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Titre original : Electrodynamics Class Notes

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Electrodynamics Class Notes

CSIR Net Notes

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JEST, TIFR and GRE in

PHYSICS & PHYSICAL SCIENCES

(IIT-JAM/JEST/TIFR/M.Sc Entrance)

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ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM

1. Electrostatics (1-58)

1.1 Coulombs Law and Superposition Principle

1.1.1 Electric field

1.2 Gausss law

1.2.1 Field lines and Electric flux

1.2.2 Applications

1.3 Electric Potential

1.3.1 Curl of Electric field

1.3.2 Potential of localized charges

1.4 Laplaces and Poisson Equations

1.5 Electrostatic Boundary Condition

1.6 Work and Energy in Electrostatics

1.6.1 The Energy of point charge distribution

1.6.2 Energy of Continuous charge distribution

1.7 Basic Properties of Conductors

1.8 Multipole Expansions

1.8.1 The Electric Potential and Field of a Dipole

1.8.2 Approximate Potential at large distances

1.9 Polarization

1.9.1 The Field of a Polarized Object (Bound Charges)

1.10 The Electric Displacement

1.10.1 Gauss Law in the Presence of Dielectrics

1.10.2 Linear Dielectrics (Susceptibility, Permittivity, Dielectric Constant)

1.10.3 Boundary Condition

1.10.4 Energy in Dielectric System

1.11 Image Problems

1.11.1 The Classic Image Problem

1.11.2 Induced Surface Charge

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1.11.3 Force and Energy

1.11.4 Other Image Problem

Questions & Solutions

2. Magnetostatic.(59-87)

2.1 Magnetic Force on Current Element

2.1.1 Current in a Wire

2.1.2 Surface Current Density

2.1.3 Volume Current Density

2.2 Continuity Equation

2.3 Biot-Savart Law

2.3.1 Magnetic field due to wire

2.3.2 Magnetic field due to Solenoid and Toroid

2.4 Ampere's Law

2.5 Magnetic Vector Potential

2.6 Magnetostatic Boundary Condition

2.7 Multipole Expansion of Vector Potential

2.8 Magnetisation

2.8.1 The Field of a magnetized Object (Bound Currents)

2.9 The Auxiliary field H

2.9.1 Amperes Law in in presence of Magnetic Materials

2.9.2 Magnetic Susceptibility and Permeability

2.9.3 Boundary Condition

Questions & Solutions

3. Dynamics of Charged Particles in Static and Uniform Electromagnetic Fields..(88-99)

3.1 Charged Particle in Static Electric Field

3.1.1 Charged Particle enters in the direction of field (Linear motion)

3.1.2 Charged Particle enters in the direction perpendicular to field

(Parabolic motion)

3.2 Charged Particle in Static Magnetic Field

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3.2.1 Charged Particle enters in the direction perpendicular to field

(Circular motion)

3.2.2 Charged Particle enters in the direction making an angle with the field

(Helical motion)

3.3 Charged Particle in Uniform Electric and Magnetic Field (Cycloid motion)

Questions & Solutions

4. Electromagnetic Induction.(100-112)

4.1 Faradays Law

4.1.1 Lenzs Law

4.1.2 Inductance

4.1.3 Energy Stored in the field

Questions & Solutions

5. Maxwell's Equations..(113-121)

5.1 Maxwells Equation in Free Space

5.1.1 Electrodynamics before Maxwells

5.1.2 How Maxwell fixed Amperes Law

5.1.3 Paradox of Charging Capacitor

5.1.4 Maxwells Equation in Free Space

5.2 Maxwells Equation in Linear Isotropic Media

5.3 Boundary Conditions on the Fields at Interfaces

Questions & Solutions

6. Electromagnetic Waves.(122-146)

6.1 Poynting Theorem

6.2 Waves in One Dimension (Sinusoidal waves)

6.2.1 The Wave Equation

6.2.2 Terminology

6.2.3 Complex notation

6.2.4 Polarization

6.3 Electromagnetic Waves in Vacuum

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6.3.1 The Wave Equation for E and B

6.3.2 Monochromatic Plane Waves

6.3.3 Energy and Momentum in Electromagnetic Wave

6.4 Electromagnetic Waves in Matter

6.5 Electromagnetic Waves in Conductors

Questions & Solutions

7. Applications of Electromagnetic waves..(147-159)

7.1 Reflection and Refraction at Dielectric Interface

7.1.1 Normal incidence

7.1.2 Oblique incidence

7.1.3 Fresnels relation (Parallel and Perpendicular Polarization)

7.2 Reflection at Conducting Surface

Questions & Solutions

8. Potential and field formulation for time varying fields..(160-162)

8.1 Scalar and vector potentials

9. Simple AC circuits with R, L and C components...(163-213)

9.1 Kirchhoffs Law

9.1.1 Kirchhoffs Voltage Law (KVL)

9.1.2 Kirchhoffs Current Law (KCL)

9.1.3 Mesh Current

9.2 Alternating Current

9.2.1 Sine Wave

9.2.2 Alternating Current

9.2.3 Frequency and Period

9.2.4 Phase Relationships

9.2.5 Phasors

9.2.6 Characteristic Value of Voltage and Current

9.2.7 Resistance in AC Circuits

9.3 Inductive Circuits

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9.3.1 Introduction

9.3.2 Inductive Reactance

9.3.3 Inductors in Series or Parallel

9.3.4 Inductive Circuits

9.3.4.1 Inductance Only

9.3.4.2 RL in Series

9.3.4.3 RL in Parallel

9.3.4.4 Q of a Coil

9.3.4.5 Power in RL Circuits

9.3.5 Q of a Coil

9.3.6 Power in RL Circuit

9.4 Capacitive Circuits

9.4.1 Capacitance

9.4.2 Capacitive Reactance

9.4.3 Capacitors in Series or Parallel

9.4.4 Capacitive Circuits

9.4.4.1 Capacitance Only

9.4.4.2 RC in Series

9.4.4.3 RC in Parallel

9.4.4.5 Power in RC Circuits

9.5 Single Phase Circuits

9.5.1 RLC in Series

9.5.1.1 Impedance in Series RLC

9.5.2 RLC in Parallel

9.5.2.1 Impedance in Parallel RLC

9.5.3 RL and RC in Parallel

9.5.4 Power and Power Factor

9.6 Series and Parallel Resonance

9.6.1 Series Resonance

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9.6.1.1 Q of Series Circuit

9.6.2 Parallel Resonance

9.6.2.1 Pure Parallel LC circuit

9.6.2.2 Practical Parallel LC Circuit

9.6.2.3 Q of Parallel Circuit

9.6.3 Bandwidth and Power of Resonant Circuit

Questions & Solutions

10. Simple DC circuits with R, L and C components.(214-230)

10. Circuit Analysis by Classical Method

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Differential Equations

10.2.1 Type I-(First order Homogeneous Differential Equation)

10.2.2 Type II-(First order Non Homogeneous Differential Equation)

10.3 Initial Conditions in Circuits

10.4 Transient Response of Series R-L Circuit having DC Excitation

10.5 Transient Response of Series R-C Circuit having DC Excitation

10.6 Transient Response of Series RLC Circuit having DC Excitation

10.7 Transient Response of Parallel RLC Circuit having DC Excitation

Questions & Solutions

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Chapter - 1

Electrostatics

The electric field at any point due to stationary source charges is called as electrostatic field.

1.1 Coulombs Law and Superposition Principle

The electric force on a test charge Q due to a single point charge q , which is at rest and a

distance R apart is given by Coulombs law Q

1 Qq

F= R. R

4 0 R 2

q

C 2

In mks units, 0 = 8.85 1012

N .m 2

R is the separation vector from r (the location of q ) to r (the location of Q ): R = r r ;

R is its magnitude, and R is its direction. The force points along the line from q to Q ; it is

repulsive if q and Q have the same sign, and attractive if their signs are opposite.

1.1.1 Electric Field

If we have many point charges q1 , q2 ,...... at distances R1 , R2 , R3 ...... from test charge Q ,

Q q1 q2 Source point

F = F1 + F2 + ............ = 2 R1 + 2 R2 + .........

4 0 R1 R2 y

q1

q P

F = QE Ri

q

i

2 Field point

qi

1 n

where E ( P ) = Ri

4 0 i =1 Ri2

'

ri

r

E is called the electric field of the

x

source charges. Physically E ( P ) is the

z

exerted on a test charge placed at P .

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If charge is distributed continuously over some region, then

1 1

E (r ) = Rdq .

4 0 line R 2

1 (r )

E (r ) = Rdl where is charge per unit length.

4 0 line

R 2

1 (r )

E (r ) = Rda where is charge per unit area.

4 0 surface

R

2

1 (r )

E (r ) = Rd where is charge per unit volume.

4 0 volume

R

2

P

R P R

dq

dl '

( a ) Continuous distribution ( b ) Line charge,

P

R

da ' R P

d '

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Example: (a) Find the Electric a distance z above the mid point between two

P

equal charges, q , a distance d apart.

z

(b) Repeat part (a) after replacing right hand charge to q .

q

1 q d d q

Solution: (a) E1 = E2 =

4 0 r 2 2 2

E2 E E1

Horizontal components cancels and

P z

E z = E 1 cos + E2 cos = 2 E1 cos

r

d2 z r x

Since r 2 = z 2 + , cos = z

4 r

1 2qz

E= z

4 0 2 3/ 2 q d /2 d /2 q

2 d

z +

4

1 2q

When z >> d , E = (looks like a single charge 2q ).

4 0 z 2

1 q E1

(b) E1 = E2 =

4 0 r 2 z

E

Component along z-direction cancel out. E2

r x

d z

Thus E = 2 E1 sin x , sin =

2r

1 qd

E= x +q d /2 d /2 q

4 0 2 3/ 2

2 d

z +

4

1 qd

When z >> d , E = x (field of a dipole)

4 0 z 3

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Example: Find the electric field a distance z above the midpoint of a straight line segment of

length 2 L , which carries a uniform line charge .

Solution: Horizontal components of two field cancels and the field of the two segment is

1 dq dE2 dE1

dE1 = dE2 =

4 0 r 2 z

P

1 dx

Net field is dE = 2dE1 cos z = 2 cos z r

4 0 r 2 r

z x

z 1 L 2 z

Here, cos = , r = z 2 + x 2 E = 0 dx dq dq

r 4 0 2 2 3 / 2

z +x

L + L dx

x

L

2 z x 1 2 L

Thus E = E= z

4 0 z 2 z 2 + x 2 4 0 z z 2 + L2

0

1 2L 1 2

For z >> L , E and when L , E =

40 z 2 4 0 z

Example: Find the electric field a distance z above the center of a circular loop of radius r , which

carries a uniform line charge .

Solution: Horizontal components cancel, leaving:

1 dl

E= 2 cos z r

40 r z

z R

Here r 2 = R 2 + z 2 , cos = (both constants),

r

1 (2 R) z

E= z dl = 2 R

4 0 ( R 2 + z 2 )3 / 2

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1.2 Gausss Law

1.2.1 Field Lines and Electric Flux

Consider that a point charge q is situated at the origin:

E

q 1

E=

4 0 r 2 r

This field is represented by the field line as shown in figure below.

The magnitude of the field is indicated by the density of the field

lines: it's strong near the center where the field line are close together, and weak farther out,

where they are relatively far apart.

The field strength (E) is proportional to the number of field lines per unit area (area

perpendicular to the lines). The flux of E through a surface S, E = E .d a is a measure of

S

da

For the case of point charge at the origin, the flux of E through a sphere of radius r is

1 q 2

1

E .d a =

r

2 .

4 0 r

r sin d d r = q.

0

Note that, any surface whatever its shape, would trap the same number of field lines. So the

q

flux through any surface enclosing the charge is .

0

Now suppose that instead of a single charge at the origin, we have a bunch of charges

scattered about. According to the principle of superposition, the total field is simply the

n

(vector) sum of all the individual fields: E = E i .

i =1

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The flux through any surface that encloses them all, then, is

n

n 1

E .d a = i E i .d a = i qi .

0

A charge outside the surface would contribute nothing to the total flux, since its field lines

go in one side and out the other. It follows, then, that for any closed surface,

1

E .d a = 0

Qenc

where Qenc is the total charge enclosed within the surface. This is Gausss law in integral

form.

We can convert Gausss law in integral form to differential form, for continuous charge

distributions, by applying the divergence theorem:

surface

E .d a = . E d .

volume

volume

d .

1

So Gausss law becomes . E d = d .

volume

volume 0

Since this holds for any volume, the integrands must be equal:

1

. E = .

0

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1.2.2 Applications of Gausss Law

Gauss's law is always true, but it is not always useful. Gauss's law is useful for only three

kinds of symmetry:

1. Spherical Symmetry. Make your Gaussian surface a concentric sphere.

2. Cylindrical Symmetry. Make your Gaussian surface a coaxial cylinder.

3. Plane Symmetry. Make your Gaussian surface a pillbox, which extends equally

above and below the surface.

Gaussian

surface Gaussian pillbox

r R

Gaussian surface

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Example: Find the field inside and outside a uniformly charged solid sphere of radius R and total

charge q .

Solution: Draw a spherical surface of radius r < R , which is called as Gaussian surface.

According Gausss Law

Gaussian

1 1 surface

E .d a =

S 0

Qenc E da = E da = E 4 r 2 =

S S 0

Qenc

r R

1 q 4

| E | 4 r 2 = r3

0 4 R3 3

3

1 qr 1 qr Gaussian

E = E= r surface

4 0 R3 4 0 R3

For outside point, draw a spherical surface of radius r > R , R r

1 1 q

| E | 4 r 2 = q E= r

0 4 0 r 2

Example: A long cylinder carries a charge density that is proportional to the distance from the axis;

= kr , for some constant k . Find the electric field inside this cylinder.

Solution: Draw a Gaussian cylinder of length l and radius r .

Gaussian surface

E

l

E

1

For this surface, Gausss Law states: E .d a =

S

0

Qenc

2

Now, Qenc = d = (kr ')(r ' dr ' d dz ) = 2 kl 0r r '2 dr ' = klr 3 .

3

Symmetry dictates that E must point radially outward and the two ends contribute nothing

to electric flux as E da .

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1 2

For curved portion E.da = | E | da =| E | da =| E | 2 rl = klr 3

0 3

1

E= kr 2 r .

3 0

Example: Find the electric field a distance r from an infinitely long straight wire, which

carries a uniform line charge .

Solution: Draw a Gaussian cylinder of length l and radius r .

r

l

1 1

For this surface, Gausss Law state: S

E .d a = Qenc E 2 rl = l

0 0

E= r

2 0 r

Example: An infinite plane carries a uniform surface charge . Find its electric field.

Solution: Draw a Gaussian pill box, extending equal distances above and below the plane.

E

1

Apply Gausss Law to this surface: E .d a =

S

0

Qenc

In this case, Qenc = A , where A is the area of the pill box. By symmetry, E points away

from the plane (upward for the points above, downward for points below).

1

Thus E.da = 2 A | E | whereas sides contribute nothing. Thus 2 A | E |= A

0

E= n where n is the unit vector pointing away from the surface

2 0

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Example: Suppose the electric field in some region is found to be E = Ar 3r , in spherical

coordinates ( A is some constant).

(a) Find the charge density .

(b) Find the total charge contained in a sphere of radius R , centered at the origin.

Solution:

1 2 1 1 E

(a) = 0 .E = 0 (r Er ) + (sin E ) +

r r

2 r sin r 2 sin

1

Er = Ar 3 , E = 0, E = 0 = 0 A(5r 4 ) = 5 0 Ar 2

2

r

Example: A charge q sits at the back corner of a cube as shown in figure. What is the flux of

E through the shaded side?

Solution: Think of this cube as one of 8 surrounding the charge. Each of the 24 squares which

make up the surface of this larger cube gets the same flux as every other one.

1 q

E.da = E.da =

one face 24 whole 24 0

large

cube

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1.3 Electric Potential

1.3.1 Curl of Electric field

Consider a point charge at the origin, then electric field at a distance r is given by

1 q

E= r.

4 0 r 2

Now we will calculate the line integral of this field from some point a to some other point

b z

b : E .d l .

a

In spherical coordinates, d l = dr r + rd + r sin b

rb

b b

1 q 1 q

E .d l = dr E .d l = dr , q y

4 0 r 2

a

4 0 a r 2

ra

a

x

b

1 1 1

E .d l = q where ra is the distance from the origin to point a and rb is

a

4 0 ra rb

the distance to b .

Then integral around a closed path is zero i.e. E .d l = 0 ( ra = rb )

This line integral is independent of path. It depends on two end points.

Applying stokes theorem, we get E = 0 . The electric field is not just any vector but only

those vector whose curl is zero.

If we have many charges, the principle of superposition states that the total field is the

vector sum of their individual fields:

E = E1 + E 2 + ............

So, E = E1 + E2 + ........... = 0

Since E .d l = 0 , the line integral is independent of path.

P

So, we can define a function V ( r ) = E .d l

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where is some standard reference point V then depends only on the point r . It is called the

electric potential.

Evidently, the potential difference between two points a and b is

b a

V ( b ) V ( a ) = E .d l + E .d l ,

b b

V ( b ) V ( a ) = E .d l E .d l V ( b ) V ( a ) = E .d l .

a a

b b

V ( b ) V ( a ) = .V .d l = E .d l

a a

E = V .

Potential obeys the superposition principle.

1.3.2 Potential of localized charges

1 q

Potential of a point charge q is V = where R is the distance from the charge.

4 0 R

n

1 qi

The potential of a collection of point charge is V =

4 0

R i =1

.

i

1 (r )

For continuous volume charge distribution V (r ) =

4 0 R

d

1 (r )

The potential of line and surface charges are V (r ) =

4 0 R

dl

1 (r )

and V (r ) =

4 0 R

da .

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Example: Which one of these is an impossible electrostatic field?

(a) E = k[ xyx + 2 yzy + 3 xzz ]

(b) E = k[ y 2 x + (2 xy + z 2 ) y + 2 yzz ]

x y z

Solution: (a) E1 = k = k [ x (0 2 y ) + y (0 3 z ) + z (0 x) ] 0

x y z

xy 2 yz 3 zx

Example: Find the potential inside and outside a spherical shell of radius R , charge q .

Solution: From Gauss's law the field

q

E1 = r; outside the sphere (r > R)

E= 4 0 r 2

E2 = 0; inside the sphere (r < R )

q q

Potential outside ( r > R ) is: V (r ) = r E1.dl = r r.drr =

4 0 r 2 4 0 r

q

Potential inside ( r < R ) is: V (r ) = r E.dl = R E1.dl - Rr E2 .dl =

4 0 R

So potential inside the spherical shell is constant.

q q

Thus V ( r ) = ; r R and V ( r ) = ; r > R.

4 0 R 4 0 r

Example: Find the potential inside and outside a uniformly charged solid sphere whose radius is R

and whose total charge is q .

Solution: From Gauss's law the field

q

E1 = r; outside the sphere (r > R)

4 0 r 2

E=

E = qr r; inside the sphere (r < R)

2 4 R3

0

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q q

Potential outside ( r > R ) is: V (r ) = r E1.dl = r dr =

4 0 r 2 4 0 r

1 q 1 qr q 1 1 r 2 R2

V (r ) = R dr Rr dr =

4 0 r

2

4 0 R

3 4 0 R R3 2

1 q r2

V (r ) = 3 2

4 0 2 R R

Example: Find the potential a distance r from an infinitely long straight wire that carries a

uniform line charge .

Solution: since E = r . In this case we cannot set the reference point at , since the charge

2 0 r

itself extends to . Lets set it at r = a

1 r

Then V (r ) = ar dr = ln

2 0 r 2 0 a

Since E = V and .E = 2V =

0 0

This is known as Poisson's equation.

In regions where there is no charge, so that = 0 , Poisson's equation reduces to Laplace's

equation, 2V = 0 .

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Example: Consider two concentric spherical conducting shells centered at the origin. The outer

radius of the inner shell is ra and the inner radius of the outer shell is rb .The charge ensity

region ra < r < rb .

Solution: Since voltage is varying only with r, the Laplaces equation takes the form

1 d dV

2V = r =0

r dr dr

Integrate twice to get the solution V ( r ) = A ln ( r ) + B

(i) V = 0 at r = ra (ii) V = V0 at r = rb

Substituting these boundary conditions, we get

At r = ra , 0 = A ln ra + B B = A ln ra

r

At r = rb , V0 = A ln rb + B V0 = A ln rb A ln ra = A ln b

ra

V0 V0

A= and B = ln ra

r r

ln b ln b

ra ra

r

V0 ln

Thus V =

V0 V ln ra

ln r 0 =

V0

(ln r ln ra ) V = ra

r r r r

ln b ln b ln b ln b

ra ra ra ra

Example: Potential in a region of space is given by, = 0 e ax where 0 and a is constant. Then

2

Solution: 2 = = 0 ( 2 ) = 2a 0 (1 2ax 2 )

0

find the charge density giving rise to the above potential.

Solution: 2 = = 60 0

0

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1.5 Electrostatic Boundary Condition

The boundary between two medium is a thin sheet of surface charge . Consider a thin

Gaussian pillbox, extending equally above and below the sheet as shown in figure below:

Qenc

The Gauss's law states that S

E.d a =

0

. E

above

A

A

E A E A=

above below

0

E

Eabove Ebelow = .

0 below

The normal component of E is discontinuous by an amount at any boundary. If there is

0

no surface charge, E is continuous.

The tangential component of E is always

E ||

continuous. l above

E ||

Eabove

||

l Ebelow

||

l = 0 Eabove

||

= Ebelow

||

below

||

where E stands for the components of E parallel to the surface.

The boundary conditions on E can be combined into single formula:

E above E below = n

0

where n is unit vector perpendicular to the surface, pointing upward.

b

The potential is continuous across any boundary, since Vabove Vbelow = E.dl ; as the path

a

shrinks to zero.

b

Vabove = Vbelow .

a

Since E = V Vabove Vbelow = n,

0

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V V

above below =

n n 0

V

where = V n denotes the normal derivative of V (that is the rate of change in the

n

direction perpendicular to the surface.)

Example: Assume that z = 0 plane is the interface between two linear and homogenous dielectrics

(see figure). The relative permittivities are r = 5 for z > 0 and r = 4 for z < 0 . The

(

electric field in the region z > 0 is E1 = 3i 5 j + 4k k V m . If there are no free charges)

on the interface, then find electric field in the region z < 0 .

z

r = 5

z=0

r = 4

Solution: E1 = E 2 E 2 = 3i 5 j

and f = 0 D1 = D2 E 2 =

1 5

2

E1 = + 4k = 5k

4

( )

(

E 2 = 3i 5 j + 5k k V m )

1.6 Work and Energy in Electrostatics

The work done in moving a test charge Q in an external field E , from point a to b is

b b

a

W = F dl = Q E dl = Q V ( b ) V ( a ) q1

a a

If a = and b = r Q

qi

q2

W = Q V ( r ) V ( ) = QV ( r ) since V ( ) = 0 b

In this sense potential is potential energy (the work it takes to create the system) per unit

charge (just as the field is the force per unit charge).

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1.6.1 The Energy of Point Charge Distribution

q3

When the first charge q1 is placed, no work has

W2 = q2V1 where V1 is the potential due to q1 so, R23

R13 r q2

q

1 2

W2 = q2 1 .

4 0 R12 R12

r1

q1

1 q q

Similarly when third charge q3 is placed W3 = q3 1 + 2

4 0 R13 R23

1 q1q2 q1q3 q2 q3

The work necessary to assemble the first three charges is W = + +

4 0 R12 R13 R23

1 n n qi q j 1 n n qi q j 1 n

In general, W =

4 0

i =1 j =1 Rij

=

8 0

i =1 j =1 Rij

= qiV ( ri ) , where V ( ri ) is the

2 i =1

j >i j i

Example: Four charges are situated at the corners of a square (side a ) as shown in figure. How

much work does it take to assemble the whole configuration of four charges?

q +q

+q q

a

Solution: Work done in placing first charge ( q charge upper left corner) W1 = 0

1 q2

Work done in placing second charge ( + q charge lower left corner) W2 =

4 0 a

1 q2 q2

W3 = +

4 0 a 2a

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Potential at fourth corner ( + q charge upper right corner)

1 qi 1 q q q q 1

V=

4 0

r = +

4 0 a

=

2a a 4 0 a

2 +

2

i

q2 1

W4 = qV = 2 +

4 0 a 2

1 2q 2 1 q2 1

Total work done = W1 + W2 + W3 + W4 = 2 + = 2 +

4 0 a 2 2 0 a 2

1.6.2 Energy of Continuous Charge Distribution

1

2

For a volume charge density W = Vd ,

0

( )

Since = 0 .E W =

2

(.E )Vd W = 0

( )

E. V d + . V E d

2 V

( )

V

0

W = E d + V E.d a Since E = V

2

2 V S

The above equation gives the correct energy W , whatever volume we use as long as it

encloses all the charges, but the contribution from the volume integral goes up, and that of

the surface integral goes down, as we take larger and larger volumes. In particular, if we

integrate over all space, then the surface integral goes to zero, and we have

0

W=

2

all space

E 2 d

Example: Energy of a uniformly charged spherical shell of total charge q and radius R.

1 q

Solution: E inside = 0, Eoutside = r

4 0 r 2

R 2 2 0 q2 2

W= 0 E 2 d = 0 Ein d + 0 Eout d = (r sin drd d )

2 all space 2 0 2 R 2(4 0 )2 outside r 4

1 1 q2

W= q 2 4 R dr W = .

32 2 0 r2 8 0 R

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Example: Find the energy stored in a uniformly charged solid sphere of radius R and charge q.

1 qr 1 q

Solution: E = r; r > R and E= r; r < R

4 0 R 3 4 0 r 2

0 1 q2

2 1 q2 1 1

R r

W= ( r 2

4 dr ) + 0 3 (4 r 2

dr ) = + ,

2 (4 0 )2 R r 4 R 4 0 2 R 5 R

1 3q 2

W=

4 0 5 R

1.7 Basic Properties of Conductors

1. E = 0 inside a conductor.

2. = 0 inside a conductor.

3. Any net charge resides on the surface.

4. A conductor is an equipotential.

5. E is perpendicular to the surface, just outside a conductor.

Because the field inside a conductor is zero, boundary condition

E above E below = n requires that the field immediately outside is

0

E= n .

0

Vabove Vbelow

In terms of potential equation = yields

n n 0

V

= 0 .

n

These equations enable us to calculate the surface charge on a conductor, if we can

determine E or V .

1 2

Force per unit area on the conductor is f = n .

2 0

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This amounts to an outwards electrostatic pressure on the surface, tending to draw the

conductor into the field, regardless the sign of . Expressing the pressure in terms of the

field just outside the surface,

0

P= E2 .

2

P

E0 a 3

( r , ) = constant E0 r sin + sin r

r2

where r is the distance of P from the centre O of the sphere O k

charge density on the sphere at = 600 is

V 2 E0 a 3

Solution: = 0 = 0 E0 sin 3 sin

r r =a r r =a

3 3

= 0 [ E0 sin 2 E0 sin ] = +3E0 0 sin = +3E0 0 sin 600 = 0 E0

2

Example: Two spherical cavities, of radii a and b , are hollowed out from the interior of a

conducting sphere of radius R . At the center of each cavity a point charge is placed, call

these charges qa and qb .

qa a

R

(b) What is the field outside the conductor?

(c) What is the field within each cavity?

(d) What is the force on qa and qb ? qb b

(e) If a third charge qc , were brought near the conductor, which of

the above answers will change.

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qa qb q +q

Solution: (a) a = , b = , R = a 2b .

4 a 2

4 b 2

4 R

1 qa + qb

(b) E = r; r > R

4 0 r 2

1 qa 1 qb

(c) E = r; r < a and E = r; r < b.

4 0 r 2

4 0 r 2

(d) Zero.

(e) R will change and hence electric field outside the conductor will also change.

1.8.1 The Electric Potential and Field of a Dipole

z

If we choose coordinates so that p (dipole moment)

lies at the origin and points in the z direction, then

potential at (r , ) is: r

p

r. p p cos y

Vdip ( r , ) = = .

4 o r 2

4 o r 2

Since E = V x

V 2 p cos 1 V p sin 1 V

Er = = , E = = , E = = 0.

r 4 o r 3

r 4 o r 3

r sin

The electric field of a dipole:

E dip ( r , ) =

p

4 0 r 3 ( 2 cos r + sin ) .

( ) ( )

We can express p = p.r r + p. = p cos r p sin .

( )

Thus 3 p r r p = 2 p cos r + p sin

E dip ( r , ) =

1

( )

3 p r r p

4 0 r 3

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Note:

(a) When a dipole is placed in a uniform electric field ( E ), net force on the dipole is zero

and it experiences a torque = p E where p = qd .

(c) Energy of an ideal dipole p in an electric field E is U = p.E .

U=

1

4 0 r 3

[p p 3(p r)(p r)]

1 2 1 2

Solution: (a) At (a, 0, 0), r = a, =

2

; E=

p

4 0 r 3 ( 2 cos r + sin ) = 4p a 0

3

p pq

E= z F = qE = z

4 0 a 3

4 0 a 3

p

4 0 r 3 ( 2 cos r + sin ) = 42 pa 0

3

r

2p 2 pq

E= z F = qE = z

4 0 a 3

4 0 a 3

p cos p

(c) Vdip ( r , ) = V (a, 0, 0) = 0 and V (0, 0, a) = ,

4 o r 2

4 o a 2

p

W = q [ V (0, 0, a) V (a, 0, 0) ] =

4 o a 2

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Example: In figure p1 and p 2 are (perfect) dipoles a distance r apart. What is the torque

r

P1 P2

Solution: 1 = p1 E 2 , where E 2 =

p2

4 0 r 3 ( 2 cos r + sin ) = 42 pa 0

2

3

r,

2 p1 p2

1 = (inward)

4 0 a 3

p1 p2

2 = p 2 E1 , where E1 = 2 cos r + sin = ,

4 0 r 3

2 2 4 0 a 3

p1 p2

2 = (inward)

4 0 a 3

1.8.2 Approximate potential at large distances

Approximate potential at large distances due to arbitrary localized charge distribution

R P

d '

r

r '

1 1 3 1

V (r ) =

4 0 r ( )r

1

r

1

r ' d ' + 2 r ' cos ' r ' d ' + 2 ( ) (r )

' 2

cos r d + ...

2

2 '

2

' '

( )

1

The first term ( n = 0 ) is the monopole contribution (it goes like ). The second term ( n = 1) is

r

1

the dipole term (it goes like ). The third term is quadrupole; the fourth octopole and so

r2

on.

The lowest nonzero term in the expansion provides the approximate potential at large r and

the successive terms tell us how to improve the approximation if greater precision is

required.

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The Monopole and Dipole Terms

Ordinarily, the multipole expansion is dominated (at large r) by the monopole term:

1 Q

Vmon ( r ) = .

4 0 r

If the total charge is zero, the dominant term in the potential will be the dipole (unless, of

course, it also vanishes):

1 r. p

Vdip ( r ) =

1 1

4 0 r 2

r ' cos ' r ' d ' =( )

1 1

4 0 r 2

r. r ' r ' d ' =

4 0 r 2

( )

,

The dipole moment is determined by the geometry (size, shape and density) of the charge

distribute. The dipole moment of a collection of point charge is

n

p = qi ri '

i =1

Note: Ordinarily, the dipole moment does change when we shift the origin, but there is an

important exception: If the total charge is zero, then the dipole moment is independent of

the choice of origin.

Example: Find the approximate potential for points on the z

z axis, far from the sphere. Four particles of charges

3a

q , 3q , 2q and 2q are placed as shown in figure,

a

each a distance a from the origin. Find a simple a a y

approximate formula for the potential, valid at points 2q a 2q

far from the origin.

x q

Therefore V and p.r = 2qaz.r = 2qa cos V

4 0 r 2 4 0 r2

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Example: An insulating sphere of radius R carries a charge density

()

r = ( R 2 r 2 ) cos 2 ; r < R

Find the leading order term for the electric field at a distance d , far away from the charge

distribution.

Solution: ( )

Q = d = R 2 r 2 cos 2 r 2 sin dr d d 0 V

1

d

E

1

d2

Example: A sphere of radius R , centered at the origin, carries charge density

R

(r , ) = k 2 ( R 2r ) sin , where k is a constant, and r , are the usual spherical

r

coordinates.

1

Solution: Monopole term: Q = d = kR ( R 2r ) sin r 2 sin dr d d = 0

r2

R

Since the r integral is 0 ( R 2r )dr = 0 .

Dipole term:

( ) 1

p = r ' r ' d ' = r cos d = KR (r cos ) ( R 2r ) sin r 2 sin dr d d = 0 ,

r2

sin 3

Since the integral is 0 sin 2

cos d = =0.

3

0

Quadrupole term:

3 1 1 1

r 2 cos 2 d = kR r 2 (3cos 2 1) ( R 2r ) sin r 2 sin dr d

2 2 2 r2

R

R 2 r3 r4 R4 R4 R4

r integral : 0 r ( R 2 r ) dr = R = =

3 2 3 2 6

0

3

integral: 0 (3cos 2 1) sin 2 d = 2 0 sin 2 d 30 sin 4 d = 2 3 = .

2 8 8

2

integral: 0 d = 2 .

1 R 4 k 2 R 5

whole integral = kR =

6 8 2 .

2 48

1 k 2 R 5

For point P on the z axis ( r z ) the approximate potential is V ( z ) .

4 0 48 z 3

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1.9 Polarization

When a piece of dielectric material is placed in an external field and if the substance

consists of neutral atoms, the field will induce in a tiny dipole moment, pointing in the same

direction as the field. If the material is made up of polar molecules each permanent dipole

will experience a torque, tending to line it up along the field direction. (Random thermal

motions compete with this process, so the alignment is never complete, especially at higher

temperatures, and disappears almost at once when the field is removed.)

(Polarization) P dipole moment per unit volume

1.9.1 The Field of a Polarized Object (Bound Charges)

Suppose we have a piece of polarized material with

R

polarization vector P containing a lot of microscopic

dipoles lined up. p

For a single dipole of dipole moment p we have

1 p.R

V (r ) = where R is the vector from the dipole

4 0 R 2

to the point at which we are evaluating the potential.

1 R .P(r ')

4 0 V R 2

Thus V (r ) = d ' ; since p = P(r )d '

4 0 R P.d a ' 4 R ( '.P ) d '

S

1 1

0 V

1

The first term looks like the potential of a surface bound charge b = P.n (where n is the

normal unit vector)

The second term looks like the potential of a volume bound charge b = .P

Thus potential (and hence also the field) of a polarized object is the same as that produced

by a volume charge density b = .P plus a surface charge density b = P.n .

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Example: A sphere of radius R carries a polarization P(r ) = Kr where K is a constant and r is

the vector from the center.

(a) Calculate the bound charges b and b .

(b) Find the field inside and outside the sphere.

Solution:

1 2

(a) b = P.n = kRr.r = kR; b = .P =

(r kr ) = 3k

r 2 r

r kr

(b) For r < R ; E= r E = r

3 0 0

For r > R ; same as if all charge at center; but

3

Qtotal = (kR ) 4 R 2 + (3k ) R3 = 0 E = 0

4

Example: A thick spherical shell (inner radius a and outer radius b ) is made of

P b

k P

dielectric material with a polarization P (r ) = r , where k is a constant (i ) a (ii ) (iii )

r

P

and r is the distance from the center. Find the electric field in all three P

regions.

k

+ P. r

= (at r = b)

1 2 k k b

Solution: b = .P = r = 2 and b = P.n =

2 r

r r r P. r = k (at r = a)

a

For r < a ; Qenc = 0 E = 0

For r > b ; Qenc = S da + v b d = s P. da v . P d = 0 s P. da = v .P d( ) ( )

E=0

k r k

4 a + a 2 4 r dr = 4 ka 4 k ( r a ) = 4 kr

2 2

For a < r < b ; Qenc =

a r

1 Qenc k

E = E= r

4 0 r 2 0r

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1.10 The Electric Displacement

1.10.1 Gauss Law in the Presence of Dielectrics

Within the dielectric, the total charge density can be written as = b + f where b is

From Gauss Law; .E =

0

( )

0 .E = ( b + f ) = .P + f where E is now the total

( )

. 0 E + P = f .D = f where D = 0 E + P is known as the electric

displacement.

Thus Gauss law reads, .D = f

or, in integral form D.d a = Q f enc , where Q fenc denotes the total free charge enclosed in the

volume.

1.10.2 Linear Dielectrics (Susceptibility, Permittivity, Dielectric Constant)

For any substances, the polarization is proportional to the field provided is not too

strong: P E P = 0 e E

(Materials that obey this relation are called linear dielectrics)

The constant of proportionality, e is called the electric susceptibility of the medium. The

value of e depends on the microscopic structure of the substance and also on external

conditions such as temperature.

In linear media we have

D = 0 E + P = 0 E + 0 e E = 0 E (1 + e ) = E , where = 0 (1 + e )

Also r = = (1 + e ) is called relative permittivity or dielectric constant, of the material.

0

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1.10.3 Boundary Condition on D

The boundary between two medium is a D1

thin sheet of free surface charge f . a

The Gauss's law states that 1

= f

D.d a = Q free D above D below

S 2

Since D = 0 E + P D = P

|| || || ||

f

D above D below = P above P below D2

( E = 0 )

1.10.4 Energy in dielectric system

W=

1

(

D E d .

2 all space

)

Example: A metal sphere of radius a carries a charge Q . It is surrounded, out to radius b , by

linear dielectric material of permittivity . Find the potential at the center.

Q

Solution: D.d a = Q f enc D=

4 r 2

r ; for all points r > a

E by D = E ).

Q

r for a < r < b

4 r 2

Q

E= r for r > b

4 0 r

2

0 for r < a.

Potential at the center is therefore

0 b Q a Q 0 Q 1 1 1

V = E.dl = dr b dr a (0)dr V = +

4 r 2 4 r 2 4 0b a b

0

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1.11 Image Problems

1.11.1 The Classic Image Problem

Suppose a point charge q is held a distance d above an infinite grounded conducting

plane. We can find out what is the potential in the region above the plane.

z z

q

+q

d d

y y

V =0 d

x q

x

Forget about the actual problem; we are going to study a complete different situation.

The new problem consists of two point charges + q at ( 0,0, d ) and q at ( 0,0, d ) and no

conducting plane. For this configuration we can easily write down the potential:

1 q q

V ( x, y, z ) =

40 x 2 + y 2 + z d 2 2

( ) x + y + ( z + d )

2 2

1. V = 0 when z = 0 and

2. V 0 for x 2 + y 2 + z 2 >> d 2 ,

and the only charge in the region z > 0 is the point charge + q at ( 0,0, d ) . Thus the second

configuration produces exactly the same potential as the first configuration, in the upper

region z 0 .

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1.11.2 Induced Surface Charge

The surface charge density induced on the conductor surface can be calculated by

V

= 0 ,

n

V

where is the normal derivative of V at the surface. In this case the normal direction is

n

the z -direction, so

V

= 0

z z =0

V 1 q ( z d ) q(z + d)

= + 3

z 4 0 2 3

x + y2 + ( z d ) x 2 + y 2 + ( z + d )2 2

2 2

qd

( x, y ) =

( )

3

2 x 2 + y 2 + d 2 2

x = y = 0.

This integral, over the xy -plane, could be done in Cartesian coordinates, with da = dx dy ,

Then

qd

( R) =

( )

3

2 r 2 + d 2 2

2 qd qd

and Q = rdrd = = q

( )

3

0

0 2 r + d

2 2 2 r2 + d 2

0

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1.11.3 Force and Energy

The charge q is attracted towards the plane, because of the negative induced surface

charge. The force:

1 q2

F = z .

4 0 ( 2d )2

One can determine the energy by calculating the work required to bring q in from infinity.

d

1 q2

d d

q2 1 1 q2

W = F .dl =

4 0 4 z 2

dz = =

4 0 4 z 4 0 4d

Example: Find the force on the charge + q as shown in figure (The xy plane is a grounded

conductor).

z z

Solution: 3d + q 3d + q

d 2q d 2q

y y

d +2q

x x

3d q

Place image charges +2q at z = d and q at z = 3d .

Total force on + q is

q 2q 2q q 1 29q 2

F= + + z

= z

4 0 (2d )2 (4d ) 2 (6d ) 2 4 0 72d 2

1 29q 2

F = z

4 0 72d 2

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1.11.4 Other Image Problem

The method just described is not limited to a single point charge; any stationary charge

distribution near a grounded conducting plane can be treated in the same way, by

introducing its mirror image.

R

R r

a R'

q

q

V =0 b q'

a

Let us examine the completely different configuration, consisting of the point charge q

together with another point charge

R

q' = q

a

placed at a distance

R2

b=

a

to the right of the centre of sphere. No conductor, now-just two point charges. The potential

of this configuration is

1 q q'

V (r , ) = +

4 0 R R

1 q q'

V (r , ) = +

4 0 r 2 + a 2 2ra cos r 2 + b 2 2rb cos

q 1 1

V (r , ) =

4 0 r 2 + a 2 2ra cos R 2 + (ra / R )2 2ra cos

Clearly when r = R, V 0

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Induced charge

V V V

= 0 . In this case = at the point r = R .

n n r

V ( r , )

( ) = 0

r r=R

q 2

3 / 2 3 / 2 a

= ( R 2

+ a 2

2 Ra cos ) ( R a cos ) + ( R 2

+ a 2

2 Ra cos ) a cos

4 R

q a2

= ( R 2 + a 2 2 Ra cos )3 / 2 R a cos + a cos

4 R

q

( ) = ( R 2 a 2 )( R 2 + a 2 2 Ra cos )3 / 2

4 R

q

qincluded = q = da = ( R 2 a 2 ) ( R 2 + a 2 2 Ra cos )3 / 2 R 2 sin d d

4 R

q 1 2

q = ( R a )2 R

2 2

( R 2 + a 2 2 Ra cos )1/ 2

4 R Ra 0

q 2 1 1

q = (a R 2 )

2a R 2 + a 2 + 2 Ra R 2 + a 2 2 Ra

q 2 1 1 q

q = (a R 2 ) = R

2a (a + R) (a R) a

q

q' = R

a

Force

The force on q, due to the sphere, is the same as the force of the image charge q, thus:

1 qq ' 1 R 2 1 1 q 2 Ra

F= = q =

4 0 (a b)2 4 0 a 2 4 0 (a 2 R 2 )2

R2

a

a

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Energy

To bring q in from infinity to a, we do work

a

q2 R a a q2 R 1 1 1 q2 R

W= da = =

4 0 (a 2 R 2 )2 4 0 2 (a 2 R 2 ) 4 0 2(a 2 R 2 )

1 q2 R

W =

4 0 2(a 2 R 2 )

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MCQ (Multiple Choice Questions)

Q1. Two point charges Q1 = 1n C and Q2 = 2nC are kept in free space such that the distance

(a) The force on Q2 is along the direction from Q2 to Q1 .

(d) A point charge Q3 = 3nC , placed at the midpoint between Q1 and Q2 , experiences no

net force.

Q2. A ring of radius R carries a uniformly distributed charge +Q . A point charge q is placed

on the axis of the ring at a distance x ( x << R ) from the centre of the ring and released

(a) a S.H.M. along the axis of ring (b) a S.H.M. along the circular path

(c) a motion along parabolic path (d) a motion along a hyperbolic path

Q3. Three charges, each equal to Q , are placed at the three corners

Q

( A, B and C ) of a square of side L . Then the magnitude of D C

(a)

Q

2 2 0 L2

(

(b) 2 2 + 1 ) 8Q L0

2

Q Q

A L B

(

(c) 2 2 + 1 ) 8Q L 0

3 (

(d) 2 2 1 ) 8Q L 0

2

Q4. Three charges are located on the circumference of a circle of radius R as shown in the figure

below. The two charges q subtends an angle 90 at the centre of the circle. The charge Q is

symmetrically placed with respect to the charges q. If the electric field at the centre of the

circle is zero, what is the magnitude of Q? q q

(a) q / 2 (b) 2q

(c) 2q (d) 4q

Q

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Q5. A loop of diameter d is rotated in a uniform electric field until the position of maximum

electric flux is found. The flux in this position is measured to be . What is the electric

field strength?

4 2 d 2

(a) (b) (c) (d)

d2 d2 d2 4

Q6. A charge q is placed symmetrically with respect to three faces of equal area as shown in the

figure. What is the total electric flux through the faces?

q q

(a) (b)

0 2 0

q

q

(c) (d) zero

3 0

/ m . Which of the

following is a correct combination of the flux passing through an area A (in square metre)

lying in

(i) xy plane, (ii) xz plane & (iii) yz plane respectively?

(a) 0, 200 A, 0 (b) 200 A, 0, 0

(c) 0, 0, 200 A (d) 0, 0, 0

Q8. A sphere of radius R carries charge density proportional to the square of distance from the

center such that = Ar 2 , where A is a positive constant. At a distance R/2 from the center,

the magnitude of electric field is

A AR3 AR3 AR3

(a) (b) (c) (d)

4 0 40 0 24 0 5 0

Q9. Three infinitely long charge sheets are placed as shown in figure. The electric field at point

P is

2 4 z = 3a

(a) z (b) z

0 0 P

2 z=a

2

(c) z (d) zero

0 z = a

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Q10. A cylindrical rod of length l and radius R, made of an inhomogeneous dielectric, is placed

with its axis along the z-direction with one end x

at the origin as shown in figure below. If the

volume charge density = 10z, then the total

R

charge inside the dielectric is z

(a) zero (b) 10 R l 2

l

(c) 5 R l 2

(d) 5 R l 2 2 y

Q

Q11. Given that electric field = (1 cos 3r ) r in spherical polar coordinates. The charge

0 r 2

density associated with it is:

Q 2 3Q

(a) 3 + 3sin 3r (b) sin 3r

2 0 r r

2

0 r 2

3Q 3Q

(c) sin 3r (d) cos 3r

r2 0 r 2

0 Ab

Q12. The charge density in spherical polar coordinate is = e br + 4 0 A (r ) . Then the

r 2

total charge contained in a sphere of infinite radius is: use (r )4 r 2 dr = 1

0

(a) 0 (b) 4 0 A (c) 4 0 A (d) 0 Abe br

r

Q13. A static charge distribution gives rise to an electric field of the form E = e r / R , where

r2

and R are positive constants. The charge contained within a sphere of radius R, centred at

the origin is

e e2 R 4 0

(a) 0 2 (b) 0 2 (c) 4 0 (d)

R R e e

Q14. A sphere of radius 2 R has a uniform charge density . The difference in electrostatic

potential at r = R and r = 0 is: (where r is the distance from center)

R 2 2 R 2 R 2

(a) (b) (c) (d)

0 0 6 0 R 6 0

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Q15. A charge Q is distributed over two concentric hollow spheres of radii r and R ( R > r )

such that the surfaces charge densities are equal. Then the potential at the common center is

Q Q (r + R)

(a) (b)

4 0 ( r + R ) (

4 0 r 2 R 2 )

Q (r + R) Q (r R)

(c) (d)

4 0 ( r + R2 2

) 4 0 ( r 2 R 2 )

Q16. The plates of a parallel plate capacitor (which are normal to the x-axis) are located at x = 0

and x = L . The plate at x = 0 is grounded while the other plate is at a potential V0 . The

space between the plates has uniform volume charge density . The potential V ( x )

2 V0 L 2 V L

(a) x + + x (b) x 0 + x

2 0 L 2 0 2 0 L 2 0

2 V L 2 V0 L

(c) x 0 + x (d) x + + x

2 0 L 2 0 2 0 L 2 0

( r ) = 0 e r / r 0

where 0 and r0 are constants, then the charge density at a distance r = r0 will be

00 e 00 00 2e 00

(a) (b) (c) (d)

er 0

2

2r02 er 0

2

r02

Q18. Three charges are situated at the corners of a square (side a) as q

shown in figure. How much work does it take to bring in another

a

charge, +q, from far away and place it in the fourth corner?

+q q

q2 1 q2 1 a

(a) 2 (b) 2 +

4 0 a 2 4 0 a 2

q 1 q 1

(c) 2 (d) 2 +

4 0 a 2 4 0 a 2

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Q19. A spherical conductor of radius a is placed in a uniform electric field E = E 0 k . The

P

E0 a 3

( r , ) = constant E0 r sin + sin r

r2

where r is the distance of P from the centre O of the sphere and O k

the sphere at = 300 is

(a) 3 3 0 E 0 / 2 (b) 3 0 E 0 / 2 (c) 3 0 E 0 / 2 (d) 0 E 0 / 2

Q20. Eight charges +q and q are located alternatively at the corners of a cube of side a. The

work done to separate the charges to infinite distance is:

(a)

q2

a

(3 6 +3 3+ 2 ) (b)

q2

0 a

( 3 6 +3 3 2 )

0

q2 3 q2 1

(c) 3 + (d) 3 +

0 a 2 0 a 3

Q21. A point charge q moves from point P to point S along the path PQRS (as shown in

figure) in a uniform electric field E pointing parallel to the positive direction of the X-axis.

The coordinates P, Q, R and S are ( a, b, 0 ) , ( 2a, 0, 0 ) , ( a, b, 0 ) and ( 0, 0, 0 ) respectively.

(a) zero (b) qEa 2 (c) qEa (d) qEa 2

Q22. A solid spherical conductor has a conical hole made at one end, ending in a A

point B , and a small conical projection of the same shape and size at the

opposite side, ending in a point A . A cross-section through the centre of the

conductor is shown in the figure on the right. If, now, a positive charge Q is B

transferred to the sphere, then

(a) A = B (b) A > B (c) A < B (d) A = 2 B

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Q23. Consider two concentric conducting spherical shells with inner and outer radii a, b and c, d

as shown in the figure. Both the shells are given q amount of positive charges. The

electric fields in different regions are

q

(a) = 0 for r < a ; = r for a < r < b .

4 0 r 2

q

= 0 for b < r < c ; = r for r > d .

4 0 r 2

d

q

(b) = r for r < a ; = 0 for a < r < b . c

4 0 r 2 b

a

q q

= r for b < r < c ; = r for r > d . +q

4 0 r 2 4 0 r 2 +q

q

(c) = r for r < a ; = 0 for a < r < b .

4 0 r 2

2q

= 0 for b < r < c ; = r for r > d .

4 0 r 2

q 2q

= r for b < r < c ; = r for r > d .

4 0 r 2

4 0 r 2

Q24. A pure dipole with dipole moment p = po z is situated at the origin. A point charge Q is

moved from the point (a, 0, 0) to (0, 0, a) then the work done will be

p0Q p0 p0Q

(a) zero (b) (c) (d)

4 0 a 3 4 0 a 2

4 0 a 2

Q25. Four point charges are placed in a plane at the following positions:

+Q at (1, 0), Q at (1, 0) +Q at (0, 1) and Q at (0, 1).

At large distances the electrostatic potential due to this charge distribution will be

dominated by the

(a) Monopole moment (b) Dipole moment

(c) Quadrupole moment (d) Octopole moment

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Q26. Three point charges q, q and 2q are located at (0,a, a), (0, a, a) and (0, 0,a) respectively.

The net dipole moment of this charge distribution is

Q27. Four charges are placed at the four corners of a square of side a as shown in the figure. The

electric dipole moment of this configuration is y

q 2q

(b) p = qai + qaj

q x

(d) p = qai qaj O a q

Q28. A sphere of radius R carries a polarization P = k r , where k is a constant and r is measured

from the centre of the sphere. The bound surface and volume charge densities are given,

respectively, by

from the centre of the sphere. The electric field E at a point r outside the sphere is given

by

kR( R 2 r 2 )

(a) E = 0 (b) E = r

0r 3

kR( R 2 r 2 ) kr

(c) E = r (d) E = r

0r 5

0

Q30. A dielectric sphere of radius R , permittivity is charged throughout its volume by a charge

A

density = , where A is some constant and r being the distance from the center of the

r

sphere. Then the electrostatic energy of the system is proportional to:

(a) R 2 (b) R 3 (c) R 4 (d) R 5

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Q31. A sphere of radius R carries a polarization P = k r , where k is a constant and r is measured

from the centre of the sphere. The electric field E at a point r inside the sphere is given by

kR( R 2 r 2 )

(a) E = 0 (b) E = r

0r 3

kR( R 2 r 2 ) kr

(c) E = r (d) E = r

0r 5 0

Q32. A spherical conductor of radius R1 carries a charge Q. It is surrounded by linear dielectric

material of relative permittivity r , out to radius R2 . The energy of this configuration is:

Q2 1 r 1 Q2 1 r

(a) + (b) +

8 0 r R1 R2 8 0 r R1 R2

Q2 r 1 1

(c) + (d) zero.

8 0 r R1 R2

Q33. A uniform line charge, infinite in extent, having charge per unit length 20 nc / m lies along

Q34. The electric field at 20 cm from the centre of a uniformly charged dielectric sphere of radius

10 cm is E. Then, at a distance 5 cm from the center, it will be. E

q2

Q35. The energy stored in a uniformly charged solid sphere of radius R and charge q is .

4 0 R

Then the value of is .

Q36. Two electric dipoles P1 and P2 are placed at ( 0, 0, 0 ) and ( a, 0, 0 ) respectively with both of

them pointing in the + z direction. Without changing the orientations of the dipoles P2 is

moved to ( 0, 2a, 0 ) . The ratio of the electrostatic potential energy of the dipoles before

Q37. Four equal point charges are kept fixed at the four vertices of a square. How many neutral

points (i.e. points where the electric field vanishes) will be found inside the square?

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Q38. If the electrostatic potential at a point ( x, y ) is given by V = ( 2 x + 4 y ) volts, the electrostatic

d

Q39. Consider two concentric conducting spherical shells with inner and c

b

outer radii a, b and c, d as shown in the figure. Both the shells are

a

given q amount of positive charges. In order to have equal surface

+q

d +q

charge densities on the outer surface of both the shells, the ratio is

b

Q40. The electric field at a point due to an electric dipole is perpendicular to the dipole axis, the

angle between the dipole axis and the line joining the point with the centre of the dipole

is tan 1 ( ) . Then the value of is ..

Q41. Let four point charges q, q / 2, q and q / 2 be placed at the vertices of a square of

side a . Let another point charge q be placed at the cnetre of the square (see the figure).

q/2 q

q q/2

Let V (r ) be the electrostatic potential at a point P at a distance r >> a from the centre of

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MSQ (Multiple Select Questions)

Q42. For given electrostatic field E = k y 2 x + ( 2 xy + z 2 ) y + 2 yzz , which of the following does

not represent the possible potential for the given field (use the origin as your reference

point?)

(a) V ( x, y, z ) = k (xy 2 + yz ) (b) V ( x, y, z ) = k (xy + yz 2 )

Q43. Which of the following statements regarding the electric fields E1 = xx + yy and

E 2 = xy 2 x + y 2 y are NOT correct?

(a) Both E1 and E 2 represents an electrostatic field

(b) Neither E1 nor E 2 can represent electrostatic field

(c) Only E1 can represent electrostatic field

(d) Only E 2 can represent an electrostatic field

Q44. If the electrostatic potential were given by = 0 ( x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ) , where 0 is constant then

which of the following statements are correct

(a) The electric fields E = 20 ( xx + yy + zz )

(b) The electric fields E = 20 ( xx + yy + zz )

(c) Charge density = 20 0

(d) Charge density = 60 0

Q45. An ellipsoidal cavity is carved within a perfect conductor as shown in figure. A Positive

charge q is placed at the center of the cavity. The points A & B are on the cavity surface as

shown in figure. Then which of the following statements are true?

(a) Electric field near A in the cavity electric field near B in

A

the cavity

(b) Charge density at A charge density at B q B

(c) Potential at A = Potential at B

q

(d) Total electric flux through the surface of the cavity is

0

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Q46. A point charge q is imbedded at the center of a sphere of linear dielectric material (with

susceptibility e and radius R ). Then which of the following statements are true?

qe

(a) The total bound charge on the surface is

1 + e

qe

(b) The total bound charge on the surface is

1 + e

qe

(c) The total volume bound charge

1 + e

qe

(d) The total volume bound charge

1 + e

from the centre of the sphere. Then which of the following are true for electric field E :

(a) Electric field inside the sphere is E = 0

kr

(b) Electric field inside the sphere is E = r

0

(c) Electric field outside the sphere is E = 0

kr

(d) Electric field outside the sphere is E = r

0

Q48. A charge Q is uniformly distributed in spherical linear dielectric material. The radius of the

sphere is R and its dielectric constant is r . Which of the following statements are true

r

(a) The electric E = r for r < R

3 0 r

R3

(b) The electric E = r for r > R

3 0 r 2

Q 1

(c) The potential at the center of sphere is 1 +

4 0 R 2 r

Q 1

(d) The potential at the center of sphere is 1 +

4 R 3 0 r

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Q49. Assume that z = 0 plane is the interface between two linear and homogenous dielectrics

(see figure). The relative permittivities are r = 5 for z > 0 and r = 4 for z < 0 . The

( )

electric field in the region z > 0 is E 1 = 3i 5 j + 4k k V m . If there are no free charges on

the interface, then which of the following is true for the electric field in the region z < 0 is

z

given by r = 5

z=0

r = 4

(

(a) D 2 = 12i 20 j + 20k k V m ) (

(b) D 2 = 15i 25 j + 25k k V m )

(c) E 2 = (3i 5 j 5k )k V m (

(d) E 2 = 3i 5 j + 5k k V m )

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Solutions

MCQ (Multiple Choice Questions)

Ans. 1: (b)

Ans. 2: (a)

Solution: q

x

R

1 Qx 1 Qx

Field along the axis of ring E = E= since x << R

4 0 ( R 2 + x ) 2 3/ 2 4 0 R 3

Ans. 3: (b)

Q

Solution: Electric field due to charge at A , E A = along AD

4 0 L2

Q

Electric field due to charge at C , EC = along CD

4 0 L2

Q

Electric field due to charge at D , ED = along BD

( )

2

4 0 2L

2

Ans. 4: (b)

1 q 1 Q

Solution: E1 = E2 = and E3 = (upward)

4 0 R 2

4 0 R 2

Thus for E3 = E Q = 2q

Ans. 5: (a)

4

2

d d2

Solution: Maximum flux = EA = E = E E=

2 4 d2

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Ans. 6: (b)

q

Solution: Electric flux through a cube (6 faces) when charge is at its center =

0

q

Flux through three faces =

2 0

Ans. 7: (c)

Solution: Electric flux = E.A = ( 200 x ) .( Ax ) = 200 A .

Ans. 8: (b)

Q

enc 1 1 4 Ar 5 R

E.d s = = d E .4 r = Ar .4 r dr = 5

2 2 2

0 0 0 0 r

Ar 3 R AR3

E = at r = , E =

5 0 2 40 0 Gaussian surface

Ans. 9: (c)

2 2

Solution: E P = E + E 2 + E = ( z) + ( z) + ( z) E P = z

2 0 2 0 2 0 0

Ans. 10: (d)

l

Solution: qinside = d = rdrd dz = ( 10 z ) R 2 dz = 5 R 2l 2

0

1 2 Q 3Q

2 (

Solution: = 0 (.E ) = 0 r 1 cos 3r ) = 2 sin 3r

r r 0 r

2

r

Ans. 12: (a)

Solution: The total charge is

0 Abe br

Q= d = 4 r 2 dr + 4 0 A ( r ) d

all space 0

r 2

all space

Q = 4 0 A [ e br ]0 + 4 0 A Q = 4 0 A + 4 0 A = 0

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Ans. 13: (d)

2

r

Solution: Qenc = 0 E da = 0 e r / R

r 2 ( 2

)

r sin d d r = 0 e r / R sin d d

0 0

4 0

at r = R , Qenc =

e

Ans. 14: (d)

R R

r R 2

Solution: V (R ) V (0 ) = E.d l = dr =

0 0

3 0 6 0

Solution: Let charge on inner and outer shell be q1 and q2 then Q = q1 + q2

1 q1 q2 1 q 1

Potential at common centre is V = + = q2 1 +

4 0 r R 4 0 q2 r R

q1 q2 q1 r 2

Since 1 = 2 = =

4 r 2 4 R 2 q2 R 2

q1 + q2 r 2 + R 2 QR 2 Qr 2 Q (r + R)

= q = and q = V =

q2 R 2 2

r +R

2 2 1

r +R

2 2

4 0 r 2 + R 2 ( )

Ans. 16: (a)

Solution: The Laplaces equation in Cartesian coordinates system is

2V 2V 2V

2V = = 2 + 2 =

x 2

y z 0

d 2V

as V is only function of x, we have the differential equation, =

dx 2

0

by integrating we have the solution of this equation as

dV 2

= x + A V (x ) = x + Ax + B where A and B are constants.

dx 0 2 0

The two equations need to be solved for the following boundary conditions:

(i) x = 0 ; V = 0 (ii) x = L ; V = V0

Substituting these boundary conditions, we get

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At x = 0 , V (0 ) = 0 = 0 + 0 + B B = 0

2 V L 2 V 0 L

At x = L , V (L ) = V0 = L + AL A = 0 + V (x ) = x + + x

2 0 L 2 0 2 0 L 2 0

Solution: 2 = = 0 ( 2 )

0

1 2 1 2 0 r / r0 1 0 2 r / r0

2 = 2 r = 2

r r r r r

r e

r0

= 2

r r0 r

r e ( )

1 1 1 2

= 2 0 r 2 e r / r0 + 2re r / r0 2 = 0 e r / r0 + e r / r0

r r0 r0 r0 r0 r

0 1 2 1 0 0 0 0

At a distance r = r0 , 2 = e + e = 2 = 0 2 = 2

1

r0 r0 r0 r0 e r0 e r0 e

Ans. 18: (b)

Solution: Potential at fourth corner

1 qi 1 q q q q 1

V=

4 0

r = +

4 0 a

=

2a a 4 0 a

2 +

2

i

q2 1

W = qV = 2 +

4 0 a 2

Ans. 19: (b)

V 2 E a3

Solution: = 0 = 0 E0 sin 03 sin

r r =a r r =a

3

= 0 [ E0 sin 2 E0 sin ] = +3E0 0 sin = +3E0 0 sin 300 = 0 E0

2

Ans. 20: (b)

8 7

Solution: The charge pairs are 8 C 2 = = 28 . Out of these 28 pairs, we have

1 2

(i) 12 pairs of dissimilar charges placed at a mutual separation of a. Thus

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q q 12q 2

Wa = 12 = .

4 0 a 4 0 a

qq 12q 2

W = 12 = .

4 0 2a 4 2 0 a

2a

q q 4q 2

W =4 = .

4 0 3a 4 3 0 a

3a

q2 12 4

Total work done W = Wa + W +W = 12 +

2a 3a

4 0 a 2 3

W =

q2

12 +

4 0 a

12

2

4

=

q2

3 0 a

3 6 +3 3 2 ( )

Ans. 21: (c)

Solution: Work done in a closed path in an electrostatic field is zero.

WPS + WSP = 0 WPS = WSP = F .SP = ( qEx ) . ( ax + by ) = qEa 2

Solution: A <B

Ans. 23: (d)

Ans. 24: (d)

Solution: W = Q V ( 0, 0, a ) V ( a, 0, 0 )

p0 cos p0

V ( r , ) = V ( 0, 0, a ) = = 0 and V ( a, 0, 0 ) = 0 =

4 0 r 2

4 0 a 2 2

p0Q

W =

4 0 a 2

Ans. 25: (b)

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Ans. 26: (a)

Solution: p = q 0 + q 0 + ( 2q 0 ) i + q a + q a + ( 2q 0 ) j

+ q a + q a + ( 2q a ) k

p = 4qak

Ans. 27: (c)

Solution: p = qi ri = q 0 + qax 2q ( ax + ay ) + qay p = qax qay

1 ( 2 )

Solution: b = P.n = ( kR ) r.r = kR at r = R and b = .P = r .kr = 3k

r 2 r

Ans. 29: (a)

Solution: b = .P = x + y + z . ( kxx + kyy + kzz ) = k k k = 3k

x dy dz

The electric field E at a point r outside the sphere is zero, since total bound charge is zero.

b r kr

The electric field E at a point r inside the sphere is E = r = r .

3 0 0

Ans. 30: (b)

AR 2 A

Solution: E = r when r > R and D = r where r < R

2 0 r 2

2

1

Total energy of the system W = D.Ed

2 all space

2

1 R A AR 2 AR

2

1

W= 4 r 2

dr + 0 R 2

4 r 2 dr W R 3

2 2 2 0 r

0 2

2 2 0 r

Ans. 31: (d)

Solution: b = .P = x + y + z . ( kxx + kyy + kzz ) = k k k = 3k

x dy dz

b r kr

The electric field E at a point r inside the sphere is E = r = r .

3 0 0

The electric field E at a point r outside the sphere is zero, since total bound charge is zero.

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Ans. 32: (a)

0 ; r < R1

Q

Solution:

E= r ;

R1 < r < R2

4 r

2

Q

r ; r > R

4 0 r

2

2

1 1 Q2 1 R2 1 1 1

W= D.Ed = 2 ( 4 )2 R1 4 4 r dr + 4 r 2 dr

2

r 0 r

R2 4

2 all space

Q2 1 1 R2 1 1 Q2 1 r 1

W= + W = R + R

8 r R1 0 r R2 8 0 r 1 2

Ans. 33: 36

2 9 109 20 109

Solution: E = r = r = = 36 r V / m

2 0 r 2 0 x 2 + y 2 6 2 + 82

Ans. 34: 2

E 5 ( 20 )

2

q 1 1 qri Ei ri ro2

Solution: Eo = and E = = 3 i = Ei = 2 E

4 0 ro 4 0 R (10 )

i

2 3

Eo R E 3

1 qr 1 q

Solution: E = r; r < R and E= r; r > R

4 0 R3 4 0 r 2

q2 1 2 1 q2 1 1

R r

W= 0 R 4 ( r 2

4 dr ) + 0 3 (4 r 2

dr ) = + ,

2 (4 0 )2 r R 4 2 R 5 R

0

1 3q 2

W=

4 0 5 R

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Ans. 36: 8

1 U1 r23

Solution: Electrostatic potential energy U = =8

r3 U 2 r13

Ans. 37: 1

Solution: Inside the square, there is only one point where field vanishes.

Ans. 38: 10

Solution: E = V = 2 x 4 y E = 20 V / m

1 2 1

Electrostatic energy density = 0 E = 0 20= 10 0 J / m 3

2 2

Ans. 39: 1.41

Q 2Q

Solution: b = d = d = 2b

4b 2

4d 2

Ans. 40: 1.41

p ( 2 cos r + sin )

E ( r , ) =

4 0 r 3

E

E 1 1 p

tan = = tan = 90 cot = tan

Er 2 2

tan 2 = 2 = tan 1 2

Ans. 41: 0.037

q q

Solution: According to multipole expansion Qmono = +q +qq =0

2 2

q

p = q(ax + ay ) (ax + ay ) q(ax ay ) + q( ax ay ) q ( ax + ay ) + 0 = 0

2 2

1 V ( 3r ) 1

Thus V = = 0.037

r 3

V ( r ) 27

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MSQ (Multiple Select Questions)

Ans. 42: (a), (b) and (c)

Solution: Check: E = V

Ans. 43: (a), (b) and (d)

x y z

Solution: E1 = = x ( 0 0 ) y ( 0 0 ) + z ( 0 0 ) = 0

x y z

x y 0

x y z

E2 = = x ( 0 0 ) y ( 0 0 ) + z ( 0 2 xy ) = 2 xyz

x y z

xy 2 y2 0

Ans. 44: (b), (d)

Solution: E = V = 20 ( xx + yy + zz ) and 2 = = 60 0

0

Ans. 45: (a), (b), (c) and (d)

Ans. 46: (a) and (c)

q q r qe r

E= r = P = 0 e E =

4 r 2

4 0 (1 + e ) r 2

4 (1 + e ) r 2

qe qe

b = P.n = Q b = b 4 R 2 =

4 (1 + e ) R 2

1 + e

qe

Qb = Q b =

1 + e

Ans. 47: (b) and (c)

Solution: b = .P = 3k

b r kr

The electric field E at a point r inside the sphere is E = r = r .

3 0 0

The electric field E at a point r outside the sphere is zero, since total bound charge is zero.

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Ans. 48: (a), (b) and (c)

r R3

Solution: E = r for r < R and E = r for r > R

3 3 0 r 2

R R3 0 r R3 R 2 R 2 1

V ( 0 ) = E.dl = ( )

0

3 0 r 2

dr R 3

dr V 0 = +

3 0 3 2

= 1+

3 0 2 r

Q 1 Q

V ( 0) = 1+ , since = 4

4 0 R 2 r R3

3

Ans. 49: (a) and (d)

Solution: E1 = E 2 E 2 = 3i 5 j

and f = 0 D1 = D2 E 2 =

1 5

2

E1 = + 4k = 5k

4

( )

( )

E 2 = 3i 5 j + 5k k V m D 2 = 12i 20 j + 20k k V m ( )

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Chapter - 2

Magnetostatics

The magnetic field at any point due to steady current is called as magnetostatic field.

2.1 Magnetic Force on Current Element

The magnetic force on a charge Q , moving with velocity v in a magnetic field B is,

( )

F mag = Q v B . This is known as Lorentz force law.

In the presence of both electric and magnetic fields, the net force on Q would be:

[ ( )]

F = Q E + v B

v t

2.1.1 Current in a Wire

v

P

A line charge traveling down a wire at a speed v constitutes a current I = v .

Magnetic force on a segment of current-carrying wire is,

( ) (

F mag = v B dq = v B dl = I B dl . ) ( )

Since I and dl points in the same direction F mag = I dl B = I dl B ( ) ( )

2.1.2 Surface Current Density

Flow

dl

K

d

K= is the current per unit width-perpendicular to flow.

dl

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2.1.3 Volume Current Density

J

da

Flow

When the flow of charge is distributed throughout a three-dimensional region, we describe

it by the volume current density J .

d

J= is the current per unit area-perpendicular to flow.

da

Current crossing a surface S is = J da

S

Example: A wire ABCDEF (with each of side of length L ) bent as shown in figure and carrying a

current I is placed in a uniform magnetic induction B parallel to the positive y -direction.

Find the force experienced by the wire. Z

D

C B

F

E

A

B

X

Solution: FE and BA are parallel to magnetic induction B . Magnetic force on each of them will be

zero. DE and CB are perpendicular to B . They carry currents in opposite directions forces

on them will be equal in magnitude and opposite in direction. The net force due to these

portions of wire will be zero. Now force on side DC is F DC = ILBz .

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Example: A semicircular wire of radius R carries a current I and is placed in a uniform field B

acting perpendicular to the plane of the semicircle. Calculate force acting on the wire.

Solution: Consider an element of length dl of the wire. dl B

The dF force on this element is obtained by

dF d

dF = I(dl B) = IdlBsin 900

dF = I(Rd)B since dl = Rd A O B

R

F = 0 dFsin = 2IBR

2.2 Continuity Equation

V

Because charge is conserved, whatever flows out through the surface must come at the

expense of that remaining inside:

( .J )d = dt d = t d .

d

V V V

(The minus sign reflects the fact that an outward flow decreases the charge left in V.) Since

this applies to any volume, we conclude that

J = .

t

This is the precise mathematical statements of local charge conservation.

Note: When a steady current flows in a wire, its magnitude I must be the same all along the

line; otherwise, charge would be piling up somewhere, and it wouldn't be a steady current.

Thus for magnetostatic fields = 0 and hence the continuity equation becomes:

t

J = 0.

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2.3 Biot-Savart Law

The magnetic field of a steady line current is given by

I R 0 dl ' R I r

B (r ) = 0 R2 4 R 2

dl = I

4

R

N

where 0 = 4 107 ( permeability of free space)

A2

For surface and volume current Biot-Savart law becomes: dI '

0 K (r ') R J (r ') R

( r ) =

4 R 2

da ' and (r ) = 0

4 R 2 d ' .

2.3.1 Magnetic Field due to Wire

Let us find the magnetic field a distance d from a long straight wire carrying a steady

current I.

P

1

R 2

d

l' I

I dl '

Wire segment

In the diagram, (dl R)

points out of the page and has magnitude dl sin = dlcos

d d 1 cos 2

Since l = d tan dl = d dl ' = d and d = R cos =

cos 2 cos 2 R2 d2

I dl ' R 0 I 2 cos 2 d

From BiotSavart law: B (r ) = 0 = cos d

4 R 2 4 1 d 2

cos 2

0 I 2 0 I

B= cos d = (sin 2 sin 1 )

4 d 1 4 d

0 I

For Infinite wire: 1 = and 2 = B=

2 2 2 d

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Note:

1. Magnetic field a distance r from a long straight wire carrying a steady current I is

0 I

B= (sin 2 sin 1 ) .

4r

2. Magnetic field a distance r from a infinite wire carrying a steady current I is:

0 I

B= .

2 r

3. Force (per unit length) of attraction between two long, parallel wires a distance d

apart, carrying currents I1 and I2 in same direction are:

0 I1 I 2

f = .

2 d

4. If currents are in opposite direction they will repel with same magnitude.

2.3.2 Magnetic Field due to Solenoid and Toroid

The magnetic field of a very long solenoid, consisting of n closely wound turns per unit

length of a cylinder of radius R and carrying a steady current I is:

nI z inside the solenoid

B= 0

0 outside the solenoid.

0 NI ^

+ for points inside the coil

B = 2 r

0 for points outside the coil

Example: Find the force of attraction between two long, parallel wires a distance d apart, carrying

current I1 and I2 in the same direction.

I1 I2

I

Solution: The field at (2) due to (1) is B = 0 1 (points into the page).

2 d v

I II

Force on (2) is F = I 2 0 1 dl f = 0 1 2

2 d 2 d F B

Force per unit length is towards (1) and net force is attractive

Wire 1 Wire 2

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Example: Find the magnetic field a distance d above the center of a circular loop of radius R,

which carries a steady current I.

Solution: The field dB attributable to the segment dl ' as shown. As we integrate dl ' around the

loop, dB sweeps out a cone. The horizontal components cancel, and the vertical components

combine to give.

B

I dl '

B( z ) = 0 cos ; dl 'and r are r

4 r 2

dB z

I cos I cos 90

B( z ) = 0

4 r 2

dl ' = 0

4 r 2 2 R ,

d r

I R 2

Thus B = 0 z

2 ( R + d 2 )3 / 2

2

0 I R

At the center of the circle B (0) = z

2R d l

Example: Find the force on a square loop placed as shown in figure, near an infinite straight wire.

Both the loop and the wire carry a steady current I .

I a

a

I d

0 I I I 2a

At the bottom, B = F = 0 Ia = 0 (up)

2 d 2 d 2 d

0 I 0 I 2 a

At the top, B = F= (down)

2 (d + a ) 2 (d + a)

0 I 2 a 2

Thus Net Force = (up)

2 d (d + a)

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2.4 Ampere's Law

The magnetic field of an infinite wire is shown in the figure

(the current is coming out of the page). Let us find the integral of

B around a circular path of radius r, centered at the wire, is B

o I

B dl = 2 r dl = I . o

Notice that the answer is independent of r; that is because B decreases at the same rate as

the circumference increases. If we use cylindrical coordinates ( r , , z ) , with the current

o I

flowing along the z axis, B=

2 r

In general we can write B dl = I 0 enc

Boundary line

If the fingers of your right hand indicate the

direction of integration around the boundary, Surface

positive current.

Example: A steady current I flow down a long

J

cylindrical wire of radius a. Find the magnetic

field, both inside and outside the wire, if

(a) The current is uniformly distributed over the outside surface of the wire.

(b) The current is distributed in such a way that J is proportion to r, the distance from the

axis.

a

I

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0 for r < a

Solution: (a) B.dl = B 2 r = 0 I enc B = 0 I

2r z for r > a

a a 2 ka3 3I

(b) J = kr , I = 0 Jda = 0 kr (2 rdr ) = k =

3 2 a3

Ir 2

r r 2 kr Ir 3 3

0 3 for r < a

I enc = 0 Jda = 0 kr ' 2 r ' dr ' = = for r < a

3 a3 B = 2 a

0 I

I enc = I for r > a 2 r for r > a

Example: Find the magnetic field of an infinite uniform surface current K = Kx , flowing

over the xy plane. z

Solution:

Sheet of current

Amperian loop

l

x

Since K = Kx B have no x-component because B is r to x-component i.e. in the

direction of ( K R ) .

Also, B have no z-component: For y > 0 , B is along z and for y < 0 , B is along z ,

thus field cancels each other.

B has only y-component:

For z > 0 , B points left ( y ) and for z < 0 , B points right ( y ) .

Draw a rectangular amperian loop parallel to the yz plane and extending an equal distance

above and below the surface. Now apply amperes law, we find

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B.dl = 2 Bl = 0 I enc = 0 Kl {One Bl from top segment, and the other from bottom}

0 K

2 y for z > 0

0 K

B= B=

2 0 K y for z < 0

2

Note: The field is independent of the distance from the plane, just like the electric field

of a uniform surface charge.

Since B = 0 B = A

For magnetostatic fields, A = 0 and 2 A = 0 J

0 J ( r ')

If J goes to zero at infinity, A ( r )= d ' for volume current.

4 R

0 I 1 K

For line and surface currents, A ( r )= dl '; A ( r )= 0 R da '

4 R 4

Example: What current density would produce the vector potential A = K (where K is

a constant), in cylindrical coordinates ?

1 K

Solution: A = K B = A = (rA ) z = z

r r r

1 Az A Ar Az 1 Ar

A = r

+ z + ( rA ) z

r z r r r

1 1 K K K

Since J = ( B) = = J=

0 0 r r 0 r 2

0 r 2

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2.6 Magnetostatic Boundary Condition (Boundary is sheet of current, K )

Just as the electric field suffers a discontinuity at a surface charge, so the magnetic field is

discontinuous at a surface current. Only this time it is the tangential component that

changes.

Bab ove l

Babove

||

K

K

B below

||

B below

B.d a = 0

Since Babove = Bbelow

B.dl = 0 I enc Babove

||

Bbelow

||

= 0 K ( B is parallel to surface but to K ) r

B.dl = 0 I enc Babove = Bbelow

|| ||

( B is parallel to surface and along K )

( )

Thus the component of B that is parallel to the surface but perpendicular to the current is

discontinuous in the amount 0 K . A similar amperian loop running parallel to the current

reveals that the parallel component is continuous. The result can be summarized in a single

where n is a unit vector perpendicular to the surface, pointing upward.

Like the scalar potential in electrostatics, the vector potential is continuous across, a

boundary: Aabove = Abelow

form A.dl = B.d a =

line S

( )

But the derivative of A inherits the discontinuity of B : ( )

Aabove Abelow

= 0 K .

n n

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Example: (a) Find the magnetic vector potential at a distance r from an infinite straight wire

carrying a current I.

(b) Find the magnetic potential inside the wire, if it has radius R and the current is uniformly

distributed.

Solution: (a) A point in the same direction as I and is a function of r (the distance from

A 0 I

the wire). In cylindrical coordinates A = A(r ) z and B = A = = .

r 2 r

A I I r

= 0 A(r ) = 0 ln z (Constant a is arbitrary)

r 2 r 2 a

0 I 0 Ir 2 Ir

(b) B.dl = B.2 r = 0 I enc = 0 J r 2 = r2 = B= 0

R 2

R2 2 R 2

Az A I Ir I

B = A = = 0 A = 0 (r 2 b 2 ) z

r r 2 R 2 4 R 2

where b is arbitrary constant.

I R I

A must be continuous at R, 0 ln = 0 ( R 2 b2 ) , which means that we must

2 a 4 R 2

R b2

pick a and b such that 2 ln = 1 .

a R2

Example: Find the vector potential of an infinite solenoid with n turns per unit length, radius R,

and current I.

line S S

is the flux of B through the loop in

question.

0 nI

A.dl = A ( 2 r ) = B.d a = nI ( r ) A = r , for r < R.

2

Inside solenoid: 0

line S

2

0 nI R 2

Outside solenoid: A ( 2 r ) = B.d a = 0 nI ( R 2 ) A = , for r > R.

S

2 r

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2.7 Multiple Expansion of Vector Potential

We can derive approximate formula for the vector

r

potential of a localized current distribution, valid at distant

R

P

points. We can always write the potential in the form of a

1 r

power series in , where r is the distance to the point in

r

I d r = dl

question. Thus we can always write

0 I 1 3 1

A(r ) = (r ') 2 cos

1 1

r d l ' + r 2 r ' cos ' d l ' + r 3 ' d l ' + .........

2 2

4 2

z

First term, monopole dl = 0 (no magnetic

monopole)

m r

Second term, dipole Adip ( r ) = 0 2 r

4 r

y

m = I d a = I A where A is area vector

m sin

Thus Adip ()r = 0

4 r 2

x

Hence

1

()

B dip r = A =

0m

4 r 3

2 (

cos r

+ sin

4 r

)

= 0 3 3 m r r m

( )

Note: (a) When a magnetic dipole is placed in a uniform magnetic field ( B ), net force on

the dipole is zero and it experiences a torque = m B .

(c) Energy of an ideal dipole m in an magnetic field B is U = m.B .

U=

1

4 0 r 3

[m m 3(m r)(m r)]

1 2 1 2

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Example: A phonograph record of radius R, carrying a uniform surface charge is rotating at

constant angular velocity . Find its magnetic dipole moment.

Solution: Magnetic moment of a ring of radius r and thickness dr is, dm = I r 2 where

I = vdr = r dr

R R R 4 R 4

m = 0 r 2 rdr = 0 r 3dr = m= z

4 4

Example: A spherical shell of radius R, carrying a uniform surface charge , is set

spinning at angular velocity . Find its Magnetic dipole moment.

Solution: The total charge on the shaded ring is z

dq = (2 R sin ) Rd R sin

2 Rd

Time for one revolution is dt =

dq

Current in the ring I = = R 2 sin d d

dt

R

Area of the ring = (R sin )2 , so the magnetic moment of the

ring is

dm = ( R 2 sin d ) R 2 sin 2

4 4

m = R 4 0 sin 3 d = R 4 m = R 4 z

3 3

2.8 Magnetisation M ( )

If a piece of magnetic material is examined on an atomic scale we will find tiny currents:

electrons orbiting around nuclei and electrons spinning about their axes.

For macroscopic purpose, these current loops are so small that we may treat them as

magnetic dipoles. Ordinarily they cancel each other out because of the random orientation

of the atoms. But when a magnetic field is applied, a net alignment of these magnetic

dipoles occurs, and medium becomes magnetically polarized, or magnetized.

( )

Magnetization M is magnetic dipole moment per unit volume.

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2.8.1 The Field of a Magnetized Object (Bound Currents)

Then the vector potential of a single dipole m is given by ( ) R

0 m R

A(r ) =

4 R 2 m d '

In the magnetized object, each volume element d carries a

dipole moment M d , so the total vector potential

0 M ( r ') R

is A ( r ) =

4 v

d '

R2

0 1 0 1

The equation can be written as A ( r ) = R M ( r ) d '+ 4 R M ( r ) d a .

4 v

Jb = M

while the second term is like potential of a surface current,

K b = M n

With these definitions, the field of a magnetized object is

0 J b ( r ') K b ( r ')

A(r ) = d '+ da ' .

4 v

R R

This means the potential(and hence also the field) of a magnetized object is the same as

current K b = M n , on the boundary. We first determine these bound currents, and then

find the field they produce.

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Example: An infinitely long circular cylinder carries a uniform magnetization M parallel to its

axis. Find the magnetic field (due to M ) inside and outside the cylinder.

Solution: J b = M = 0; K b = M n = Mz r = M

So the field outside is zero.

Field inside is: B=0 K b = 0 M B = 0 M

K is a constant; r is the distance from the axis. Find the magnetic field due to M , for

points inside and outside the cylinder.

1

Solution: J b = M = (rKr 2 ) z = 3Krz and K b = M n = KR 2 ( r) = KR 2 z

r r

So the bound current flows up the cylinder, and returns down the surface.

R

(

ITotal = J b da + Kb dl = 0 (3kr )2 rdr + KR 2 2 R = 2 KR3 2 KR3 = 0 . )

Outside point: I enc = 0 B = 0

r

Inside point: B.2 r = 0 I enc = 0 0 J b da = 2 K 0 r 3 B = 0 Kr 2 = 0 M

2.9.1 Amperes Law in in presence of Magnetic Materials

In a magnetized material the total current can be written as

J = J b + J f where J b is bound current and J f is free current.

B

B = 0 J

0

1

( B ) = J = J

+ J f = M + J f M = J f

b ( )

0

B

The quantity in parentheses is designated by the letter H and H = M

0

H = J f

In integral form H dl = I fenc where I fenc is the total free current passing through the

amperian loop.

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H plays a role in magnetostatic analogous to D in electrostatic: Just as D allowed us to

write Gauss's law in terms of the free charge alone, H permits us to express Ampere's law

in terms of the free current alone- and free current is what we control directly.

Note:

When we have to find B or H in a problem involving magnetic materials, first look for

symmetry. If the problem exhibits cylindrical, plane, solenoid, or toroidal symmetry, then

we can get H directly from the equation H dl = I f enc .

Although this equation is valid for all the surfaces but it is useful for only symmetrical

surfaces.

2.9.2 Magnetic Susceptibility and Permeability

( )

B = 0 H + M = 0 (1 + m )H B = H where = 0 r = 0 (1 + m ) is permeability

of material.

2.9.3 Boundary Condition ( H )

The boundary between two medium is a thin sheet of free surface current K f .

n

S

H .dl = I free

H above H below = K f n .

Since l 1

B

H= M .H = .M 2

0

since .B = 0

Thus

Kf

H

above H

below = (M

above M

below )

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Example: A current I flows down a long straight wire of radius a. If the wire is made of linear

material with susceptibility m , and the current is distributed uniformly, what is the

magnetic field a distance r from the axis? Find all the bound currents. What is the net bound

current following down the wire?

Ir

r2

I 2 ; r < a 2 a 2 ; r < a

Solution: H dl = I f enc H .2 r = a H =

I ;r > a I ; r > a

2 r

I

B = H = 0 (1 + m ) H J b = m J f J b = m (same as I )

a2

m I

K b = M n = m M n K b = (Opposite to I)

2 a

Total bound current I b = J b a 2 + K b 2 a = m I m I = 0

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MCQ (Multiple Choice Questions)

Q1. A conducting loop, carrying a current I, is placed in a uniform

y

magnetic field pointing into the plane of the paper as shown. The

B

loop will have a tendency to

(a) contract x

(b) expand

(c) move towards positive x-axis

(d) move towards negative x-axis

Q2. A square loop is placed near an infinite straight wire as shown a

in figure. The loop and wire carry a steady current I 2 and I1 I2 a

respectively. Then the force acting on the square loop is:

0 I1 I 2 0 I1 I 2 I1

a

(a) (b)

2 a 4 a

0 I1 I 2 0 I1 I 2

(c) (d)

2 4

Q3. The wire loop PQRSP formed by joining two semicircular wires

of radii R1 and R2 carries a current I as shown in the figure. Then R2

the magnetic field B at the centre is R1

0 I 11 I 1 1 S R Q

, outward (b) 0 , inward P

2 R1 R2

(a)

2 R1 R2

0 I 1 1 I 1 1

, outward (d) 0 , inward.

4 R1 R2

(c)

4 R1 R2

Q4. The magnetic field at point P for the steady current configurations shown in figure is given

by

R

P

I 2 I 2

(a) B = 0 1 + (b) B = 0 1 +

R 2R

I 2 I 2

(c) B = 0 1 + (d) B = 0 1 +

3R 4R

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Q5. A uniform surface current is flowing in the positive y-direction over an infinite sheet lying

in the x-y plane. The direction of the magnetic field is:

(a) along z for z > 0 and along z for z < 0

(b) along x for z > 0 and along x for z < 0

(c) along z for z > 0 and along x for z < 0

(d) along x for z > 0 and along x for z < 0

Q6. Which one of the following current densities J , can generate the magnetic vector

potential = ( y 2 x + x 2 y ) ?

2 2 2 2

0 0 0 0

Q7. Which of the following expressions for a vector potential A does not represent a uniform

magnetic field of magnitude B0 along the z-direction?

B0 x B0 y B0 y B0 x

(c) A = , ,0 (d) A = , ,0

2 2 2 2

Q8. An infinitely long hollow cylinder of radius a carrying a surface charge density is rotated

about its cylindrical axis with a constant angular speed . Then the magnitude of vector

potential inside the cylinder at a distance r from its axis is:

1 1

(a) 2 0 a r (b) 0 a r (c) 0 a r (d) 0 a r

2 4

Q9. An infinitely long hollow cylinder of radius a carrying a surface charge density is rotated

about its cylindrical axis with a constant angular speed . Then the magnitude of vector

potential outside the cylinder at a distance r from its axis is:

1

(a) 2 0 a r (b) 0 a R 2

2r

1 1

(c) 0 a r (d) 0 a R 2

2 4r

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1 10

Q10. The magnetic field corresponding to the vector potential A = F r + 3 r where F is a

4 r

constant vector, is

F F 30 30

(a) (b) (c) F + r (d) F r

2 2 r4 r4

Q11. An infinite solenoid with its axis of symmetry along the z-direction carries a steady current

I. The vector potential A at a distance r from the axis

(a) is constant inside and varies as r outside the solenoid

(b) varies as r inside and is constant outside the solenoid

1

(c) varies as r inside and as outside the solenoid

r

1

(d) varies as inside and as r outside the solenoid

r

Q12. At the interface between two linear dielectrics (with permeability 1 and 2), the magnetic

field lines bend, as shown in the figure. Assume that there

is no free current at the interface. The ratio 1/2 is:

1

tan 1 cos 1 1

(a) tan (b) cos

2 2 2

sin 1 cot 1 2

(c) sin (d) cot .

2 2

Q13. Two identical square frames are made of the same conducting wire such that ABCD plane

is horizontal (with side AB in front) and ADEF plane is vertical, with side AD missing. The

same current I flow in the frame as shown in figure. The direction of the magnetic moment

E

vector will be

(a) vertical, upwards F

D

(c) at 45o with the vertical, pointing upwards C

(d) at 45 with the vertical, pointing downwards A B

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Q14. How does the magnetic moment (M) of an electron moving in a Bohr orbit of radius rn in an

Q15. A current carrying loop is placed in a uniform magnetic field in four different orientations I,

II, III and IV. Arrange them in the decreasing order of potential energy.

I. n II. B

B

n

B

n

n

III. IV. B

(a) I > III > II > IV (b) I > IV > II > III

(c) I > II > III > IV (d) III > IV > I > II

Q16. A long circular cylinder of radius R carries a magnetization M = kr 2 where k is a

constant, r is the distance from the axis. Then the volume bound current and surface

bound currents are respectively

(a) 2 kR 3 , 2 kR 3 (b) 2 kR3 , 2 kR 3

(c) kR 3 , kR 3 (d) kR 3 , kR 3

Q17. An infinitely long circular cylinder carries a uniform magnetization M = M z parallel to its

( )

axis. Then the volume bound current J b and surface bound currents K b are respectively ( )

(a) M , 0 (b) 0, M

(c) 2M , 0 (d) 0, 2M

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Q18. An infinitely long circular cylinder carries a uniform magnetization M = M z parallel to its

axis. Then which of the following statement is not true:

( )

(a) the volume bound current J b is zero

Q19. A wire is given a shape ABCDE as shown in the figure given

below through which a steady current I flows. The magnetic field P

0 I r

at the centre P is . Then the value of is..(upto D 90 o

r

two decimal point)

Q20. Current density in a cylindrical coordinate in certain region is given as

5 10

J = r + 2 z A / m 2 .

r r +1 ( )

The total current crossing the surface z = 3, r 6 in the z direction is.. A

Q21. Consider a constant magnetic field of B Tesla along the z direction. A square loop of side

length ( L ) meters is place in the field such that normal to the loop makes an angle of 60 0

to the z-axis, as shown in the figure. Then the value of the path integral A dl in the units

60 o

z

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Q22. A particle of charge q and mass m moves in a circular orbit of radius r with angular speed

. The ratio of the magnitude of its angular momentum to that of its magnetic moment is

m

. Then the value of is .

q

Q23. A small magnetic dipole is kept at the origin in the x-y plane. One wire L1 is located at

z = a in the x-z plane with a current I flowing in the positive x direction. Another wire L2

is at z = + a in y-z plane with the same current I as in L1, flowing in the positive y-

direction. The angle made by the magnetic dipole with respect to the positive x-axis is

.. ( in deg ree )

Q24. Which of the following expressions for a vector potential A represent a uniform magnetic

field of magnitude B0 along the z-direction?

(a) A = (0, B0 x,0) (b) A = ( B0 y,0,0)

B0 x B0 y B0 y B0 x

(c) A = , ,0 (d) A = , ,0

2 2 2 2

to its axis. Then which of the following statements are true:

( )

(a) the volume bound current J b is zero

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Q26. Two long parallel wires carrying current I1 and I2 in the same direction are placed a distance

d apart. Then which of the following statements are true:

0 I1I2

(a) the force per unit length on each wire is

2d

0 I1I2

(b) the force per unit length on each wire is

4d

(c) they attract each other

(d) they repel each other

Q27. For the steady current configurations shown in figure which of the following statements are

true:

I1 1

(a) The magnetic field at point P is B = 0 b

4 a b

I1 1

(b) The magnetic field at point P is B = 0 a

8 a b

P

(c) Magnetic field points upward

(d) Magnetic field points inward

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Solutions

MCQ (Multiple Choice Questions)

Ans. 1: (b)

Ans. 2: (d)

Solution: The force on the two sides cancels.

I I II

At the bottom, B = 0 1 F = 0 1 I2a = 0 1 2 (up)

2a 2a 2

I I II

At the top, B = 0 1 F = 0 1 I2a = 0 1 2 (down)

4a 4a 4

II

Thus Net Force = 0 1 2 (up)

4

Ans. 3: (c)

Ans. 4: (d)

0 I

Solution: The two half lines are the same as one infinite line:

2 R

0 I

The half circle contributes:

4R

0 I 2

So B = 1 + (into the page)

4R

Ans. 5: (d)

Ans. 6: (c)

1 ( ) 2

Solution: B = A = 2 ( x y ) z J = B = ( x + y )

0 0

Ans. 7: (c)

Solution: B A .

Ans. 8: (c)

Solution: Surface current K = v K = a , thus A = A

1

Since B = A

line

A.dl = B.d a A 2 r = 0 a r 2 A =

S

2

0 a r

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Ans. 9: (b)

Solution: Surface current K = v K = a , thus A = A

1

Since B = A

line

A.dl = B.d a A 2 r = 0 a R 2 A =

S

2r

0 a R 2

Solution: B = A =

1

[ (

)]

r

F r + 10 3 . Since F is a constant vector, let

4 r

x y z

F = F0 ( x + y + z ) , F r = F0 F0 F0 = x ( z y )F0 y ( z x )F0 + z ( y x )F0

x y z

x y z

(

F r =

x

)

y

z

= x[F0 + F0 ] y [ F0 F0 ] + z[F0 + F0 ] = 2 F0 ( x + y + z )

(z y )F0 (x z )F0 ( y x )F0

1

4

[ ( 1

2

)] F

2 r

r F

F r = F0 (x + y + z ) = , 3 = 0 . Thus B = .

2

Ans. 11: (c)

Ans. 12: (a)

B1II

tan 1 B B II

Solution: = II 1 = 2II = 1 sin ce B1 = B2 , 1 B1II = 2 B2II

tan 2 B2 B1 2

B2

Ans. 13: (c)

Ans. 14: (b)

evn ev r

Solution: M = IA = rn2 = n n since mvn rn = n M vn rn n

2 rn 2

and rn = n 2 a0 n rn M rn

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Ans. 15: (b)

Solution: U = m.B = mB cos

I. = 1800 U = + mB , II. = 900 U = 0

III. = Acute angle U = ve , IV. = Obtuse angle U = + ve

Thus I > IV > II > III

Ans. 16: (a)

1

Solution: J b = M =

r r

( r.kr 2 ) z = 3krz and K b = M n = kR 2 r = kR 2 z ( )

So the bound current flows up the cylinder, and returns down the surface.

R

Total volume bound current = J b .d a = J b da = ( 3kr ) 2 rdr = 2 kR 3

0

Solution: J b = M = 0 , K b = M n = M ( z r ) = M

Solution: J b = M = 0 , K b = M n = M ( z r ) = M

So the field outside is zero.

Field inside is: B = 0 K b = 0 M B = 0 M

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NAT (Numerical Answer Type)

Ans. 19: 0.38

0 I

0 I 2700 30 I I

B= = = = 0.38 0

2r 2 2r 360 8r r

Ans. 20: 113.38

5 10

Solution: I = J .da = r + 2 z .rdrd z

r r + 1

2

rdrd = 2 10 ln ( b 2 + 1) I = 10 ln ( 37 ) = 31.4 3.6 = 113.38 A

b 10 1

I =

0 0 r +1

2

2

Ans. 21: 0.5

1 1 2

Solution: 0

= B L2 = BL = 0.5 BL2

S S

2 2

Ans. 22: 2

q q q r 2 L m

Solution: M = IA = A= r2 = and L = mvr = mr 2 =2

T 2 2 M q

Ans. 23: 225

Resultant magnetic field at z = 0 makes an angle of 45 0 with x and 225 0 with x .

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MSQ (Multiple Select Questions)

Ans. 24: (a), (b) and (d)

Ans. 25: (a), (b) and (c)

Solution: J b = M = 0 , K b = M n = M ( z r ) = M

So the field outside is zero.

Field inside is: B = 0 K b = 0 M B = 0 M

I

Solution: The field at (2) due to (1) is B = 0 1 (points into the page). I2

2 d I1

I II v

Force on (2) is F = I 2 0 1 dl f = 0 1 2

2 d 2 d

Force per unit length is towards (1) and net force is attractive F B

Solution: The straight segment produces no field at P.

I1 1

The two quarter circles give B = 0 out of page.

8 a b

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Chapter - 3

Dynamics of Charged Particles in Static and Uniform Electromagnetic Fields

The Lorentz Force Law:

F mag = Q v B ( )

This is known as Lorentz force law.

In the presence of both electric and magnetic fields, the net force on Q would be:

F = Q E + v B

( )

3.1 Charged Particle in Static Electric Field

3.1.1 Charged Particle enters in the direction of field (Linear motion)

Q

E

1 2

F QE

Acceleration of the charge particle in the direction of the electric field is a = = .

m m

d2r Q d r QE dr QE

= E = t +C =v= t + C where C is a constant.

d t m

2

dt m dt m

QE

Let at t = 0 , v = u C = u v = t +u

m

d r QE QE 2

Since = t +u r = t + ut + C1 where C1 is a constant

dt m 2m

ut

QE 2 QE 2

Let at t = 0 , r = r0 C1 = r0 r = t + ut + r0 r0 t

2m 2m

QE 2 QE 1 2

If initially u = 0, r0 = 0 r = t and v = t.

2m m

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The energy acquired by the charged particle in moving from point 1 to 2 is

( )

2 2 2 2

dv 1

W = F .d l = m a.d l = m .vdt =m v.d v W = m v 22 v12

1 1 1

dt 1

2

If the potential difference between points 1 to 2 is V then

W = QV =

1

2

(

m v 22 v12 )

If the particle starts from rest i.e (v1 = 0 ) and final velocity is v then

1 2 2QV

W = QV = mv v =

2 m

1 2 1 Q2E 2 2 QE 2

Kinetic energy of the particle K .E. = mv = m. t = QE t = QEr

2 2 m 2

2m

3.1.2 Charged Particle enters in the direction perpendicular to field (Parabolic motion)

Let us consider a charge particle enters in an electric field region with velocity v x at

t = 0 . The electric field is in the y-direction and the field region has length l. After

traversing a distance l it strikes a point P on a screen which is placed at a distance L from

the field region.

y

P

y2

L

vx y1 x

Ey

+ + + +

l

Since electric field is in the y-direction, charge particle will experience force

QE y

Fy = QE y Acceleration a y =

m

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1

In time t, charge particle will traverse a distance y = a y t 2 in y-direction and a

2

distance x = v x t in x-direction.

2

1 QE y x

Thus y = a y t 2 = and which represents parabolic path.

2 2m vx

2

QE y l

y1 = and y 2 == L tan

2m v x

2

QE y l

Thus distance of point P from the center of the screen is, y1 + y 2 = + L tan

2m v x

dy QE y

Angle of deviation in the field region, tan = = x

dx mv x2

QE y

Angle of deviation in the field free region, tan = l

mv x2

3.2 Charged Particle in Static Magnetic Field

The magnetic force on a charge Q, moving with velocity v in a magnetic field B is,

F mag = Q v B ( )

This is known as Lorentz force law.

3.2.1 Charged Particle enters in the direction perpendicular to field (Circular motion)

If a charge particle enters in a magnetic field at angle of 90o, then motion will be circular

with the magnetic force providing the centripetal y

acceleration. As shown in figure, a uniform magnetic field

points into the page; if the charge Q moves counter R v

clockwise, with speed v, around a circle of radius R, the F

x

Q

magnetic force points inward, and has a fixed magnitude

B

QvB, just right to sustain uniform circular motion: z

v2 mv

QvB = m R=

R QB

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where R is the radius of the circle and m is the mass of the charge particle.

Momentum of the charged particle p = QBR

p2 Q2B2R2

Kinetic energy (K.E) = =

2m 2m

2R 2m

Time period T = =

v QB

3.2.2 Charged Particle enters in the direction making an angle with the field

(Helical motion)

If the charge particle enters in a magnetic field making an angle ,

then motion will be helical.

v = v sin and v|| = v cos ,

B ||

mv

and the radius of helix is R = .

QB

3.3 Charged Particle in Uniform Electric and Magnetic Field

(Cycloid motion)

from origin, then particle will follow cycloid motion.

Initially, the particle is at rest, so z

the magnetic force is zero, and

the electric field accelerates the E

charge in z-direction. As it

speeds up, a magnetic force

develops which pulls the charge

o

to the right. The faster it goes a b c y

stronger the magnetic force

B

becomes and it curves the

particle back around towards the x

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y-axis. At this point the charge is moving against the electric force, so it begins to slow

down-the magnetic force then decreases, and the electrical force takes over, bringing the

charge to rest at point a and then process repeats.

( )

F = Q E + v B = Q ( E z + Bz y By z ) = ma = m ( y y + z z )

E QB

y = z, z = y where = (cylotron frequency )

B m

Let us solve the above differential equations,

E E

y = z y = z y = 2 y z = y

B B

E

y + 2 y = 2

B

E

Let y = t t ' + 2t = 2 .

B

For C.F .

D 2 + 2 = 0 D = i C.F . = C1 cos t + C2 sin t

For P.I .

1 2 E 1 2 E E

P.I . = 2

= 2 =

D +

2

B 0 + 2 B B

E

Thus t = y = C.F . + P.I = C1 cos t + C2 sin t +

B

E C C

y ( t ) = C1 sin t + C2 cos t + t + C3 where C1 = 1 , C2 = 2 .

B

z = y z = C1 sin t + C2 cos t z ( t ) = C1 cos t C2 sin t + C4

y ( 0 ) = 0, z ( 0 ) = 0 y ( 0 ) = C2 + C3 = 0 and z ( 0 ) = C1 + C4 = 0

E

y ( 0 ) = 0, z ( 0 ) = 0 y ( 0 ) = C1 + = 0 and z ( 0 ) = C2 = 0 C2 = 0

B

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E

Thus C2 = 0 C3 = 0 and C1 = C4 =

B

E E

y (t ) = (t sin t ) , z ( t ) = (1 cos t )

B B

E

( y Rt ) + ( z R ) = R 2

2 2

where R =

B

This is the formula for a circle, of radius R, whose center is ( 0, Rt , R ) travels in the

E

y-direction at constant speed, v = R =

B

The curve generated in this way is called a cycloid.

(

dWmag = F mag dl = Q v B vdt = 0 . )

Magnetic forces may alter the direction in which a particle moves, but they can not speed

up or slow down it.

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Example: A neutron, a proton, an electron and an particle enter a region of constant

magnetic field with equal velocities. The magnetic field is along the inward normal to the

plane of paper. Label the tracks of the particles.

mv m pv C

Solution: Re = e , R p = = 1836 Re

B

eB eB

A

m v 4 m pv

R = = = 2R p . D

q B 2 eB

Example: A uniform magnetic field with a slit system, as B (outward)

shown in figure, is to be used as a momentum filter for

high energy charged particles. With a field B tesla, it is

found that the filter transmits particles each of energy

5.3 MeV. source detector

The magnetic field is increased to 2.3 B tesla and deuterons are

passed into the filter. Find the energy of each deuteron

transmitted by the filter.

mv

mv = qBr p = qBr p 2 = 2mK = ( qBr )

2

Solution: r =

qB

2 2

2m K q r B 2 4m p 5 3 2e r 1

= . = K d = 14 MeV

2md K d qd rd 2 3B 2 2m p K d e r 2 3

Example: A beam of protons with velocity 4 105 m / sec enters a uniform magnetic field

of 0.3 Tesla at an angle of 600 to the magnetic field. Find the radius of the helical path

taken by the proton beam. Also find the pitch of the helix.

m p v2 m p v

= qv B R = = 0.012 m where m p = 1836me .

R qB

2 m p

Pitch of helix d = v||T = v|| = 0.044 m

qB

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MCQ (Multiple Choice Questions)

Q1. A neutron, a proton, an electron and an particle enter a

region of constant magnetic field with equal velocities. The C

B

magnetic field is along the inward normal to the plane of

A

paper. Tracks of the particles are labeled as shown in figure.

D

Which of the following correctly represents the track of the

particles.

(a) A Proton, B particle, C neutron, D electron

(b) A particle, B Proton, C neutron, D electron

(c) A electron, B particle, C neutron, D Proton

(d) A Proton, B electron, C neutron, D particle

Q2. In a cyclotron, -particles are accelerated using RF source of frequency15 MHz . What

Q3. A proton, deuteron and an -particle having the same kinetic energy are moving in

circular trajectories in a constant magnetic field. If rp , rd and r denote respectively the

(a) r = rp < rd (b) r = rp > rd (c) r > rp < rd (d) r = rp = rd

Q4. If B points in x-direction and E points in z-direction, and a particle of mass m and

charge Q at rest is released from origin, then particle will follow Cycloidal path. Which

QB

of the following coupled differential equation represents Cycloidal path ( where = )

m

E E

(a) x = y, y = x (b) x = z , z = x

B B

E E

(c) z = y, y = z (d) y = z , z = y

B B

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Q5. A proton, deuteron and an -particle having the same kinetic energy are moving in

circular trajectories in a constant magnetic field. If rp , rd and r denote respectively the

Q6. A particle having a charge Q and mass m moves along a circle of radius R under the

action of a magnetic field B. When the particle is at a point P, a uniform electric field is

switched on and it is found that the particle continues on the tangent through P with a

uniform velocity. The magnitude of the electric field is:

m RQB RQB 2

(d) RQB .

2

(a) QB (b) (c)

m m

Q7. Two particles X and Y having equal charges, after being accelerated through the same

potential difference, enter a region of uniform magnetic field and describe circular paths

of radii R1 and R2 respectively. The ratio of the mass of X to that Y is

2

R1 R2 R1 R1

(a) (b) (c) (d) R

R2 R1 R2 2

Q8. A charged particle moves in a helical path under the influence of a constant

magnetic field. The initial velocity is such that the component along the

magnetic field is twice the component in the plane normal to the magnetic l

field. The ratio / R of the pitch to the radius R of the helical path is

(a) / 2 (b) 4 (c) 2 (d) 2R

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NAT (Numerical Answer Type)

Q9. The maximum energy of deuteron coming out of a cyclotron accelerator is 20 MeV . The

maximum energy of protons that can be obtained from the accelerator is .. MeV

Q10. In a cyclotron, -particles are accelerated using RF source of frequency12 MeV . The

Q11. If B points in x-direction and E points in z-direction, and a particle of mass m and

charge Q at rest is released from origin, then particle will follow Cycloidal path. Which

QB E

of the following expressions are true for Cycloidal path ( where = and R = )

m B

E E

(a) z = y, y = z (b) y = z , z = y

B B

(c) ( y Rt ) + z 2 = R 2 (d) ( z Rt ) + y 2 = R 2

2 2

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Solutions

MCQ (Multiple Choice Questions)

Ans. 1: (a)

me v mv m v 4m p v

Solution: Re = , R p = p = 1836 Re , R = = = 2 Rp

eB eB q B 2eB

Ans. 2: (d)

qB f ' q ' m q 4m p 4

Solution: f = = = = f ' = 20 MHz

2 m f q m ' q 3m p 3

Ans. 3: (a)

mv 2mK 1 2 4

Solution: r = r= rp : rd : r = : :

qB qB 1 1 2

rp : rd : r = 1: 2 :1 or r = rp < rd

Ans. 4: (d)

( )

Solution: F = Q E + v B = Q ( E z + Bz y By z ) = ma = m ( y y + z z )

E QB

y = z , z = y where = (cylotron frequency)

B m

Ans. 5: (b)

mv 2mK 1 2 4

Solution: r = r= rp : rd : r = : :

qB qB 1 1 2

rp : rd : r = 1: 2 :1 .

Ans. 6: (c)

mv RQB 2

Solution: QE = QvB E = vB and R= E= .

QB m

Ans. 7: (c)

1 1 m1v12 = m2 v22 (1)

Solution: K X = m1v12 = qV and KY = m2 v22 = qV

2 2

The magnetic force provides centripetal force to the charged particle

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m v2 m2 v2

2

mv m v

1 1 = qv1 B; = qv2 B 1 1 = 2 2 (2)

R R2 R1 R2

1

2

m1 R1

=

m2 R2

From (1) and (2),

Ans. 8: (b)

Solution: v|| = 2v

2 R 2 R l

Pitch of the helix l = v||T = v|| = 2v = 4 R = 4

v v R

Ans. 9: 40

2

q2 B2r 2 k p q p md q 2 2m p

Solution: KEmax = = = k p = 2kd = 40 MeV

2m kd qd m p q mp

Ans. 10: 16

qB f ' q ' m q 4m p 4

Solution: f = = = = f ' = 16 MHz

2 m f q m ' q 3m p 3

Ans. 11: (b) and (c)

( )

Solution: F = Q E + v B = Q ( E z + Bz y By z ) = ma = m ( y y + z z )

E QB

y = z, z = y where = (cylotron frequency)

B m

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Chapter - 4

Electromagnetic Induction

4.1 Faradays Law

v v

I I I

B B B

(a ) changing (b )

(c)

magnetic field

Experiment 1: He pulled a loop of wire to the right through a magnetic field. A current

flowed in the loop (Figure a).

Experiment 2: He moved the magnet to the left, holding the loop still. Again, a current

flowed in the loop (Figure b).

Experiment 3: With both the loop and the magnet at rest, he changed the strength of the

field (he used an electromagnet, and varied the current in the coil). Once again current

flowed in the loop (Figure c).

Thus, universal flux rule is that, whenever (and for whatever reason) the magnetic flux

d

through a loop changes, an e.m.f. ( ) will appear in the loop =

dt

In experiment 2, A changing magnetic field induces an electric field.

It is this induced electric field that accounts for the e.m.f.

d

Also the induced e.m.f = E dl = (where magnetic flux = B.d a )

dt

Then E is related to the change in B by the equation

B B

E dl = t .d a E =

t

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4.1.1 Lenzs Law

In Faradays law negative sign represents the Lenzs law. (The induced current will flow

in such a direction that the flux it produces tends to cancel the change).

For example if the magnetic flux is increasing then induced e.m.f will try to reduce and

vice versa.

Example: A long solenoid, of radius a, is driven by alternating current, so that the field inside is

2

placed inside the solenoid, and coaxial with it. Find the current induced in the loop, as a

function of time.

a2 1

Solution: Magnetic flux through the loop = B. A = B0 cos (t ) = a 2 B0 cos (t )

4 4

d 1 2 1

Induced emf ( t ) = = a B0 sin t = 0 sin t 0 = a 2 B0

dt 4 4

(t ) a 2 B0 sin t a 2 B0

Induced current i ( t ) =

= = i0 sin t i0 =

R 4R 4R

Example: A square loop (side a) is mounted on a vertical shaft and rotated at angular velocity .

A uniform magnetic field B points to the right. Find the induced emf ( t ) for this

Solution: Magnetic flux = B. A = BA cos = Ba 2 cos t

d

Induced emf ( t ) = = Ba 2 sin t

dt

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Example: A metal bar of mass m slides frictionlessly on two parallel conducting rails a distance

l apart. A resistor R is connected across the rails and a uniform magnetic field B , pointing

into the page, fills the entire region.

R l v

(a) If the bar moves to the right at speed v, what ismthe current in the resistor? In what

direction does it flow?

(b) What is the magnetic force on the bar?

d dx Blv

Solution: (a) = = Bl = Blv ; = IR I = (downwardin R) .

dt dt R

B 2l 2 v

(b) F = IlB = (to the left)

R

Example: A square loop of wire (side a) lies on a table, a distance r from a very long straight

wire, which carries a current I. a

(a) Find the flux of B through the loop.

a

(b) If some one now pulls the loop directly away from the

wire, at speed v, what emf is generated? In what direction

r

does the current flow?

(c) What if the loop is pulled to the right at speed v, instead I

of moving away?

r +a

0 I 1 I r+a

Solution: (a) = B.d a =

2 r ( adr ) = 2 ln r

r

0

d Ia d r + a

(b) = = 0 ln

dt 2 dt r

0 Ia 1 dr 1 dr 0 Ia 2v

= = (counter clockwise)

2 r + a dt r dt 2 r (r + a )

(c) Flux is constant so = 0 .

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Example: A long solenoid, of radius a and n turns per unit length carries a time-dependent

current I ( t ) in the direction. Find the electric field (magnitude and direction) at a

distance r from the axis (both inside and outside the solenoid).

Solution: Field due to solenoid B ( t ) = 0 nI ( t ) z inside and zero outside.

d dI ( t ) r dI ( t )

E.dl = dt B.d a E ( 2 r ) = 0 n dt r E = 0 n 2 dt .

2

d dI ( t )

E.dl = dt B.d a E ( 2 r ) = 0 n dt a

2

na 2 dI ( t ) B(t )

E= 0 .

2r dt

Example: A uniform magnetic field B ( t ) , pointing straight up, fills the

time, what is the induced electric field?

Solution: E ( t ) points in the circumferential direction, just like the magnetic field inside a long

Draw an Amperian loop of radius r and apply Faradays Law:

B(t )

d dB ( t )

E.dl =

dt

E ( 2 r ) =

d

dt

r 2 B ( t ) = r 2 (

dt

. )

r dB ( t )

Thus E= .

2 dt r

If B is increasing, E runs clockwise, as viewed from above.

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4.1.2 Inductance

If a steady current I1 flows in a loop 1, it produces magnetic field B1 . Some of the field

lines pass through loop 2, let 2 be the flux of

B1

B1 through 2.

Loop -2

0 dl1 R

From Biot-Savart law, B1 = I1 ,

4 R2

Therefore flux through loop 2 is 2 = B1 d a2 .

Loop -1

I1

Thus 2 = M 21 I1 , where M 21 is the constant of

proportionality; it is known as the mutual inductance of the two loops. Now

(

2 = B1 d a2 = A1 .d a 2 = ) A .dl

1 2

0 1 dl1 dl1

Since A1 =

4 R

2 = 0 1

4 R

.dl2

0 I1 dl1 dl2

2 = M 21 I1 M 21 =

4 R

This is the Neumann formula; it involves double line integral-one integration around

loop1, the other around loop2.

Thus

(a) M 21 is a purely geometrical quantity depends on sizes, shapes and relative position of

two loops.

(b) M 21 = M 12 = M

If flux through loop 2, varies then induce emf in loop 2 is

d2 dI

2 = = M 1 .

dt dt

Changing current not only induces an emf in any nearby loops, it also induces an emf in

the source loop itself. Again field (and therefore flux) is proportional to the current.

= LI where L is self inductance of the loop

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If the current changes, the emf induced in the same loop is

dI

= L .

dt

Inductance is measured in henries (H); a henry is a volt-second per ampere.

Inductance (like capacitance) is an intrinsically positive quantity. Lenz's law, which is

enforced by minus sign, which means the emf is in such a direction to oppose and change

in current. For this reason, it is called a back emf. Whenever we try to alter the current,

we must fight against this back emf.

4.1.3 Energy Stored in the field

It takes a certain amount of energy to start a current flowing in a circuit. The work done

on a unit charge, against the back emf, in one trip around the circuit is (the mines sign

is due to the fact that work is being done by us against the emf, not the work done by the

emf). The amount of charge per unit time passing down the wire is I. So the total work

dW d

done per unit time is, = I = LI

dt dt

If we start with zero current and build it up to a final value I,

1 2

The work done (Integrating the last equation over time) is W = LI

2

Since = LI = B.d a = A .d a =

S S

( ) A.dl , where P is the perimeter of the loop and S

P

1 1

Therefore W= I

2 0 0

1

2 V

( )

A.J d

1

W=

2 0

all space

B 2 d

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MCQ (Multiple Choice Questions)

Q1. A current i p flows through the primary coil of a transformer. The graph of i p (t ) as a

i p (t )

1 2 3 t

Which of the following graphs represents the current i S in the secondary coil?

(a) (b) is

is

1 2 3

t

1 2 3 t

(c) is (d) is

1 2 3t

1 2 3t

Q2. A horizontal metal disc rotates about the vertical axis in a uniform magnetic field

pointing up as shown in the figure. A circuit is made by connecting one end A of a

resistor to the centre of the disc and the other end B to its edge through a sliding contact.

The current that flows through the resistor is B

(a) zero B A

(b) DC from A to B

(c) DC from B to A S

(d) AC

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Q3. A uniform and constant magnetic field B coming out of the plane of the paper exists in a

rectangular region as shown in the figure. A conducting rod PQ is rotated about O with a

uniform angular speed in the plane of the paper. The emf EPQ induced between P and Q

is best represented by the graph

B

Q

(a) E PQ (b) E PQ

O O

t t

(c) (d)

E PQ E PQ

O O

t t

Q4. Consider a solenoid of radius R with n turns per unit length, in which a time dependent

current I = I 0 sin t ( where R / c << 1) flows. The magnitude of the electric field at a

1

(a) 0 (b) 0 nI 0 R 2 cos t

2r

1 1

(c) 0 nI 0 r sin t (d) 0 nI 0 r cos t

2 2

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Q5. An infinitely long wire carrying a current I (t ) = I 0 cos t is

placed at a distance L from a square loop of side L as

L

shown in figure. If the resistance of the loop is R, then the

amplitude of the induced current in the loop is:

0 2 L 0 0 8L 0 L

(a) (b) ln 2

4 R 4 R

0 4 L 0 0 2 L 0 (t )

(c) ln 2 (d) ln 2

4 R 4 R

Q6. A large circular coil of N turns and radius R carries a time varying current I (t ) = I 0 sin t .

A small circular coil of n turns and radius r ( r << R ) is placed at the center of the large

coil such that the coils are concentric and coplanar. The induced emf in the small coil

(a) Leads the current in the large coil by / 2

(b) Lags the current in the large coil by

(c) is in phase with the current in the large coil

(d) Lags the current in the large coil by / 2

Q7. A thin conducting wire is bent into a circular loop of radius r and placed in a time

dependent magnetic field of magnetic induction (t ) = 0 e t z where 0 > 0, > 0

such that the plane of the loop is perpendicular to (t ) . Then the induced emf in the loop

is:

(a) r 2 B0 e t (b) r 2 B0 e t

(c) r 2 B0 e t (d) r 2 B0 e t

Q8. A square loop of wire, with sides of length L, lies in the first quadrant of the xy plane,

with one corner at the origin. In this region there is a non-uniform time dependent

magnetic field B ( y, t ) = Ky 3t 2 z (where K is a constant). Then the induced emf in the

loop is

1 1 1 1

(a) KtL2 (b) KtL4 (c) KtL5 (d) KtL5

2 4 2 2

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Q9. A solenoid with an iron core is connected in series with a battery of emf V and it is found

that a constant current I 0 passes through the solenoid. If at t = 0 , the iron core is pulled

out from the solenoid quickly in a time t , which one of the following could be a correct

description of the current passing through the solenoid?

(a ) I (b ) I

I0 I0

0 t 0 t

(c ) I (d ) I

I0 I0

0 t 0 t

Q10. A metallic square loop ABCD is moving in its own plane with velocity V in a uniform

magnetic field perpendicular to its plane as shown in the figure. An electric field is

induced.

A B

(a) in AD, but not in BC

(b) in BC, but not in AD V

(c) neither in AD nor in BC

(d) in both AD and BC

D C

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NAT (Numerical Answer Type)

Q11. A small loop of wire of area A = 0.01 m 2 , N = 40 turns and resistance R = 40 is

initially kept in a uniform magnetic field B in such a way that the field is normal to the

loop. When it is pulled out of the magnetic field a total charge of Q = 2 105 C flows

Q12. A conducting circular loop is placed in a uniform magnetic field of 0.02 Tesla , with its

plane perpendicular to the field. If the radius of the loop starts shrinking at a constant

rate 1.0 mm / sec , then the magnitude of e.m.f. induced in the loop, at the instant when the

radius is 4.0 cm will be V . (Answer must be an integer)

Q13. A long solenoid, of radius a, is driven by alternating current, so that the field inside is

2

is placed inside the solenoid, and coaxial with it. Then the amplitude of current induced

a 2 B0

in the loop, as a function of time is . Then the value of is

R

MSQ (Multiple Select Questions)

Q14. Consider a solenoid of radius R with n turns per unit length, in which a time dependent

current I = I 0 sin t ( where R / c << 1) flows. Then which of the following statements

are true for magnitude of the electric field at a perpendicular distance r from the axis of

symmetry?

1

(b) Electric field E = 0 nI 0 R 2 cos t for r > R

2r

1

(c) Electric field E = 0 nI 0 r sin t for r < R

2

1

(d) Electric field E = 0 nI 0 r cos t for r < R

2

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Solutions

MCQ (Multiple Choice Questions)

Ans. 1: (b)

Ans. 2: (b)

Ans. 3: (a)

Ans. 4: (b)

B

Solution: E dl = t da; ( B = nI ( t ) z )

0 .

2 R 2

R

dI

E 2 r = 0 n

dt

r = 0

2 r dr = 0 n I 0 cos t

2

1

E = 0 nI 0 R 2 cos t

2r

Ans. 5: (d)

0 ( t ) 2 L 1 ( t ) = 0 I ( t ) L ln 2

Solution: Magnetic flux = B d a =

2 L r

Ldr

2

d 0 LI 0 sin t

= = ln 2 I ( t ) = I 0 cos t

dt 2 R

0 2 LI 0 sin t

= ln 2

4 R

Ans. 6: (a)

d dB dI

Solution: = = A cos t sin t sin t

dt dt dt 2 2

Ans. 7: (a)

d

Solution: = = r 2 B0 e t

dt

Ans. 8: (d)

Kt 2 L5 d

L L

1

Solution: = Bdxdy = Kt 2 dx y 3 dy = = = KtL5

0 0

4 dt 2

Ans. 9: (a)

Ans. 10: (d)

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NAT (Numerical Answer Type)

Ans. 11: 2

Solution: Magnetic flux through the loop = NBA

d 1 d dQ 1

Induced e.m.f = and induced current i = = d = dQ .

dt R dt dt R

1

( 40 B 0.01) = 2 105 B = 2 103 T

40

Ans. 12: 5.0

d BdA Bdr 2 2 Bdr

Solution: = = = = r

dt dt dr dt

22

= 2 2 102 (1 103 ) 4 102 = 48 107 V = 4.8 106 V = 5.0V

7

Ans. 13: 0.25

a2 1

Solution: Magnetic flux through the loop = B. A = B0 cos (t ) = a 2 B0 cos (t )

4 4

d 1 2 1

Induced emf ( t ) = = a B0 sin t = 0 sin t 0 = a 2 B0

dt 4 4

(t ) a 2 B0 sin t a 2 B0

Induced current i ( t ) = = = i0 sin t i0 =

R 4R 4R

MSQ (Multiple Select Questions)

Ans. 14: (b) and (d)

Solution: E dl =

B

t

da ; (B = nI (t )z ).

0

2 R 2

R

dI

For r > R E 2 r = 0 n

dt

r = 0

2 r dr = 0 n I 0 cos t

2

1

E = 0 nI 0 R 2 cos t

2r

2 r 2

r

dI

For r < R E 2 r = 0 n

dt

r = 0

2 r dr = 0 n I 0 cos t

2

1

E = 0 nI 0 r cos t

2

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Chapter - 5

Maxwell's Equations

5.1 Maxwells Equation in Free Space

5.1.1 Electrodynamics before Maxwells

(i) (Gauss Law),

0

(ii) B 0 (No name),

B

(iii) (Fardays Law),

t

(iv) B 0 J (Amperes law).

Taking divergence of equation (iii) we get

B

.( E ) .

.B 0 . So equation (iii) is valid.

t t

Again taking divergence of equation (iv) we have .( B ) 0 (.J ) ;

the left side must be zero, but the right side, in general, is not.

For steady currents .J 0 , but for time varying fields ( .J ) the Ampere's law

t

can not be right.

5.1.2 How Maxwell fixed Amperes Law

From continuity equation and Gauss Law

E E

.J ( 0 .E ) . 0 . J 0 0 .

t t t t

E

Thus B 0 J 0 0

t

A changing electric field induces a magnetic field.

E

Maxwell called this extra term the displacement current J d 0 .

t

E

Integral form of Ampere's law B.dl 0 I enc 0 0 .d a

t

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I

Capacitor

Battery

Displacement current resolves the paradox of charging capacitor. If the capacitor plates

1 1 Q

are very close together, then the electric field between them is: E where Q

0 0 A

is the charge on the plate and A is its area.

E 1 Q 1

Thus, between the plates I

t 0 A t 0 A

E

B.dl 0 I enc 0 0 .d a B.dl 0 I .

t

If, on the other hand, we use the balloon-shaped surface, then I enc 0 , then

E I

t .d a 0

E

B.dl 0 I enc 0 0 .d a B.dl 0 I

t

So we get the same answer for either surface, though in the first case it comes from the

genuine current and in the second from the displacement current.

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(i) (Gauss Law),

0

(ii) B 0 (No name),

B

(iii) (Fardays Law),

t

E

(iv) B 0 J 0 0 (Amperes law with Maxwell's correction).

t

5.2 Maxwells Equation in Linear Isotropic Media

For materials that are subject to electric and magnetic polarization there is more

convenient way to write Maxwell's equations. Inside polarized matter there will be

accumulation of bound charge and current over which we don't have direct control.

So we will reformulate Maxwell's equation in such a way as to make explicit reference

only to those sources we control directly: the free charges and currents.

We know that an electric polarization P produces a bound charge density b .P .

Likewise, a magnetic polarization (or magnetization) M results in a bound

current J b M .

Due to time varying field any change in the electric polarization involves a flow of

(bound) charge, (call it polarization current J P ), which must be included in the total

current.

Consider a small piece of polarized material. The

polarization introduces a charge density b P at one P

da

b

end and b at the other (since b P.n ). If P now

b

increases a bit, the charge on each end increases

b

accordingly, giving a net current-carrying, dI da

t

P

Thus the polarization current J P

t

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The polarization current has nothing to do with the bound current, J b . The bound current

( J b M ) is associated with magnetization of the material and involves the spin and

orbital motion of electrons.

In view of all this, the total charge density f b f .P ,

P

and the total current density J J f J b J P J f M .

t

Gauss's law can now be written as:

1

0

0

f .P

or D f where D 0 E P

P E

B 0 J f M 0 0 ,

t t

D B

or H J f where H M

t 0

In terms of free charges and currents, then, Maxwell's equations read

(i) D f , (ii) B 0 ,

B D

(iii) , (iii) H J f

t t

For linear media, P 0 e E and M m H ,

1

So D E , and H B where 0 1 e , 0 1 m

D

and displacement current J d .

t

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Integral form

(i) D d a Q fenc

S

over any closed surface S.

(ii) B d a 0

S

d

(iii) E dl Bda

P

dt s

for any surface S bounded by the closed loop P.

d

(iv) H dl I fenc D d a

P

dt s

D1

a

l 1

1

2

2

f Kf

D2

(a) Dabove

Dbelow f

from (i) and (ii)

(b) Babove Bbelow

|| ||

(c) E above E below

|| || from (iii) and (iv)

(d) H above H below K f n

In particular, if there is no free charge or free current at the interface between medium1

and medium 2, then

|| ||

(c) E 1 E 2

(a) 1 E 2 E 0

1

2

and 1 || 1 || .

(b) B1 B2 (d) B1 B 2 0

1 2

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Q1. An oscillating voltage V t V0 sin t is applied across a parallel plate capacitor having

V t V0 sin t

(a) (b)

d d

0 0V0 cos t 0V0 sin t

(c) (d)

d d

Q2. For a parallel plate capacitor of area A and separation d, across which a sinusoidal voltage

V0 sin t is applied, the average value of the displacement current is (the capacitor is

placed in vacuum)

0 AV0 0 A 0 AV0

(a) zero (b) (c) (d)

d 2d 2d

Q3. For a parallel plate capacitor of area A and separation d, across which a sinusoidal voltage

V0 sin t is applied, the peak value of the displacement current is (the capacitor is placed

in vacuum)

0 AV0 0 A 0 AV0

(a) zero (b) (c) (d)

d 2d 2d

Q4. For a parallel plate capacitor of area A and separation d, across which a sinusoidal voltage

V0 sin t is applied, the r.m.s value of the displacement current is (the capacitor is placed

in vacuum)

0 AV0 0 A 0 AV0

(a) zero (b) (c) (d)

d 2d 2d

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Q5. A parallel plate capacitor has circular plates of radius R. It is being charged by a current I.

Then the magnetic induction B at a point between the plates at a distance R/2 from the

axis of the capacitor is:

0 I I I I

(a) B (b) B 0 (c) B 0 (d) B 0

2R 4R 6R 8R

Q6.

The divergence of a magnetic field B r , t from a time varying current density J r , t is

(b) non-zero and proportional to the rate of change of electric field E r , t from the

current density

(c) non-zero and proportional to the divergence of electric field E r , t from the current

density

(d) non-zero and proportional to the current density

Q7. A charged capacitor (C) is connected in series with an inductor (L). When the

displacement current reduces to zero, the energy of the LC circuit is

(a) stored entirely in its magnetic field.

(b) stored entirely in its electric field.

(c) distributed equally among its electric and magnetic fields.

(d) radiated out of the circuit.

Q8. Which one of the following Maxwells equations implies the absence of magnetic

monopoles?

(a) / 0 (b) 0

(c) / t (d) (1 / c 2 ) / t 0 J

Q9. Which of the following expressions is correct for a dielectric?

1

Q free enclosed

surface surface

(c) D da

1

Q free enclosed (d) E da

1

Q free enclosed

surface

surface

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Q10. Faraday Lenz law relates the rate of change of magnetic flux with the emf developed.

Which of the following equations represents the above law?

B

(a)

t

(b) B dl 0 0

t

dS

(c) B 0 0

t

(d)

dp

t

q vB

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Solutions

MCQ (Multiple Choice Questions)

Ans. 1: (a)

E 0 V t 0V0 cos t

Solution: Displacement current density J d 0

t d t d

Ans. 2: (a)

E 0 V 0 AV

Solution: J d 0 V0 cos t I d J d A 0 0 cos t

t d t d d

Average value 0

Ans. 3: (b)

E 0 V 0 AV

Solution: J d 0 V0 cos t I d J d A 0 0 cos t

t d t d d

0 AV0

Peak value Vm

d

Ans. 4: (d)

E 0 V 0 AV

Solution: J d 0 V0 cos t I d J d A 0 0 cos t

t d t d d

0 AV0 AV

Peak value Vm and R.M.S value Vrms 0 0

d 2d

Ans. 5: (b)

E

Solution: B.d l I

0 enc 0 0

S

t

.d a

Q (t ) E I

E

2

R 0 t R 2 0

I Ir I I

Thus B 2r 0 0 2

r 2 B(r ) 0 2 B( R 2) 0 B 0

R 0 2R 4R 4R

Ans. 6: (a)

Ans. 7: (b)

Ans. 8: (b)

Ans. 9: (a)

Ans. 10: (a)

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Chapter - 6

Electromagnetic Waves

6.1 Poynting Theorem (Work Energy Theorem of Electrodynamics)

The work necessary to assemble a static charge distribution is

0

2

We = E d , where E is the resulting electric field

2

The work required to get currents going (against the back emf) is

1

Wm =

2 0 B 2 d , where B is the resulting magnetic field

1 B2

U em = 0E +

2

d .

2 0

Suppose we have some charge and current configuration which at time t, produces

fields E & B . In next instant dt the charges moves around a bit. The work is done by

electromagnetic forces acting on these charges in the interval dt .

According to Lorentz Force Law, the work done on a charge q is

F dl = q( E + v B) v dt = qE v dt .

Now q = d and v = J , so the rate at which work is done on all the charges in a

volume V is

dW

dt

( )

= E.J d .

V

E J is the work done per unit time, per unit volume- which is the power delivered per

unit volume. Use AmperesMaxwell law to eliminate J :

E E

B = 0 J + 0 0

t

( )

E B = 0 E J + 0 0 E (

t

)

E

EJ =

1

0

( )

E B 0 E

t

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B

( )

Since . E B = B. E E. B ( )

and E =

t

( )

B

It follows that E. B = B. ( ) t

(

. E B )

1 1 2 1

EJ = 0E +

2 t

2

B . E B

0 0

( )

d 1 1 2

( E B) d a ,

dW 1

Then = 0E2 + B d

dt dt V 2 0 0 S

This is Poynting's theorem; it is the work energy theorem of electrodynamics.

The first integral on the right is the total energy stored in the fields, U em .

The second term evidently, represents the rate at which energy is carries out of V, across

its boundary surface, by the electromagnetic fields.

Poynting's theorem says, that, the work done on the charges by the electromagnetic

force is equal to the decrease in energy stored in the field, less the energy that flowed out

through the surface.

The energy per unit time, per unit area, transported by the fields is called the Poynting

vector

S

1

0

( E B) .

S d a is the energy per unit time crossing the infinitesimal surface d a - the energy or

energy flux density.

6.2 Waves in One Dimension (Sinusoidal waves)

6.2.1 The Wave Equation

A wave propagating with speed v in z-direction can be expressed as:

2 f 1 2 f

=

z 2 v 2 t 2

It admits as solutions all functions of the form

f ( z , t ) = g ( z vt ) .

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But functions of the form g ( z vt ) are not the only solutions. The wave equation

changing the sign of the velocity:

f ( z , t ) = h ( z + vt ) .

The most general solution to the wave equation is the sum of a wave to the right and a

wave to the left:

f ( z , t ) = g ( z vt ) + h ( z + vt ) .

(Notice that the wave equation is linear: the sum of any two solutions is itself a solution.)

Every solution to the wave equation can be expressed in this form.

Example: Check which of the following functions satisfy the wave equation (where symbols

have their usual meaning and A, are constants of suitable dimensions)

( z vt )2

A ( z 2 + vt )

(c) f ( z , t ) = (d) f ( z , t ) = Ae

( z vt ) + 1

2

3

f

Solution: (a) f ( z , t ) = Ae = Ae z vt 2 ( z vt )

( z vt )2 ( )2

z

2 f

( z vt )

( ( ) ) ( z vt )

2 ( z vt )

2 2

= 2 Ae + 2 z vt Ae

z 2

2 f

= Ae z vt 2 + 4 2 ( z vt )

( )2 2

z 2

f

f ( z , t ) = Ae z vt = Ae z vt 2 v ( z vt )

( ) 2

( ) 2

t

f

2

2 = 2 v 2 Ae z vt + 2 v ( z vt ) Ae z vt 2 v ( z vt )

( )2 ( )2

t

2 f

2 = v 2 Ae z vt 2 + 4 2 ( z vt )

( )2 2

t

f

2

1 f

2

= 2 2 (Wave Equation)

z 2

v t

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f

2

1 f

2

(b) f ( z , t ) = A sin [ ( z vt )] 2 = 2 2 (Wave Equation)

z v t

A 2 f 1 2 f

(c) f ( z , t ) = = (Wave Equation)

( z vt ) + 1 z 2 v 2 t 2

2

( z 2 + vt ) 2 f 1 2 f

(d) f ( z , t ) = Ae (Not a Wave Equation)

z 2 v 2 t 2

2 f 1 2 f

(e) f ( z , t ) = A sin ( z ) cos ( vt ) =

3

(Wave Equation)

z 2 v 2 t 2

6.2.2 Terminology

Let us consider a function f ( z , t ) = A cos [ k ( z vt ) + ] , where A is the amplitude of the

wave (it is positive, and represents the maximum displacement from equilibrium).

The argument of the cosine is called the phase, and is the phase constant (normally,

we use a value in the range 0 < 2 ).

Figure given below shows this function at time t = 0 . Notice that at z = vt , the phase

k

is zero; let's call this the central maximum. If = 0 , central maximum passes the origin

at time t = 0 ; more generally k is the distance by which the central maximum (and

therefore the entire wave) is delayed.

Central

maximum f ( z, 0 )

v

A

/k

z

2

Finally k is the wave number; it is related to the wavelength as = , for when z

k

2

advances by , the cosine executes one complete cycle.

k

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As time passes, the entire wave train proceeds to the right, at speed v . Time period of

2

one complete cycle is T = .

kv

1 kv v

The frequency (number of oscillations per unit time) is = = = .

T 2

The angular frequency = 2 = kv

In terms of angular frequency , the sinusoidal wave can be represented as

f ( z , t ) = A cos ( kz t + ) .

A sinusoidal oscillation of wave number k and angular frequency traveling to the left

would be written

f ( z , t ) = A cos ( kz + t ) .

Comparing this with the wave traveling to the right reveals that, in effect, we could

simply switch the sign of k to produce a wave with the same amplitude, phase constant,

frequency, and wavelength, traveling in the opposite direction.

Central

f ( z, 0 ) maximum

v

z

/k

In view of Euler's formula ei = cos + i sin ,

the sinusoidal wave f ( z , t ) = A cos ( kz t + ) can be written as

f ( z , t ) = Re Aei( kz t + ) ,

where Re ( ) denotes the real part of the complex number . This invites us to introduce

f ( z , t ) = Aei( kz t )

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i

with the complex amplitude A = Ae absorbing the phase constant.

f ( z, t ) = Re f ( z , t ) .

The advantage of the complex notation is that exponentials are much easier to manipulate

than sines and cosines.

6.2.4 Polarization

In longitudinal wave, the displacement from the equilibrium is along the direction of

propagation. Sound waves, which are nothing but compression waves in air, are

longitudinal.

Electromagnetic waves are transverse in nature. In a transverse wave displacement is

perpendicular to the direction of propagation.

There are two dimensions perpendicular to any given line of propagation. Accordingly,

transverse waves occur in two independent state of polarization:

Vertical polarization f v ( z, t ) = Aei( kz t ) x ,

f ( z, t ) = Aei( kz t ) n .

The polarization vector n defines the plane of vibration. Because the waves are

transverse, n is perpendicular to the direction of propagation:

n.z = 0

In terms of polarization angle ,

n = cos x + sin y

Thus wave in figure(c) can be considered a superposition of two waves-one horizontally

polarized, the other vertically:

(

f ( z, t ) = A cos e ( ) i kz t )

(

x + A sin e ()

i kz t )

y

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x x

.

v v

z z

y ( a ) Vertical polarization y

( b ) Horizontal polarization

x

v

n

y

( c ) Polarization vector

6.3.1 The Wave Equation for E and B

(i) .E = 0 (ii) .B = 0

B E

(iii) E = (iv) B = 0 0

t t

Taking curl of equation (iii) and using equation (i) & (ii) we get,

E

(

B

)

E = ( )

.E E = t B E = t 0 0 t

2 2

( )

t

2 E

2 E = 0 0

t 2

2 B

Similarly, B = 0 0 2

2

t

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1 2 f

Thus, E and B satisfy the wave equation 2 f = .

v t 2

So, EM waves travels with a speed

1

v= = 3 108 m / s = c (velocity of light in free space)

0 0

2

A 2

Nm 2

6.3.2 Monochromatic Plane Waves

Suppose waves are traveling in the z-direction and have no x or y dependence; these are

called plane waves because the fields are uniform over every plane perpendicular to the

direction of propagation.

x

c

0

z

0 / c

y

The plane waves can be represented as:

E (z , t ) = E 0 e i (kz t ) , B ( z , t ) = B0 e i (kz t )

~ ~ ~ ~

~ ~

where E0 and B0 are the (complex) amplitudes (the physical fields, of course are the real

~ ~

parts of E and B ).

Since .E = 0 and .B =0 , it follows that

(E ) = (B )

0 z 0 z =0

That is, electromagnetic waves are transverse: the electric and magnetic fields are

perpendicular to the direction of propagation.

B

Also E =

t

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k ( E0 ) = ( B0 ) , k ( E0 ) = ( B0 )

y x x y

k

In compact form B0 = ( z E 0 )

Evidently E & B are in phase and mutually perpendicular; their (real) amplitudes are

related by,

k 1

Bo = Eo = E0 .

c

There is nothing special about the z direction; we can generalize the monochromatic

plane waves traveling in an arbitrary direction. The propagation vector or wave vector k

points in the direction of propagation, whose magnitude is the wave number k. The scalar

product k .r is the appropriate generalization of kz, so c

k

( )

E (r , t ) = E0e

i k .r t

n,

B (r,t ) =

1

c

E 0e

i ( k . r t )

( 1

)

k n = k E

c

Also (

E ( r , t ) = c k B )

k r

n k = 0 .

The actual (real) electric and magnetic fields in a monochromatic plane wave with

propagation vector k and polarization n are

(

E ( r , t ) = E0 cos k .r t + n )

B (r,t ) =

1

c

(

E0 cos k .r t + ) ( k n )

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Example: Write down the electric and magnetic fields for a plane monochromatic wave of

amplitude E0 , frequency and phase angle zero that is

(b) Traveling in the direction from the origin to the point (1,1,1) with polarization

parallel to xy plane.

Solution: (a) E = E0 cos ( ky t ) x and

1 E E

B = k E = 0 cos(ky wt )( y x ) = 0 cos(ky wt ) z

c c c

x + y + z 1 x y

(b) k = ; n = x + y n.k = 0 = = n =

c 3 2 2

E ( r , t ) = E0 cos ( k .r t ) n where k .r = (x + y + z)

3c

x y

E ( r , t ) = E0 cos ( x + y + z ) t

3c 2

x + y + z x y

( x + y + z ) t

1 1

B= kE = E0 cos

3c c 3 2

( x + y + z ) t ( x + y 2 z )

E0

B= cos

2 3c 3c

6.3.3 Energy and Momentum in Electromagnetic Wave

The energy per unit volume stored in electromagnetic field is

1 1 2

u = 0E2 + B

2 0

In case of monochromatic plane wave

E2

B2 = = 0 0 E 2

c 2

1 1 2

So the electric and magnetic contributions are equal i.e. uE = uB = 0 E 2 = B .

2 2 0

u = uE + uB = 0 E 2 = 0 E0 2 cos 2 (kz wt + ) .

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As the wave travels, it carries this energy along with it. The energy flux density (energy

per unit area, per unit time) transported by the fields is given by the Pointing vector

1

S= ( E B)

0

For monochromatic plane wave propagating in the z-direction,

S = c 0 E02 cos 2 (kz wt + ) z = cu z .

The energy per unit time, per unit area, transported by the wave is therefore uc .

Electromagnetic fields not only carry energy, they also carry momentum. The

momentum density stored in the field is

1

= S.

c2

For monochromatic plane wave,

1 1

= 0 E0 2 cos 2 (kz wt + ) z = u z .

c c

1

Average energy density u = 0 E02 ,

2

1

Average of Poynting vector S = c 0 E02 z ,

2

1

Average momentum density = 0 E02 z .

2c

The average power per unit area transported by an electromagnetic wave is called the

intensity

1

I = S = c 0 E02 .

2

Note:

(a) When light falls on perfect absorber it delivers its momentum to the surface. In a

time t the momentum transfer is A

c

p = Act ,

ct

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1 p 1 I

P= = 0 E02 = .

A t 2 c

(b) When light falls on perfect reflector, the radiation pressure

2I

P=

c

because the momentum changes direction, instead of being absorbed.

Example: The electric and magnetic fields of an electromagnetic waves in the free space

are = 0 cos (t kz ) x , = 0 cos (t kz ) y where x , y being unit vectors in x and y

1 ( AB 1 AB

Solution: S = E B ) = 0 0 cos 2 (t kz ) z I = S = . 0 0

0 0 2 0

6.4 Electromagnetic Waves in Matter

Inside matter, but in regions where there is no free charge or free current ( f and J f )

(i) .D = 0 (ii) .B = 0

B D

(iii) E = (iv) H =

t t

1

If the medium is linear and homogeneous, D = E and H= B

Now the wave equation inside matter is

2 E 2 B

2 E = and 2

B = .

t 2 t 2

Thus EM waves propagate through a linear homogenous medium at a speed

1 c

v= = where n =

n 0 0

1 1 1

The energy density u = E 2 + B 2 u = E02

2 2

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1 1

( )

^

The Poynting vector S = E B S = v E02 z

2

1

Intensity I = S = vE02

2

Thus in a medium c v , 0 and 0

Any initial free charge density f (0) given to conductor dissipate in a characteristic time

f ( t ) = e ( / ) t f ( 0 )

This reflects the familiar fact that if we put some free charge on conductor, it will flow

out to the edges.

Free current density in a conductor is J f = E .

Thus Maxwells equations inside conductor are

(i) E = 0 (ii) B = 0

B E

(iii) E = (iv) B = + E

t t

We get modified wave equation for E and B as

2 E E 2 B B

2 E = + and 2 B = +

t 2

t t t

The admissible plane wave solution is

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

1/ 2 1/ 2

2 2

k = 1 + + and = 1 +

1 1

2 2

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1

The distance it takes to reduce the amplitude by a factor of is called the skin depth (d)

e

1

d= ;

it is a measure of how far the wave penetrates into the conductor.

The real part of k determines the wavelength, the propagation speed, and the index of

refraction:

2 ck

= , v= , n=

k k

Like any complex number, k can be expressed in terms of its modulus and phase:

k = Kei

( k)

2

where K = k = k + = 1 + 2

2

and tan 1

k Kei

B0 = E0 B0 ei B = E0 ei E .

Evidently the electric and magnetic fields are no longer in phase; in fact B E = , the

1/ 2

B0 K

2

= = 1 +

E0

Thus, E ( z , t ) = E0 e z cos ( kz t + E ) x , B ( z , t ) = B0 e z cos ( kz t + E + ) y

Note:

(a) In a poor conductor ( << )

= i.e. independent of frequency.

2

(b) In a very good conductor ( >> )

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1 2 1

=k = d = = =

2 f

(c) When an electromagnetic wave strikes a perfect conductor ( ) then all waves

are reflected back i.e. E0 R = E0 I and E0T = 0 .

1

having conductivity 6 107 ( m ) and >> . Then find the skin depth of the

conductor.

2 1 1

Solution: d = = = = 6 107 m

f 3.14 10 6 10 4 10

10 7 7

field E ( z , t ) = E0 e z cos ( kz t + E ) x . Then calculate the intensity of the wave inside

the conductor.

Solution: E ( z , t ) = E0 e z cos ( kz t + E ) x B = B0 e z cos ( kz t + E + ) y

1(

E B) =

1

S= E0 B0 e 2 z cos ( kz t + E ) cos ( kz t + E + )

1 1 1

I= S = E0 B0 e 2 z cos cos ( + ) d = E0 B0 e 2 z cos

2 2

k k2 + 2

tan = cos = and B0 = E0

k k2 + 2

k

I= E02 e 2 xz

2

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MCQ (Multiple Choice Questions)

Q1. A current I is created by a narrow beam of protons moving in vacuum with constant

velocity v . The magnitude of the Poynting vector S outside the beam at a radial distance

r (much larger than the width of the beam) from the axis, are

I I

(a) S = (b) S =

4 0 vr

2 2

4 0 vr 4

2

I2 I2

(c) S = (d) S =

4 2 0 vr 2 4 2 0 vr 4

Q2. Two electromagnetic waves are travelling along the z-direction in vacuum. The electric

vectors of the two waves are

The state of polarization of the wave resulting from the superposition of these two waves

is:

(a) circular (b) plane (c) elliptical (d) unpolarised

Q3. The E field of a plane EM wave is E ( z , t ) = E0 sin ( kz + t ) y . The magnetic field of this

wave is given by

kE0 E0

(a) B ( z , t ) = sin ( kz + t ) x (b) B ( z , t ) = sin ( kz + t ) x

k

E0 kE0

(c) B ( z , t ) = sin ( kz + t ) z (d) B ( z , t ) = sin ( kz + t ) z

k

Q4. The B field of a plane EM wave is B ( y , t ) = B0 sin ( ky t ) z . The electric field of this

wave is given by

B0

(a) E ( y, t ) = sin ( ky t ) y (b) E ( y , t ) = cB0 sin ( ky t ) y

c

B0

(c) E ( y , t ) = sin ( ky t ) x (d) E ( y , t ) = cB0 sin ( ky t ) x

c

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The electric field E1 ( r , t ) = E0 ( x + iy ) exp i ( kz t ) and E 2 ( r , t ) = E0 e (

i kz t )

Q5. x of an

(a) Plane polarized and circularly polarized

(b) Circularly polarized and plane polarized

(c) Elliptically polarized and plane polarized

(d) Both are plane polarized

Q6. The electric field of an electromagnetic wave is given by

^ ^

E = E1 cos (t kz ) x + E2 sin (t kz ) y

(a) Circular, clockwise (b) circular, anti-clockwise

(d) Elliptical, clockwise (d) elliptical, anti-clockwise

Q7. Assume that a lamp radiates power P in free space uniformly in all directions. What is

the magnitude of electric field strength at a distance r from the lamp?

P P P P

(a) (b) (c) (d)

c 0 r 2

2 c 0 r 2 2 c 0 r 2 c 0 r 2

Q8. A plane progressive wave is traveling with wave vector k , n is the unit vector in the

direction of amplitude. If the wave is longitudinal, then which of the following is correct?

(a) n k 0, n k = 0 (b) n k = 0, n k = 0

Q9. In a non-conducting medium characterized by = 0 , = 0 and conductivity = 0 , the

1

field H (in Am ) , is given by

20k

(a) 20k in(108 t kz ) x (b) sin(108 t kz ) y

10 0

8

20k

(c) sin(108 t kz ) x (d) 20k in(108 t kz ) x

10 0

8

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Q10. A plane electromagnetic wave has the magnetic field given by

k

B ( x, y, z , t ) = B0 sin ( x + y ) + t z ,

2

where k is the wave number and x , y and z are the cartesian unit vectors in x, y and z

directions, respectively. Then the corresponding electric field is given by

k ( x + y )

(a) E = cB0 sin ( x + y ) + t

2 2

k ( x + y )

(b) E = cB0 sin ( x + y ) + t

2 2

k ( x y )

(c) E = cB0 sin ( x + y ) + t

2 2

k (x y )

(d) E = cB0 sin ( x + y ) + t

2 2

Q11. A plane electromagnetic wave has the magnetic field given by

k

B ( x, y, z , t ) = B0 sin ( x + y ) t z ,

2

where k is the wave number and x , y and z are the cartesian unit vectors in x, y and z

directions, respectively. Then the average Poynting vector is given by

cB02 ( x y ) cB02 ( x y )

(a) (b)

2 0 2 2 0 2

cB02 ( x + y ) cB02 ( x + y )

(c) (d)

2 0 2 2 0 2

Q12. The electric field (r , t ) for a circularly polarized electromagnetic wave propagating

along the positive z direction is:

(a) (r , t ) = 0 ( x + y ) exp[i (kz t )] (b) (r , t ) = 0 ( x + iy ) exp[i (kz t )]

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Q13. The state of polarization of light wave with the electric field vector

0 cos ( kz t ) + yE

E = xE 0 cos ( kz t ) is

(b) Elliptically polarized with the major axis along x-axis

(c) Linearly polarized along z-direction

(d) Linearly polarized at 45o to x-axis

Q14. A beam of light of frequency is reflected from a dielectric-metal interface at normal

incidence. The refractive index of the dielectric medium is n and that of the metal is

n2 = n(1 + i ) . If the beam is polarised parallel to the interface, then the phase change

experienced by the light upon reflection is

(a) tan(2 / ) (b) tan 1 (1 / ) (c) tan 1 (2 / ) (d) tan 1 (2 )

Q15. Assume that a lamp radiates 5 Watts of power in free space uniformly in all directions.

Then the magnitude of electric field strength (in V / m ) at a distance 1 m from the lamp

is.

Q16. The plane electromagnetic wave in fee space in SI units are given by the expressions

x

Ex = 0, E y = 2 cos 2 1014 t + and Ez = 0

c 2

Q17. An electromagnetic wave with ( z , t ) = 0 cos ( t k z ) x is traveling in free space and

average power, in Watt, crossing the disc along the z-direction is.

Q18. The intensity of sunlight hitting the earth is about 1300 W / m 2 . If sunlight strikes a

perfect reflector, then the pressure it would exert will be. 106 N / m 2

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Q19. The intensity of sunlight hitting the earth is about 1300 W / m 2 . If sunlight strikes a

perfect absorber, then the pressure it would exert will be. 106 N / m 2

Q20. Consider the superposition of two coherent electromagnetic waves whose electric field

vectors are given by E1 = iE0 cos t and E2 = jE0 cos t + . The intensity of the

2

0

resulting wave is given by E 2 = 0 E02 , where E 2 is the time average of E2. Then

2

the value of is.

Q21. The refractive index of a medium in which the electric field of an electromagnetic wave

(

is given in MKS units by E = E0 cos 107 x + 107 y 1015 t z is.. )

Q22. An electromagnetically-shielded room is designed so that at a frequency = 10 7 rad/s

the intensity of the external radiation that penetrates the room is 1% of the incident

1 1

radiation. If =

2

minimum thickness should be (given that ln10 = 2.3 ) ..mm

Q23. An electromagnetic wave of frequency 10 GHz is propagating through a conductor

1

having conductivity 6 107 ( m ) . Then skin depth of the conductor is.. m

(Assume = 0 , = 0 )

Q24. Which of the following functions satisfy the wave equation (where symbols have their

usual meaning)

( z vt )2

( z 2 + vt ) A

(c) f ( z , t ) = Ae (d) f ( z , t ) =

( z vt ) + 1

2

Q25. Which of the following functions satisfy the wave equation (where symbols have their

usual meaning)

3

( z 2 + vt ) A

(c) f ( z , t ) = Ae (d) f ( z , t ) =

( z vt ) + 1

2

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Q26. Consider the following statements:

(a) An electromagnetic wave incident upon a perfectly absorbing surface exerts pressure

equal to that when the electromagnetic wave is incident upon a perfectly reflecting

surface.

(b) The radiation pressure is directly proportional to the magnitude of Poynting vector.

(c) An electromagnetic wave incident upon a perfectly absorbing surface exerts pressure

equal to half of that when the electromagnetic wave is incident upon a perfectly reflecting

surface.

(d) The radiation pressure is not proportional to the magnitude of Poynting vector.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Q27. A plane electromagnetic wave is propagating in a lossless dielectric. The electric field is

given by

( ) [ {

E ( x, y, z , t ) = E 0 x + 2 Az exp ik 0 ct + x + 3 z , ( )}]

where c is the speed of light in vacuum, E0 , A and k0 are constant and x and z are unit

vectors along the x- and z-axes. n is the refractive index of the medium and A is some

constant. Then which of the following are true?

1 1

(a) n = 2 (b) n = 4 (c) A = (d) A =

6 6

Q28. An electromagnetic wave propagates inside a conductor. Then which of the following

statements are true.

(a) The amplitude of E and B decreases exponentially.

(b) There is phase delay between E and B

(c) E and B are perpendicular to each other

(d) Phase delay does not depend on particular conductor used

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Solutions

MCQ (Multiple Choice Questions)

Ans. 1: (c)

Solution: Let charge per unit length be , hence I = u in z-direction.

I

The magnetic field at a distance r is B = 0 .

2r

I

The electric field at a distance r is E = r = r .

2 0 r 2 0 ur

EB I2

Hence Poynting vector S = = z

0 4 2 0 ur 2

Ans. 2: (b)

Ans. 3: (a)

k E kz E0 sin ( kz + t ) y kE0 kE0

Solution: B = = = sin ( kz + t ) x = sin ( kz + t ) x

Ans. 4: (d)

Solution: E=

c

k

( c

)

k B = ky B0 sin ( ky t ) z

k

= cB0 sin ( ky t ) x = E0 sin ( ky t ) x

Ans. 5: (b)

Solution: E1 ( r , t ) = E0 ( x + iy ) [ cos ( kz t ) + i sin ( kz t )]

Ans. 6: (d)

Solution: Ex = E1 cos (t kz ) , E y = E2 sin (t kz ) .

At z = 0, Ex = E1 cos (t ) , E y = E2 sin (t )

When t = 0, Ex = E1 , E y = 0 and when t = , Ex = 0, E y = E2

2

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Ans. 7: (c)

P 1 P P P

Solution: I = = 0 E02 c = E02 = E0 =

A 2 4 r 2

2 0 cr 2

2 0 cr 2

Ans. 8: (c)

Ans. 9: (c)

1 1 20k

Solution: H = kE = kz 20sin(108 t kz ) y = 8 sin(108 t kz ) x

0 0108

10 0

Ans. 10: (d)

k

Solution: k = ( x + y ) and wave is propagating in k direction.

2

c k ( x + y ) ( x + y )k

E=

c

k

( )

k B =

k

B0 sin

+ t z

2 2

k (x y )

E = cB0 sin ( x + y ) + t

2 2

Ans. 11: (c)

k cB02 cB02 x + y cB02 x + y

Solution: k = ( x + y ) and S = k= =

2 2 0 20 2 20 2

Ans. 12: (b)

Solution: (r , t ) = 0 ( x + iy ) exp[i (kz t )] Ex = 0 cos(kz t ), E y = 0 sin(kz t )

Ans. 14: (c)

1 v1 c/n

Solution: Since E0 R = E0 I where = = = 1 + i

1+ v2 c / n (1 + i )

i ei /2 i( /2+ )

E0 R = 0 I

E = E0 I = e E0 I where tan = .

2 + i 2 i

4+ e 4+ 2

2

2 2

Thus phase change = ( / 2 + ) tan = cot = = tan 1

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NAT (Numerical Answer Type)

Ans. 15: 17

P 1 P P P 1 2P

Solution: I = = 0 E02 c = E02 = E0 = =

A 2 4 r 2

2 0 cr 2

2 0 cr 2

4 0 cr 2

1 2P 25

E0 = = 9 109 = 10 3 17

4 0 cr 3 108 (1)

2 2

Ans. 16: 3

2 1014 2 c 3 108

Solution: k = = = 14 = = 3 106 m

c 10 1014

Ans. 17: 60

P 1

I= P = IA = 0 cE02 r 2 = 60 Watt .

A 2

Ans. 18: 8.66

2 2 1300

Solution: P = = = 8.66 106 N / m 2

c 3 108

Ans. 19: 4.33

1300

Solution: P = = = 4.33 106 N / m 2

c 3 108

Solution: E 2 = E12 + E22 + 2 E1 E2 = E02 cos 2 t + E02 cos 2 ( t + ) + 2 E02 cos t.cos ( t + )

0 0 E02 E02 1

E2 = + + 2 E02 . cos = 0 E02 (1 + cos ) = 0 E02 cos 2 ( / 2 )

2 2 2 2 2 2

0 1

E 2 = 0 E02 cos 2 ( / 4 ) = 0 E02

2 2

Ans. 21: 4.2

108 c

Solution: = 10 , k = 2 10 v = =

15 7

n= = 3.0 2 = 4.2

k 2 v

Ans. 22: 2.3

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1 I0

Solution: I = I 0 e 2 z z =

2 I

ln

I0 1 1

where = 100, = = 106 4 107 107 = 103

I 2 2 2

1

z= ln (100 ) = 2.3 mm

2 103

Ans. 23: 0.6

2 2

Solution: d = = = 6 107 m = 0.6 m

2 3.14 10 6 10 4 10

107 7

Ans. 24: (a), (b), (d)

Ans. 25: (a), (b) and (d)

Ans. 26: (b) and (c)

Ans. 27: (a) and (d)

( ) [ {

Solution: E ( x, y, z , t ) = E 0 x + 2 Az exp ik 0 ct + x + 3 z . ( )}]

(

Comparing with term e i (k r t ) k = k 0 x + 3 z and = k 0 c . )

k0c c

Since v = = = Refractive index n = 2 .

k k 02 + 3k 02 2

( )( )

Since k n = 0 k 0 x + 3 z x + 2 Az = 0 k 0 1 + A 6 = 0 A = ( ) 1

6

Ans. 28: (a), (b), (c)

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Chapter -7

Applications of Electromagnetic waves

7.1 Reflection and Refraction at Dielectric Interface

7.1.1 Normal Incidence

Suppose xy plane forms the boundary between two linear media. A plane wave of

frequency , traveling in the z-direction and polarized in the x direction, approaches the

interface from the left then

Incident Wave

JG

E I ( z , t ) = E 0 I ei ( k1z t ) x

JG E i ( k z t )

B I ( z , t ) = 0 I e 1 y x

v1 1 2 T

I

Reflected Wave v1 v2

JG T

E R ( z , t ) = E 0 R ei ( k1z t ) x I

z

JG E y

B R ( z , t ) = 0 R e 1 i ( k z wt )

y

v1 R

R Interface

Transmitted Wave v1

JG

E T ( z , t ) = E 0T ei ( k2 z t ) x

JG E i ( k z t )

B T ( z , t ) = 0 T

e 2 y

v2

At z = 0 , the combined field on the left E I + E R and B I + B R , must join the fields on the

JG || JG || 1 JG || 1 JG ||

(i) 1 E1 = 2 E2 (ii) B1 = B2 (iii) E1 = E 2 (iv) B1 = B2

1 2

In this case there are no electric component perpendicular to the surface, so (i) & (ii) are

trivial. However (iii) gives E 0 I + E 0 R = E 0T

E 0 I ( 0 R ) 0T

While (iv) gives, + = or 0 I 0 R = 0T

1v1 1v1 2 v2

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v n

where = 1 1 = 1 2 .

2v2 2 n1

1 2

Solving above two equations we get 0 R =

0 I , 0T = 0 I .

1+ 1+

v1 n2

If 1 = 2 =0 = = (For non-magnetic medium)

v2 n1

v v 2v2

0 R = 2 1 0 I , 0T = 0 I

v2 + v1 v1 + v2

Note: Reflected wave is in phase if v2 > v1 or n2 < n1 and out of phase if

v2 < v1 or n2 > n1 .

In terms of indices of refraction the real amplitudes are

n1 n2 2n1

0 R = 0 I , 0T = 0 I .

n1 + n2 n1 + n2

1

Since Intensity I = vE02 , then the ratio of the reflected intensity to the incident intensity

2

2 2

I E n n

is the Reflection coefficient R = R = 0 R = 1 2 .

I I E0 I n1 + n2

The ratio of the transmitted intensity to the incident intensity is the Transmission

coefficient

2

I v E 4n1n2

T = T = 2 2 0T = R +T =1

I I 1v1 E0 I ( n1 + n2 )2

( 1 = 2 = 0 , n1 = 1, n2 = 1.5) at optical frequency = 4 1015 s 1 .

2

n n 1 1.5

2

n1 + n2 1 + 1.5

Thus only 4% of light is reflected and 96% is transmitted.

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7.1.2 Oblique Incidence

In oblique incidence an incoming wave G

kR

meets the boundary at an arbitrary

G

angle I . Of course, normal incidence is kT

R

really just a special case of oblique T

incidence with I = 0 . Suppose that a z

I

Plane of Incidence

monochromatic plane wave of

frequency , approaches the interface G 1 2

kI

from the left then

Incident Wave

JG G JG JG G 1 JG

( )

G G

E I (r , t ) = E 0 I ei ( k I .r t ) , B I (r , t ) = kI E I

v1

Reflected Wave

JG G JG JG G 1 JG

( )

G G

E R (r , t ) = E 0 R ei ( k R .r t ) , B R (r , t ) = kR E R

v1

Transmitted Wave

JG G JG JG G 1 JG

( )

G G

E T (r , t ) = E 0T ei ( k T .r t ) , B T ( r , t ) = kT E T

v2

All three waves have the same frequency . The three wave numbers are related by

( = kv ) as

v2 n1

k I v1 = k R v1 = kT v2 = or k I = k R =

kT = kT

v1 n2

JG JG JG JG JG JG

The combined field in medium (1), E I + E R and B I + B R , must join the fields E T & B T

in medium (2), using the boundary conditions

JG || JG || 1 JG || 1 JG ||

(i) 1 E1 = 2 E2

(ii) B1 = B2 (iii) E1 = E 2 (iv) B1 = B2

1 2

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First Law (Plane of Incidence)

The incident, reflected and transmitted wave vectors form a plane (called the plane of

incidence), which also includes normal to the surface.

Second law (Law of Reflection)

The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection i.e.

I = R

Third Law: (Law of Refraction, or Snells law)

sin T n1

=

sin I n2

7.1.3 Fresnels Relation (Parallel and Perpendicular Polarization)

Case-I: (Polarization in the Plane of Incidence) G

kR JG JG

Applying Boundary conditions, we get ER T

JG G

Reflected and transmitted amplitudes BR kT

JG

2 R T

E 0 R = E 0T = T

E0 I and E0 I

+ + z

JG

I

cos T v n

where = and = 11 = 1 2 I G

cos I 2 v2 2 n1 kI

JG 1 2

These are known as Fresnels equations. I

Notice that transmitted wave is always in phase with the incident one; the reflected wave

is either in phase , if > , or 1800 out phase if < .

The amplitudes of the transmitted and reflected waves depend on the angle of incidence,

because is a function of I :

2

1 1 sin 2 I

n

1 sin 2 T n2

= =

cos I cos I

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Brewsters Angle

At Brewsters angle ( B ) reflected light is completely extinguished when = , or

1 2

sin B =

2

2

n1 2

n

2

n2 2

For non-magnetic medium ( 1 2 ), so , sin 2 B , and hence

n1 1+ 2

n2

tan B and T + B = 90o

n1

Thus at Brewster angle ( I = B ) reflected and transmitted rays are perpendicular to each

other.

Critical Angle

When light enters from denser to rarer medium ( n1 > n 2 ) then after a critical angle ( C )

there is total internal reflection.

sin 900 n1 n2

= sin c = at C , T = 90o

sin c n2 n1

Reflection and Transmission Coefficient

JG

The power per unit are striking the interface is S .z . Thus the incident intensity is

1

I I = 1v1 E02I cos I ,

2

while reflected and transmitted intensities are

1 1

I R = 1v1 E02R cos R and IT = 2 v2 E02T cos T

2 2

2

E

2

I

Reflection coefficient R = R = 0R =

I I E0 I +

2 2

I v E cos T 2

Transmission coefficient T = T = 2 2 0T =

I I 1v1 E0 I cos I +

R +T =1

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Case-II: (Polarization Perpendicular to plane of Incidence G

kR JG

Applying Boundary conditions, we get BR

JG JG G

Reflected and transmitted amplitudes ER T kT

JG

1 2 R T

E 0 R = E 0 I and E 0T = E 0 I T

1 + 1 + z

I

cos T 1v1 1n2

where = and = = G JG

cos I 2 v2 2 n1kI

1 2 I

JG

I

In this case Brewsters angle ( B ) is not possible i.e reflected light is never completely

Reflection and Transmission coefficient

JG

The power per unit are striking the interface is S .z . Thus the incident intensity is

1

I I = 1v1 E02I cos I ,

2

while reflected and transmitted intensities are

1 1

I R = 1v1 E02R cos R and IT = 2 v2 E02T cos T

2 2

2 2

I E 1

Reflection coefficient R = R = 0 R =

I I E0 I 1 +

2 2

I v E cos T 2

Transmission coefficient T = T = 2 2 0T =

I I 1v1 E0 I cos I 1 +

R +T =1

7.2 Reflection at Conducting Surface (Normal Incidence)

Suppose xy plane forms the boundary between a non-conducting linear medium (1) and a

conductor (2). A plane wave of frequency , traveling in the z-direction and polarized in

the x direction, approaches the interface from the left then

Incident Wave

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JG

E I ( z, t ) = E 0 I ei ( k1z t ) x

JG E i ( k z t )

B I ( z, t ) = 0 I e 1 y x

v1 1 2 T

I

Reflected Wave v1 v2

JG T

E R ( z , t ) = E 0 R ei ( k1z t ) x I

z

JG E y

B R ( z, t ) = 0 R ei ( k1z wt ) y

v1 R

R Interface

v1

Transmitted Wave

JG

E T ( z , t ) = E 0T ei ( k2 z t ) x

JG k

B T ( z , t ) = 2 E 0T ei ( k2 z t ) y

where k2 = k2 + i 2 where k2 and 2 are real and imaginary part of k2 .

1/ 2 1/ 2

2 2

k2 = 1 + + 1 and 2 = 1 + 1

2

2

At z = 0 , the combined field on the left E I + E R and B I + B R , must join the fields on the

JG || JG || 1 JG || 1 JG ||

(i) 1 E1 = 2 E2 (ii) B1 = B2 (iii) E1 = E 2 (iv) B1 = B2

1 2

In this case there are no electric component perpendicular to the surface, so (i) & (ii) are

trivial.

However (iii) gives E 0 I + E 0 R = E 0T

E 0 I ( 0 R ) k

While (iv) gives, + = 2 0T or 0 I 0 R = 0T

1v1 1v1 2

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v

where = 1 1 k2 .

2

1 2

Solving above two equations we get 0 R = 0 I , 0T = 0 I .

1 +

1+

0 R = 0 I , 0T = 0 .

2

(ii) For good conductor ( ) , k2 2 = .

2

1v1 2

= (1 + i ) = 1v1 (1 + i ) = (1 + i ) where = 1v1 .

2 2 22 2 2

Reflection Coefficient

E 1 1 i 1 + i (1 ) +

2 2 2 2

I

R = R = 0R = = =

II E 0 I 1 + 1 + + i 1 + i (1 + ) +

2 2

( 1 )

= 2 = 0 , 1 = 0 , = 6 107 1m 1 at optical frequency = 4 1015 s 1 .

Solution: = 0 c

=c

0

= ( 3 108 )

( 6 10 )( 4 10 ) = 29

7 7

20 2 2 ( 4 10 ) 15

Reflection coefficient

(1 ) + 2 ( 28 ) + 292

2 2

R= = = 0.93 or 93% .

(1 + ) + 2 ( 30 ) + 292

2 2

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MCQ (Multiple Choice Questions)

Q.1 Unpolarized light falls from air to a planer air-glass interface (refractive index of glass

is 1.5 ) and the reflected light is observed to be plane polarized. The polarized vector and

the angle of incidence 1 are

Q2. For normal incident at an air-glass interface with n = 1.5 the fraction of energy reflected

is given by

(a) 0.40 (b) 0.20 (c) 0.16 (d) 0.04

Q3. The Fresnel relations between the amplitudes of incident and reflected electromagnetic

waves at an interface between air and a dielectric of refractive index , are

cos r cos i incident cos r cos i

||reflected = || and reflected

= incident

cos r + cos i cos r + cos i

The subscripts & and refer to polarization, parallel and normal to the plane of

incidence respectively. Here i and r are the angles of incidence and refraction

respectively. The condition for the reflected ray to be completely polarized is

(a) cos i = cos r (b) cos i = cos r

(c) cos i = cos r (d) cos i = cos r

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Q4. A plane electromagnetic wave traveling in vacuum is incident normally on a non-

magnetic, non-absorbing medium of refractive index ( n ) . The incident ( Ei ) , reflected

to

3 7 1 8

(a) E0 r = V / m, E0t = V / m (b) E0 r = V / m, E0t = V / m

5 5 5 5

2 8 4 6

(c) E0 r = V / m, E0t = V / m (d) E0 r = V / m, E0t = V / m

5 5 5 5

Q5. A plane electromagnetic wave of frequency is incident normally on an air-dielectric

interface. The dielectric is linear, isotropic, non-magnetic and its refractive index is n.

The reflectance (R) and transmittance (T) from the interface are

n 1 n 1

2

4n 2

(a) R = , T= (b) R = , T =

n +1 (n + 1) 2 n +1 (n + 1) 2

n 1 (n 1) 2

3

4n 3 4n 2

(c) R = , T = (d) R = , T =

n +1 (n + 1)3 n +1 (n + 1) 2

Q6. A plane wave traveling with a velocity c1 in a medium of density 1 is incident normally

4 1 2 c1c2

the fraction of energy transmitted is . The fraction of energy reflected is

( 1c1 + 2c2 )

2

1c1 2 c2 1c1 2 c2

(a) (b)

1c1 + 2 c2 ( 1c1 + 2c2 )

2

( 1c1 2c2 )

2 2

c 2 c2

(c) (d) 1 1

1c1 + 2 c2 1c1 + 2 c2

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Q7. For a particular medium C is the critical angle for total internal reflection and B is the

Brewster angle for the same medium. Then which one of the following relationships will

hold?

(a) sin C = cot B (b) cos C = tan B

Q8. A plane electromagnetic wave traveling in free space is incident normally on a glass plate

of refractive index 3/2. If there is no absorption by the glass, its transmittivity

is.

Q9. Unpolarized light is incident on an air-dielectric interface. The interface is the xy plane

and the plane of incidence is yz plane. The electric field of the reflected light is given

ik

by E = E 0 x exp ( )

3 y + z it , where k is the propagation constant in air and is

2

the angular frequency of the light. Assume magnetic permeability = 0 . The dielectric

constant of the second medium is.

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Solutions

MCQ (Multiple Choice Questions)

Ans. 1: (c)

Solution: 1 = B = tan 1 ( ) = 560

Ans. 2: (d)

2

n n 1 1.5 1 4

2

Solution: R = 1 2 = = = 0.04

n1 + n2 1 + 1.5 4 25

Ans. 3: (a)

Ans. 4: (c)

n n 1 1.5 1 2

Solution: E0 R = 1 2 E0 I E0 R = 2 = = = 0.40 V / m

n1 + n2 1 + 1.5 2.5 5

2n1 2 4 8

E0 R = E0 I E0 R = 2 = = = 1.60 V / m

n1 + n2 1 + 1.5 2.5 5

Ans. 5: (a)

Ans. 6: (d)

4 1 2 c1c2 c 2 c2

2

Solution: R + T = 1 R = 1 T = 1 = 1 1

( 1c1 + 2c2 ) 1c1 + 2 c2

2

Ans. 7: (a)

Solution: Let us assume light enters from rarer medium (2) to denser medium (1).

n1

Then tan B =

n2

n2

At same interface sin C = .

n1

1

tan B = sin C = cot B

sin c

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NAT (Numerical Answer Type)

Ans. 8: 96%

2

n n2 1 3/ 2

2

1 4

Solution: R = 1 = = = .04 or 4% T = 1 R = 0.96 or 96%

n1 + n2 1+ 3/ 2 4 25

Ans. 9: 3

Solution: Since reflected light is plane polarized, then angle of reflection is Brewster

n

angle tan R = tan B = 2 = n 2 .

n1

G k k

k=

2

( )

3 y + z tan B = y

kz

= 3 n2 = r = 3 r = 3

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Chapter - 8

Potential and Field Formulation for Time Varying Fields

1.1 Scalar and Vector Potentials

We want general solution to Maxwell's Equations,

JG JG

(i) = (Gauss Law),

0

JG JG

(ii) B = 0 (No name),

JG

JG JG B

(iii) = (Fardays Law),

t

JG

JG JG JG E

(iv) B = 0 J + 0 0 (Amperes law).

t

G JG G JG G JG G

( ) ( )

Given r , t and J r , t what are the fields E r , t and B r , t ? ( ) ( )

JG JG JG

From equation (ii) we can still write B = A

Putting this into Faraday's Law (iii)

G G

JG JG JG JG JG JG A G A JG

=

t

(

A +

t

=)0 E +

t

= V

G

G JG A

E = V

t

Now from equation (i)

JG G

2V +

t

(

A =

0

) .....(1)

G

JG JG JG JG JG V 2 A JG JG JG JG JG JG JG

( )

A = 0 J 0 0

t

0 0 2

t

; A = . A 2

A ( ) ( )

G

2G 2 A JG JG G V G

A 0 0 2 A + 0 0 = J ..(2)

t t

0

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Equations (1) and (2) contain all the information of Maxwells equations. Thus we need

JG

to calculate only four components (one for V and three for A ) instead of six components

JG JG

(three for E and three for B ).

Example: In an infinite straight wire constant current I 0 is turned on abruptly at t = 0 . Then

r 2

( ct )

2

G G G 0 I 0 ct +

V ( r , t ) = 0, A(r ,t ) = ln z

2 r

Find the fields corresponding to these potentials.

JG

JG A 0 I 0 c

Solution: The electric field is E ( r , t ) = = z

t 2 ( ct ) r 2

2

JG JG G A I ct

And the magnetic field is B( r , t ) = A = z = 0 0

r 2 r ( ct )

2

r 2

JG JJG

(

Suppose we have two sets of potentials, V , A and V , A , which correspond to the ) ( )

same electric and magnetic fields.

JJG JG JG

Thus A = A + and V = V + .

JJG JG JJG JG JG JG JG JG

Since B = A = B = 0 = .

JG

Two potentials also give the same E ,

JJG JG

JJG JG A JG JG

So E = V ' = E + = 0,

t t

JG

or + =0 + = k (t ) = + k (t )

t t t

t

Actually, we might as well absorb k ( t ) into , defining a new by adding k (t )dt to

0

the old one. This will not affect the gradient of ; it just adds k ( t ) to .

t

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JJG JG JG

A = A +

It follows that

V =V

t

JG JG

Conclusion: For any old scalar function , we can add to A , provided we

JG

simultaneously subtract from V. None of these will affect the physical quantities E

t

JG JG

and B . Such changes in V and A are called gauge transformations.

1.3 Coulomb and Lorentz Gauge

G G

Coulomb Gauge reads A = 0.

JG G V

Lorentz Gauge condition is A = 0 0 .

t

G

2G 2 A JG JG G V G G

Since A 0 0 2 A + 0 0

t

= 0 J and V +

t

2

t

A = ,

0

( )

Using Lorentz Gauge condition

G

G 2 A G 2V

A 0 0 2 = 0 J and 2V 0 0 2 = .

2

t t 0

JG

The virtue of the Lorentz gauge is that it treats V and A on an equal footing: the same

2

differential operator 0 0 2 ,2 (called the d' Alembertian) occurs in both

2

t

equations:

JG JG

(ii) , A = o J

2

(i) ,2 V = ,

0

0 Q0

Example: For a vector potential A the divergence of A is A = where Q0 is a constant

4 r 2

and V Lorentz gauge invariant.

JG JG V Q V 1 Qo t

Solution: A = 0 0 0 20 = 0 0 V =

t 4 r t 4 0 r 2

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Chapter - 9

Simple AC Circuits with R, L and C Components

9.1 Kirchhoffs Law

9.1.1 Kirchhoffs Voltage Law (KVL)

Kirchhoffs voltage law states that the voltage applied to a closed circuit equals the sum

of the voltage drops in that circuit. In series circuits it can be expressed as follows:

Voltage applied = sum of voltage drops

VA = V1 + V2 + V3

where VA is the applied voltage and V1, V2 and V3 are voltage drops.

Another way of stating KVL is that the algebraic sum of the voltage rises and voltage

drops must be equal to zero. A voltage source or emf is considered a voltage rise; a

voltage across a resistor is a voltage drop.

Voltage applied sum of voltage drops = 0

Substitute letters: VA V1 V2 V3 = 0 or VA (V1 + V2 + V3) = 0

Using a symbol, , we have

V = VA V1 V2 V3 = 0

in which V, the algebraic sum of all the voltages around any closed circuit, equals zero.

We assign a + sign to a voltage rise and a sign to

a voltage drop for the V = 0 formula (as shown in figure below). In tracing voltage

drops around a circuit, start at the negative terminal of the voltage source. The path from

the negative terminal to the positive terminal of the source is voltage rise. In figure if we

start at point a, the negative terminal of the battery, and move around the circuit in the

direction abcda, we go through VA from to + and VA = +100V. If we start at point b and

move in the opposite direction badcb, we go through VA from + to and VA = 100 V.

The voltage drop across any resistance will be negative (-) if we trace it in the + to

direction. Thus in figure, if we trace the circuit in the direction abcda, V1 = 50V,

V2 = 30V and V3 = 20V. The voltage drop will be positive (+) if we go through the

resistance in the to + direction. So in tracing the circuit in the direction abcda, we have

V = VA V1 V2 V3 = 0

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V1 = 50V

b c

+ R1

I V = V A V1 V 2 V3

+ + = 100 50 30 20

V A = 100V R 2 V2 = 30V

= 100 100

=0

R

3 +

a d

V3 = 20V

Figure: Illustration of V = 0

Kirchhofs current law states that the sum of the currents entering a junction is equal to

the sum of the currents leaving the junction. Suppose we have six currents leaving and

entering a common junction or point, shown as P. This common point is also called a

node.

Substitute letters: I6

I1

I1 + I3 + I4 + I6 = I2 + I5

I5

If we consider that the currents flowing

toward a junction are positive (+) and those I2

P

currents flowing away from the same junction I4

I3

the algebraic sum of all the currents meeting

at a common junction is zero. Using the Common point, junction, or node

I=0

where I, the algebraic sum of all the currents at the common point is zero.

I1 I2 + I3 + I4 I5 + I6 = 0

If the negative terms are transposed to the right side of the equal sign, we would have the

same form as the original equation.

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9.1.3 Mesh Current

A simplification of Kirchhoffs laws is a method that makes use of mesh or loop currents.

A mesh is any closed path of a circuit. It does not matter whether the path contains a

voltage source. In solving a circuit with mesh currents, we first must decide which paths

will be the meshes. Then we assign a mesh current to each mesh. For convenience, mesh

currents are usually assigned in a clockwise direction. Kirchhoffs voltage law is then

applied about the path of each mesh. The resulting equations determine the unknown

mesh currents. From these currents, the current or voltage of any resistor can be found.

c + R1 d + R3 e

V1 V3

I1 I2

+ +

+

VA V2 R2 VB

+

I1 I2

Mesh 1 Mesh 2

b a f

Figure: Two-mesh circuit

In figure shown above, we have a two-mesh circuit marked mesh 1 and mesh 2. Mesh 1

is path abcda and mesh 2 is path adefa. All voltage sources and resistances are known. A

procedure for finding mesh currents I1 and I2 is as follows:

Step 1: After the meshes are selected, show the direction of mesh currents I1 and I2 in a

clockwise direction. Mark the voltage polarity across each resistor, consistent

with the assumed current. Remember that conventional current flow in a resistor

produces positive polarity where the current enters.

Step 2: Apply Kirchhoffs voltage law, V = 0, around each mesh. Trace each mesh in the

direction of mesh current. Note that there are two different currents (I1, I2)

flowing in opposite directions through the same resistor, R2, which is common to

both meshes. For this reason two sets of polarities are shown by R2 (as shown in

figure). Trace mesh 1 in direction abcda.

+VA I1R1 I1R2 + I2R2 = 0

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+VA I1 (R1 + R2) + I2R2 = 0

or + I1 (R1 + R2) I2R2 = VA ..(1)

Note that in the first expression I2R2 is + since we go through a voltage drop from to +.

Trace mesh 2 in direction adefa.

I2R2 + I1R2 I2R3 VB = 0

+ I1R2 I2 (R2 + R3) = VB ..(2)

Note that I1R2 is a + voltage drop since we go through a voltage drop from to +.

Step 3: Find I1 and I2 by solving equations (1) and (2) simultaneously.

Step 4: When mesh currents are known, find all resistor voltage drops by using Ohms

law.

Step 5: Check the solution of mesh currents by tracing mesh abcdefa.

VA I1R1 I2R3 VB = 0

9.2 Alternating Current

9.2.1 Sine Wave

The instantaneous value of voltage at any point on the sine wave is expressed by the

equation v = VM sin

where v = instantaneous value of voltage, V , VM = maximum value of voltage, V

= angle

9.2.2 Alternating Current

When a sine wave of alternating voltage is connected across a load resistance, the current

that flows in the circuit is also a sine wave as shown in figure below.

AC

current

i, A 0 90o 180o 270o 360o o

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9.2.3 Frequency and Period

The number of cycles per second is called frequency. It is indicated by the symbol f and

is expressed in hertz (Hz). One cycle per second equals one hertz. Thus 60 cycles per

second (sometimes abbreviated cps) equals 60 Hz. A frequency of 2 Hz (figure b) is

twice the frequency of 1 Hz (figure a).

v or i 1 Hz v or i 2 Hz

+ +

0 0 1 3 1 Time, s

1 1 3 1 Time, s 1

2 4 4 2 4

4

(a ) f = 1 Hz (b ) f = 2 Hz

The amount of time for the completion of 1 cycle is the period. It is indicated by the

symbol T for time and is expressed in seconds (s). Frequency and period are reciprocals

of each other.

1 1

or T= f =

T f

The higher the frequency, the shorter the period.

The angle of 360 represents the time for 1 cycle, or the period T. So we can show the

horizontal axis of the sine wave in units of either electrical degrees or seconds.

1 cycle

v or i

0

90 D 180 D 270 D 360 D D

1 3

T 1T T T t, s

4 2 4

1 period

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The wavelength is the length of one complete wave or cycle. It depends upon the

frequency of the periodic variation and its velocity of transmission. Expressed as a

formula,

velocity

=

frequency

For electromagnetic radio waves, the velocity in air or a vacuum is 3 108 m/s, which is

c

the speed of light. =

f

where = wavelength, m , c = speed of light 3 108 m/s, a constant

f = radio frequency, Hz

9.2.4 Phase Relationships

The phase angle between two waveforms of the same frequency is the angular difference

at a given instant of time. As an example, the phase angle between waves B and A

(figure a) is 90. Take the instant of time at 90. The horizontal axis is shown in angular

units of time. Wave B starts at maximum value and reduces to zero value at 90, while

wave A starts at zero and increases to maximum value at 90. This 90 phase angle

between waves B and A is maintained throughout the complete cycle and all successive

cycles. At any instant of time, wave B has the value that wave A will have 90 later.

Wave B is a cosine wave because it is displaced 90 from wave A, which is a sine wave.

Both waveforms are called sinusoids.

Cosin wave B VB

Voltage Sine wave A

Counterclockwise

+ direction

90 o

0 o

VA

180o 270o 360

90o Time

Reference

phasor

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9.2.5 Phasors

To compare phase angles or phases of alternating voltages and currents, it is more

convenient to use phasor diagrams corresponding to the voltage and current waveforms.

A phasor is a quantity that has magnitude and direction. The terms phasor and vector are

used for quantities that have direction. However, a phasor quantity varies with time,

while a vector quantity has direction in space. The length of the arrow in a phasor

diagram indicates the magnitude of the alternating voltage. The angle of the arrow with

respect to the horizontal axis indicates the phase angle. One waveform is chosen as the

reference. Then the second waveform can be compared with the reference by means of

the angle between the phasor arrows. For example, the phasor VA represents the voltage

wave A with a phase angle of 0 (figure b as shown above). The phasor VB is vertical to

show the phase angle of 90 with respect to phasor VA, which is the reference. Since lead

angles are shown in the counterclockwise direction from the reference phasor, VB leads

VA by 90. VB

Counterclockwise

direction Reference

phasor

90 o

VA VB

90 o

Reference

phasor

Clockwise

direction

VA

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Generally, the reference phasor is horizontal corresponding to 0. If VB were

shown as the reference, VA would have to be 90 clockwise in order to have the same

phase angle. In this case VA lags VB by 90. There is no fundamental difference between

VB leading VA by 90 (figure a as shown below) or VA lagging VB by 90 (figure b as

shown above).

When two waves are in phase (figure a as shown below), the phase angle is zero. Then

the amplitudes add (figure b as shown below).

VA

VB

VB VA

0 = 0o

VB VA

When two waves are exactly out of phase (figure a as shown below), the phase angle is

180. Their amplitudes are opposing (figure b as shown below). Equal values of opposite

phase cancel each other.

VA

VB VA

0 = 180o

VB VA

VB

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9.2.6 Characteristic Value of Voltage and Current

Since an ac sine wave voltage or current has many instantaneous values throughout the

cycle, it is convenient to specify magnitudes for comparing one wave with another. The

peak, average or root-mean-square (rms) value can be specified. These values apply to

current or voltage.

av = 0.637 peak

+ rms Peak

Amplitude, v or i

av value value

value

Peak - to -

0 o o o o peak value

90 180 270 360

The peak value is the maximum value VM or IM. It applies to either the positive or

negative peak. The peak-to-peak (p-p) value may be specified and is double the peak

value when the positive and negative peaks are symmetrical.

The average value is the arithmetic average of all values in a sine wave for 1 half-cycle.

The half-cycle is used for the average because over a full cycle the average value is zero.

Average value = 0.637 peak value

or Vav = 0.637 VM

Iav = 0.637 IM

The root-mean-square value or effective value is 0.707 times the peak value.

RMS value = 0.707 peak value

or Vrms = 0.707 VM

Irms = 0.707 IM

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The rms value of an alternating sine wave corresponds to the same amount of direct

current or voltage in heating power. An alternating voltage with an rms value of 115 V,

for example, is just as effective in heating the filament of a light bulb as 115 V from a

steady dc voltage source. For this reason, the rms value is also called the effective value.

Unless indicated otherwise, all sine wave ac measurements are given in

rms values. The letters V and I are used to denote rms voltage and current. For instance, V

= 220 V (an ac power line voltage) is understood to mean 220 V rms.

Use Table given below as a convenient way to convert from one characteristic value to

another.

Table: Conversion Table for AC Sine Wave Voltage and Current

Peak 2 Peak-to-peak

Peak-to-peak 0.5 Peak

Peak 0.637 Average

Average 1.570 Peak

Peak 0.707 RMS (effective)

RMS (effective) 1.414 Peak

Average 1.110 RMS (effective)

RMS (effective) 0.901 Average

In an ac circuit with only resistance, the current variations are in phase with the applied

voltage (as shown in figure below). This in-phase relationship between V and I means

that such an ac circuit can be analyzed by the same methods used for dc circuits.

Therefore, Ohms laws for dc circuits are applicable also to ac circuits with resistance

only. The calculations in ac circuits are generally in rms values, unless otherwise

specified. For the series circuit, I = V/R = 110/10 = 11 A. The rms power dissipation is

P = I2R = 112(10) = 1210 W.

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v

I = 11 A

+ i

Amplitude

V = 110 V R L 10 0

I V

Time

phase with V

Figure: AC circuit with only resistance

9.3.1 Introduction

The ability of a conductor to induce voltage in itself when the current changes is its

self-inductance or simply inductance. The symbol for inductance is L, and its unit is the

henry (H). One henry is the amount of inductance that permits one volt to be induced

when the current changes at the rate of one ampere per second. The formula for

inductance is i

= 1 A/s

vL t

L=

i t

V

where L = inductance, H vL = 1 V L = 1H

v L = induced voltage across the coil, V

i t = rate of change of current, A/s

Figure: The inductance of a coil is

1H when a change of 1 A/s

induces 1V across the coil

i

The self-induced voltage v L from) is vL = L .

t

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When the current in a conductor or coil changes, the varying flux can cut

across any other conductor or coil located nearby, thus inducing voltages in both. A

varying current in L1 , therefore, induces voltages across L1 and across L2 (as shown in

figure below). When the induced voltage v L 2 produces current in L2 , its varying magnetic

field induces voltage in L1 . Hence, the two coils L1 and

i

L2 have mutual inductance because current change in L2

L1 vL2

one coil can induce voltage in the other. The unit of

mutual inductance is the henry, and the symbol is LM .

Two coils have LM of 1H when a current change of 1 Magnetic flux

A/s in one coil induces 1 V in the other coil. Figure: Mutual inductance

Between L1a and L 2

The schematic symbol for two coils with mutual inductance is shown in figure below.

L1 L2

Inductive reactance X L is the opposition to ac current due to the inductance in the

circuit. The unit of inductive reactance is the ohm. The formula for inductive reactance is

X L = 2 fL

Since 2 = 2 (3.14 ) = 6.28, X L = 6.28 fL

where X L = inductive reactance, , f = frequency , Hz, L = inductance, H

If any two quantities are known the third can be found

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XL XL

L= and f =

6.28 f 6.28 L

In a circuit containing only inductance (as shown in figure below, Ohms law can be used

to find current and voltage by substituting X L for R.

VL IL

IL =

XL

V VL XL

V

XL = L V = VL

IL

VL = I L X L

Figure: Circuit with only X L

where I L = current through the inductance, A

V L = voltage across the inductance, V

X L = inductive reactance,

9.3.3 Inductors in Series or Parallel

If inductors are spaced sufficiently far apart so that they do not interact

electromagnetically with each other; their values can be combined just like resistors when

connected together. If a number of inductors are connected in series (as shown in figure

below), the total inductance LT is the sum of the individual inductances, or

Series: LT = L1 + L2 + L3 + " + Ln

L1 L2 Ln LT

If two series-connected coils are spaced close together so that their magnetic field lines

interlink, their mutual inductance will have an effect on the circuit. In that case the total

inductance is

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LT = L1 + L2 2 LM

where LM is the mutual inductance between the coils. The plus (+) sign is used if the

coils are arranged in series-aiding form, while the minus (-) sign is used if the coils are

connected in series-opposing form. Series aiding means that the common current

produces the same direction of magnetic field for the two coils. The series-opposing

connection results in opposite fields.

Three different arrangements for coils L1 and L2 are shown both pictorially and

schematically as shown in figure below. In figue a coils are spaced too far apart to

interact electromagnetically. There is no mutual inductance, so LM is zero. The total

inductance is LT = L1 + L2 . In figue b, the coils are spaced close together and have

windings in the same direction, as indicated by the dots. The coils are series-aiding, so

LT = L1 + L2 + 2 LM . In figure c, the coil windings are in the opposite direction, so the

coils are series-opposing, and LT = L1 + L2 2 LM .

Spaced far

apart

L1 L2 LM = 0

LT = L1 + L2

LM = 0

Schematic diagram

(a) No mutual inductance

Spaced

closely LM

L1 L2

LT = L1 + L2 + 2LM

Schematic diagram

(b) Series-aiding

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Spaced

closely LM

L1 L2 (reversed)

LT = L1 + L2 2LM

Schematic diagram

(c) Series-opposing

The large dots above the coil (figure b and c) are used to indicate the polarity of the

windings without having to show the actual physical construction. Coils with dots at the

same end (figure b) have the same polarity or same direction of winding. When current

enters the dotted ends for L1 and L2 , their fields are aiding and LM has the same sense

as L .

If inductors are spaced sufficiently far apart so that their mutual inductance is negligible

(LM = 0 ), the rules for combining inductors in parallel are the same as for resistors. If a

number of inductors are connected in parallel (as shown in figure below), their total

inductance LT is

1 1 1 1 1

Parallel: = + + +"+

LT L1 L2 L3 Ln

L1 L2 L3 Ln LT

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The total inductance of two coils connected in parallel is

L1 L2

Parallel: LT =

L1 + L2

All inductances must be given as the same units. The shortcuts for calculating parallel R

can be used with parallel L. For example, if two 8-mH inductors are in parallel, the total

inductance is LT = L / n = 8 / 2 = 4 mH.

9.3.4 Inductive Circuits

9.3.4.1 Inductance Only

If an ac voltage v is applied across a circuit having only inductance (figure a), the

resulting ac current through the inductance, i L , will lag the voltage across the inductance,

v L , by 90 (figure b and c). Voltage v and v L are the same because the total applied

voltage is dropped only across the inductance. Both i L and v L are sine waves with the

same frequency. Lowercase letters such as i and v indicate instantaneous values; capital

letters such as I and V show dc or ac rms values.

V ,VL

vL

iL iL

Amplitude, v, i

v vL

L 90 180 270 360

0 Lead direction

Time (counterclockwise)

90

I L , reference

(a) Schematic diagram (c) Time diagram (c) Phasor diagram

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9.3.4.2 RL in Series

When a coil has series resistance (figure a shown below), the rms current I is limited by

both X L and R . I is the same in X L and R since they are in series. The voltage drop

across R is V R = IR, and the voltage drop across X L is VL = IX L . The current I through

X L must lag V L by 90 because this is the phase angle between current through an

inductance and its self-induced voltage (figure b). The current I through R and its IR

voltage drop are in phase so the phase angle is 0 .

VR

R VL

I

XL VL

VT

90

I

VR

(a) Circuit (c) Phasor diagram

To combine two waveforms out of phase, we add their equivalent phasors. The method is

to add the tail of one phasor to the arrowhead of

the other, using the angle to show their relative V T = V R2 + V L2

VL

phase. The sum of the phasors is a resultant = arctan

VT VR

V L = IX

phasors from the start of one phasor to the end L

I , reference

form a right angle, the resultant phasor is the V R = IR

geometry of a right triangle, the resultant is

VT = VR2 + VL2

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where the total voltage VT is the phasor sum of the two voltages V R and VL that are 90

out of phase. All the voltages must be in the same units-rms values, peak values, or

instantaneous values. For example, when VT is an rms value, V R and VL also are rms

values. Most of the ac calculations will be made in rms units.

VL V

The phase angle between VT and V R is tan = or = arctan L

VR VR

Since V R is in phase with I , is also the phase angle between VT and I where I lags VT .

Impedance in Series RL

The resultant of the phasor addition of R and X L is called impedance. The symbol for

impedance is Z. Impedance is the total opposition to

the flow of current, expressed in ohms. The

impedance triangle (as shown in figure) corresponds Z = R 2 + X L2

to the voltage triangle, but the common factor I XL = arctan

XL

Z R

cancels. The equations for impedance and phase

angle are derived as follows:

R

VT2 = V R2 + V L2 Figure: Phasor addition of R and

(IZ ) 2

= (IR ) + (IX L ) Z = R + X

2 2 2 2 2 X L to find Z

L

Z = R 2 + X L2

XL X

tan = or = arctan L

R R

9.3.4.3 RL in Parallel

For parallel circuits with R and X L (figure a shown below), the same applied voltage

VT is across R and X L since both are in parallel with VT . There is no phase difference

between these voltages. Therefore VT will be used as the reference phasor. The resistive

branch current I R = VT / R is in phase with VT . The inductive branch current I L = VT / X L

lags VT by 90 (figure b) because the current in an inductance lags the voltage across it

by 90 . The phasor sum of I R and I L equals the total line current I T (figure c), or

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I T = I R2 + I L2

IL

tan =

IR

IL

= arctan -

IR IR

IT VT IR IR

V T , reference

90

VT R XL

IT = I R2 + I L2

IT IL

IL

= arctan

IR

IL

Impedance in Parallel RL

For the general case of calculating the total impedance Z T of R and X L in parallel,

assume any number for the applied voltage VT because in the calculation of Z T in terms

of the branch currents the value of VT cancels. A convenient value to assume for VT is

the value of either R or X L , whichever is the higher number. This is only one method

among others for calculating Z T .

9.3.5 Q of a Coil

The quality or merit Q of a coil is indicated by the equation

X L 6.28 fL

Q= =

Ri Ri

where Ri is the internal resistance of the coil equal to the resistance of the wire in the coil

(figure a). Q is a numerical value without any units since the ohms cancel in the ratio of

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reactance to resistance. If the Q of a coil is 200, it

means that the X L of the coil is 200 times more than

XL

its Ri . The Q of a coil may range in the value from less XL

Q=

than 10 for a low-Q coil up to 1000 for a very high Q Ri

Ri

coil. Radio frequency (RF) coils have a Q of about 30

to 300.

As an example, a coil with an X L of 300 and a Ri Figure: Schematic diagrm of Q of a coil.

X L and Ri are distributed uniformly

of 3 has a Q of 300/3 =100.

over the length of the coil

9.3.6 Power in RL Circuit

Real power

In an ac circuit with inductive reactance, P = VI cos

V , reference

the line current I lags the applied voltage

V. The real power P is equal to the voltage Apparent power Reactive power

Q = VI sin

multiplied by one that portion of the line S = VI

current which is in phase with the voltage.

Therefore, Real power

Figure: Power triangle for RL circuit

P = V(I cos ) = VI cos

where is the phase angle between V and I, and cos is the power factor (PF) of the

where R is the total resistive component of the circuit.

Reactive power Q in voltamperes reactive (VAR), is expressed as follows:

Reactive power Q = VI sin

Apparent power S is the product of V x I. The unit is voltamperes (VA). In formula form,

Apparent power S = VI

In all the power formulas, the V and I are in rms values. The relationships of real, reactive

and apparent power can be illustrated by the phasor diagram of power (as shown in above

figure).

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9.4 Capacitive Circuits

9.4.1 Capacitance

Electrically, capacitance is the ability to store an electric charge. Capacitance is equal to

the amount of charge that can be stored in a capacitor divided by the voltage applied

Q

across the plates C=

V

where C = capacitance, F; Q = amount of charge, C; V = voltage, V

Q

Above equation can be rewritten as follows: Q = CV or V = .

C

The unit of capacitance is the farad (F). The farad is that capacitance that will store one

coulomb of charge in the dielectric when the voltae applied across the capacitor terminals

is one volt.

9.4.2 Capacitive Reactance

Capacitive reactance X C is the opposition to the flow of ac current due to the capacitance

in the circuit. The unit of capacitive reactance is the ohm. Capacitive reactance can be

found by using the equation

1 1 0.159

XC = = =

2fC 6.28 fC fC

If any two quantities are known, the third can be found

0.159 0.159

C= and f =

fX C CX C

Voltage and current in a circuit containing only capacitive reactance can be found using

Ohms law. However, in the case of a capacitive circuit, R is replaced by X C .

VC VC

VC = I C X C or IC = or XC =

XC IC

X C = capacitive reactance,

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9.4.3 Capacitors in Series or Parallel

When capacitors are connected in series (as shown in figure below) the total capacitance

CT is

1 1 1 1 1

Series: = + + +"+

CT C1 C 2 C 3 Cn

The total capacitance of two capacitors in series is

C1C 2

Series: CT =

C1 + C 2

When n number of series capacitors have the same capacitance, CT = C / n .

C1 C2 C3 Cn CT

When capacitors are connected in parallel (as shown in figure below), the total

capacitance CT is the sum of the individual capacitances.

Parallel: CT = C1 + C 2 + C 3 + " + C n

"

C1 C2 C3 Cn CT

"

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9.4.4 Capacitive Circuits

9.4.4.1 Capacitance Only

If an ac voltage v is applied across a circuit having only capacitance (figure a), the

resulting ac current through the capacitance ic , will lead the voltage across the

and vC , indicate instantaneous values.) Voltages v and vC are the same because they are

parallel. Both ic and vC are sine waves with the same frequency. In series circuits, the

current I C is the horizontal phasor for reference (figure d) so the voltage VC can be

considered to lag I C by 90 .

I c IC

vc 90 0

ic

Amplitude, v, i

vc

90 270 Time direction

0

90 V ,V C

ic V ,V C

(a) Schematic (b) Time diagram, (c) Phasor diagram, (d) Phasor diagram,

diagram i c leads v c by 90 0 V reference I C reference

9.4.4.2 RC in Series

As with inductive circuits, the combination of resistance and capacitive reactance

(figure a shown below) is called impedance. In a series circuit containing R and X C , the

same current I flows in X C and R. The voltage drop across R is V R = IR, and the voltage

90 (figure b shown below). The voltage across R is in phase with I since resistance does

not produce a phase shift.

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VR

VR

I , reference

I 90

R

VT XC VC

VC

To find the total voltage VT , we add phasors V R and VC . Since they form a right triangle

2 2 VC = IX C

The phase angle between VT and V R is

Figure: Voltage-triangle phasor

expressed according to the following equation:

VC VC

tan = or = arctan

VR VR

Impedance in Series RC

The voltage triangle corresponds to the impedance triangle because the common factor I

in VC and VR cancels.

R

IX C X

VC = IX C , V R = IR , tan = = C XC

IR R

Z Z = R 2 + X C2

Impedance Z is equal to the phasor sum of R and X C

Figure: Series RC impedance triangle

Z = R 2 + X C2

XC

= arctan

R

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9.4.4.3 RC in Parallel

In the RC parallel circuit (figure a shown below), the voltage is the same across the

source, R, and X C since they are all in parallel. Each branch has its individual current.

current I C = VT X C leads VT by 90 (figure b shown below). The phasor diagram has

the source voltage VT as the reference phasor because it is the same throughout the

circuit. The total line current I T equals the phasor sum of I R and I C (figure c shown

below).

IT IR IC IC

IT

VT R XC I T = I R2 + I C2

IC

90

IR VT IR

IC IC

I T = I R2 + I C2 , tan = or = arctan

IR IR

Impedance in Parallel RC

The impedance of a parallel circuit equals the total voltage VT divided by the total

current I T .

VT

ZT =

IT

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9.4.5 Power in RC Circuits

The power formulas given previously for RL circuits are equally applicable to RC

circuits.

Real power P = VI cos

V2

P = I 2R =

R

Reactive power Q = VI sin

Apparent power S = VI

Note: Capacitance, like inductance, consumes no power. The only part of the circuit

consuming power is the resistance.

Summary Table for Series and Parallel RC Circuits

X C and R in Series X C and R in Parallel

VT = VR2 + VC2 I T = I R2 + I C2

VT VT

Z = R 2 + X C2 = ZT =

I IT

VC lags VR by 90 I C lags I R by 90

XC IC

= arctan = arctan

R IR

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9.5 Single Phase Circuits

9.5.1 RLC in Series

Current in a series circuit containing resistance, inductive reactance, and capacitive

reactance (figure a shown below) is determined by the total impedance of the

combination. The current I is the same in R, XL, and XC since they are in series. The

voltage drop across each element is found by Ohms law:

VR = IR VL = IXL VC = IXC

Where VR = voltage drop across the resistance, V

VL = voltage drop across the inductance, V

VC = voltage drop across the capacitance, V

I

VL VL = IX L

R VR

VL VC

VT

VL VC + 90 o

VR = IR

VT XL VL

I I

90 o VR VR

VT = VR2 + (VL VC )

2

VC VC = IX C

XC V V

VC = arctan L C

VR

(a) Series RLC circuit diagram (b) Phasor diagram; VL > VC (c) Voltage-phasor triangle, VL > VC

The voltage drop across the resistance is in phase with current through the resistance

(figure b shown above). The voltage across the inductance leads the current through the

capacitance by 90. The voltage across the capacitance lags the current through the

capacitance by 90 . Since VL and VC are exactly 180 out of phase and acting in exactly

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opposite directions, they are added algebraically. When XL is greater than XC the circuit is

inductive, VL is greater than VC and I lags VT (figure c shown below).

When XC is greater than XL, the circuit is capacitive. Now VC is greater than VL so that I

leads VT (figure shown below)

VL

+ 90 o

VR

I I

90 o VR

VC VL

VT

VC VL

VT = VR2 + (VC VL )

2

VC VC VL

= arctan

VR

When XL > XC, the voltage-phasor diagram shows that the total voltage VT and phase

angle are as follows:

VL VC

VT = VR2 + (V L VC ) = arctan

2

and

VR

When XC > XL

V VL

VT = VR2 + (VC VL ) and = arctan C

2

VR

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9.5.1.1 Impedance in Series RLC

Impedance Z is equal to the phasor sum of R, XL, and XC. In figure a shown below:

XL > XC, Z = R 2 + ( X L X C )

2

When

XC > XL, Z = R 2 + ( X C X L )

2

When

X = XL XC

Then Z = R2 + X 2

for both inductive and capacitive RLC series circuits.

R

Z

XC X L = X

XL XC = X Z

R

R 2 + (X L X C ) = R 2 + (X C X L ) =

2

Z =

2

R2 + X 2 Z= R2 + X 2

X X

= arctan = arctan

R R

(a) X L > X C (b) X C > X L

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9.5.2 RLC in Parallel

A three- branch parallel ac circuit (figure a shown below) has resistance in one branch,

inductance in the second branch, and capacitance in the third branch. The voltage is the

same across each parallel branch, so VT = VR = VL = VC. The applied voltage VT is used as

the reference line to measure phase angle . The total current IT is the phasor sum of IR,

IL, and IC. The current in the resistance IR is in phase with the applied voltage VT (figure b

shown below). The current in the inductance IL lags the voltage VT by 90. The current in

the capacitor IC leads the voltage VT by 90. IL and IC are exactly 180 out of phase and

thus acting in opposite directions. When IL >IC, IT lags VT (figure c shown below) so the

parallel RLC circuit is considered inductive. I

C

+ 90 o

IT IR IL IC IR VT IR VT , reference

I L IC 90 o

IT I L IC

VT VR VL VC

I T = I R2 + (I L I C )

2

IL

I L IC

= arctan

IT

(a) Parallel RLC circuit diagram (b) Phasor diagram, IL > IC (c) Current-phasor triangle, IL > IC

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If IC > IL, the current relationship and phasor triangle (figure shown below) show that IT

now leads VT so this type of parallel RLC circuit is considered capacitive.

IC

IT IC I L

IC I L + 90 o

90 o IR VT IR VT ' reference

IL

I L IC

I T = I R2 + (I L I C ) and = arctan

2

IR

IC I L

IT = I R2 + ( I C I L )

2

and = arctan

IR

Note: In a parallel RLC circuit, when XL > XC, the capacitive current will be greater than

the inductive current and the circuit is capacitive. When XC > XL, the inductive current is

greater than the capacitive current and the circuit is inductive. These relationships are

opposite to those for a series RLC circuit.

9.5.2.1 Impedance in Parallel RLC

The total impedance ZT of a parallel RLC circuit equals the total voltage VT divided by the

total current IT.

VT

ZT =

IT

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9.5.3 RL and RC in Parallel

Total current IT for a circuit containing parallel branches of RL and RC (figure shown

below) is the phasor sum of the branch currents I1 and I2. A convenient way to find IT is

to

(1) Add algebraically horizontal components of I1 and I2 with respect to the phasor

reference VT,

(2) Add algebraically the vertical components of I1 and I2, and

(3) Form a right triangle with these two sums as legs and calculate the value of the

hypotenuse (IT) and its angle to the horizontal.

IT I1 I2

R1 R2

VT

L1 C2

Branch 1 Branch 2

Figure: Parallel RL and RC branches

The instantaneous power p is the product of the current i and the voltage v at that instant

of time t.

p = vi

When v and i are either positive or both negative, their product p is positive. Therefore,

power is being expended throughout the cycle (figure a shown below). If v is negative

while i is positive during any part of the cycle (figure b shown below), or if i is negative

while v is positive, their product will be negative. This negative power is not available

for work; it is power returned to the line.

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Power

p2 Power

p1

Current

v1 Current

i1

t1 t2

Time

i2 Time

v2

Figure (a): Power-time diagram when Figure (b): Power-time diagram in series RL

voltage and current are in circuit where current lags voltage

phase by phase angle

The product of the voltage across the resistance and the current through the resistance is

always positive and is called real power. Real power can be considered as resistive power

that is dissipated as heat. Since the voltage across a reactance is always 90 out phase

with the current through the reactance, the product px = vxix is always negative. This

product is called reactive power and is due to the reactance of a circuit. Similarly, the

product of the line voltage and the line current is known as apparent power.

Real power, reactive power, and apparent power can be represented by a right triangle

(figure a shown below). From this triangle the power formulas are:

Real power P = VR I R = VI cos , W

V2

or P = I 2R P= ,W

R

Reactive power Q = V X I X = VI sin , VAR

Apparent power S = VI , VA

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With line voltage V as reference phasor, in an inductive circuit, S lags P (figure b shown

below); while in a capacitive circuit, S leads P (figure c shown below).

P

V , reference

Q lagging

Reactive power S

Q = VXIX = VI sin

(Power returned to line)

(b) Lagging PF (e.g., induction motor)

P = VR I R = VI cos

Real power

True power S

Active power Q leading

(Power available for work)

V , reference

P

(a) General formulas (c) Leading PF (e.g. synchronous

motor, bank of capacitors)

The ratio of real power to apparent power, called the power factor (PF), is

Real power

Real power V I VI cos

PF = = R R = = cos

apparent power VI VI

P

Also PF = cos =

VI

The cos of a circuit is the power factor, PF, of the circuit. The power factor determines

what portion of apparent power is real power and can vary from 1 when the phase angle

is 0, to 0 when is 90. When = 0 o , P = VI, the formula for voltage and current of

circuit in phase. When = 90 o , P = VI 0 = 0, indicating that no power is being

expended or consumed.

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A circuit in which the current lags the voltage (i.e. an inductive circuit) is said to have a

lagging PF; a circuit in which the current leads the voltage (i.e., a capacitive circuit) is

said to have a leading PF.

Power factor is expressed as a decimal or as a percentage. A power factor of 0.7 is the

same as a power factor of 70 percent. At unity (PF = 1, or 100 percent), the current and

voltage are in phase. A 70 percent PF means that the device uses only 70 percent of the

voltampere input. It is desirable to design circuits that have a high PF since such circuits

make the most efficient use of the current delivered to the load.

When we state that a motor draws 10 kVA (1 kVA = 1000 VA) from a power line, we

recognize that this is the apparent power taken by the motor. Kilovoltamperes always

refers to the apparent power. Similarly, when we say a motor draws 10 kW, we mean that

the real power taken by the motor is 10 kW.

Power Factor Correction

In order to make the most efficient use of the current delivered to a load, we desire a high

PF or a PF that approaches unity. A low PF is generally due to the large inductive loads,

such as induction motors, which take a lagging current. In order to correct this low PF, it

is necessary to bring the current as closely in phase with the voltage as possible. That is,

the phase angle is made as small as possible. This is usually done by placing a

capacitive load, which produces a leading current, in parallel with the inductive load.

9.6 Series and Parallel Resonance

We have observed that in many circuits inductors and capacitors are connected in series

or in parallel. Such circuits are often referred to as RLC circuits. One of the most

important characteristics of a RLC circuit is that it can be made to respond most

effectively to a single given frequency. When operated in this condition, the circuit is said

to be in resonance with or resonant to the operating frequency.

A series or a parallel RLC circuit that is operated at resonance has certain properties that

allow it to respond selectively to certain frequencies while rejecting others. A circuit

operated to provide frequency selectivity is called a tuned circuit. Tuned circuits are used

in impedance matching, bandpass filters, and oscillators.

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9.6.1 Series Resonance

2

The circuit is at resonance when the inductive reactance XL is equal to the capacitive

reactance XC (figure b shown below).

X L = 2fL

R L

XL

I X L = X C at f r

VT

fr Frequency f

XC

C

1

XC =

2fC

At resonance XL = XC

1

Where X L = 2 f L and X C =

2 f C

1 1

Then at resonance, 2 f L = f2=

2 f C (2 )2 LC

1 0.159

f = fr = = . (1)

2 LC LC

where fr = resonance frequency, Hz; L = inductance, H; C = capacitance, F

For any LC product [equation (1)] there is only one resonant frequency. Thus, various

combinations of L and C may be used to achieve resonance if the LC product remains the

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same. Equation (1) may be solved for L or C to find the inductance or capacitance needed

to from a series resonant circuit at a given frequency.

1 0.0254 1 0.0254

L= = and C = =

4 f r C

2 2

fr2

4 f r L

2 2

f r2 L

Since XL = XC, XL XC = 0 so that

Z = R 2 + (X L X C ) = R 2 = R

2

Since the impedance at resonance Z equals the resistance R, the impedance is a minimum.

With minimum impedance, the circuit has maximum current determined by I = V/R. The

resonant circuit has a phase angle equal to 00 so that the power factor is unity.

XL = XC Maximum

XC > XL XL > XC current at f r

High Q

Impedance Z

Current I

Inducive Medium Q

Capacitive region

region Low Q

Resonant point

Z=R

f = fr f = fr Frequency f

High

Frequency f R

Medium R

Low R

(a) Impedance response curve (b) Current response curve

greater than XL so the circuit consists of resistance and capacitive reactance. However, at

frequencies above the resonant frequency, XL is greater than XC so that circuit consists of

resistance and inductive reactance. At resonance, maximum current is produced for

different values of resistance (figure b shown above). With a low resistance, maximum

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current increases sharply toward and decreases sharply from its maximum current as the

circuit is tuned to and away from the resonant frequency. This condition where the curve

is narrow at the resonant frequency provides good selectivity. With an increase of

resistance, the curve broadens so that selectivity is less.

9.6.1.1 Q of Series Circuit

The degree to which a series-tuned circuit is selective is proportional to the ratio of its

XL

inductive reactance to its resistance. This ratio is known as the Q of the circuit and is

R

XL

expressed as follows: Q =

R

where Q = quality factor or figure of merit

XL = inductive reactance,

R = resistance,

The lower the resistance, the higher the value of Q, the higher the Q the sharper and more

selective is the resonant curve. Q has the same value if calculated with XC instead of XL

since they are equal at resonance. Q = 150 is a high Q. Typical values are 50 to 250. Less

than 10 is a low Q; more than 300 is a very high Q.

The Q of the circuit of the circuit is generally considered in terms of XL since the coil has

the series resistance of the circuit. In this case, the Q of the coil and the Q of the series

resonant circuit are the same. If extra resistance is added, the Q of the circuit will be less

than the Q of the coil. The highest possible Q for the circuit is the Q of the coil.

The Q of the resonant circuit can be considered a magnification factor that determines

how much the voltage across L or C is increased by the resonant rise of current in a series

circuit.

V L = VC = QVT

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9.6.2 Parallel Resonance

9.6.2.1 Pure Parallel LC circuit

In the pure LC parallel-tuned circuit (that is, one in which there is no resistance), the coil

and capacitor are placed in parallel and the applied voltage VT appears across these circuit

components (figure shown below). In this parallel-tuned circuit, as in the series-tuned

circuit, resonance occurs when the inductive reactance is equal to the capacitive

reactance.

XL = XC

Because the applied voltage is common to both branches,

VL = VC

VL V

So that = C , I L = IC

XL XC

The current in the inductive branch IL equals the current in the capacitive branch IC.

IL lags the applied voltage VT by 90, while IC leads the voltage by 90 (figure b shown

below). Since the phasor currents IL and IC are equal and out of phase by 180, their

vector sum is zero so that the total current IT is zero. Under this condition the impedance

of the circuit at the resonant frequency must be infinite in value.

IC

IT

I L = IC

IL IC IT = 0

VT = VL = VC XL XC VT , reference

IL

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The formula for the resonant frequency of a pure LC parallel-tuned circuit is the same as

that for a series circuit.

1 0.159

fr = =

2 LC LC

If the resonant frequency is known, then the inductance or capacitance for a parallel

resonant LC circuit can be found by formulas.

0.0254 0.0254

L= and C=

f r2 C f r2 L

9.6.2.2 Practical Parallel LC Circuit

In a practical LC parallel-tuned circuit (figure a shown below), there is some resistance,

most of which is due to the resistance of the inductor wire. The resonant frequency of a

parallel circuit also is defined as that frequency at which the parallel circuit acts as a pure

resistance. Therefore, the line current IT must be in phase with the applied voltage VT

(unity power factor) (figure b shown below). This means that the out-of-phase or

quadrature component of the current through the inductive branch IL must be equal to the

current through the capacitive branch IC; and the total line current IT equals the in-phase

component of the current through the inductive branch, or IT = Ir (figure b shown below).

Since the impedance is maximum, IT is minimum.

IC

IT

IC IC = I L

I RL

R

IT = I R

VT XC VT

XL

IL I RL

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The resonant frequency for the circuit (figure a shown above) is

1 1 R2

fr = 2 (2)

2 LC L

where f r = resonant frequency, Hz; L = inductance, H; C = capacitance, F;

R = resistance, .

If the Q of the coil is high, say greater than 10, or the term 1/LC >> R2/L2, then, for

practical purposes, the term R2/L2 can be disregarded. The result is that equation (2)

becomes equation (1), the resonant frequency formula for series resonance.

1

fr =

2 LC

the total impedance at resonance of the practical LC parallel circuit is

1

ZT =

RC

In terms of quality factor Q, ZT at resonance can also be found by

Q

Z T = X L Q = 2 f r LQ or ZT =

2 f r C

The impedance ZT of a practical parallel circuit is maximum at the resonant frequency

and decreases at frequencies below and above the resonant frequency (figure a shown

below). An increase in resistance decreases the impedance and causes the impedance to

vary less sharply as the circuit is tuned over a band of frequencies below and above the

resonant frequency (figure b shown below). At frequencies below resonance, XC > XL and

IL > IC so that the parallel-tuned circuit is inductive (figure a and c shown below). At

frequencies above resonance, the reverse condition is true, XL > XC and IC > IL, so that

now the circuit is capacitive (figure a and c shown below c). Since the impedance ZT is

maximum at parallel resonance, IT is minimum (figure c shown below).

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XL = XC IL = IC

Maximum

XC >XL XL > XC current at f r IL > IC IC > IL

High Q

Impedance ZT

Inductive Capacitive

Impedance ZT

region region

Current IT

Medium Q Capacitive

region

Low Q

Inductive Minimum

region line current

at f r

f = fr f = fr Frequency f f = fr

Frequency f High Frequency f

R

MediumR

Low R

(a ) (b) (c )

Figure: Impedance and current response curves of practical parallel LC circuit at resonance

For a parallel resonant circuit in which R is very low compared with X L ,

XL

Q=

R

where R is the resistance of the coil in series with X L . If the resistance of the source

supply is very high and there is no other resistance branch shunting the tuned circuit, the

Q of the parallel resonant circuit is the same as the Q of the coil.

9.6.3 Bandwidth and Power of Resonant Circuit

The width of the resonant band of frequencies centered around fr is called the bandwidth

of the tuned circuit. In figure a shown below, the group of frequencies with a response of

70.7 percent of maximum or more is considered the bandwidth of the tuned circuit. For a

series resonant circuit, the bandwidth is measured between the two frequencies f1 and f2

producing 70.7 percent of the maximum current at fr (figure b shown below). For a

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parallel resonant circuit, the bandwidth is measured between the two frequencies,

allowing 70.7 percent of the maximum total impedance at fr (figure c shown below).

70.7% of 70.7% of

Bandwidth max. current max. current

f = f 2 f 1

100 100 100

70.7% f f

80 80 80

Impedance ZT

response

Amplitude, %

Current IT

60 60 60

40 40 40

20 20 20

f1 fr f2 f1 f r f 2 f1 f r f 2

Frequency f Frequency f Frequency f

(a) General resonance (b) Series resonance (c) Parallel resonance

At each frequency f1 and f2 the net capacitive or net inductive reactance equals the

resistance. Then ZT of the series RLC resonant circuit is 2 or 1.4 times greater than R.

The current then is I / 2 = 0.707 I . Since power is I2R or V2/R and (0.707)2 = 0.50, the

bandwidth at 70.7 percent response in current or voltage is also the bandwidth of half-

power points.

Bandwidth (BW) in terms of Q is

fr

BW = f 2 f1 = f =

Q

High Q means narrow bandwidth, whereas low Q yields greater bandwidth.

Either f1 or f2 is separated from fr by one-half of the total bandwidth, so these edge

frequencies can be calculated.

f f

f1 = f r and f2 = fr +

2 2

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Highest Q

Amplitude

Lowest Q

f

Frequencyf

Figure: Resonant response curves: higher Q provides sharper resonance, lower Q

provides broader response

Series Resonance Parallel Resonance(Q>10)

1 1

fr = fr =

2 LC 2 LC

I maximum at f r with = 0 0 I T maximum at f r with = 0 0

Impedance Z minimum at f r Impedance Z T maximum at f r

XL XL

Q= Q=

R R

Q rise in voltage= QVT Q rise in impedance= QX L

fr fr

Bandwidth f = Bandwidth f =

Q Q

Capacitive below fr , but Inductive below fr , but

inductive above f r capacitive above f r

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MCQ (Multiple Choice Questions)

Q1. A voltage of 15V ac is applied to a 150 H coil connected in series with a 169 pF

capacitor. The total series resistance is 7.5 which includes the coil winding resistance,

the resistance of the connecting leads, and the leakage resistance of the capacitor. The

circuit is resonant at 1000 kHz. Then the behavior of circuit at frequency of 1200 kHz is

(a) Resistive (b) Capacitive

(c) Inductive (d) both Inductive and Capacitive

Q2. A voltage of 15V ac is applied to a 150 H coil connected in series with a 169 pF

capacitor. The total series resistance is 7.5 which includes the coil winding resistance,

the resistance of the connecting leads, and the leakage resistance of the capacitor. The

circuit is resonant at 1000 kHz. Then the behavior of circuit at frequency of 1000 kHz is

(a) Resistive (b) Capacitive

(c) Inductive (d) both Inductive and Capacitive

Q3. In a simple radio receiver tuning circuit (series RLC circuit), resistance is 7.5 ,

inductance is 400 H and the circuit is resonant at 500 kHz . Then the value of series

capacitor is:

(a) 252 pF (b) 254 pF

(c) 256 pF (d) 258 pF

Q4. A voltage of 15V ac is applied to a 150 H coil connected in series with a 169 pF

capacitor. The total series resistance is 7.5 . The circuit is resonant at1000 kHz . The

magnitude of current at 1000 kHz is

(a) 2 A (b) 4 A (c) 6 A (d) 8 A

Q5. An LCR series circuit with C = 0.1 F and having a resonance frequency of

1.6 kHz would have a quality factor (Q) of 10, if the series resistance is chosen to be

(a) 10 (b) 50 (c) 100 (d) 160

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Q6. A parallel resonant circuit appears as infinite impedance at the resonant frequency. A

400 H coil and a 25 pF capacitor are placed in parallel to form a wave trap in an

antenna. The resistance of the circuit is negligible. Then the resonant frequency is

(a) 1550 kHz (b) 1570 kHz

(c) 1590 kHz (d) 1610 kHz

Q7. For the circuit shown in figure the resonant frequency is:

R 6.7

(b) 350 kHz

VT =100V C 500 pF

(c) 450 kHz

L 203 H

(d) 500 kHz

Q8. Find the resonance frequency (in rad/sec) of the circuit shown in the figure below

(a) 1.0

2

(b) 1.6 V 0.25 F

(c) 2.0 3

2H

(d) 2.6

Q9. An LC circuit resonant at1000 kHz has a Q of 100. Then the edge frequencies are

respectively

(a) 995 kHz , 1005 kHz (b) 990 kHz, 1010 kHz

(c) 995 kHz, 1010 kHz (d) 990 kHz, 1005 kHz

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NAT (Numerical Answer Type)

Q10. A 150 resistor, a 10 F capacitor and a 0.1 H inductor are connected in series to an a.c.

source operating at an angular frequency . Then the value of (in rad / s ) for which

the combination acts as a pure resistive load is

Q11. In a simple radio receiver tuning circuit (series RLC circuit), resistance is 7.5 ,

inductance is 200 H and the capacitor is set at 200 pF . Then the resonant frequency is:

.. kHz

Q12. The capacitance of a parallel resonant circuit used as a wave trap in an antenna circuit

is 400 pF . Then the value of parallel inductance in order to reject a 800 kHz wave

is H

Q13. For the circuit shown in figure the impedance of the circuit is. k

R 6.7

VT =100V C 500 pF

L 203 H

Q14. A coil with a Q of 71.6 is connected in parallel with a capacitor to produce resonance

at 356 kHz . The impedance at resonance is found to be 64 k . Then the value of the

capacitor is. pF

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MSQ (Multiple Select Questions)

Q15. A 150 resistor, a 10 F capacitor and a 0.1 H inductor are connected in series to an a.c.

source operating at an angular frequency . The a.c. source is operated at a peak voltage

of 300 2 V and a frequency equal to half the resonance frequency of the circuit. Then

which of the following statements are true.

(a) The circuit is operating at = 5 102 rad / s

(b) The peak value of current in the circuit is 2 A

(c) The phase difference between the current and voltage is 450

(d) The peak value of voltage across the inductor is 100V

Q16. A 150 resistor, a 10 F capacitor and a 0.1 H inductor are connected in series to an a.c.

source operating at 150 2 sin 500t volts. Then which of the following statements are

true.

(a) The circuit is resonant at = 103 rad / s

(c) The peak value of current at operating frequency in the circuit is 2 A

(d) The peak value of current at operating frequency in the circuit is 1 A

Q17. A 150 resistor, a 10 F capacitor and a 0.1 H inductor are connected in series to an a.c.

source operating at 150 2 sin 500t volts. Then which of the following statements are

true.

(a) The phase difference between the current and voltage is 600

(b) The phase difference between the current and voltage is 450

(c) The peak value of voltage across the inductor is 100V

(d) The peak value of voltage across the inductor is 50V

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Solutions

MCQ (Multiple Choice Questions)

Ans. 1: (c)

Ans. 2: (a)

Ans. 3: (b)

1 0.0254

Solution: f r = C = = 254 pF

2 LC f r2 L

Ans. 4: (b)

Solution: At resonance Z = R = 7.5

VT 15

Current I = = =2A

R 7.5

Ans. 5: (c)

1 1

Solution: Q = R= = 100

2 fRC 2 fQC

Ans. 6: (c)

1 0.159

Solution: f r = = = 1590 kHz

2 LC LC

Ans. 7: (d)

2

1 1 R2 1 1 6.7

Solution: f r = 2 = 6

= 500 kHz

2 LC L 2 ( 203 10 )( 500 10 ) 203 10

6 12

Ans. 8: (a)

1 R2 1 4

Solution: r = 2 = = 1.0

LC L 2 0.25 4

Ans. 9: (a)

f r 1000 103

Solution: f = = = 10 kHz

Q 100

f f

f1 = f r = 995 kHz and f 2 = f r + = 1005 kHz

2 2

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NAT (Numerical Answer Type)

Ans. 10: 1000

1 1

Solution: At resonance = = = 10 3 rad / s

6

LC 0.1 10 10

Ans. 11: 795

1 0.159

fr = = = 795 kHz

2 LC LC

1 0.0254

Solution: f r = L= = 99.2 H

2 LC f r2C

Ans. 13: 60.6

L 203 106

Solution: ZT = = = 60.6 k

(

RC 6.7 500 1012 )

Ans. 14: 500

Q Q 71.6

Solution: ZT = C = = = 500 pF

2 f r C 2 f r ZT 6.28 ( 356 103 )( 64 103 )

Ans. 15: (a), (b), (c), (d)

1 1

Solution: (a) At resonance = = = 103 rad / s = = 5 102 rad / s .

LC 0.110 10 6 2

(b) Given that peak voltage = 300 2 V and frequency = 5 102 rad / s .

1 1

R = 150 , X C = = = 200 , X L = L = 5 102 0.1 = 50

C 5 10 105

2

2 2

300 2

Peak current I M = =2A

150 2

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X XL 200 50

(c) = arctan C = arctan = 45 .

0

R 150

Ans. 16: (a), (d)

1 1

Solution: At resonance = = = 103 rad / s

6

LC 0.110 10

Given that peak voltage = 150 2 V and operation frequency = 5 102 rad / s

1 1

R = 150 , X C = = = 200 , X L = L = 5 102 0.1 = 50

C 5 10 10

2 5

2 2

150 2

Peak current I M = =1 A

150 2

Ans. 17: (b), (d)

Solution: Given that peak voltage = 150 2 V and frequency = 5 102 rad / s

1 1

R = 150 , X C = = = 200 , X L = L = 5 102 0.1 = 50

C 5 10 10

2 5

2 2

150 2

Peak current I M = =1 A

150 2

XC XL 200 50

= arctan = arctan = 45 .

0

R 150

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Chapter - 10

Simple DC circuits with R, L and C components

10. Circuit Analysis by Classical Method

10.1 Introduction

Whenever a circuit is switched from one condition to another, either by a change in the

applied source or a change in the circuit elements, there is a transition period during

which the branch currents and element voltages change from their former values to new

ones. This period is called the transient. After the transient is passed, the circuit is said to

be in the steady state.

Now, the linear differential equation that describes the circuit will have two parts to its

solution. The complementary function corresponds to the transient state and the particular

solution corresponds to the steady state.

The v-i relation for an inductor or capacitor is a differential equation. A Circuit

containing an inductor L or a capacitor C and resistor R will have current and voltage

variables given by differential equations of the same form. It is a linear first order

differential equation with constant coefficients when values of R , L and C are constant.

L and C are storage element.. Circuits have two storage elements like one L and one C

are referred to as second order circuits.

The circuit changes are assumed to occur at time t = 0 and represented by a switch.

t =0 t =0

s

Closed / ON Open / OFF

t = 0+ ; the instant immediately after switching

Switching on or off an element or source in a circuit at t = 0 will not disturb the storage

element so that iL ( 0 ) = iL ( 0+ ) and vC ( 0 ) = vC ( 0+ )

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Circuit element: Resistance

V

Resistance R =

I

V2

Power absorbed by the resistor P = I 2 R =

R

t V 2t

and energy lost in the resistance in form of heat is W = Pdt = Pt = I 2 Rt =

0 R

Circuit element: Inductance

di

Voltage across inductance vL = L

dt

di

In a pure inductive circuit with applied voltage v , v + vL = 0 v = vL = L

dt

di t t di 1 2

Power absorbed by inductor P = vi = Li W = Pdt = Li = Li

dt 0 0 dt 2

vL dt = vL dt + iL ( 0 )

1 t 1 t

iL ( t ) =

L L 0

Circuit element: Capacitance

C=

q

v

,i=C

dv

dt

1 t

vC = iC dt + vC 0

C 0

( )

dv 1 2

P = vi = vC and W = Cv

dt 2

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10.2 Differential Equations

10.2.1 Type I-(First order Homogeneous Differential Equation)

dy

(t ) + Py(t ) = 0 where P is any constant

dt

dy (t )

= Pdt ln y (t ) = Pt + k ' , take k ' = ln k ln y ( t ) = Pt + ln k

y (t )

y (t ) = ke Pt where k is a constant

10.2.2 Type II-(First order Non Homogeneous Differential Equation)

dy

(t ) + Py(t ) = Q where P is a constant and Q may be a function of independent variable

dt

t or a constant.

d

[y(t )e Pt ] = Qe Pt y(t )e Pt = Qe Pt dt + k y(t ) = e Pt Qe Pt dt + ke Pt

dt

C .F . P.I .

If Q is constant, then y (t ) =

Q

+ ke Pt

P

10.3 Initial Conditions in Circuits

Number of initial conditions required is equal to the order of the differential equation for

an unique solution.

at t = 0 + at t =

R

L O.C . S .C .

C S .C . O.C .

I0

L

C+ C

OC

Vo

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10.4 Transient Response of Series R-L Circuit having DC Excitation

S R

t =0

V i(t ) L

If switch S is closed at t = 0 . Then the current through the circuit is i ( t ) . Applying KVL

R

t

= 0 + i = i(t ) = + ke L

di di R V V

V + iR + L

dt dt L L R

V

R

V t

R

Thus i (t ) = 1 e L

R

t

R R

t

V R (t ) = iR = V 1 e and V L (t ) = L = Ve L

L

di

dt

At t = 0 , i ( t ) = 0 , VL (t ) = V , VR (t ) = 0

V

At t = , i (t ) = and VL (t ) = 0, VR (t ) = V

R

L

When t = = (time constant)

R

V 1

i (t ) = 1 = 0.632 , VL (t ) = = 0.368V and VR (t ) = 0.632V

V V

R e R e

V (t )

V i (t )

V

R V R (t )

V 0.632V

0.632

R

0.368V V L (t )

t t

L L

= =

R R

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New Transient Condition

As circuit reaches at steady state (at t = ), suddenly switch is open and new condition

at t = 0 is shown. t =0 R

R

t

+ Ri = 0 i(t ) = k ' e L

di

Now L

dt V i(t ) L

at t = 0+ , the inductor keep the steady state

( ) ( )

i 0+ = i 0 =

V

R

R

V t

i (t ) = e L

V

Thus k'=

R R

Corresponding voltages across the resistor and inductor are

R R

t t

V ' R (t ) = i (t )R = Ve V 'L (t ) = L

di

L

and = Ve L

dt

i(t )

V

R V

V ' R (t )

V 0.368V

0.368 0 t

R t 0.368V

V 'C (t )

L

=

R

V

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10.5 Transient Response of Series R-C Circuit having DC Excitation

S R

t =0

V i(t ) VC (t )

If switch S is closed at t = 0 . Then the current through the circuit is i ( t ) . Applying KVL

t t

V + Ri(t ) +

1 1

C C0

1

+ i(t ) = 0 i(t ) = ke RC

di 1 t

Differentiating above equation, we will get R

dt C

( )

1

V RC t

i(t ) =

V

At t = 0+ , i 0+ = =k e

R R

1

t

1

t

V R (t ) = i (t )R = Ve and VC (t ) = i(t )dt = V 1 e

R

1 t RC

C 0

At t = 0 ; i(t ) = and VC (t ) = 0, VR (t ) = V

V

R

At t = ; i(t ) = 0 and VC (t ) = V , VR (t ) = 0

V 1 V

R R

i(t ) V (t )

V

V

R

0.632V VC (t )

V VR (t )

0.368 0.368V

R t t

= RC = RC

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New Transient Condition

As circuit reaches at steady state (at t =