber and thermal energy of Q is added to the gas. Due to the added heat 20% of the molecules of the diatomic
gas dissociate to monatomic particles. The energy needed for the dissociation of one mole gas is D
.
After thermal equilibrium is reached what will the volume of the gas in the left chamber be, and what will its
temperature be?
Data: p0=105
Pa, V0=3.3 liter, T0=300 K, Q=15.6 kJ s D=3105
J/mol.
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4679. A small object of mass m
and of charge q slides down frictionlessly along a slope of angle of elevation from a height of h. From the
midpoint of the slope, it enters into a region of uniform horizontal electric field, and it decelerates and stops at the
bottom of the slope. Determine the magnitude of the electric field strength E
.

(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4680. A bi-concave air lens is made from two watch glasses of radius f=10
cm and a short piece of tube. Where should it be placed in a 90 cm-long aquarium, filled with water of refractive
index n=1.33
, such that the image of the figure at the opaque side of the aquarium is formed exactly at the opposite wall of the
aquarium?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4681. The chain of resistors made of 3N
resistors as shown in the figure can be closed in two different ways.

a)
The terminals at points A and C are connected and also the terminals at point B and D
are connected.
b)
The terminals at points A and D are connected and also the terminals at B and C
are connected. (Mbius band.)
In which case will the equivalent resistance of the system between A
and B
be greater?
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems in Physics, January 2015


Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 10 February 2015.
M. 347. Fix a wooden skewer to the rim of the table. Gradually load its free end, or hang a spring balance to it.
Measure the torque M
needed to break the skewer, and the work W done by the load. Will the measured data change if the length
of that part of the skewer which sticks out of the table is halved?

(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 10 February 2015.

P. 4693. What is the temperature measured in Kelvins at which a mercury-in-glass thermometer reads the same
value in Celsius and in Fahrenheit scale, and what is this same value?
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 4694. a)
What is the amount of water in grams in the air of a room of volume 60 m3 at a temperature of 25
C, if the relative humidity is 50%?
b)
To what per cent value does the relative humidity of the room increase if by the next morning the temperature of
the room have decreased to 20
C? (The windows are closed and well sealed.)
c)
What is the relative humidity of the same sample of air at a temperature of 10
C?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4695. There is a 1 cm long operating electrical filament at a distance of 10 cm from a lens of optical power of
5 dioptres. The filament is perpendicular to the principal axis of the lens. A plane mirror, facing towards the lens, is
placed to the other side of the lens, 20 cm from it. The mirror is also perpendicular to the principal axis of the lens.
Where are the images of the filament and what is their size?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4696. Disc shaped tablets of diameter 8 mm and of height 4 mm are falling to the tabletop from a small height.
Suppose that all directions have the same probability and the tablets do not bounce back from the tabletop. What
percentage of the tablets arrive at the table in ``rollable'' position?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4697. In an article of a newspaper the following was written: ``An electric racing car reaches a hundred in three
seconds, its maximum speed is 220 km/h and its power rating is 268 horsepower.'' What may the mass of the car be?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4698. One end of a thread of length
is attached to a heavy iron ball, whilst the other end of the thread a feather is fixed, and the ball is projected in the
horizontal direction. The ball flies through the metal ring shown in the figure. How long does it take for the thread to
pass the metal ring?
Data: =1.6
m, h=1.25 m, d=2
m.
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4699. Two thin sheets on the surface of a slope of angle of elevation of =30
form a pair of rails. The distance between the sheets is d=1.6
cm. A ball of diameter of 2 cm is placed to the rails and it rolls down without slipping.

a)
Calculate the acceleration of the centre of the ball.
b)
If the coefficient of friction is
, at what angle of elevation will the ball slip on the rails?
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4700. A uniform metal disc of height h
and of cross section A (hA) is moving at a great acceleration parallel to the symmetry axis of the disc (ag
). How many electrons appear at that side of the disc which is opposite of the direction of the acceleration?
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4701. Small balls of charge Q
are attached to the points P1 and P2 of a ring, made of some insulating material, moving in a vertical plane, such
that =60. The ring is in a homogeneous magnetic field of induction B, the magnetic field lines are perpendicular
to the plane of the ring. The ring is moved such that it rolls without skidding on the horizontal surface which is also
made from some insulating material. The speed of the centre of the ring is v0
.

a)
What is the magnitude of the magnetic force exerted on each charge at the position shown in the figure?
b)
At which positions of the ring will the torque of the sum of the magnetic forces calculated about the centre of the
ring be zero? Considering only these positions, in which case will the force exerted by the magnetic field on the ring
be the greatest and what is this greatest force?
c)
Determine the intersection of the lines of action of the magnetic forces.
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4702. Four concrete cubes, which are made of different material, and which all have the side of 10 cm are placed
next to each other as shown in the figure. They are ``illuminated'' by a beam of 60
Co gamma-ray, from four different positions, (S1, S2, S3 and S4) one after the other. Opposite to the gamma source
behind the cubes there are four detectors (D1, D2, D3 and D4). The first three measurements shows that the concrete
cubes decrease the intensity of the radiation by 86.76, 71.94 and 84.25 percent of the original value, respectively.

a)
What is the intensity of the radiation measured by the fourth detector, expressed in the percentage value of the
intensity of the original radiation?
b)
The ``thickness of the halving-layer'' of the first cube is 6 cm. What is this value for the other cubes (which is
characteristic of the material of the cube)?
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4703. The resistance of each pieces of wire between the points indicated by the black circles in the arrangement
(the pattern continues infinitely towards the centre) shown in the figure is 1
.

What is the equivalent resistance between the points A


and B
?
(6 points)
Problems in Physics, February 2015
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 10 March 2015.

M. 348. Not only the length of a loaded helical spring changes, but - if one of the ends of the spring is free to move -
to some extent the whole spring is ``twisted''. Measure how the angular displacement of the end of the spring
depends on the load. Carry out the measurement for springs which have different number of turns and for springs
which have different strength.
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 10 March 2015.

P. 4704. Calculate the cubic content of the spherical bulb of a mercury in glass thermometer at a temperature of 0
C, if the cubic content of that part of the thermometer which is between the 0 C mark and the 100 C mark is
5 mm3. The coefficient of linear expansion of glass is 8106 (1/C), and the coefficient of volume expansion of
mercury is 1.8104 (1/C)
.
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 4705. The International Space Station completes a whole revolution around the Earth in 92 minutes. Suppose that
its path is circular. How high above the surface of the Earth does it revolve? How much does its period change
(between two corrections of its path) if its height changes approximately 100 meters during one day?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4706. An object slides down frictionlessly from the top of a fixed straight slope of base 30 cm. At least how long
does it take for the object to slide down?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4707. An object of mass m=0.2
kg and another one of mass 4m can move frictionlessly along a horizontal surface. The greater mass object is
attached to an unstretched spring of spring constant D=320 N/m. (The spring is designed for both compression
and tension.) The smaller object collides head-on at a speed of v0=5
m/s with the stationary heavy object. The collision is totally elastic.

a)
What is the maximum compression of the spring?
b)
What will the maximum speed of the object attached to the spring be, and what is the greatest extension of the
spring?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4708. A rectangle and a square shaped sheets are rotated about an axle through their centres, the axle is
perpendicular to the plane of the sheets. The two sheets have the same mass, same width and the same density. One
side of the rectangle is half of its other side. Which sheet has the greater rotational inertia? (It is not necessary to
calculate the rotational inertias of the two objects separately.)
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4709. The mass of a uniform density plastic cube of edge 2 dm is 1.0 kg. The Young's modulus of its material is
107 N/m2
.
a)
How much is this cube compressed if it is placed to a horizontal surface?
b)
How much does the height of its centre of mass decrease?
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4710. Some ice at a temperature of 0
C is added to 1 kg water at a temperature of 2 C. The mixture is in a thermally insulated container and the amount
of ice is such, that it just melts whilst the final temperature of the water will be 0
C.
a)
Will the entropy of the system increase or decrease?
b)
Give numerical estimation for the change in the entropy of the system.
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4711. Six alike simple pendulums are made of electrically insulating threads of negligible mass and of small metal
spheres of mass 5 g. The length of each pendulum is 0.5 m. The six pendulums are hung at the same point, and then
they are all rotated about a vertical axis through this point. After a long enough time each small sphere revolves
along a circular path of radius r
in a horizontal plane.
a)
What is the radius r
of the path, if the period of the motion is 1 s?
b)
What same amount of charge should be added to the spheres in order that they stay at the circumference of the
same radius of circle r
, without rotation?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4712. To which two points of a uniform density and uniform cross section copper ring should an electrical voltage
supply be connected in order that the magnetic flux density induced by the current in the ring is to be zero at the
centre of the ring?

(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4713. A small ball of mass m
and of charge Q is hanging on a piece of thread in uniform vertical magnetic field of magnetic induction B
. The ball is given an initial velocity such that it undergoes uniform circular motion in a horizontal plane. At another
occasion the ball is started such that it moves in the magnetic field along the same radius of circle in the horizontal,
but in the opposite direction as it did in the previous case.

a)
Determine the ratio of the two tensions in the thread in the two cases.
b)
What is the difference between the magnitudes of the angular speeds of the two motions?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4714. A satellite orbits about the Earth along an elliptical path. The major axis of the ellipse is 2a
and its minor axis is 2b
. Determine the velocity of the satellite
a)
at that point of its path which is the closest to the Earth;
b)
at that point of its path which is the furthest from the Earth;
c)
at a point which is at a distance of r
from the centre of the Earth.
(5 points)
Problems in Physics, March 2015
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 10 April 2015.

M. 349. A roll of cello-tape (or any other type of transparent adhesive tape) is placed to a fixed horizontal axle. The
end of the tape is pulled vertically downward at some particular magnitude of force. Investigate how the tape rolls
down (or breaks) at different magnitude of forces. Find the relationship between the average roll-off speed and the
force.

Another type of measurement can also be chosen: tear off the tape at some given speed and investigate the average
force applied. (Only one of the two different measurements should be carried out.)
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 10 April 2015.

P. 4715. How many times greater mass of object could be lifted by a man on another planet which has the same
density as the Earth but which has half the radius of the Earth?
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 4716. A 40 cm long simple pendulum is displaced horizontally, and then it is given an initial vertically downward
speed of v0
. What should the value of v0
be, in order that the force exerted by the object on the thread is to be seven times greater when the object passes the
lowermost point than that of when the object passes the uppermost point?
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 4717. What should the angle between the forces F1
and F2 be, in order that the magnitude of their sum is equal to the arithmetic mean of the magnitudes of F1
and F2? In what interval should the F1/F2
ratio be in order that the problem have solution? In what interval should the angle between the two forces be?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4718. Two solid metal cubes of edges a
touch each other along one of their faces. How many times greater gravitational force is exerted between two solid
metal cubes, made of the same material as the other, whose edges are 3a
, and which also touch each other?

(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4719. A kayaker paddles up the river. The speed of the water is 5 m/s. At what speed should the kayaker paddle if
he wants to cover a certain distance with the least work? (The drag force is proportional to the square of the speed.)
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4720. The operation of the demister is the following: a fan blows the air towards a cooled surface, and the
condensed water vapour is collected in a container. How much heat is given off to the air in the room by the
demister, rated at 180 W, in 15 hours, if it collected 4 litres of water? The temperature of the room is 25
C.
If the demister is considered to be a heat pump, what is its coefficient of performance (the ratio of the released heat
to the electrical energy consumed)?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4721. The working substance of a heat engine is a certain amount of monatomic ideal gas. The gas is taken
through the cyclic process shown in the figure - which consists of two isobaric and two isochoric processes. What
can the greatest thermodynamic efficiency of this engine be if in each cycle the useful work is the same as the
internal energy of the gas at its initial state, which is 32p0V0
?

(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4722. There are two cylinders of cross section A=2 dm2
at rest on a frictionless, horizontal surface. The pistons of the cylinders can move easily and they are connected
with a rigid rod. Each cylinder is connected to an unstretched spring. The values of the spring constant of the
springs are Db=24 kN/m, and Dj=16 kN/m. The volume of the air enclosed in the left, insulated cylinder is
V0b=20 dm3, and that of in the right cylinder is V0j=30 dm3, and the initial temperature of both gases is
T0=300 K. The temperature of the gas in the left cylinder is increased to Tb=1200 K. The ambient air pressure is
p0=105
Pa.
a)
What is the displacement of the two cylinders and the piston with respect to the ground if the temperature of the gas
in the right cylinder is kept at its initial value?
b)
What are the final values of the volume of the two samples of gas?
c)
How much heat was released by the heating element which heated the gas in the left cylinder?
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4723. Current I
in the wires shown in the figure flows in the direction of the arrows. (The wire forms two rays and two circular arcs
of radius r and of central angle 90.) What is the magnitude of the magnetic flux density B at point O
which is the common centre of the circles?

(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4724. The working temperature of the tungsten filament of an incandescent lamp rated at 230 V and 100 W is
2400
C. In an experiment the voltage applied to the lamp is gradually increased from zero, and it can be seen that the
filament begins to glow at 17 V. What is the temperature and the resistance of the filament in this state, and how
much power is dissipated in this state of the bulb?
We can assume that the emitted power is proportional to the fourth power of the temperature measured in Kelvins,
the fifth power of the resistance is proportional to the sixth power of the absolute temperature and heat conduction is
negligible.
(5 points)
Problems in Physics, April 2015
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 11 May 2015.

M. 350. Determine the pressure of the gas in the bulb of a traditional gas filled filament lamp.
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 11 May 2015.

P. 4725. The diameter of a standard table-tennis ball is 40 mm, and its mass is 2.7 grams. What is the diameter of
that iron ball, which should be attached to the table-tennis ball, in order that they just float in the water?
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 4726. A narrow circular sector of a black disc is painted white. The disc is rotated about an axis which goes
through its centre, and is perpendicular to the disc, and the rotated disc is illuminated with strobe light (a
periodically flashing light source). What is the relationship between the number of revolutions n
of the disc and the flashing frequency f, if not only one, but a number of p seemingly steady white sectors can be
observed on the disc (p=2,3,4,
)?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4727. Different shapes of planar figures, which have the same area, are cut from a uniform metal sheet. What is
the shape of that figure which has the least moment of inertia calculated around an axis which goes through the
centre of mass of the figure and which is perpendicular to the plane of the figure?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4728. Philae, the lander of the space probe called Rosetta, landed on the nucleus of a comet of mass 1013
kg, and of average density 0.4 g/cm3
, which is due to the fact that inside the nucleus there are voids. The landing was ``bouncy'', Philae arrived back to
the surface of the nucleus of the comet 113 minutes later after its first bounce. Give estimation for the following:
a)
What is the gravitational field strength on the surface of the nucleus of the comet, and what is the escape speed?
b)
What was the least speed of the first bounce, and to what greatest height could Philae bounce back?
For the estimation, the nucleus of the comet can be considered as a uniform sphere, which is not rotating, and the
motion can be considered as uniformly accelerated. For determining the average acceleration use the exact
relationship between the speed and the height of the bouncing.
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4729. An easily moveable piston of mass M=80
kg is suspended by a thread in a vertical cylinder of inner cross section A=5 dm2, and encloses a sample of air at
a temperature of T0=300 K. The piston is attached to the ceiling by an unstretched spring of spring constant
D=6 N/cm. The length of the air column is 0=1.2 m, and initially the pressure inside and outside is p0=105
Pa. At a moment the thread breaks.

a)
What will the greatest speed of the piston be during the initiated process?
b)
During the process what will the greatest temperature of the enclosed sample of air be?
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4730. The terminal voltages across the voltage supplies connected as shown in the figure are constant. The voltage
across the capacitor C
is 1.8U0. If the terminals of the voltage supply U0 is swapped over then the voltage across the capacitor decreases
to 1.4U0. Determine the ratios of r/R and of u0/U0
.
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4731. Which is greater: the energy of one photon emitted by a filament lamp made of Tungsten and filled with
Krypton, or the average kinetic energy of an atom of the Krypton gas in the lamp, when the lamp is operated?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4732. In a cyclotron protons, deuterons and
-particles are accelerated. The radius of the greatest circular path is 50 cm. The magnitude of magnetic flux density
is 1 Tesla. To what greatest energy can these particles be accelerated in this cyclotron?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4733. Light-rays travel in a cylinder shaped glass rod parallel to the symmetry axis of the rod, and when they
enter to air at the end of the rod they brought to focus at one point. Give the equation of the boundary curve in terms
of the refractive index of glass n
, and of the focal length f
.
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4734. Three small positively charged balls of mass m
are attached by massless insulating threads of length L and are placed to a horizontal smooth surface made of
some insulating material. Two of the balls both have a charge of Q and the third is charged to 2Q. At an instant the
thread between the two balls of charge Q
is cut off.

a)
What are the velocities of the balls at the instant when the ball of charge 2Q
is the fastest?
b)
What is the tension in the threads at this moment?
c)
What are the displacements of the balls at this moment?
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4735. The Examining Institute for Cosmic Accidents (EXINCA) sent the following short report to one of its
experts: ``One of the discovery spaceships of the Titanium-Devouring Little Green Men has found a perfectly
spherical uniform Titanium asteroid. In order to make preparations for the mining, a straight tunnel was built and
rails were put into it. The length of the tunnel was the same as the radius of the asteroid, and both ends of the tunnel
were on the surface of the planet. Unfortunately one of the mine-carts, although its brake was applied, slipped into
the shaft at one end of the tunnel. Initially it speeded up, then it slowed down gradually, turned back and then it
stopped exactly at the middle of the tunnel. When it turned back it nearly hit the leader of the miners.'' EXINCA
asked the expert to calculate the following:
a)
Where (at what fraction of the length of the tunnel) did the leader of the miners stand?
b)
What could the coefficient of kinetic friction between the wheels of the mine-cart and the rails be?
c)
How long did the mine-cart move if the period of the spacecraft revolving next to the surface of the asteroid is
24 hours? (The asteroid has no atmosphere.)
(6 points)
Problems in Physics, May 2015
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 10 June 2015.

M. 351. Measure the equivalent series resistance of an electrolytic capacitor. How does it depend on the applied
voltage?
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 10 June 2015.

P. 4736. A ship travels along the river from one bridge to another, and when it reaches the second bridge it turns
back immediately. By what factor is the time of the round trip on the river greater than that of in still water?
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 4737. A light ray is incident on one of the faces of a glass prism perpendicularly to it. The angle of refraction of
the light ray on another face of the prism is 45
. What is the apex angle of the prism if the speed of light in this glass prism is 240000 km/s?
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 4738. At what minimum speed should we have to go next to a picket fence, in order to sense the light, passing the
fence perpendicularly, continuous? The width of the pickets is 5 cm and the width of the gaps between them is
10 cm. The human eye cannot distinguish between images which lasts less than one-fifteenth of a second.
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 4739. A red and a green stone fall freely next to each other along vertical paths at a place of the universe where
the acceleration due to gravity is exactly 10 m/s2
and where nothing prevents free fall. The red stone just starts falling when the green stone reaches it. The green
stone also started from rest but from a higher position. After a while the distance between the two stones is 7 m, and
then after two more seconds elapses the distance between them will increase to 27 m. How much higher did the
green stone start?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4740. There is a sample of ideal gas in a vertical cylinder, which is closed at its lower base. At the top there is
a massless frictionlessly moveable piston. The volume of the sample of ideal gas is V0=8 dm3
, and its pressure is the same as the ambient air pressure, which is p0=105 Pa. The piston is attached to the bottom
of the cylinder with a spring of spring constant D=1000 N/m. The area of the bottom of the cylinder is A=2 dm2
. During a physics experiment the mass of the gas is increased by 50% through a tap on the cylinder, and by heating
the absolute temperature of the gas is increased by 60%. Determine the volume and the pressure of the gas after
these changes.
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4741. A 20-litre gas cylinder just ``runs out'' of gas at the foot of a high hill next to the seashore. Then
immediately the valve is closed, and the gas cylinder is carried up to the research laboratory at the top of the hill.
Here some gas from the cylinder can again be used. When finally the gas cylinder is exhausted again its mass is
measured, and it turns out that due to using the gas at the top of the hill its mass decreased by 4.1 grams. The air
pressure at the top of the hill is 32 kPa less than at sea level. Both at the sea level and at the laboratory the
temperature of the gas is 27
C, and the density of air at sea level is 1.2 kg/m3
.
a)
What type of gas was in the cylinder?
b)
How high is the hill?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4742. A capacitor of capacitance C
is charged, and it stores W
electrical energy. Then another neutral capacitor is connected to it in parallel. What should the capacitance of the
second condenser be in order that after the equilibrium is gained the energy of the second condenser is to be the
greatest?
What will the total energy stored in the two condensers be in this case?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4743. Two insulating threads, which have the same lengths, are suspended at the same point and at their lower end
of each, there is a small ebony ball attached. The balls are given the same amount of like charges. The angle between
the threads is 2=60
when the pendulums are inside a container at rest in air. Then the container is filled with petroleum, such that both
balls are in the petroleum, far from the walls of the container and from the surface of the liquid. What is the angle
between the threads now?

Data: The density of ebony is 1200 kg/m3


, the density of petroleum is 820 kg/m3. The relative dielectric constant of petroleum is r=2
.
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4744. There are two points (X
and Y) on the same B-line at a distance of 10 cm in a uniform magnetic field of magnetic induction B=0.02 tesla.
An electron, which was accelerated through a potential difference of 800 V, passes point X, such that its velocity
encloses an angle of with the induction line. What may the value of be if the electron passes point Y
as well?
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4745. The topic of a physics lesson is the decibel scale. One of the students asks the teacher whether there is an
upper limit of the maximum intensity sound. The answer is ``yes, the theoretical upper limit for the intensity of
sound is 194 dB''. How is this strange value gained?
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4746. The following experiment is usually shown in order to demonstrate that light is a transverse wave:
A narrow parallel beam of natural light hits a plane glass, such that the reflected and the refracted rays are
perpendicular to each other. Then another plane glass is used to reflect the reflected ray, such that the angle of
incidence is the same as in the previous case. If this latter glass is rotated about an axis which coincides with the
incident light ray, then it may happen that there is no reflected ray from this piece of glass.
a)
How does this experiment proves that light is transverse wave?
b)
What is the angle of incidence, if the refractive index of the glass is n=1.5
?
c)
What is the angle between the planes of the two pieces of glass when there is no reflected ray from the second
glass?
(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4747. The two endpoints of a 40 cm long chain are fixed at the same height as shown in the figure. What is the
radius of the curvature of the chain at

a)
its lowest point;
b)
the points where the chain is suspended?
(6 points)
Problems in Physics, September 2015
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 12 October 2015.

M. 352. Measure the spring constant of the toy called jumping frog. One cane make the frog jump such that the
sucker is pressed against the bottom disc, in the direction of the axis of the spring. (If the jumping frog is not
available, one can make experiments with a retractable ballpoint pen.)

(6 points)
Statistics
Problems with sign 'P'
Deadline expired on 12 October 2015.

P. 4748. Can it be possible that the ice-cream ball, which was dropped from the tower called Kroly-kilt in the
city of Sopron, melts before it reaches the ground?
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 4749. A parachutist descends uniformly at a speed of 8 m/s in calm weather. What will the speed of the
parachutist be if there is a 6 m/s crosswind?
(3 points)
Statistics
P. 4750. Silver-gold alloys can be made in any ratio of the two constituents. The weight of a particular piece of this
type of alloy in air is 15 N, whilst its weight in water is 14 N. What is the percent composition by mass of gold in
the alloy?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4751. What can be observed if the handle of a resonating tuning fork
a)
touches the tabletop, or
b)
is emerged into water?
Explain the observations.
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4752. The string of a bow is pulled by a force of 200 N, such that the arrow is moved backwards by a distance of
50 cm. The applied force is proportional to the displacement of the midpoint of the string. With this bow an arrow of
mass 40 g is shot vertically upwards. To what maximum height can the arrow fly if 40% of the elastic energy is
used?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4753. The beat frequency of two organ pipes of lengths 80 cm and 81 cm is 2.6 Hz, when both resonate at its
fundamental frequency. Calculate the fundamental frequencies of the pipes and the speed of sound in air.
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4754. 4 litres of water at a temperature of 30
C is poured into a copper hemisphere shaped container of volume 4 dm3. The temperature of water decreases by
3C, whilst the temperature of the container increases by 27
C. What is the width of the wall of the container?
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4755. We have four filament lamps rated at 4.5 V, and two rechargeable batteries, one rated at 12 V and the other
at 3 V. Make a circuit from the given elements, such that all the filament lamps are operated at their working
temperatures.
(4 points)
Statistics
P. 4756. A circular ring is made of a piece of metal wire of resistivity
and of width 2a. The radius of the central circle of the ring is r (ra). This ring is placed into uniform magnetic field
of magnitude B0, which is perpendicular to the plane of the ring. Then the magnetic induction is decreased
uniformly to zero in a time of t. Determine the magnitude of the induced magnetic field, Bind
, at the centre of the ring.

(5 points)
Statistics
P. 4757. The work function of the cathode of a photocell in a circuit is 61019
J. Ultraviolet wave of wavelength 250 nm hits the cathode perpendicularly.
a)
What is the stopping potential at which the photo-current becomes zero?
b)
What is the linear momentum given to the cathode, during one elementary process, if the emitted electron is ejected
oppositely to the direction of the radiation?
c)
Let us change the frequency of the radiation. At most by what factor can the linear momentum of the emitted
electron be greater than that of the entering photon?
(5 points)
Problems in Physics, October 2015
Please read the rules of the competition.

Problems with sign 'M'


Deadline expired on 10 November 2015.

M. 353. Stick a coin (or several coins) with a piece of cello-tape onto the hole at the middle of a damaged or not
used CD disc. (Put cello-tape to the other side of the hole as well in order to make the rim of the small hole smooth.)
Carefully place the disc onto the surface of water in a dish - such that the coin is at the bottom of the disc - and from
a certain height pour water onto the hole of the disc. The water beam should be narrow and vertical. If the water
beam is strong enough (but not too strong) then the CD disc does not sink when it is released.

Measure how the minimum amount of water needed for the floating of the disc depends on the total mass of the
disc-coin system.
(6 points)
Statistics

Problems with sign 'P'


Deadline expired on 10 November 2015.

P. 4758. A piece