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Forum for CSIR-UGC JRF/NET, GATE, IIT-JAM/IISc,
JEST, TIFR and GRE in
PHYSICS & PHYSICAL SCIENCES

Electricity and Magnetism

(IIT-JAM/JEST/TIFR/M.Sc Entrance)


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ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM
1. Electrostatics (1-58)
1.1 Coulombs Law and Superposition Principle
1.1.1 Electric field
1.2 Gausss law
1.2.1 Field lines and Electric flux
1.2.2 Applications
1.3 Electric Potential
1.3.1 Curl of Electric field
1.3.2 Potential of localized charges
1.4 Laplaces and Poisson Equations
1.5 Electrostatic Boundary Condition
1.6 Work and Energy in Electrostatics
1.6.1 The Energy of point charge distribution
1.6.2 Energy of Continuous charge distribution
1.7 Basic Properties of Conductors
1.8 Multipole Expansions
1.8.1 The Electric Potential and Field of a Dipole
1.8.2 Approximate Potential at large distances
1.9 Polarization
1.9.1 The Field of a Polarized Object (Bound Charges)
1.10 The Electric Displacement
1.10.1 Gauss Law in the Presence of Dielectrics
1.10.2 Linear Dielectrics (Susceptibility, Permittivity, Dielectric Constant)
1.10.3 Boundary Condition
1.10.4 Energy in Dielectric System
1.11 Image Problems
1.11.1 The Classic Image Problem
1.11.2 Induced Surface Charge

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1.11.3 Force and Energy
1.11.4 Other Image Problem
Questions & Solutions
2. Magnetostatic.(59-87)
2.1 Magnetic Force on Current Element
2.1.1 Current in a Wire
2.1.2 Surface Current Density
2.1.3 Volume Current Density
2.2 Continuity Equation
2.3 Biot-Savart Law
2.3.1 Magnetic field due to wire
2.3.2 Magnetic field due to Solenoid and Toroid
2.4 Ampere's Law
2.5 Magnetic Vector Potential
2.6 Magnetostatic Boundary Condition
2.7 Multipole Expansion of Vector Potential
2.8 Magnetisation
2.8.1 The Field of a magnetized Object (Bound Currents)
2.9 The Auxiliary field H
2.9.1 Amperes Law in in presence of Magnetic Materials
2.9.2 Magnetic Susceptibility and Permeability
2.9.3 Boundary Condition
Questions & Solutions
3. Dynamics of Charged Particles in Static and Uniform Electromagnetic Fields..(88-99)
3.1 Charged Particle in Static Electric Field
3.1.1 Charged Particle enters in the direction of field (Linear motion)
3.1.2 Charged Particle enters in the direction perpendicular to field
(Parabolic motion)
3.2 Charged Particle in Static Magnetic Field

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3.2.1 Charged Particle enters in the direction perpendicular to field
(Circular motion)
3.2.2 Charged Particle enters in the direction making an angle with the field
(Helical motion)
3.3 Charged Particle in Uniform Electric and Magnetic Field (Cycloid motion)
Questions & Solutions
4. Electromagnetic Induction.(100-112)
4.1 Faradays Law
4.1.1 Lenzs Law
4.1.2 Inductance
4.1.3 Energy Stored in the field
Questions & Solutions
5. Maxwell's Equations..(113-121)
5.1 Maxwells Equation in Free Space
5.1.1 Electrodynamics before Maxwells
5.1.2 How Maxwell fixed Amperes Law
5.1.3 Paradox of Charging Capacitor
5.1.4 Maxwells Equation in Free Space
5.2 Maxwells Equation in Linear Isotropic Media
5.3 Boundary Conditions on the Fields at Interfaces
Questions & Solutions
6. Electromagnetic Waves.(122-146)
6.1 Poynting Theorem
6.2 Waves in One Dimension (Sinusoidal waves)
6.2.1 The Wave Equation
6.2.2 Terminology
6.2.3 Complex notation
6.2.4 Polarization
6.3 Electromagnetic Waves in Vacuum

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6.3.1 The Wave Equation for E and B
6.3.2 Monochromatic Plane Waves
6.3.3 Energy and Momentum in Electromagnetic Wave
6.4 Electromagnetic Waves in Matter
6.5 Electromagnetic Waves in Conductors
Questions & Solutions
7. Applications of Electromagnetic waves..(147-159)
7.1 Reflection and Refraction at Dielectric Interface
7.1.1 Normal incidence
7.1.2 Oblique incidence
7.1.3 Fresnels relation (Parallel and Perpendicular Polarization)
7.2 Reflection at Conducting Surface
Questions & Solutions
8. Potential and field formulation for time varying fields..(160-162)
8.1 Scalar and vector potentials
9. Simple AC circuits with R, L and C components...(163-213)
9.1 Kirchhoffs Law
9.1.1 Kirchhoffs Voltage Law (KVL)
9.1.2 Kirchhoffs Current Law (KCL)
9.1.3 Mesh Current
9.2 Alternating Current
9.2.1 Sine Wave
9.2.2 Alternating Current
9.2.3 Frequency and Period
9.2.4 Phase Relationships
9.2.5 Phasors
9.2.6 Characteristic Value of Voltage and Current
9.2.7 Resistance in AC Circuits
9.3 Inductive Circuits

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9.3.1 Introduction
9.3.2 Inductive Reactance
9.3.3 Inductors in Series or Parallel
9.3.4 Inductive Circuits
9.3.4.1 Inductance Only
9.3.4.2 RL in Series
9.3.4.3 RL in Parallel
9.3.4.4 Q of a Coil
9.3.4.5 Power in RL Circuits
9.3.5 Q of a Coil
9.3.6 Power in RL Circuit
9.4 Capacitive Circuits
9.4.1 Capacitance
9.4.2 Capacitive Reactance
9.4.3 Capacitors in Series or Parallel
9.4.4 Capacitive Circuits
9.4.4.1 Capacitance Only
9.4.4.2 RC in Series
9.4.4.3 RC in Parallel
9.4.4.5 Power in RC Circuits
9.5 Single Phase Circuits
9.5.1 RLC in Series
9.5.1.1 Impedance in Series RLC
9.5.2 RLC in Parallel
9.5.2.1 Impedance in Parallel RLC
9.5.3 RL and RC in Parallel
9.5.4 Power and Power Factor
9.6 Series and Parallel Resonance
9.6.1 Series Resonance

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9.6.1.1 Q of Series Circuit
9.6.2 Parallel Resonance
9.6.2.1 Pure Parallel LC circuit
9.6.2.2 Practical Parallel LC Circuit
9.6.2.3 Q of Parallel Circuit
9.6.3 Bandwidth and Power of Resonant Circuit
Questions & Solutions
10. Simple DC circuits with R, L and C components.(214-230)
10. Circuit Analysis by Classical Method
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Differential Equations
10.2.1 Type I-(First order Homogeneous Differential Equation)
10.2.2 Type II-(First order Non Homogeneous Differential Equation)
10.3 Initial Conditions in Circuits
10.4 Transient Response of Series R-L Circuit having DC Excitation
10.5 Transient Response of Series R-C Circuit having DC Excitation
10.6 Transient Response of Series RLC Circuit having DC Excitation
10.7 Transient Response of Parallel RLC Circuit having DC Excitation
Questions & Solutions


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Chapter - 1
Electrostatics
The electric field at any point due to stationary source charges is called as electrostatic field.
1.1 Coulombs Law and Superposition Principle
The electric force on a test charge Q due to a single point charge q , which is at rest and a
distance R apart is given by Coulombs law Q

1 Qq
F= R. R
4 0 R 2

The constant 0 is called the permittivity of free space.


q
C 2
In mks units, 0 = 8.85 1012
N .m 2
R is the separation vector from r (the location of q ) to r (the location of Q ): R = r r ;

R is its magnitude, and R is its direction. The force points along the line from q to Q ; it is
repulsive if q and Q have the same sign, and attractive if their signs are opposite.
1.1.1 Electric Field
If we have many point charges q1 , q2 ,...... at distances R1 , R2 , R3 ...... from test charge Q ,

then according to the principle of superposition the total force on Q is

Q q1 q2 Source point
F = F1 + F2 + ............ = 2 R1 + 2 R2 + .........
4 0 R1 R2 y
q1
q P
F = QE Ri
q
i
2 Field point
qi
1 n
where E ( P ) = Ri
4 0 i =1 Ri2
'
ri
r
E is called the electric field of the
x
source charges. Physically E ( P ) is the

force per unit charge that would be


z
exerted on a test charge placed at P .


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If charge is distributed continuously over some region, then
1 1
E (r ) = Rdq .
4 0 line R 2

The electric field of a line charge is ( dq = dl )


1 (r )
E (r ) = Rdl where is charge per unit length.
4 0 line
R 2

For surface charge ( dq = da )


1 (r )
E (r ) = Rda where is charge per unit area.
4 0 surface
R
2

For a volume charge ( dq = d )


1 (r )
E (r ) = Rd where is charge per unit volume.
4 0 volume
R
2

P
R P R

dq
dl '
( a ) Continuous distribution ( b ) Line charge,

P
R
da ' R P
d '

( c ) Surface charge, ( d ) Volume charge,


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Example: (a) Find the Electric a distance z above the mid point between two
P
equal charges, q , a distance d apart.
z
(b) Repeat part (a) after replacing right hand charge to q .
q
1 q d d q
Solution: (a) E1 = E2 =
4 0 r 2 2 2
E2 E E1
Horizontal components cancels and
P z
E z = E 1 cos + E2 cos = 2 E1 cos
r
d2 z r x
Since r 2 = z 2 + , cos = z
4 r
1 2qz
E= z
4 0 2 3/ 2 q d /2 d /2 q
2 d
z +
4

1 2q
When z >> d , E = (looks like a single charge 2q ).
4 0 z 2
1 q E1
(b) E1 = E2 =
4 0 r 2 z
E
Component along z-direction cancel out. E2
r x
d z
Thus E = 2 E1 sin x , sin =
2r
1 qd
E= x +q d /2 d /2 q
4 0 2 3/ 2
2 d
z +
4

1 qd
When z >> d , E = x (field of a dipole)
4 0 z 3


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Example: Find the electric field a distance z above the midpoint of a straight line segment of
length 2 L , which carries a uniform line charge .
Solution: Horizontal components of two field cancels and the field of the two segment is
1 dq dE2 dE1
dE1 = dE2 =
4 0 r 2 z
P
1 dx
Net field is dE = 2dE1 cos z = 2 cos z r
4 0 r 2 r
z x

z 1 L 2 z
Here, cos = , r = z 2 + x 2 E = 0 dx dq dq
r 4 0 2 2 3 / 2
z +x
L + L dx
x
L
2 z x 1 2 L
Thus E = E= z
4 0 z 2 z 2 + x 2 4 0 z z 2 + L2
0

1 2L 1 2
For z >> L , E and when L , E =
40 z 2 4 0 z

Example: Find the electric field a distance z above the center of a circular loop of radius r , which
carries a uniform line charge .
Solution: Horizontal components cancel, leaving:
1 dl
E= 2 cos z r
40 r z

z R
Here r 2 = R 2 + z 2 , cos = (both constants),
r
1 (2 R) z
E= z dl = 2 R
4 0 ( R 2 + z 2 )3 / 2


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1.2 Gausss Law
1.2.1 Field Lines and Electric Flux
Consider that a point charge q is situated at the origin:

E
q 1
E=
4 0 r 2 r
This field is represented by the field line as shown in figure below.
The magnitude of the field is indicated by the density of the field
lines: it's strong near the center where the field line are close together, and weak farther out,
where they are relatively far apart.
The field strength (E) is proportional to the number of field lines per unit area (area

perpendicular to the lines). The flux of E through a surface S, E = E .d a is a measure of
S

the number of field lines passing through S.

da


For the case of point charge at the origin, the flux of E through a sphere of radius r is
1 q 2

1
E .d a =
r
2 .
4 0 r
r sin d d r = q.
0
Note that, any surface whatever its shape, would trap the same number of field lines. So the
q
flux through any surface enclosing the charge is .
0
Now suppose that instead of a single charge at the origin, we have a bunch of charges
scattered about. According to the principle of superposition, the total field is simply the
n
(vector) sum of all the individual fields: E = E i .
i =1


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The flux through any surface that encloses them all, then, is
n
n 1
E .d a = i E i .d a = i qi .
0
A charge outside the surface would contribute nothing to the total flux, since its field lines
go in one side and out the other. It follows, then, that for any closed surface,
1
E .d a = 0
Qenc

where Qenc is the total charge enclosed within the surface. This is Gausss law in integral

form.
We can convert Gausss law in integral form to differential form, for continuous charge
distributions, by applying the divergence theorem:



surface
E .d a = . E d .
volume

We can write Qenc in terms of the charge density , we have Qenc =


volume
d .

1
So Gausss law becomes . E d = d .
volume
volume 0

Since this holds for any volume, the integrands must be equal:
1
. E = .
0


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1.2.2 Applications of Gausss Law
Gauss's law is always true, but it is not always useful. Gauss's law is useful for only three
kinds of symmetry:
1. Spherical Symmetry. Make your Gaussian surface a concentric sphere.
2. Cylindrical Symmetry. Make your Gaussian surface a coaxial cylinder.
3. Plane Symmetry. Make your Gaussian surface a pillbox, which extends equally
above and below the surface.
Gaussian
surface Gaussian pillbox

r R

Gaussian surface


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Example: Find the field inside and outside a uniformly charged solid sphere of radius R and total
charge q .
Solution: Draw a spherical surface of radius r < R , which is called as Gaussian surface.
According Gausss Law
Gaussian
1 1 surface
E .d a =
S 0
Qenc E da = E da = E 4 r 2 =
S S 0
Qenc

r R

1 q 4
| E | 4 r 2 = r3
0 4 R3 3
3
1 qr 1 qr Gaussian
E = E= r surface
4 0 R3 4 0 R3
For outside point, draw a spherical surface of radius r > R , R r
1 1 q
| E | 4 r 2 = q E= r
0 4 0 r 2

Example: A long cylinder carries a charge density that is proportional to the distance from the axis;
= kr , for some constant k . Find the electric field inside this cylinder.
Solution: Draw a Gaussian cylinder of length l and radius r .
Gaussian surface
E

l
E
1
For this surface, Gausss Law states: E .d a =
S
0
Qenc

2
Now, Qenc = d = (kr ')(r ' dr ' d dz ) = 2 kl 0r r '2 dr ' = klr 3 .
3
Symmetry dictates that E must point radially outward and the two ends contribute nothing
to electric flux as E da .

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1 2
For curved portion E.da = | E | da =| E | da =| E | 2 rl = klr 3
0 3
1
E= kr 2 r .
3 0
Example: Find the electric field a distance r from an infinitely long straight wire, which
carries a uniform line charge .
Solution: Draw a Gaussian cylinder of length l and radius r .
r

l
1 1
For this surface, Gausss Law state: S
E .d a = Qenc E 2 rl = l
0 0

E= r
2 0 r
Example: An infinite plane carries a uniform surface charge . Find its electric field.
Solution: Draw a Gaussian pill box, extending equal distances above and below the plane.

E
1
Apply Gausss Law to this surface: E .d a =
S
0
Qenc

In this case, Qenc = A , where A is the area of the pill box. By symmetry, E points away
from the plane (upward for the points above, downward for points below).
1
Thus E.da = 2 A | E | whereas sides contribute nothing. Thus 2 A | E |= A
0

E= n where n is the unit vector pointing away from the surface
2 0


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Example: Suppose the electric field in some region is found to be E = Ar 3r , in spherical
coordinates ( A is some constant).
(a) Find the charge density .
(b) Find the total charge contained in a sphere of radius R , centered at the origin.
Solution:
1 2 1 1 E
(a) = 0 .E = 0 (r Er ) + (sin E ) +
r r
2 r sin r 2 sin
1
Er = Ar 3 , E = 0, E = 0 = 0 A(5r 4 ) = 5 0 Ar 2
2
r

(b) By Gauss's Law, Qenc = 0 E.da = 0 ( AR3 )(4 R 2 ) = 4 0 AR5

Also, Qenc = d = 0R (5 0 Ar 3 )(4 r 2 dr ) = 20 0 A0R r 4 dr = 4 0 AR5

Example: A charge q sits at the back corner of a cube as shown in figure. What is the flux of
E through the shaded side?

Solution: Think of this cube as one of 8 surrounding the charge. Each of the 24 squares which
make up the surface of this larger cube gets the same flux as every other one.
1 q
E.da = E.da =
one face 24 whole 24 0
large
cube


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1.3 Electric Potential
1.3.1 Curl of Electric field
Consider a point charge at the origin, then electric field at a distance r is given by
1 q
E= r.
4 0 r 2
Now we will calculate the line integral of this field from some point a to some other point
b z

b : E .d l .
a


In spherical coordinates, d l = dr r + rd + r sin b
rb
b b
1 q 1 q
E .d l = dr E .d l = dr , q y
4 0 r 2
a
4 0 a r 2

ra
a
x
b
1 1 1
E .d l = q where ra is the distance from the origin to point a and rb is
a
4 0 ra rb
the distance to b .

Then integral around a closed path is zero i.e. E .d l = 0 ( ra = rb )
This line integral is independent of path. It depends on two end points.
Applying stokes theorem, we get E = 0 . The electric field is not just any vector but only
those vector whose curl is zero.
If we have many charges, the principle of superposition states that the total field is the
vector sum of their individual fields:

E = E1 + E 2 + ............

So, E = E1 + E2 + ........... = 0

Since E .d l = 0 , the line integral is independent of path.
P
So, we can define a function V ( r ) = E .d l


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where is some standard reference point V then depends only on the point r . It is called the
electric potential.
Evidently, the potential difference between two points a and b is
b a
V ( b ) V ( a ) = E .d l + E .d l ,

b b
V ( b ) V ( a ) = E .d l E .d l V ( b ) V ( a ) = E .d l .
a a

Now, the fundamental theorem for gradients states that


b b

V ( b ) V ( a ) = .V .d l = E .d l
a a

E = V .
Potential obeys the superposition principle.
1.3.2 Potential of localized charges
1 q
Potential of a point charge q is V = where R is the distance from the charge.
4 0 R
n
1 qi
The potential of a collection of point charge is V =
4 0
R i =1
.
i

1 (r )
For continuous volume charge distribution V (r ) =
4 0 R
d

1 (r )
The potential of line and surface charges are V (r ) =
4 0 R
dl

1 (r )
and V (r ) =
4 0 R
da .


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Example: Which one of these is an impossible electrostatic field?
(a) E = k[ xyx + 2 yzy + 3 xzz ]

(b) E = k[ y 2 x + (2 xy + z 2 ) y + 2 yzz ]

x y z

Solution: (a) E1 = k = k [ x (0 2 y ) + y (0 3 z ) + z (0 x) ] 0
x y z
xy 2 yz 3 zx

So, E1 is an impossible electrostatic field.

(b) E2 = 0 so E2 is a possible electrostatic field.

Example: Find the potential inside and outside a spherical shell of radius R , charge q .
Solution: From Gauss's law the field
q
E1 = r; outside the sphere (r > R)
E= 4 0 r 2

E2 = 0; inside the sphere (r < R )

q q
Potential outside ( r > R ) is: V (r ) = r E1.dl = r r.drr =
4 0 r 2 4 0 r

q
Potential inside ( r < R ) is: V (r ) = r E.dl = R E1.dl - Rr E2 .dl =
4 0 R
So potential inside the spherical shell is constant.
q q
Thus V ( r ) = ; r R and V ( r ) = ; r > R.
4 0 R 4 0 r
Example: Find the potential inside and outside a uniformly charged solid sphere whose radius is R
and whose total charge is q .
Solution: From Gauss's law the field
q
E1 = r; outside the sphere (r > R)
4 0 r 2
E=
E = qr r; inside the sphere (r < R)
2 4 R3
0

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q q
Potential outside ( r > R ) is: V (r ) = r E1.dl = r dr =
4 0 r 2 4 0 r

Potential inside ( r < R ) is: V (r ) = r E.dl = R E1.dl - Rr E2 .dl

1 q 1 qr q 1 1 r 2 R2
V (r ) = R dr Rr dr =
4 0 r
2
4 0 R
3 4 0 R R3 2

1 q r2
V (r ) = 3 2
4 0 2 R R

Example: Find the potential a distance r from an infinitely long straight wire that carries a
uniform line charge .

Solution: since E = r . In this case we cannot set the reference point at , since the charge
2 0 r
itself extends to . Lets set it at r = a
1 r
Then V (r ) = ar dr = ln
2 0 r 2 0 a

1.4 Laplaces and Poisson Equations



Since E = V and .E = 2V =
0 0
This is known as Poisson's equation.
In regions where there is no charge, so that = 0 , Poisson's equation reduces to Laplace's

equation, 2V = 0 .


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Example: Consider two concentric spherical conducting shells centered at the origin. The outer
radius of the inner shell is ra and the inner radius of the outer shell is rb .The charge ensity

= 0 in the region ra < r < rb . If V = 0 at r = ra and V = V0 at r = rb , then find V in the


region ra < r < rb .
Solution: Since voltage is varying only with r, the Laplaces equation takes the form
1 d dV
2V = r =0
r dr dr
Integrate twice to get the solution V ( r ) = A ln ( r ) + B

and the boundary conditions are


(i) V = 0 at r = ra (ii) V = V0 at r = rb
Substituting these boundary conditions, we get
At r = ra , 0 = A ln ra + B B = A ln ra
r
At r = rb , V0 = A ln rb + B V0 = A ln rb A ln ra = A ln b
ra
V0 V0
A= and B = ln ra
r r
ln b ln b
ra ra
r
V0 ln
Thus V =
V0 V ln ra
ln r 0 =
V0
(ln r ln ra ) V = ra
r r r r
ln b ln b ln b ln b
ra ra ra ra
Example: Potential in a region of space is given by, = 0 e ax where 0 and a is constant. Then
2

find the charge density in this region.



Solution: 2 = = 0 ( 2 ) = 2a 0 (1 2ax 2 )
0

Example: If the electrostatic potential were given by = 0 ( x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ) , where 0 is constant, then


find the charge density giving rise to the above potential.

Solution: 2 = = 60 0
0

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1.5 Electrostatic Boundary Condition
The boundary between two medium is a thin sheet of surface charge . Consider a thin
Gaussian pillbox, extending equally above and below the sheet as shown in figure below:
Qenc
The Gauss's law states that S
E.d a =
0
. E
above
A
A
E A E A=
above below
0

E
Eabove Ebelow = .
0 below


The normal component of E is discontinuous by an amount at any boundary. If there is
0
no surface charge, E is continuous.
The tangential component of E is always
E ||
continuous. l above

Apply E.dl = 0 to the thin rectangular loop,


E ||
Eabove
||
l Ebelow
||
l = 0 Eabove
||
= Ebelow
||
below

||
where E stands for the components of E parallel to the surface.
The boundary conditions on E can be combined into single formula:

E above E below = n
0
where n is unit vector perpendicular to the surface, pointing upward.
b
The potential is continuous across any boundary, since Vabove Vbelow = E.dl ; as the path
a

shrinks to zero.
b
Vabove = Vbelow .

a
Since E = V Vabove Vbelow = n,
0


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V V
above below =
n n 0
V
where = V n denotes the normal derivative of V (that is the rate of change in the
n
direction perpendicular to the surface.)
Example: Assume that z = 0 plane is the interface between two linear and homogenous dielectrics
(see figure). The relative permittivities are r = 5 for z > 0 and r = 4 for z < 0 . The

(
electric field in the region z > 0 is E1 = 3i 5 j + 4k k V m . If there are no free charges)
on the interface, then find electric field in the region z < 0 .
z
r = 5
z=0

r = 4

Solution: E1 = E 2 E 2 = 3i 5 j

and f = 0 D1 = D2 E 2 =
1 5
2
E1 = + 4k = 5k
4
( )
(
E 2 = 3i 5 j + 5k k V m )
1.6 Work and Energy in Electrostatics

The work done in moving a test charge Q in an external field E , from point a to b is
b b
a
W = F dl = Q E dl = Q V ( b ) V ( a ) q1
a a

If a = and b = r Q
qi
q2
W = Q V ( r ) V ( ) = QV ( r ) since V ( ) = 0 b

In this sense potential is potential energy (the work it takes to create the system) per unit
charge (just as the field is the force per unit charge).


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1.6.1 The Energy of Point Charge Distribution
q3
When the first charge q1 is placed, no work has

been done. When q2 is placed work done r3



W2 = q2V1 where V1 is the potential due to q1 so, R23
R13 r q2
q
1 2
W2 = q2 1 .
4 0 R12 R12
r1
q1

1 q q
Similarly when third charge q3 is placed W3 = q3 1 + 2
4 0 R13 R23

1 q1q2 q1q3 q2 q3
The work necessary to assemble the first three charges is W = + +
4 0 R12 R13 R23

1 n n qi q j 1 n n qi q j 1 n
In general, W =
4 0

i =1 j =1 Rij
=
8 0

i =1 j =1 Rij
= qiV ( ri ) , where V ( ri ) is the
2 i =1
j >i j i

potential at point ri (the position of qi ) due to all other charges.

Example: Four charges are situated at the corners of a square (side a ) as shown in figure. How
much work does it take to assemble the whole configuration of four charges?
q +q

+q q
a
Solution: Work done in placing first charge ( q charge upper left corner) W1 = 0

1 q2
Work done in placing second charge ( + q charge lower left corner) W2 =
4 0 a

Work done in placing third charge ( q charge lower right corner)

1 q2 q2
W3 = +
4 0 a 2a


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Potential at fourth corner ( + q charge upper right corner)

1 qi 1 q q q q 1
V=
4 0
r = +
4 0 a
=
2a a 4 0 a
2 +
2
i

q2 1
W4 = qV = 2 +
4 0 a 2

1 2q 2 1 q2 1
Total work done = W1 + W2 + W3 + W4 = 2 + = 2 +
4 0 a 2 2 0 a 2
1.6.2 Energy of Continuous Charge Distribution
1
2
For a volume charge density W = Vd ,

0
( )
Since = 0 .E W =
2
(.E )Vd W = 0
( )

E. V d + . V E d
2 V
( )
V

0
W = E d + V E.d a Since E = V
2

2 V S
The above equation gives the correct energy W , whatever volume we use as long as it
encloses all the charges, but the contribution from the volume integral goes up, and that of
the surface integral goes down, as we take larger and larger volumes. In particular, if we
integrate over all space, then the surface integral goes to zero, and we have
0
W=
2
all space
E 2 d

Example: Energy of a uniformly charged spherical shell of total charge q and radius R.
1 q
Solution: E inside = 0, Eoutside = r
4 0 r 2

R 2 2 0 q2 2
W= 0 E 2 d = 0 Ein d + 0 Eout d = (r sin drd d )
2 all space 2 0 2 R 2(4 0 )2 outside r 4

1 1 q2
W= q 2 4 R dr W = .
32 2 0 r2 8 0 R


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Example: Find the energy stored in a uniformly charged solid sphere of radius R and charge q.
1 qr 1 q
Solution: E = r; r > R and E= r; r < R
4 0 R 3 4 0 r 2

0 1 q2
2 1 q2 1 1
R r
W= ( r 2
4 dr ) + 0 3 (4 r 2
dr ) = + ,
2 (4 0 )2 R r 4 R 4 0 2 R 5 R

1 3q 2
W=
4 0 5 R
1.7 Basic Properties of Conductors
1. E = 0 inside a conductor.
2. = 0 inside a conductor.
3. Any net charge resides on the surface.
4. A conductor is an equipotential.
5. E is perpendicular to the surface, just outside a conductor.
Because the field inside a conductor is zero, boundary condition

E above E below = n requires that the field immediately outside is
0

E= n .
0
Vabove Vbelow
In terms of potential equation = yields
n n 0
V
= 0 .
n
These equations enable us to calculate the surface charge on a conductor, if we can
determine E or V .
1 2
Force per unit area on the conductor is f = n .
2 0


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This amounts to an outwards electrostatic pressure on the surface, tending to draw the
conductor into the field, regardless the sign of . Expressing the pressure in terms of the
field just outside the surface,
0
P= E2 .
2

Example: A spherical conductor of radius a is placed in a uniform electric field E = E 0 k . The

potential at a point P ( r , ) for r > a , is given by


P
E0 a 3
( r , ) = constant E0 r sin + sin r
r2

where r is the distance of P from the centre O of the sphere O k

and is the angle OP makes with the z -axis. Then the


charge density on the sphere at = 600 is

V 2 E0 a 3
Solution: = 0 = 0 E0 sin 3 sin
r r =a r r =a

3 3
= 0 [ E0 sin 2 E0 sin ] = +3E0 0 sin = +3E0 0 sin 600 = 0 E0
2
Example: Two spherical cavities, of radii a and b , are hollowed out from the interior of a
conducting sphere of radius R . At the center of each cavity a point charge is placed, call
these charges qa and qb .

(a) Find the surface charges a , b and R .


qa a
R
(b) What is the field outside the conductor?
(c) What is the field within each cavity?
(d) What is the force on qa and qb ? qb b
(e) If a third charge qc , were brought near the conductor, which of
the above answers will change.


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qa qb q +q
Solution: (a) a = , b = , R = a 2b .
4 a 2
4 b 2
4 R
1 qa + qb
(b) E = r; r > R
4 0 r 2
1 qa 1 qb
(c) E = r; r < a and E = r; r < b.
4 0 r 2
4 0 r 2
(d) Zero.
(e) R will change and hence electric field outside the conductor will also change.

1.8 Multipole Expansions


1.8.1 The Electric Potential and Field of a Dipole
z
If we choose coordinates so that p (dipole moment)
lies at the origin and points in the z direction, then
potential at (r , ) is: r

p
r. p p cos y
Vdip ( r , ) = = .
4 o r 2
4 o r 2
Since E = V x
V 2 p cos 1 V p sin 1 V
Er = = , E = = , E = = 0.
r 4 o r 3
r 4 o r 3
r sin
The electric field of a dipole:

E dip ( r , ) =
p
4 0 r 3 ( 2 cos r + sin ) .
( ) ( )
We can express p = p.r r + p. = p cos r p sin .

( )
Thus 3 p r r p = 2 p cos r + p sin

E dip ( r , ) =
1
( )
3 p r r p
4 0 r 3


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Note:
(a) When a dipole is placed in a uniform electric field ( E ), net force on the dipole is zero
and it experiences a torque = p E where p = qd .

(b) In non-uniform field, dipoles have net force F = p E and torque = p E . ( )


(c) Energy of an ideal dipole p in an electric field E is U = p.E .

(d) Interaction energy of two dipoles separated by a distance r is

U=
1
4 0 r 3
[p p 3(p r)(p r)]
1 2 1 2

Example: A pure dipole p is situated at the origin, pointing in the z-direction

(a) What is the force on a point charge q at ( a, 0, 0 ) ?

(b) What is the force on q at ( 0, 0, a ) ?

(c) How much work does it take to move q from ( a, 0, 0 ) to ( 0, 0, a ) ?


Solution: (a) At (a, 0, 0), r = a, =
2
; E=
p
4 0 r 3 ( 2 cos r + sin ) = 4p a 0
3

p pq
E= z F = qE = z
4 0 a 3
4 0 a 3

(b) At (0, 0, a), r = a, = 0; E =


p
4 0 r 3 ( 2 cos r + sin ) = 42 pa 0
3
r

2p 2 pq
E= z F = qE = z
4 0 a 3
4 0 a 3
p cos p
(c) Vdip ( r , ) = V (a, 0, 0) = 0 and V (0, 0, a) = ,
4 o r 2
4 o a 2
p
W = q [ V (0, 0, a) V (a, 0, 0) ] =
4 o a 2


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Example: In figure p1 and p 2 are (perfect) dipoles a distance r apart. What is the torque

on p1 due to p 2 ? What is the torque on p 2 due to p1 ?

r
P1 P2
Solution: 1 = p1 E 2 , where E 2 =
p2
4 0 r 3 ( 2 cos r + sin ) = 42 pa 0
2
3
r,

2 p1 p2
1 = (inward)
4 0 a 3

p1 p2
2 = p 2 E1 , where E1 = 2 cos r + sin = ,
4 0 r 3
2 2 4 0 a 3
p1 p2
2 = (inward)
4 0 a 3
1.8.2 Approximate potential at large distances
Approximate potential at large distances due to arbitrary localized charge distribution

R P
d '
r
r '

1 1 3 1
V (r ) =
4 0 r ( )r
1
r
1
r ' d ' + 2 r ' cos ' r ' d ' + 2 ( ) (r )
' 2
cos r d + ...
2
2 '

2
' '
( )

1
The first term ( n = 0 ) is the monopole contribution (it goes like ). The second term ( n = 1) is
r
1
the dipole term (it goes like ). The third term is quadrupole; the fourth octopole and so
r2

on.
The lowest nonzero term in the expansion provides the approximate potential at large r and
the successive terms tell us how to improve the approximation if greater precision is
required.


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The Monopole and Dipole Terms
Ordinarily, the multipole expansion is dominated (at large r) by the monopole term:
1 Q
Vmon ( r ) = .
4 0 r

where Q = d is the total charge of the configuration.

If the total charge is zero, the dominant term in the potential will be the dipole (unless, of
course, it also vanishes):

1 r. p
Vdip ( r ) =
1 1
4 0 r 2
r ' cos ' r ' d ' =( )
1 1
4 0 r 2
r. r ' r ' d ' =
4 0 r 2
( )
,

where dipole moment p = r ' r ' d ' ( )

The dipole moment is determined by the geometry (size, shape and density) of the charge
distribute. The dipole moment of a collection of point charge is
n
p = qi ri '
i =1
Note: Ordinarily, the dipole moment does change when we shift the origin, but there is an
important exception: If the total charge is zero, then the dipole moment is independent of
the choice of origin.
Example: Find the approximate potential for points on the z
z axis, far from the sphere. Four particles of charges
3a
q , 3q , 2q and 2q are placed as shown in figure,
a
each a distance a from the origin. Find a simple a a y
approximate formula for the potential, valid at points 2q a 2q
far from the origin.
x q

Solution: Net dipole moment p = (3qa qa) z + (2qa 2q a ) y = 2qaz

1 p.r 1 2qa cos


Therefore V and p.r = 2qaz.r = 2qa cos V
4 0 r 2 4 0 r2


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Example: An insulating sphere of radius R carries a charge density

()
r = ( R 2 r 2 ) cos 2 ; r < R

Find the leading order term for the electric field at a distance d , far away from the charge
distribution.

Solution: ( )
Q = d = R 2 r 2 cos 2 r 2 sin dr d d 0 V
1
d
E
1
d2
Example: A sphere of radius R , centered at the origin, carries charge density
R
(r , ) = k 2 ( R 2r ) sin , where k is a constant, and r , are the usual spherical
r
coordinates.
1
Solution: Monopole term: Q = d = kR ( R 2r ) sin r 2 sin dr d d = 0
r2
R
Since the r integral is 0 ( R 2r )dr = 0 .

Dipole term:

( ) 1
p = r ' r ' d ' = r cos d = KR (r cos ) ( R 2r ) sin r 2 sin dr d d = 0 ,
r2

sin 3
Since the integral is 0 sin 2
cos d = =0.
3
0
Quadrupole term:
3 1 1 1
r 2 cos 2 d = kR r 2 (3cos 2 1) ( R 2r ) sin r 2 sin dr d
2 2 2 r2
R
R 2 r3 r4 R4 R4 R4
r integral : 0 r ( R 2 r ) dr = R = =
3 2 3 2 6
0
3
integral: 0 (3cos 2 1) sin 2 d = 2 0 sin 2 d 30 sin 4 d = 2 3 = .
2 8 8
2
integral: 0 d = 2 .

1 R 4 k 2 R 5
whole integral = kR =
6 8 2 .
2 48

1 k 2 R 5
For point P on the z axis ( r z ) the approximate potential is V ( z ) .
4 0 48 z 3


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1.9 Polarization
When a piece of dielectric material is placed in an external field and if the substance
consists of neutral atoms, the field will induce in a tiny dipole moment, pointing in the same
direction as the field. If the material is made up of polar molecules each permanent dipole
will experience a torque, tending to line it up along the field direction. (Random thermal
motions compete with this process, so the alignment is never complete, especially at higher
temperatures, and disappears almost at once when the field is removed.)
(Polarization) P dipole moment per unit volume
1.9.1 The Field of a Polarized Object (Bound Charges)
Suppose we have a piece of polarized material with
R
polarization vector P containing a lot of microscopic
dipoles lined up. p
For a single dipole of dipole moment p we have

1 p.R
V (r ) = where R is the vector from the dipole
4 0 R 2
to the point at which we are evaluating the potential.

1 R .P(r ')
4 0 V R 2
Thus V (r ) = d ' ; since p = P(r )d '

By solving the above equation, we get V r = () 1


4 0 R P.d a ' 4 R ( '.P ) d '
S
1 1
0 V
1

The first term looks like the potential of a surface bound charge b = P.n (where n is the
normal unit vector)
The second term looks like the potential of a volume bound charge b = .P
Thus potential (and hence also the field) of a polarized object is the same as that produced
by a volume charge density b = .P plus a surface charge density b = P.n .


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Example: A sphere of radius R carries a polarization P(r ) = Kr where K is a constant and r is
the vector from the center.
(a) Calculate the bound charges b and b .
(b) Find the field inside and outside the sphere.
Solution:
1 2
(a) b = P.n = kRr.r = kR; b = .P =
(r kr ) = 3k
r 2 r
r kr
(b) For r < R ; E= r E = r
3 0 0
For r > R ; same as if all charge at center; but
3
Qtotal = (kR ) 4 R 2 + (3k ) R3 = 0 E = 0
4
Example: A thick spherical shell (inner radius a and outer radius b ) is made of
P b
k P
dielectric material with a polarization P (r ) = r , where k is a constant (i ) a (ii ) (iii )
r
P
and r is the distance from the center. Find the electric field in all three P
regions.
k
+ P. r
= (at r = b)
1 2 k k b
Solution: b = .P = r = 2 and b = P.n =
2 r
r r r P. r = k (at r = a)
a
For r < a ; Qenc = 0 E = 0
For r > b ; Qenc = S da + v b d = s P. da v . P d = 0 s P. da = v .P d( ) ( )
E=0
k r k
4 a + a 2 4 r dr = 4 ka 4 k ( r a ) = 4 kr
2 2
For a < r < b ; Qenc =
a r
1 Qenc k
E = E= r
4 0 r 2 0r


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1.10 The Electric Displacement
1.10.1 Gauss Law in the Presence of Dielectrics
Within the dielectric, the total charge density can be written as = b + f where b is

volume bound charge f free charge density.


From Gauss Law; .E =
0
( )
0 .E = ( b + f ) = .P + f where E is now the total

field, not just that portion generated by polarization.

( )
. 0 E + P = f .D = f where D = 0 E + P is known as the electric

displacement.
Thus Gauss law reads, .D = f

or, in integral form D.d a = Q f enc , where Q fenc denotes the total free charge enclosed in the

volume.
1.10.2 Linear Dielectrics (Susceptibility, Permittivity, Dielectric Constant)
For any substances, the polarization is proportional to the field provided is not too
strong: P E P = 0 e E
(Materials that obey this relation are called linear dielectrics)
The constant of proportionality, e is called the electric susceptibility of the medium. The

value of e depends on the microscopic structure of the substance and also on external
conditions such as temperature.
In linear media we have
D = 0 E + P = 0 E + 0 e E = 0 E (1 + e ) = E , where = 0 (1 + e )

This new constant is called the permittivity of the material.



Also r = = (1 + e ) is called relative permittivity or dielectric constant, of the material.
0


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1.10.3 Boundary Condition on D
The boundary between two medium is a D1
thin sheet of free surface charge f . a
The Gauss's law states that 1
= f

D.d a = Q free D above D below
S 2
Since D = 0 E + P D = P
|| || || ||
f
D above D below = P above P below D2

( E = 0 )
1.10.4 Energy in dielectric system

W=
1
(
D E d .
2 all space
)
Example: A metal sphere of radius a carries a charge Q . It is surrounded, out to radius b , by
linear dielectric material of permittivity . Find the potential at the center.
Q
Solution: D.d a = Q f enc D=
4 r 2
r ; for all points r > a

(Inside the metal sphere, E = P = D = 0 ). Once we know D , it is a trivial matter to obtain


E by D = E ).
Q
r for a < r < b
4 r 2

Q
E= r for r > b
4 0 r
2
0 for r < a.


Potential at the center is therefore

0 b Q a Q 0 Q 1 1 1
V = E.dl = dr b dr a (0)dr V = +
4 r 2 4 r 2 4 0b a b
0


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1.11 Image Problems
1.11.1 The Classic Image Problem
Suppose a point charge q is held a distance d above an infinite grounded conducting
plane. We can find out what is the potential in the region above the plane.
z z
q
+q
d d
y y
V =0 d
x q
x

Forget about the actual problem; we are going to study a complete different situation.
The new problem consists of two point charges + q at ( 0,0, d ) and q at ( 0,0, d ) and no

conducting plane. For this configuration we can easily write down the potential:

1 q q
V ( x, y, z ) =
40 x 2 + y 2 + z d 2 2
( ) x + y + ( z + d )
2 2

(The denominators represent the distances from ( x, y , z ) to the charges + q and q ,

respectively.) It follows that


1. V = 0 when z = 0 and
2. V 0 for x 2 + y 2 + z 2 >> d 2 ,

and the only charge in the region z > 0 is the point charge + q at ( 0,0, d ) . Thus the second

configuration produces exactly the same potential as the first configuration, in the upper
region z 0 .


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1.11.2 Induced Surface Charge
The surface charge density induced on the conductor surface can be calculated by
V
= 0 ,
n
V
where is the normal derivative of V at the surface. In this case the normal direction is
n
the z -direction, so
V
= 0
z z =0


V 1 q ( z d ) q(z + d)
= + 3
z 4 0 2 3
x + y2 + ( z d ) x 2 + y 2 + ( z + d )2 2
2 2


qd
( x, y ) =
( )
3
2 x 2 + y 2 + d 2 2

As expected, the induced charge is negative (assuming q is positive) and greatest at


x = y = 0.

The total induced charge Q = da .

This integral, over the xy -plane, could be done in Cartesian coordinates, with da = dx dy ,

but its easier to use polar coordinates ( r , ) , with r 2 = x 2 + y 2 and da = rdrd .

Then
qd
( R) =
( )
3
2 r 2 + d 2 2


2 qd qd
and Q = rdrd = = q
( )
3
0
0 2 r + d
2 2 2 r2 + d 2
0


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1.11.3 Force and Energy
The charge q is attracted towards the plane, because of the negative induced surface
charge. The force:
1 q2
F = z .
4 0 ( 2d )2

One can determine the energy by calculating the work required to bring q in from infinity.
d
1 q2
d d
q2 1 1 q2
W = F .dl =
4 0 4 z 2
dz = =

4 0 4 z 4 0 4d

Example: Find the force on the charge + q as shown in figure (The xy plane is a grounded
conductor).
z z
Solution: 3d + q 3d + q

d 2q d 2q

y y
d +2q

x x
3d q
Place image charges +2q at z = d and q at z = 3d .
Total force on + q is

q 2q 2q q 1 29q 2
F= + + z
= z
4 0 (2d )2 (4d ) 2 (6d ) 2 4 0 72d 2

1 29q 2
F = z
4 0 72d 2


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1.11.4 Other Image Problem
The method just described is not limited to a single point charge; any stationary charge
distribution near a grounded conducting plane can be treated in the same way, by
introducing its mirror image.

R
R r
a R'
q

q
V =0 b q'
a

Let us examine the completely different configuration, consisting of the point charge q
together with another point charge
R
q' = q
a
placed at a distance

R2
b=
a
to the right of the centre of sphere. No conductor, now-just two point charges. The potential
of this configuration is
1 q q'
V (r , ) = +
4 0 R R

where R = r 2 + a 2 2ra cos , R = r 2 + b 2 2rb cos

1 q q'
V (r , ) = +
4 0 r 2 + a 2 2ra cos r 2 + b 2 2rb cos

q 1 1
V (r , ) =
4 0 r 2 + a 2 2ra cos R 2 + (ra / R )2 2ra cos

Clearly when r = R, V 0


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Induced charge
V V V
= 0 . In this case = at the point r = R .
n n r
V ( r , )
( ) = 0
r r=R

q 2
3 / 2 3 / 2 a
= ( R 2
+ a 2
2 Ra cos ) ( R a cos ) + ( R 2
+ a 2
2 Ra cos ) a cos
4 R

q a2
= ( R 2 + a 2 2 Ra cos )3 / 2 R a cos + a cos
4 R
q
( ) = ( R 2 a 2 )( R 2 + a 2 2 Ra cos )3 / 2
4 R
q
qincluded = q = da = ( R 2 a 2 ) ( R 2 + a 2 2 Ra cos )3 / 2 R 2 sin d d
4 R

q 1 2
q = ( R a )2 R
2 2
( R 2 + a 2 2 Ra cos )1/ 2
4 R Ra 0

q 2 1 1
q = (a R 2 )
2a R 2 + a 2 + 2 Ra R 2 + a 2 2 Ra

But a > R (else q would be inside), so R 2 + a 2 2 Ra = a R

q 2 1 1 q
q = (a R 2 ) = R
2a (a + R) (a R) a
q
q' = R
a
Force
The force on q, due to the sphere, is the same as the force of the image charge q, thus:

1 qq ' 1 R 2 1 1 q 2 Ra
F= = q =
4 0 (a b)2 4 0 a 2 4 0 (a 2 R 2 )2
R2
a
a


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Energy
To bring q in from infinity to a, we do work
a
q2 R a a q2 R 1 1 1 q2 R
W= da = =
4 0 (a 2 R 2 )2 4 0 2 (a 2 R 2 ) 4 0 2(a 2 R 2 )

1 q2 R
W =
4 0 2(a 2 R 2 )


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MCQ (Multiple Choice Questions)
Q1. Two point charges Q1 = 1n C and Q2 = 2nC are kept in free space such that the distance

between them is 0.1 m .


(a) The force on Q2 is along the direction from Q2 to Q1 .

(b) The force on Q2 is the same in magnitude as that on Q1 .

(c) The force on Q1 is attractive.

(d) A point charge Q3 = 3nC , placed at the midpoint between Q1 and Q2 , experiences no
net force.
Q2. A ring of radius R carries a uniformly distributed charge +Q . A point charge q is placed

on the axis of the ring at a distance x ( x << R ) from the centre of the ring and released

from rest. Then particle executes:


(a) a S.H.M. along the axis of ring (b) a S.H.M. along the circular path
(c) a motion along parabolic path (d) a motion along a hyperbolic path
Q3. Three charges, each equal to Q , are placed at the three corners
Q
( A, B and C ) of a square of side L . Then the magnitude of D C

electric field at the fourth corner D is: L

(a)
Q
2 2 0 L2
(
(b) 2 2 + 1 ) 8Q L0
2
Q Q
A L B
(
(c) 2 2 + 1 ) 8Q L 0
3 (
(d) 2 2 1 ) 8Q L 0
2

Q4. Three charges are located on the circumference of a circle of radius R as shown in the figure
below. The two charges q subtends an angle 90 at the centre of the circle. The charge Q is
symmetrically placed with respect to the charges q. If the electric field at the centre of the
circle is zero, what is the magnitude of Q? q q

(a) q / 2 (b) 2q

(c) 2q (d) 4q

Q

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Q5. A loop of diameter d is rotated in a uniform electric field until the position of maximum
electric flux is found. The flux in this position is measured to be . What is the electric
field strength?
4 2 d 2
(a) (b) (c) (d)
d2 d2 d2 4

Q6. A charge q is placed symmetrically with respect to three faces of equal area as shown in the
figure. What is the total electric flux through the faces?
q q
(a) (b)
0 2 0
q
q
(c) (d) zero
3 0

Q7. The electric field in a certain region of space is given by E = 200 xV


/ m . Which of the
following is a correct combination of the flux passing through an area A (in square metre)
lying in
(i) xy plane, (ii) xz plane & (iii) yz plane respectively?
(a) 0, 200 A, 0 (b) 200 A, 0, 0
(c) 0, 0, 200 A (d) 0, 0, 0
Q8. A sphere of radius R carries charge density proportional to the square of distance from the
center such that = Ar 2 , where A is a positive constant. At a distance R/2 from the center,
the magnitude of electric field is
A AR3 AR3 AR3
(a) (b) (c) (d)
4 0 40 0 24 0 5 0

Q9. Three infinitely long charge sheets are placed as shown in figure. The electric field at point
P is
2 4 z = 3a
(a) z (b) z
0 0 P
2 z=a
2
(c) z (d) zero
0 z = a


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Q10. A cylindrical rod of length l and radius R, made of an inhomogeneous dielectric, is placed
with its axis along the z-direction with one end x
at the origin as shown in figure below. If the
volume charge density = 10z, then the total
R
charge inside the dielectric is z
(a) zero (b) 10 R l 2
l
(c) 5 R l 2
(d) 5 R l 2 2 y
Q
Q11. Given that electric field = (1 cos 3r ) r in spherical polar coordinates. The charge
0 r 2
density associated with it is:
Q 2 3Q
(a) 3 + 3sin 3r (b) sin 3r
2 0 r r
2
0 r 2
3Q 3Q
(c) sin 3r (d) cos 3r
r2 0 r 2
0 Ab
Q12. The charge density in spherical polar coordinate is = e br + 4 0 A (r ) . Then the
r 2



total charge contained in a sphere of infinite radius is: use (r )4 r 2 dr = 1
0
(a) 0 (b) 4 0 A (c) 4 0 A (d) 0 Abe br

r
Q13. A static charge distribution gives rise to an electric field of the form E = e r / R , where
r2
and R are positive constants. The charge contained within a sphere of radius R, centred at
the origin is
e e2 R 4 0
(a) 0 2 (b) 0 2 (c) 4 0 (d)
R R e e
Q14. A sphere of radius 2 R has a uniform charge density . The difference in electrostatic
potential at r = R and r = 0 is: (where r is the distance from center)
R 2 2 R 2 R 2
(a) (b) (c) (d)
0 0 6 0 R 6 0

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Q15. A charge Q is distributed over two concentric hollow spheres of radii r and R ( R > r )

such that the surfaces charge densities are equal. Then the potential at the common center is
Q Q (r + R)
(a) (b)
4 0 ( r + R ) (
4 0 r 2 R 2 )
Q (r + R) Q (r R)
(c) (d)
4 0 ( r + R2 2
) 4 0 ( r 2 R 2 )

Q16. The plates of a parallel plate capacitor (which are normal to the x-axis) are located at x = 0
and x = L . The plate at x = 0 is grounded while the other plate is at a potential V0 . The

space between the plates has uniform volume charge density . The potential V ( x )

between the plates is given by

2 V0 L 2 V L
(a) x + + x (b) x 0 + x
2 0 L 2 0 2 0 L 2 0

2 V L 2 V0 L
(c) x 0 + x (d) x + + x
2 0 L 2 0 2 0 L 2 0

Q17. If the electrostatic potential in spherical polar coordinates is


( r ) = 0 e r / r 0

where 0 and r0 are constants, then the charge density at a distance r = r0 will be

00 e 00 00 2e 00
(a) (b) (c) (d)
er 0
2
2r02 er 0
2
r02
Q18. Three charges are situated at the corners of a square (side a) as q
shown in figure. How much work does it take to bring in another
a
charge, +q, from far away and place it in the fourth corner?
+q q
q2 1 q2 1 a
(a) 2 (b) 2 +
4 0 a 2 4 0 a 2

q 1 q 1
(c) 2 (d) 2 +
4 0 a 2 4 0 a 2


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Q19. A spherical conductor of radius a is placed in a uniform electric field E = E 0 k . The

potential at a point P ( r , ) for r > a , is given by


P
E0 a 3
( r , ) = constant E0 r sin + sin r
r2

where r is the distance of P from the centre O of the sphere and O k

is the angle OP makes with the z-axis. The charge density on


the sphere at = 300 is
(a) 3 3 0 E 0 / 2 (b) 3 0 E 0 / 2 (c) 3 0 E 0 / 2 (d) 0 E 0 / 2
Q20. Eight charges +q and q are located alternatively at the corners of a cube of side a. The
work done to separate the charges to infinite distance is:

(a)
q2
a
(3 6 +3 3+ 2 ) (b)
q2
0 a
( 3 6 +3 3 2 )
0

q2 3 q2 1
(c) 3 + (d) 3 +
0 a 2 0 a 3
Q21. A point charge q moves from point P to point S along the path PQRS (as shown in

figure) in a uniform electric field E pointing parallel to the positive direction of the X-axis.
The coordinates P, Q, R and S are ( a, b, 0 ) , ( 2a, 0, 0 ) , ( a, b, 0 ) and ( 0, 0, 0 ) respectively.

The work done by the field in the above process is


(a) zero (b) qEa 2 (c) qEa (d) qEa 2
Q22. A solid spherical conductor has a conical hole made at one end, ending in a A
point B , and a small conical projection of the same shape and size at the
opposite side, ending in a point A . A cross-section through the centre of the
conductor is shown in the figure on the right. If, now, a positive charge Q is B
transferred to the sphere, then
(a) A = B (b) A > B (c) A < B (d) A = 2 B


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Q23. Consider two concentric conducting spherical shells with inner and outer radii a, b and c, d
as shown in the figure. Both the shells are given q amount of positive charges. The
electric fields in different regions are
q
(a) = 0 for r < a ; = r for a < r < b .
4 0 r 2
q
= 0 for b < r < c ; = r for r > d .
4 0 r 2
d
q
(b) = r for r < a ; = 0 for a < r < b . c
4 0 r 2 b
a
q q
= r for b < r < c ; = r for r > d . +q
4 0 r 2 4 0 r 2 +q
q
(c) = r for r < a ; = 0 for a < r < b .
4 0 r 2
2q
= 0 for b < r < c ; = r for r > d .
4 0 r 2

(d) = 0 for r < a ; = 0 for a < r < b .


q 2q
= r for b < r < c ; = r for r > d .
4 0 r 2
4 0 r 2

Q24. A pure dipole with dipole moment p = po z is situated at the origin. A point charge Q is

moved from the point (a, 0, 0) to (0, 0, a) then the work done will be
p0Q p0 p0Q
(a) zero (b) (c) (d)
4 0 a 3 4 0 a 2
4 0 a 2
Q25. Four point charges are placed in a plane at the following positions:
+Q at (1, 0), Q at (1, 0) +Q at (0, 1) and Q at (0, 1).
At large distances the electrostatic potential due to this charge distribution will be
dominated by the
(a) Monopole moment (b) Dipole moment
(c) Quadrupole moment (d) Octopole moment


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Q26. Three point charges q, q and 2q are located at (0,a, a), (0, a, a) and (0, 0,a) respectively.
The net dipole moment of this charge distribution is

(a) 4qak (b) 2qak (c) 4qai (d) 2qaj


Q27. Four charges are placed at the four corners of a square of side a as shown in the figure. The
electric dipole moment of this configuration is y

(a) p = qai + qaj


q 2q
(b) p = qai + qaj

(c) p = qai qaj a


q x
(d) p = qai qaj O a q
Q28. A sphere of radius R carries a polarization P = k r , where k is a constant and r is measured
from the centre of the sphere. The bound surface and volume charge densities are given,
respectively, by

(a) k r and 3k (b) k r and 3k

(c) k r and 4 kr (d) k r and 4 kr

Q29. A sphere of radius R carries a polarization P = k r , where k is a constant and r is measured


from the centre of the sphere. The electric field E at a point r outside the sphere is given
by
kR( R 2 r 2 )
(a) E = 0 (b) E = r
0r 3
kR( R 2 r 2 ) kr
(c) E = r (d) E = r
0r 5
0
Q30. A dielectric sphere of radius R , permittivity is charged throughout its volume by a charge
A
density = , where A is some constant and r being the distance from the center of the
r
sphere. Then the electrostatic energy of the system is proportional to:
(a) R 2 (b) R 3 (c) R 4 (d) R 5


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Q31. A sphere of radius R carries a polarization P = k r , where k is a constant and r is measured
from the centre of the sphere. The electric field E at a point r inside the sphere is given by
kR( R 2 r 2 )
(a) E = 0 (b) E = r
0r 3
kR( R 2 r 2 ) kr
(c) E = r (d) E = r
0r 5 0
Q32. A spherical conductor of radius R1 carries a charge Q. It is surrounded by linear dielectric

material of relative permittivity r , out to radius R2 . The energy of this configuration is:

Q2 1 r 1 Q2 1 r
(a) + (b) +
8 0 r R1 R2 8 0 r R1 R2

Q2 r 1 1
(c) + (d) zero.
8 0 r R1 R2

NAT (Numerical Answer Type)


Q33. A uniform line charge, infinite in extent, having charge per unit length 20 nc / m lies along

the z-axis. The electric field E at ( 6,8,3) m is r V / m

Q34. The electric field at 20 cm from the centre of a uniformly charged dielectric sphere of radius
10 cm is E. Then, at a distance 5 cm from the center, it will be. E
q2
Q35. The energy stored in a uniformly charged solid sphere of radius R and charge q is .
4 0 R
Then the value of is .
Q36. Two electric dipoles P1 and P2 are placed at ( 0, 0, 0 ) and ( a, 0, 0 ) respectively with both of

them pointing in the + z direction. Without changing the orientations of the dipoles P2 is

moved to ( 0, 2a, 0 ) . The ratio of the electrostatic potential energy of the dipoles before

moving to that after moving is


Q37. Four equal point charges are kept fixed at the four vertices of a square. How many neutral
points (i.e. points where the electric field vanishes) will be found inside the square?

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Q38. If the electrostatic potential at a point ( x, y ) is given by V = ( 2 x + 4 y ) volts, the electrostatic

energy density at that point is 0 J / m3


d
Q39. Consider two concentric conducting spherical shells with inner and c
b
outer radii a, b and c, d as shown in the figure. Both the shells are
a
given q amount of positive charges. In order to have equal surface
+q
d +q
charge densities on the outer surface of both the shells, the ratio is
b

Q40. The electric field at a point due to an electric dipole is perpendicular to the dipole axis, the
angle between the dipole axis and the line joining the point with the centre of the dipole
is tan 1 ( ) . Then the value of is ..

Q41. Let four point charges q, q / 2, q and q / 2 be placed at the vertices of a square of
side a . Let another point charge q be placed at the cnetre of the square (see the figure).

q/2 q

q q/2

Let V (r ) be the electrostatic potential at a point P at a distance r >> a from the centre of

the square. Then V ( 3r ) / V ( r ) is


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MSQ (Multiple Select Questions)

Q42. For given electrostatic field E = k y 2 x + ( 2 xy + z 2 ) y + 2 yzz , which of the following does

not represent the possible potential for the given field (use the origin as your reference
point?)
(a) V ( x, y, z ) = k (xy 2 + yz ) (b) V ( x, y, z ) = k (xy + yz 2 )

(c) V ( x, y, z ) = k (xy 2 + yz 2 ) (d) V ( x, y, z ) = k (xy 2 + yz 2 )

Q43. Which of the following statements regarding the electric fields E1 = xx + yy and
E 2 = xy 2 x + y 2 y are NOT correct?
(a) Both E1 and E 2 represents an electrostatic field
(b) Neither E1 nor E 2 can represent electrostatic field
(c) Only E1 can represent electrostatic field
(d) Only E 2 can represent an electrostatic field
Q44. If the electrostatic potential were given by = 0 ( x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ) , where 0 is constant then
which of the following statements are correct
(a) The electric fields E = 20 ( xx + yy + zz )
(b) The electric fields E = 20 ( xx + yy + zz )
(c) Charge density = 20 0
(d) Charge density = 60 0
Q45. An ellipsoidal cavity is carved within a perfect conductor as shown in figure. A Positive
charge q is placed at the center of the cavity. The points A & B are on the cavity surface as
shown in figure. Then which of the following statements are true?
(a) Electric field near A in the cavity electric field near B in
A
the cavity
(b) Charge density at A charge density at B q B
(c) Potential at A = Potential at B
q
(d) Total electric flux through the surface of the cavity is
0


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Q46. A point charge q is imbedded at the center of a sphere of linear dielectric material (with
susceptibility e and radius R ). Then which of the following statements are true?

qe
(a) The total bound charge on the surface is
1 + e
qe
(b) The total bound charge on the surface is
1 + e
qe
(c) The total volume bound charge
1 + e
qe
(d) The total volume bound charge
1 + e

Q47. A sphere of radius R carries a polarization P = k r , where k is a constant and r is measured


from the centre of the sphere. Then which of the following are true for electric field E :
(a) Electric field inside the sphere is E = 0
kr
(b) Electric field inside the sphere is E = r
0
(c) Electric field outside the sphere is E = 0
kr
(d) Electric field outside the sphere is E = r
0
Q48. A charge Q is uniformly distributed in spherical linear dielectric material. The radius of the
sphere is R and its dielectric constant is r . Which of the following statements are true

r
(a) The electric E = r for r < R
3 0 r
R3
(b) The electric E = r for r > R
3 0 r 2
Q 1
(c) The potential at the center of sphere is 1 +
4 0 R 2 r

Q 1
(d) The potential at the center of sphere is 1 +
4 R 3 0 r


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Q49. Assume that z = 0 plane is the interface between two linear and homogenous dielectrics
(see figure). The relative permittivities are r = 5 for z > 0 and r = 4 for z < 0 . The

( )
electric field in the region z > 0 is E 1 = 3i 5 j + 4k k V m . If there are no free charges on
the interface, then which of the following is true for the electric field in the region z < 0 is
z
given by r = 5
z=0

r = 4

(
(a) D 2 = 12i 20 j + 20k k V m ) (
(b) D 2 = 15i 25 j + 25k k V m )
(c) E 2 = (3i 5 j 5k )k V m (
(d) E 2 = 3i 5 j + 5k k V m )


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Solutions
MCQ (Multiple Choice Questions)
Ans. 1: (b)
Ans. 2: (a)
Solution: q

x
R

1 Qx 1 Qx
Field along the axis of ring E = E= since x << R
4 0 ( R 2 + x ) 2 3/ 2 4 0 R 3

F = qE = kx (Charge will execute S.H.M.)


Ans. 3: (b)
Q
Solution: Electric field due to charge at A , E A = along AD
4 0 L2

Q
Electric field due to charge at C , EC = along CD
4 0 L2
Q
Electric field due to charge at D , ED = along BD
( )
2
4 0 2L

Thus resultant field E = E A2 + EC2 + EB = 2 2 + 1 ( ) 8Q L 0


2

Ans. 4: (b)
1 q 1 Q
Solution: E1 = E2 = and E3 = (upward)
4 0 R 2
4 0 R 2

Resultant of E1 and E 2 is E = E12 + E 22 = 2 E1 (downward)

Thus for E3 = E Q = 2q

Ans. 5: (a)

4
2
d d2
Solution: Maximum flux = EA = E = E E=
2 4 d2


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Ans. 6: (b)
q
Solution: Electric flux through a cube (6 faces) when charge is at its center =
0
q
Flux through three faces =
2 0

Ans. 7: (c)
Solution: Electric flux = E.A = ( 200 x ) .( Ax ) = 200 A .

Ans. 8: (b)
Q
enc 1 1 4 Ar 5 R
E.d s = = d E .4 r = Ar .4 r dr = 5
2 2 2
0 0 0 0 r

Ar 3 R AR3
E = at r = , E =
5 0 2 40 0 Gaussian surface

Ans. 9: (c)
2 2
Solution: E P = E + E 2 + E = ( z) + ( z) + ( z) E P = z
2 0 2 0 2 0 0
Ans. 10: (d)
l
Solution: qinside = d = rdrd dz = ( 10 z ) R 2 dz = 5 R 2l 2
0

Ans. 11: (c)


1 2 Q 3Q
2 (
Solution: = 0 (.E ) = 0 r 1 cos 3r ) = 2 sin 3r
r r 0 r
2
r
Ans. 12: (a)
Solution: The total charge is

0 Abe br
Q= d = 4 r 2 dr + 4 0 A ( r ) d
all space 0
r 2
all space

Q = 4 0 A [ e br ]0 + 4 0 A Q = 4 0 A + 4 0 A = 0


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Ans. 13: (d)
2
r
Solution: Qenc = 0 E da = 0 e r / R

r 2 ( 2
)
r sin d d r = 0 e r / R sin d d
0 0

4 0
at r = R , Qenc =
e
Ans. 14: (d)
R R
r R 2
Solution: V (R ) V (0 ) = E.d l = dr =
0 0
3 0 6 0

Ans. 15: (c)


Solution: Let charge on inner and outer shell be q1 and q2 then Q = q1 + q2

1 q1 q2 1 q 1
Potential at common centre is V = + = q2 1 +
4 0 r R 4 0 q2 r R

q1 q2 q1 r 2
Since 1 = 2 = =
4 r 2 4 R 2 q2 R 2

q1 + q2 r 2 + R 2 QR 2 Qr 2 Q (r + R)
= q = and q = V =
q2 R 2 2
r +R
2 2 1
r +R
2 2
4 0 r 2 + R 2 ( )
Ans. 16: (a)
Solution: The Laplaces equation in Cartesian coordinates system is
2V 2V 2V
2V = = 2 + 2 =
x 2
y z 0

d 2V
as V is only function of x, we have the differential equation, =
dx 2
0
by integrating we have the solution of this equation as
dV 2
= x + A V (x ) = x + Ax + B where A and B are constants.
dx 0 2 0
The two equations need to be solved for the following boundary conditions:
(i) x = 0 ; V = 0 (ii) x = L ; V = V0
Substituting these boundary conditions, we get

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At x = 0 , V (0 ) = 0 = 0 + 0 + B B = 0

2 V L 2 V 0 L
At x = L , V (L ) = V0 = L + AL A = 0 + V (x ) = x + + x
2 0 L 2 0 2 0 L 2 0

Ans. 17: (a)



Solution: 2 = = 0 ( 2 )
0

1 2 1 2 0 r / r0 1 0 2 r / r0
2 = 2 r = 2
r r r r r
r e
r0
= 2
r r0 r
r e ( )

1 1 1 2
= 2 0 r 2 e r / r0 + 2re r / r0 2 = 0 e r / r0 + e r / r0
r r0 r0 r0 r0 r

0 1 2 1 0 0 0 0
At a distance r = r0 , 2 = e + e = 2 = 0 2 = 2
1

r0 r0 r0 r0 e r0 e r0 e
Ans. 18: (b)
Solution: Potential at fourth corner
1 qi 1 q q q q 1
V=
4 0
r = +
4 0 a
=
2a a 4 0 a
2 +
2
i

q2 1
W = qV = 2 +
4 0 a 2
Ans. 19: (b)
V 2 E a3
Solution: = 0 = 0 E0 sin 03 sin
r r =a r r =a
3
= 0 [ E0 sin 2 E0 sin ] = +3E0 0 sin = +3E0 0 sin 300 = 0 E0
2
Ans. 20: (b)
8 7
Solution: The charge pairs are 8 C 2 = = 28 . Out of these 28 pairs, we have
1 2
(i) 12 pairs of dissimilar charges placed at a mutual separation of a. Thus


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q q 12q 2
Wa = 12 = .
4 0 a 4 0 a

(ii) 12 pairs of similar charges placed at a mutual separation of 2a . Thus


qq 12q 2
W = 12 = .
4 0 2a 4 2 0 a
2a

(iii) 4 pairs of dissimilar charges placed at a mutual separation of 3a . Thus

q q 4q 2
W =4 = .
4 0 3a 4 3 0 a
3a

q2 12 4
Total work done W = Wa + W +W = 12 +
2a 3a
4 0 a 2 3

W =
q2
12 +
4 0 a
12
2

4
=
q2
3 0 a
3 6 +3 3 2 ( )
Ans. 21: (c)
Solution: Work done in a closed path in an electrostatic field is zero.
WPS + WSP = 0 WPS = WSP = F .SP = ( qEx ) . ( ax + by ) = qEa 2

Ans. 22: (c)


Solution: A <B
Ans. 23: (d)
Ans. 24: (d)
Solution: W = Q V ( 0, 0, a ) V ( a, 0, 0 )

p0 cos p0
V ( r , ) = V ( 0, 0, a ) = = 0 and V ( a, 0, 0 ) = 0 =
4 0 r 2
4 0 a 2 2
p0Q
W =
4 0 a 2
Ans. 25: (b)

Solution: Qmono = 0 , p = +Qi Q i + Qj Q j 0 ( ) ( )


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Ans. 26: (a)
Solution: p = q 0 + q 0 + ( 2q 0 ) i + q a + q a + ( 2q 0 ) j

+ q a + q a + ( 2q a ) k

p = 4qak
Ans. 27: (c)
Solution: p = qi ri = q 0 + qax 2q ( ax + ay ) + qay p = qax qay

Ans. 28: (b)


1 ( 2 )
Solution: b = P.n = ( kR ) r.r = kR at r = R and b = .P = r .kr = 3k
r 2 r
Ans. 29: (a)

Solution: b = .P = x + y + z . ( kxx + kyy + kzz ) = k k k = 3k
x dy dz

The electric field E at a point r outside the sphere is zero, since total bound charge is zero.
b r kr
The electric field E at a point r inside the sphere is E = r = r .
3 0 0
Ans. 30: (b)
AR 2 A
Solution: E = r when r > R and D = r where r < R
2 0 r 2
2

1
Total energy of the system W = D.Ed
2 all space
2
1 R A AR 2 AR
2
1
W= 4 r 2
dr + 0 R 2
4 r 2 dr W R 3
2 2 2 0 r
0 2
2 2 0 r
Ans. 31: (d)

Solution: b = .P = x + y + z . ( kxx + kyy + kzz ) = k k k = 3k
x dy dz
b r kr
The electric field E at a point r inside the sphere is E = r = r .
3 0 0

The electric field E at a point r outside the sphere is zero, since total bound charge is zero.

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Ans. 32: (a)
0 ; r < R1
Q
Solution:
E= r ;
R1 < r < R2
4 r
2

Q
r ; r > R
4 0 r
2

2

1 1 Q2 1 R2 1 1 1
W= D.Ed = 2 ( 4 )2 R1 4 4 r dr + 4 r 2 dr
2

r 0 r
R2 4
2 all space

Q2 1 1 R2 1 1 Q2 1 r 1
W= + W = R + R
8 r R1 0 r R2 8 0 r 1 2

NAT (Numerical Answer Type)


Ans. 33: 36
2 9 109 20 109
Solution: E = r = r = = 36 r V / m
2 0 r 2 0 x 2 + y 2 6 2 + 82

Ans. 34: 2

E 5 ( 20 )
2
q 1 1 qri Ei ri ro2
Solution: Eo = and E = = 3 i = Ei = 2 E
4 0 ro 4 0 R (10 )
i
2 3
Eo R E 3

Ans. 35: 0.6


1 qr 1 q
Solution: E = r; r < R and E= r; r > R
4 0 R3 4 0 r 2

q2 1 2 1 q2 1 1
R r
W= 0 R 4 ( r 2
4 dr ) + 0 3 (4 r 2
dr ) = + ,
2 (4 0 )2 r R 4 2 R 5 R
0

1 3q 2
W=
4 0 5 R


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Ans. 36: 8
1 U1 r23
Solution: Electrostatic potential energy U = =8
r3 U 2 r13
Ans. 37: 1
Solution: Inside the square, there is only one point where field vanishes.
Ans. 38: 10

Solution: E = V = 2 x 4 y E = 20 V / m

1 2 1
Electrostatic energy density = 0 E = 0 20= 10 0 J / m 3
2 2
Ans. 39: 1.41
Q 2Q
Solution: b = d = d = 2b
4b 2
4d 2
Ans. 40: 1.41
p ( 2 cos r + sin )
E ( r , ) =
4 0 r 3
E
E 1 1 p
tan = = tan = 90 cot = tan
Er 2 2

tan 2 = 2 = tan 1 2
Ans. 41: 0.037
q q
Solution: According to multipole expansion Qmono = +q +qq =0
2 2
q
p = q(ax + ay ) (ax + ay ) q(ax ay ) + q( ax ay ) q ( ax + ay ) + 0 = 0
2 2
1 V ( 3r ) 1
Thus V = = 0.037
r 3
V ( r ) 27


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MSQ (Multiple Select Questions)
Ans. 42: (a), (b) and (c)

Solution: Check: E = V
Ans. 43: (a), (b) and (d)
x y z

Solution: E1 = = x ( 0 0 ) y ( 0 0 ) + z ( 0 0 ) = 0
x y z
x y 0

x y z

E2 = = x ( 0 0 ) y ( 0 0 ) + z ( 0 2 xy ) = 2 xyz
x y z
xy 2 y2 0
Ans. 44: (b), (d)

Solution: E = V = 20 ( xx + yy + zz ) and 2 = = 60 0
0
Ans. 45: (a), (b), (c) and (d)
Ans. 46: (a) and (c)
q q r qe r
E= r = P = 0 e E =
4 r 2
4 0 (1 + e ) r 2
4 (1 + e ) r 2

qe qe
b = P.n = Q b = b 4 R 2 =
4 (1 + e ) R 2
1 + e

qe
Qb = Q b =
1 + e
Ans. 47: (b) and (c)
Solution: b = .P = 3k

b r kr
The electric field E at a point r inside the sphere is E = r = r .
3 0 0

The electric field E at a point r outside the sphere is zero, since total bound charge is zero.


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Ans. 48: (a), (b) and (c)
r R3
Solution: E = r for r < R and E = r for r > R
3 3 0 r 2

R R3 0 r R3 R 2 R 2 1
V ( 0 ) = E.dl = ( )
0

3 0 r 2
dr R 3
dr V 0 = +
3 0 3 2
= 1+
3 0 2 r

Q 1 Q
V ( 0) = 1+ , since = 4
4 0 R 2 r R3
3
Ans. 49: (a) and (d)
Solution: E1 = E 2 E 2 = 3i 5 j

and f = 0 D1 = D2 E 2 =
1 5
2
E1 = + 4k = 5k
4
( )
( )
E 2 = 3i 5 j + 5k k V m D 2 = 12i 20 j + 20k k V m ( )


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Chapter - 2
Magnetostatics
The magnetic field at any point due to steady current is called as magnetostatic field.
2.1 Magnetic Force on Current Element

The magnetic force on a charge Q , moving with velocity v in a magnetic field B is,

( )
F mag = Q v B . This is known as Lorentz force law.
In the presence of both electric and magnetic fields, the net force on Q would be:

[ ( )]
F = Q E + v B
v t
2.1.1 Current in a Wire
v

P
A line charge traveling down a wire at a speed v constitutes a current I = v .
Magnetic force on a segment of current-carrying wire is,

( ) (
F mag = v B dq = v B dl = I B dl . ) ( )
Since I and dl points in the same direction F mag = I dl B = I dl B ( ) ( )
2.1.2 Surface Current Density

Flow
dl
K

When charge flows over a surface, we describe it by the surface current K .

d
K= is the current per unit width-perpendicular to flow.
dl

Also K = v where is surface charge density and v is its velocity.

Magnetic force on surface current F mag = v B da = K B da ( ) ( )



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2.1.3 Volume Current Density
J

da

Flow
When the flow of charge is distributed throughout a three-dimensional region, we describe
it by the volume current density J .

d
J= is the current per unit area-perpendicular to flow.
da

Also J = v where is volume charge density and v is its velocity.

Magnetic force on volume current F mag = v B d = J B d ( ) ( )


Current crossing a surface S is = J da
S

Example: A wire ABCDEF (with each of side of length L ) bent as shown in figure and carrying a
current I is placed in a uniform magnetic induction B parallel to the positive y -direction.
Find the force experienced by the wire. Z
D

C B
F
E

A
B

X
Solution: FE and BA are parallel to magnetic induction B . Magnetic force on each of them will be
zero. DE and CB are perpendicular to B . They carry currents in opposite directions forces
on them will be equal in magnitude and opposite in direction. The net force due to these
portions of wire will be zero. Now force on side DC is F DC = ILBz .


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Example: A semicircular wire of radius R carries a current I and is placed in a uniform field B
acting perpendicular to the plane of the semicircle. Calculate force acting on the wire.
Solution: Consider an element of length dl of the wire. dl B
The dF force on this element is obtained by
dF d
dF = I(dl B) = IdlBsin 900

dF = I(Rd)B since dl = Rd A O B
R

F = 0 dFsin = 2IBR

(Horizontal component cancels only perpendicular component add up).


2.2 Continuity Equation

The total charge per unit time leaving a volume V is J .d a = ( .J ) d .


V

Because charge is conserved, whatever flows out through the surface must come at the
expense of that remaining inside:

( .J )d = dt d = t d .
d
V V V

(The minus sign reflects the fact that an outward flow decreases the charge left in V.) Since
this applies to any volume, we conclude that

J = .
t
This is the precise mathematical statements of local charge conservation.
Note: When a steady current flows in a wire, its magnitude I must be the same all along the
line; otherwise, charge would be piling up somewhere, and it wouldn't be a steady current.

Thus for magnetostatic fields = 0 and hence the continuity equation becomes:
t
J = 0.


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2.3 Biot-Savart Law
The magnetic field of a steady line current is given by
I R 0 dl ' R I r
B (r ) = 0 R2 4 R 2
dl = I
4
R
N
where 0 = 4 107 ( permeability of free space)
A2
For surface and volume current Biot-Savart law becomes: dI '

0 K (r ') R J (r ') R
( r ) =
4 R 2
da ' and (r ) = 0
4 R 2 d ' .
2.3.1 Magnetic Field due to Wire
Let us find the magnetic field a distance d from a long straight wire carrying a steady
current I.
P

1
R 2
d


l' I
I dl '
Wire segment
In the diagram, (dl R)
points out of the page and has magnitude dl sin = dlcos

d d 1 cos 2
Since l = d tan dl = d dl ' = d and d = R cos =
cos 2 cos 2 R2 d2

I dl ' R 0 I 2 cos 2 d
From BiotSavart law: B (r ) = 0 = cos d
4 R 2 4 1 d 2
cos 2
0 I 2 0 I
B= cos d = (sin 2 sin 1 )
4 d 1 4 d
0 I
For Infinite wire: 1 = and 2 = B=
2 2 2 d


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Note:
1. Magnetic field a distance r from a long straight wire carrying a steady current I is
0 I
B= (sin 2 sin 1 ) .
4r
2. Magnetic field a distance r from a infinite wire carrying a steady current I is:
0 I
B= .
2 r
3. Force (per unit length) of attraction between two long, parallel wires a distance d
apart, carrying currents I1 and I2 in same direction are:
0 I1 I 2
f = .
2 d
4. If currents are in opposite direction they will repel with same magnitude.
2.3.2 Magnetic Field due to Solenoid and Toroid
The magnetic field of a very long solenoid, consisting of n closely wound turns per unit
length of a cylinder of radius R and carrying a steady current I is:
nI z inside the solenoid
B= 0
0 outside the solenoid.

Magnetic field due to Toroid is


0 NI ^
+ for points inside the coil
B = 2 r
0 for points outside the coil

where N is the total number of turns.


Example: Find the force of attraction between two long, parallel wires a distance d apart, carrying
current I1 and I2 in the same direction.
I1 I2
I
Solution: The field at (2) due to (1) is B = 0 1 (points into the page).
2 d v
I II
Force on (2) is F = I 2 0 1 dl f = 0 1 2
2 d 2 d F B
Force per unit length is towards (1) and net force is attractive
Wire 1 Wire 2

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Example: Find the magnetic field a distance d above the center of a circular loop of radius R,
which carries a steady current I.
Solution: The field dB attributable to the segment dl ' as shown. As we integrate dl ' around the
loop, dB sweeps out a cone. The horizontal components cancel, and the vertical components
combine to give.
B
I dl '
B( z ) = 0 cos ; dl 'and r are r
4 r 2
dB z

I cos I cos 90
B( z ) = 0
4 r 2
dl ' = 0
4 r 2 2 R ,

d r
I R 2
Thus B = 0 z
2 ( R + d 2 )3 / 2
2


0 I R
At the center of the circle B (0) = z
2R d l

Example: Find the force on a square loop placed as shown in figure, near an infinite straight wire.
Both the loop and the wire carry a steady current I .

I a
a

I d

Solution: The force on the two sides cancels.

0 I I I 2a
At the bottom, B = F = 0 Ia = 0 (up)
2 d 2 d 2 d

0 I 0 I 2 a
At the top, B = F= (down)
2 (d + a ) 2 (d + a)

0 I 2 a 2
Thus Net Force = (up)
2 d (d + a)


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2.4 Ampere's Law
The magnetic field of an infinite wire is shown in the figure
(the current is coming out of the page). Let us find the integral of
B around a circular path of radius r, centered at the wire, is B

o I
B dl = 2 r dl = I . o

Notice that the answer is independent of r; that is because B decreases at the same rate as
the circumference increases. If we use cylindrical coordinates ( r , , z ) , with the current

o I
flowing along the z axis, B=
2 r
In general we can write B dl = I 0 enc

where I enc is the total current enclosed by the amperian loop.

Since B dl = I 0 enc ( B).d a = 0 J .d a B = 0 J

Right hand Rule


Boundary line
If the fingers of your right hand indicate the
direction of integration around the boundary, Surface

then your thumb defines the direction of a


positive current.
Example: A steady current I flow down a long
J
cylindrical wire of radius a. Find the magnetic
field, both inside and outside the wire, if
(a) The current is uniformly distributed over the outside surface of the wire.
(b) The current is distributed in such a way that J is proportion to r, the distance from the
axis.
a
I


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0 for r < a

Solution: (a) B.dl = B 2 r = 0 I enc B = 0 I
2r z for r > a

a a 2 ka3 3I
(b) J = kr , I = 0 Jda = 0 kr (2 rdr ) = k =
3 2 a3
Ir 2
r r 2 kr Ir 3 3
0 3 for r < a
I enc = 0 Jda = 0 kr ' 2 r ' dr ' = = for r < a
3 a3 B = 2 a
0 I
I enc = I for r > a 2 r for r > a

Example: Find the magnetic field of an infinite uniform surface current K = Kx , flowing
over the xy plane. z
Solution:
Sheet of current

Amperian loop
l
x
Since K = Kx B have no x-component because B is r to x-component i.e. in the

direction of ( K R ) .

Also, B have no z-component: For y > 0 , B is along z and for y < 0 , B is along z ,
thus field cancels each other.
B has only y-component:
For z > 0 , B points left ( y ) and for z < 0 , B points right ( y ) .

Draw a rectangular amperian loop parallel to the yz plane and extending an equal distance
above and below the surface. Now apply amperes law, we find

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B.dl = 2 Bl = 0 I enc = 0 Kl {One Bl from top segment, and the other from bottom}
0 K
2 y for z > 0
0 K
B= B=
2 0 K y for z < 0
2
Note: The field is independent of the distance from the plane, just like the electric field
of a uniform surface charge.

2.5 Magnetic Vector Potential A ()


Since B = 0 B = A
For magnetostatic fields, A = 0 and 2 A = 0 J

0 J ( r ')
If J goes to zero at infinity, A ( r )= d ' for volume current.
4 R
0 I 1 K
For line and surface currents, A ( r )= dl '; A ( r )= 0 R da '
4 R 4
Example: What current density would produce the vector potential A = K (where K is
a constant), in cylindrical coordinates ?
1 K
Solution: A = K B = A = (rA ) z = z
r r r

1 Az A Ar Az 1 Ar
A = r
+ z + ( rA ) z
r z r r r

1 1 K K K
Since J = ( B) = = J=
0 0 r r 0 r 2
0 r 2


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2.6 Magnetostatic Boundary Condition (Boundary is sheet of current, K )
Just as the electric field suffers a discontinuity at a surface charge, so the magnetic field is
discontinuous at a surface current. Only this time it is the tangential component that
changes.

Bab ove l

Babove
||

K
K


B below
||

B below

B.d a = 0

Since Babove = Bbelow

For tangential components


B.dl = 0 I enc Babove

||
Bbelow
||
= 0 K ( B is parallel to surface but to K ) r


B.dl = 0 I enc Babove = Bbelow
|| ||
( B is parallel to surface and along K )
( )
Thus the component of B that is parallel to the surface but perpendicular to the current is

discontinuous in the amount 0 K . A similar amperian loop running parallel to the current
reveals that the parallel component is continuous. The result can be summarized in a single

formula: B above B below = 0 K n ( )


where n is a unit vector perpendicular to the surface, pointing upward.
Like the scalar potential in electrostatics, the vector potential is continuous across, a
boundary: Aabove = Abelow

For . A = 0 guarantees that the normal component is continuous, and A = B , in the


form A.dl = B.d a =
line S

( )
But the derivative of A inherits the discontinuity of B : ( )
Aabove Abelow
= 0 K .
n n

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Example: (a) Find the magnetic vector potential at a distance r from an infinite straight wire
carrying a current I.
(b) Find the magnetic potential inside the wire, if it has radius R and the current is uniformly
distributed.
Solution: (a) A point in the same direction as I and is a function of r (the distance from
A 0 I
the wire). In cylindrical coordinates A = A(r ) z and B = A = = .
r 2 r
A I I r
= 0 A(r ) = 0 ln z (Constant a is arbitrary)
r 2 r 2 a

Verify that A = 0 and A = B

0 I 0 Ir 2 Ir
(b) B.dl = B.2 r = 0 I enc = 0 J r 2 = r2 = B= 0
R 2
R2 2 R 2
Az A I Ir I
B = A = = 0 A = 0 (r 2 b 2 ) z
r r 2 R 2 4 R 2
where b is arbitrary constant.
I R I
A must be continuous at R, 0 ln = 0 ( R 2 b2 ) , which means that we must
2 a 4 R 2

R b2
pick a and b such that 2 ln = 1 .
a R2
Example: Find the vector potential of an infinite solenoid with n turns per unit length, radius R,
and current I.

Solution: Since A.dl = ( A) .d a = B.d a = , where


line S S
is the flux of B through the loop in

question.
0 nI
A.dl = A ( 2 r ) = B.d a = nI ( r ) A = r , for r < R.
2
Inside solenoid: 0
line S
2

0 nI R 2
Outside solenoid: A ( 2 r ) = B.d a = 0 nI ( R 2 ) A = , for r > R.
S
2 r


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2.7 Multiple Expansion of Vector Potential
We can derive approximate formula for the vector
r
potential of a localized current distribution, valid at distant
R
P
points. We can always write the potential in the form of a
1 r
power series in , where r is the distance to the point in
r
I d r = dl
question. Thus we can always write
0 I 1 3 1
A(r ) = (r ') 2 cos
1 1
r d l ' + r 2 r ' cos ' d l ' + r 3 ' d l ' + .........
2 2

4 2
z
First term, monopole dl = 0 (no magnetic

monopole)

m r
Second term, dipole Adip ( r ) = 0 2 r
4 r

where m is the magnetic dipole moment: m


y
m = I d a = I A where A is area vector

m sin
Thus Adip ()r = 0
4 r 2

x
Hence
1
()
B dip r = A =
0m
4 r 3
2 (
cos r
+ sin
4 r
)
= 0 3 3 m r r m
( )
Note: (a) When a magnetic dipole is placed in a uniform magnetic field ( B ), net force on
the dipole is zero and it experiences a torque = m B .

(b) In non-uniform field, dipoles have net force F = m B and torque = m B . ( )


(c) Energy of an ideal dipole m in an magnetic field B is U = m.B .

(d) Interaction energy of two dipoles separated by a distance r is

U=
1
4 0 r 3
[m m 3(m r)(m r)]
1 2 1 2


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Example: A phonograph record of radius R, carrying a uniform surface charge is rotating at
constant angular velocity . Find its magnetic dipole moment.
Solution: Magnetic moment of a ring of radius r and thickness dr is, dm = I r 2 where
I = vdr = r dr

R R R 4 R 4
m = 0 r 2 rdr = 0 r 3dr = m= z
4 4
Example: A spherical shell of radius R, carrying a uniform surface charge , is set
spinning at angular velocity . Find its Magnetic dipole moment.
Solution: The total charge on the shaded ring is z
dq = (2 R sin ) Rd R sin
2 Rd
Time for one revolution is dt =


dq
Current in the ring I = = R 2 sin d d
dt
R
Area of the ring = (R sin )2 , so the magnetic moment of the
ring is

dm = ( R 2 sin d ) R 2 sin 2

4 4
m = R 4 0 sin 3 d = R 4 m = R 4 z
3 3

2.8 Magnetisation M ( )
If a piece of magnetic material is examined on an atomic scale we will find tiny currents:
electrons orbiting around nuclei and electrons spinning about their axes.
For macroscopic purpose, these current loops are so small that we may treat them as
magnetic dipoles. Ordinarily they cancel each other out because of the random orientation
of the atoms. But when a magnetic field is applied, a net alignment of these magnetic
dipoles occurs, and medium becomes magnetically polarized, or magnetized.

( )
Magnetization M is magnetic dipole moment per unit volume.


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2.8.1 The Field of a Magnetized Object (Bound Currents)

Consider a piece of magnetized material with magnetization M . ( )


Then the vector potential of a single dipole m is given by ( ) R

0 m R
A(r ) =
4 R 2 m d '
In the magnetized object, each volume element d carries a
dipole moment M d , so the total vector potential

0 M ( r ') R
is A ( r ) =
4 v
d '
R2

0 1 0 1
The equation can be written as A ( r ) = R M ( r ) d '+ 4 R M ( r ) d a .
4 v

The first term is like potential of a volume current

Jb = M
while the second term is like potential of a surface current,

K b = M n

where n is the normal to the unit vector.


With these definitions, the field of a magnetized object is

0 J b ( r ') K b ( r ')
A(r ) = d '+ da ' .
4 v
R R

This means the potential(and hence also the field) of a magnetized object is the same as

would be produced by a volume current J b = M throughout the material, plus a surface

current K b = M n , on the boundary. We first determine these bound currents, and then
find the field they produce.


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Example: An infinitely long circular cylinder carries a uniform magnetization M parallel to its
axis. Find the magnetic field (due to M ) inside and outside the cylinder.
Solution: J b = M = 0; K b = M n = Mz r = M

The field is that of a surface current K b = M , that is the case of a solenoid,


So the field outside is zero.
Field inside is: B=0 K b = 0 M B = 0 M

Example: A long circular cylinder of radius R carries a magnetization M = Kr 2 where

K is a constant; r is the distance from the axis. Find the magnetic field due to M , for
points inside and outside the cylinder.
1
Solution: J b = M = (rKr 2 ) z = 3Krz and K b = M n = KR 2 ( r) = KR 2 z
r r
So the bound current flows up the cylinder, and returns down the surface.
R
(
ITotal = J b da + Kb dl = 0 (3kr )2 rdr + KR 2 2 R = 2 KR3 2 KR3 = 0 . )
Outside point: I enc = 0 B = 0
r
Inside point: B.2 r = 0 I enc = 0 0 J b da = 2 K 0 r 3 B = 0 Kr 2 = 0 M

2.9 The Auxiliary field ( H )


2.9.1 Amperes Law in in presence of Magnetic Materials
In a magnetized material the total current can be written as
J = J b + J f where J b is bound current and J f is free current.

B
B = 0 J
0
1
( B ) = J = J
+ J f = M + J f M = J f
b ( )
0
B
The quantity in parentheses is designated by the letter H and H = M
0
H = J f
In integral form H dl = I fenc where I fenc is the total free current passing through the

amperian loop.

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H plays a role in magnetostatic analogous to D in electrostatic: Just as D allowed us to
write Gauss's law in terms of the free charge alone, H permits us to express Ampere's law
in terms of the free current alone- and free current is what we control directly.
Note:
When we have to find B or H in a problem involving magnetic materials, first look for
symmetry. If the problem exhibits cylindrical, plane, solenoid, or toroidal symmetry, then
we can get H directly from the equation H dl = I f enc .

Although this equation is valid for all the surfaces but it is useful for only symmetrical
surfaces.
2.9.2 Magnetic Susceptibility and Permeability

For most substances magnetization is proportional to the field H , M = m H ,

where m is magnetic susceptibility of the material.

( )
B = 0 H + M = 0 (1 + m )H B = H where = 0 r = 0 (1 + m ) is permeability
of material.
2.9.3 Boundary Condition ( H )
The boundary between two medium is a thin sheet of free surface current K f .

The Amperes law states that


n
S
H .dl = I free
H above H below = K f n .
Since l 1
B
H= M .H = .M 2
0
since .B = 0
Thus
Kf
H
above H
below = (M
above M
below )


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Example: A current I flows down a long straight wire of radius a. If the wire is made of linear
material with susceptibility m , and the current is distributed uniformly, what is the
magnetic field a distance r from the axis? Find all the bound currents. What is the net bound
current following down the wire?
Ir
r2
I 2 ; r < a 2 a 2 ; r < a
Solution: H dl = I f enc H .2 r = a H =
I ;r > a I ; r > a
2 r
I
B = H = 0 (1 + m ) H J b = m J f J b = m (same as I )
a2
m I
K b = M n = m M n K b = (Opposite to I)
2 a
Total bound current I b = J b a 2 + K b 2 a = m I m I = 0


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MCQ (Multiple Choice Questions)
Q1. A conducting loop, carrying a current I, is placed in a uniform
y
magnetic field pointing into the plane of the paper as shown. The
B
loop will have a tendency to
(a) contract x
(b) expand
(c) move towards positive x-axis
(d) move towards negative x-axis
Q2. A square loop is placed near an infinite straight wire as shown a
in figure. The loop and wire carry a steady current I 2 and I1 I2 a
respectively. Then the force acting on the square loop is:
0 I1 I 2 0 I1 I 2 I1
a
(a) (b)
2 a 4 a
0 I1 I 2 0 I1 I 2
(c) (d)
2 4

Q3. The wire loop PQRSP formed by joining two semicircular wires
of radii R1 and R2 carries a current I as shown in the figure. Then R2
the magnetic field B at the centre is R1
0 I 11 I 1 1 S R Q
, outward (b) 0 , inward P
2 R1 R2
(a)
2 R1 R2
0 I 1 1 I 1 1
, outward (d) 0 , inward.
4 R1 R2
(c)
4 R1 R2

Q4. The magnetic field at point P for the steady current configurations shown in figure is given
by
R
P

I 2 I 2
(a) B = 0 1 + (b) B = 0 1 +
R 2R
I 2 I 2
(c) B = 0 1 + (d) B = 0 1 +
3R 4R

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Q5. A uniform surface current is flowing in the positive y-direction over an infinite sheet lying
in the x-y plane. The direction of the magnetic field is:
(a) along z for z > 0 and along z for z < 0
(b) along x for z > 0 and along x for z < 0
(c) along z for z > 0 and along x for z < 0
(d) along x for z > 0 and along x for z < 0

Q6. Which one of the following current densities J , can generate the magnetic vector

potential = ( y 2 x + x 2 y ) ?

(a) ( xx + yy ) (b) ( x y ) (c) ( x + y ) (d) ( xx yy )


2 2 2 2
0 0 0 0

Q7. Which of the following expressions for a vector potential A does not represent a uniform
magnetic field of magnitude B0 along the z-direction?

(a) A = (0, B0 x,0 ) (b) A = ( B0 y,0,0 )

B0 x B0 y B0 y B0 x
(c) A = , ,0 (d) A = , ,0
2 2 2 2
Q8. An infinitely long hollow cylinder of radius a carrying a surface charge density is rotated
about its cylindrical axis with a constant angular speed . Then the magnitude of vector
potential inside the cylinder at a distance r from its axis is:
1 1
(a) 2 0 a r (b) 0 a r (c) 0 a r (d) 0 a r
2 4
Q9. An infinitely long hollow cylinder of radius a carrying a surface charge density is rotated
about its cylindrical axis with a constant angular speed . Then the magnitude of vector
potential outside the cylinder at a distance r from its axis is:
1
(a) 2 0 a r (b) 0 a R 2
2r
1 1
(c) 0 a r (d) 0 a R 2
2 4r


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1 10
Q10. The magnetic field corresponding to the vector potential A = F r + 3 r where F is a
4 r
constant vector, is
F F 30 30
(a) (b) (c) F + r (d) F r
2 2 r4 r4
Q11. An infinite solenoid with its axis of symmetry along the z-direction carries a steady current
I. The vector potential A at a distance r from the axis
(a) is constant inside and varies as r outside the solenoid
(b) varies as r inside and is constant outside the solenoid
1
(c) varies as r inside and as outside the solenoid
r
1
(d) varies as inside and as r outside the solenoid
r
Q12. At the interface between two linear dielectrics (with permeability 1 and 2), the magnetic
field lines bend, as shown in the figure. Assume that there
is no free current at the interface. The ratio 1/2 is:
1
tan 1 cos 1 1
(a) tan (b) cos
2 2 2
sin 1 cot 1 2
(c) sin (d) cot .
2 2

Q13. Two identical square frames are made of the same conducting wire such that ABCD plane
is horizontal (with side AB in front) and ADEF plane is vertical, with side AD missing. The
same current I flow in the frame as shown in figure. The direction of the magnetic moment
E
vector will be
(a) vertical, upwards F

(b) vertical, downwards


D
(c) at 45o with the vertical, pointing upwards C
(d) at 45 with the vertical, pointing downwards A B


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Q14. How does the magnetic moment (M) of an electron moving in a Bohr orbit of radius rn in an

atom depend upon rn ?

(a) M is directly proportional to rn (b) M is directly proportional to rn

(c) M is directly proportional to 1/ rn (d) none of the above.


Q15. A current carrying loop is placed in a uniform magnetic field in four different orientations I,
II, III and IV. Arrange them in the decreasing order of potential energy.

I. n II. B
B
n
B
n
n
III. IV. B

(a) I > III > II > IV (b) I > IV > II > III
(c) I > II > III > IV (d) III > IV > I > II
Q16. A long circular cylinder of radius R carries a magnetization M = kr 2 where k is a
constant, r is the distance from the axis. Then the volume bound current and surface
bound currents are respectively
(a) 2 kR 3 , 2 kR 3 (b) 2 kR3 , 2 kR 3

(c) kR 3 , kR 3 (d) kR 3 , kR 3

Q17. An infinitely long circular cylinder carries a uniform magnetization M = M z parallel to its

( )
axis. Then the volume bound current J b and surface bound currents K b are respectively ( )
(a) M , 0 (b) 0, M

(c) 2M , 0 (d) 0, 2M


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Q18. An infinitely long circular cylinder carries a uniform magnetization M = M z parallel to its
axis. Then which of the following statement is not true:

( )
(a) the volume bound current J b is zero

(b) the surface bound currents ( K ) is M b

(c) the magnetic field ( B ) inside the cylinder is M 0

(d) the magnetic field ( B ) inside the cylinder is zero

NAT (Numerical Answer Type) C


Q19. A wire is given a shape ABCDE as shown in the figure given
below through which a steady current I flows. The magnetic field P
0 I r
at the centre P is . Then the value of is..(upto D 90 o
r

two decimal point)

Q20. Current density in a cylindrical coordinate in certain region is given as
5 10
J = r + 2 z A / m 2 .
r r +1 ( )
The total current crossing the surface z = 3, r 6 in the z direction is.. A
Q21. Consider a constant magnetic field of B Tesla along the z direction. A square loop of side
length ( L ) meters is place in the field such that normal to the loop makes an angle of 60 0

to the z-axis, as shown in the figure. Then the value of the path integral A dl in the units

of (Tesla m 2 ) is BL2 . Then the value of is .

60 o
z


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Q22. A particle of charge q and mass m moves in a circular orbit of radius r with angular speed
. The ratio of the magnitude of its angular momentum to that of its magnetic moment is
m
. Then the value of is .
q
Q23. A small magnetic dipole is kept at the origin in the x-y plane. One wire L1 is located at
z = a in the x-z plane with a current I flowing in the positive x direction. Another wire L2
is at z = + a in y-z plane with the same current I as in L1, flowing in the positive y-
direction. The angle made by the magnetic dipole with respect to the positive x-axis is

.. ( in deg ree )

MSQ (Multiple Select Questions)


Q24. Which of the following expressions for a vector potential A represent a uniform magnetic
field of magnitude B0 along the z-direction?
(a) A = (0, B0 x,0) (b) A = ( B0 y,0,0)

B0 x B0 y B0 y B0 x
(c) A = , ,0 (d) A = , ,0
2 2 2 2

Q25. An infinitely long circular cylinder carries a uniform magnetization M = M z parallel


to its axis. Then which of the following statements are true:

( )
(a) the volume bound current J b is zero

(b) the surface bound currents ( K ) is M b

(c) the magnetic field ( B ) inside the cylinder is M 0

(d) the magnetic field ( B ) inside the cylinder is zero


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Q26. Two long parallel wires carrying current I1 and I2 in the same direction are placed a distance
d apart. Then which of the following statements are true:
0 I1I2
(a) the force per unit length on each wire is
2d
0 I1I2
(b) the force per unit length on each wire is
4d
(c) they attract each other
(d) they repel each other
Q27. For the steady current configurations shown in figure which of the following statements are
true:
I1 1
(a) The magnetic field at point P is B = 0 b
4 a b
I1 1
(b) The magnetic field at point P is B = 0 a
8 a b
P
(c) Magnetic field points upward
(d) Magnetic field points inward


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Solutions
MCQ (Multiple Choice Questions)
Ans. 1: (b)
Ans. 2: (d)
Solution: The force on the two sides cancels.
I I II
At the bottom, B = 0 1 F = 0 1 I2a = 0 1 2 (up)
2a 2a 2
I I II
At the top, B = 0 1 F = 0 1 I2a = 0 1 2 (down)
4a 4a 4
II
Thus Net Force = 0 1 2 (up)
4
Ans. 3: (c)
Ans. 4: (d)
0 I
Solution: The two half lines are the same as one infinite line:
2 R
0 I
The half circle contributes:
4R
0 I 2
So B = 1 + (into the page)
4R
Ans. 5: (d)
Ans. 6: (c)
1 ( ) 2
Solution: B = A = 2 ( x y ) z J = B = ( x + y )
0 0

Ans. 7: (c)

Solution: B A .
Ans. 8: (c)
Solution: Surface current K = v K = a , thus A = A

Magnetic field inside is B.dl = 0 I enc Bl = 0 Kl B = 0 K B = 0 a z

1
Since B = A
line
A.dl = B.d a A 2 r = 0 a r 2 A =
S
2
0 a r


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Ans. 9: (b)
Solution: Surface current K = v K = a , thus A = A

Magnetic field inside is B.dl = 0 I enc Bl = 0 Kl B = 0 K B = 0 a z

1
Since B = A
line
A.dl = B.d a A 2 r = 0 a R 2 A =
S
2r
0 a R 2

Ans. 10: (a)

Solution: B = A =
1
[ (
)]
r
F r + 10 3 . Since F is a constant vector, let
4 r

x y z
F = F0 ( x + y + z ) , F r = F0 F0 F0 = x ( z y )F0 y ( z x )F0 + z ( y x )F0
x y z

x y z
(
F r =

x
)
y

z
= x[F0 + F0 ] y [ F0 F0 ] + z[F0 + F0 ] = 2 F0 ( x + y + z )
(z y )F0 (x z )F0 ( y x )F0

1
4
[ ( 1
2
)] F
2 r
r F
F r = F0 (x + y + z ) = , 3 = 0 . Thus B = .
2
Ans. 11: (c)
Ans. 12: (a)
B1II
tan 1 B B II
Solution: = II 1 = 2II = 1 sin ce B1 = B2 , 1 B1II = 2 B2II
tan 2 B2 B1 2
B2
Ans. 13: (c)
Ans. 14: (b)
evn ev r
Solution: M = IA = rn2 = n n since mvn rn = n M vn rn n
2 rn 2

and rn = n 2 a0 n rn M rn


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Ans. 15: (b)
Solution: U = m.B = mB cos
I. = 1800 U = + mB , II. = 900 U = 0
III. = Acute angle U = ve , IV. = Obtuse angle U = + ve
Thus I > IV > II > III
Ans. 16: (a)
1
Solution: J b = M =
r r
( r.kr 2 ) z = 3krz and K b = M n = kR 2 r = kR 2 z ( )
So the bound current flows up the cylinder, and returns down the surface.
R
Total volume bound current = J b .d a = J b da = ( 3kr ) 2 rdr = 2 kR 3
0

Total surface bound current = K b dl = kR 2 2 R = 2 kR 3

Ans. 17: (b)


Solution: J b = M = 0 , K b = M n = M ( z r ) = M

Ans. 18: (d)


Solution: J b = M = 0 , K b = M n = M ( z r ) = M

The field is that of a surface current K b = M , that is the case of a solenoid,


So the field outside is zero.
Field inside is: B = 0 K b = 0 M B = 0 M


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NAT (Numerical Answer Type)
Ans. 19: 0.38
0 I
0 I 2700 30 I I
B= = = = 0.38 0
2r 2 2r 360 8r r
Ans. 20: 113.38
5 10
Solution: I = J .da = r + 2 z .rdrd z
r r + 1
2
rdrd = 2 10 ln ( b 2 + 1) I = 10 ln ( 37 ) = 31.4 3.6 = 113.38 A
b 10 1
I =
0 0 r +1
2
2
Ans. 21: 0.5

A dl = ( A).d a = B.d a = BA cos 60


1 1 2
Solution: 0
= B L2 = BL = 0.5 BL2
S S
2 2

Ans. 22: 2
q q q r 2 L m
Solution: M = IA = A= r2 = and L = mvr = mr 2 =2
T 2 2 M q
Ans. 23: 225

Solution: Magnetic field at z = 0 due to wire at z = a is B = By .

Magnetic field at z = 0 due to wire at z = + a is B = Bx .


Resultant magnetic field at z = 0 makes an angle of 45 0 with x and 225 0 with x .


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MSQ (Multiple Select Questions)
Ans. 24: (a), (b) and (d)
Ans. 25: (a), (b) and (c)
Solution: J b = M = 0 , K b = M n = M ( z r ) = M

The field is that of a surface current K b = M , that is the case of a solenoid,


So the field outside is zero.
Field inside is: B = 0 K b = 0 M B = 0 M

Ans. 26: (a) and (c)


I
Solution: The field at (2) due to (1) is B = 0 1 (points into the page). I2
2 d I1
I II v
Force on (2) is F = I 2 0 1 dl f = 0 1 2
2 d 2 d
Force per unit length is towards (1) and net force is attractive F B

Ans. 27: (b) and (c) Wire 1 Wire 2


Solution: The straight segment produces no field at P.
I1 1
The two quarter circles give B = 0 out of page.
8 a b


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Chapter - 3
Dynamics of Charged Particles in Static and Uniform Electromagnetic Fields
The Lorentz Force Law:

The magnetic force on a charge Q, moving with velocity v in a magnetic field B is

F mag = Q v B ( )
This is known as Lorentz force law.
In the presence of both electric and magnetic fields, the net force on Q would be:

F = Q E + v B
( )
3.1 Charged Particle in Static Electric Field
3.1.1 Charged Particle enters in the direction of field (Linear motion)
Q
E
1 2

The force on the charge Q in electric field E is F = Q E .

F QE
Acceleration of the charge particle in the direction of the electric field is a = = .
m m

If r is the position vector at any time t then

d2r Q d r QE dr QE
= E = t +C =v= t + C where C is a constant.
d t m
2
dt m dt m

QE
Let at t = 0 , v = u C = u v = t +u
m

d r QE QE 2
Since = t +u r = t + ut + C1 where C1 is a constant
dt m 2m
ut
QE 2 QE 2
Let at t = 0 , r = r0 C1 = r0 r = t + ut + r0 r0 t
2m 2m

QE 2 QE 1 2
If initially u = 0, r0 = 0 r = t and v = t.
2m m


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The energy acquired by the charged particle in moving from point 1 to 2 is

( )
2 2 2 2
dv 1
W = F .d l = m a.d l = m .vdt =m v.d v W = m v 22 v12
1 1 1
dt 1
2
If the potential difference between points 1 to 2 is V then

W = QV =
1
2
(
m v 22 v12 )
If the particle starts from rest i.e (v1 = 0 ) and final velocity is v then

1 2 2QV
W = QV = mv v =
2 m
1 2 1 Q2E 2 2 QE 2
Kinetic energy of the particle K .E. = mv = m. t = QE t = QEr
2 2 m 2
2m
3.1.2 Charged Particle enters in the direction perpendicular to field (Parabolic motion)
Let us consider a charge particle enters in an electric field region with velocity v x at

t = 0 . The electric field is in the y-direction and the field region has length l. After
traversing a distance l it strikes a point P on a screen which is placed at a distance L from
the field region.

y
P

y2
L
vx y1 x
Ey
+ + + +
l

Since electric field is in the y-direction, charge particle will experience force
QE y
Fy = QE y Acceleration a y =
m


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1
In time t, charge particle will traverse a distance y = a y t 2 in y-direction and a
2
distance x = v x t in x-direction.
2
1 QE y x
Thus y = a y t 2 = and which represents parabolic path.
2 2m vx
2
QE y l
y1 = and y 2 == L tan
2m v x
2
QE y l
Thus distance of point P from the center of the screen is, y1 + y 2 = + L tan
2m v x
dy QE y
Angle of deviation in the field region, tan = = x
dx mv x2

QE y
Angle of deviation in the field free region, tan = l
mv x2
3.2 Charged Particle in Static Magnetic Field

The magnetic force on a charge Q, moving with velocity v in a magnetic field B is,

F mag = Q v B ( )
This is known as Lorentz force law.
3.2.1 Charged Particle enters in the direction perpendicular to field (Circular motion)
If a charge particle enters in a magnetic field at angle of 90o, then motion will be circular
with the magnetic force providing the centripetal y
acceleration. As shown in figure, a uniform magnetic field
points into the page; if the charge Q moves counter R v
clockwise, with speed v, around a circle of radius R, the F
x
Q
magnetic force points inward, and has a fixed magnitude
B
QvB, just right to sustain uniform circular motion: z

v2 mv
QvB = m R=
R QB


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where R is the radius of the circle and m is the mass of the charge particle.
Momentum of the charged particle p = QBR

p2 Q2B2R2
Kinetic energy (K.E) = =
2m 2m
2R 2m
Time period T = =
v QB
3.2.2 Charged Particle enters in the direction making an angle with the field
(Helical motion)
If the charge particle enters in a magnetic field making an angle ,
then motion will be helical.
v = v sin and v|| = v cos ,
B ||
mv
and the radius of helix is R = .
QB
3.3 Charged Particle in Uniform Electric and Magnetic Field
(Cycloid motion)

If B points in x-direction and E points in z-direction, and a particle at rest is released


from origin, then particle will follow cycloid motion.
Initially, the particle is at rest, so z
the magnetic force is zero, and
the electric field accelerates the E
charge in z-direction. As it
speeds up, a magnetic force
develops which pulls the charge
o
to the right. The faster it goes a b c y
stronger the magnetic force
B
becomes and it curves the
particle back around towards the x


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y-axis. At this point the charge is moving against the electric force, so it begins to slow
down-the magnetic force then decreases, and the electrical force takes over, bringing the
charge to rest at point a and then process repeats.

( )
F = Q E + v B = Q ( E z + Bz y By z ) = ma = m ( y y + z z )
E QB
y = z, z = y where = (cylotron frequency )
B m
Let us solve the above differential equations,
E E
y = z y = z y = 2 y z = y
B B
E
y + 2 y = 2
B
E
Let y = t t ' + 2t = 2 .
B
For C.F .
D 2 + 2 = 0 D = i C.F . = C1 cos t + C2 sin t

For P.I .
1 2 E 1 2 E E
P.I . = 2
= 2 =
D +
2
B 0 + 2 B B
E
Thus t = y = C.F . + P.I = C1 cos t + C2 sin t +
B
E C C
y ( t ) = C1 sin t + C2 cos t + t + C3 where C1 = 1 , C2 = 2 .
B
z = y z = C1 sin t + C2 cos t z ( t ) = C1 cos t C2 sin t + C4

Initial Condition: y ( 0 ) = 0, z ( 0 ) = 0 and y ( 0 ) = 0, z ( 0 ) = 0

y ( 0 ) = 0, z ( 0 ) = 0 y ( 0 ) = C2 + C3 = 0 and z ( 0 ) = C1 + C4 = 0

E
y ( 0 ) = 0, z ( 0 ) = 0 y ( 0 ) = C1 + = 0 and z ( 0 ) = C2 = 0 C2 = 0
B


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E
Thus C2 = 0 C3 = 0 and C1 = C4 =
B
E E
y (t ) = (t sin t ) , z ( t ) = (1 cos t )
B B
E
( y Rt ) + ( z R ) = R 2
2 2
where R =
B
This is the formula for a circle, of radius R, whose center is ( 0, Rt , R ) travels in the

E
y-direction at constant speed, v = R =
B
The curve generated in this way is called a cycloid.

Magnetic forces do not work because v B is perpendicular to v , so ( )


(
dWmag = F mag dl = Q v B vdt = 0 . )
Magnetic forces may alter the direction in which a particle moves, but they can not speed
up or slow down it.


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Example: A neutron, a proton, an electron and an particle enter a region of constant
magnetic field with equal velocities. The magnetic field is along the inward normal to the
plane of paper. Label the tracks of the particles.

mv m pv C
Solution: Re = e , R p = = 1836 Re
B
eB eB
A

m v 4 m pv
R = = = 2R p . D
q B 2 eB

A Proton, B particle, C neutron (undeflected), D electron.


Example: A uniform magnetic field with a slit system, as B (outward)
shown in figure, is to be used as a momentum filter for
high energy charged particles. With a field B tesla, it is
found that the filter transmits particles each of energy
5.3 MeV. source detector
The magnetic field is increased to 2.3 B tesla and deuterons are
passed into the filter. Find the energy of each deuteron
transmitted by the filter.
mv
mv = qBr p = qBr p 2 = 2mK = ( qBr )
2
Solution: r =
qB
2 2
2m K q r B 2 4m p 5 3 2e r 1
= . = K d = 14 MeV
2md K d qd rd 2 3B 2 2m p K d e r 2 3
Example: A beam of protons with velocity 4 105 m / sec enters a uniform magnetic field

of 0.3 Tesla at an angle of 600 to the magnetic field. Find the radius of the helical path
taken by the proton beam. Also find the pitch of the helix.

Solution: v = 4 105 m / sec , v = v sin 60 and v|| = v cos 60

m p v2 m p v
= qv B R = = 0.012 m where m p = 1836me .
R qB
2 m p
Pitch of helix d = v||T = v|| = 0.044 m
qB

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MCQ (Multiple Choice Questions)
Q1. A neutron, a proton, an electron and an particle enter a

region of constant magnetic field with equal velocities. The C

B
magnetic field is along the inward normal to the plane of
A
paper. Tracks of the particles are labeled as shown in figure.
D
Which of the following correctly represents the track of the
particles.
(a) A Proton, B particle, C neutron, D electron
(b) A particle, B Proton, C neutron, D electron
(c) A electron, B particle, C neutron, D Proton
(d) A Proton, B electron, C neutron, D particle
Q2. In a cyclotron, -particles are accelerated using RF source of frequency15 MHz . What

would be the frequency of RF source if -particles are replaced by 2 He3 particles?

(a) 9 MHz (b) 12 MHz (c) 16 MHz (d) 20 MHz


Q3. A proton, deuteron and an -particle having the same kinetic energy are moving in
circular trajectories in a constant magnetic field. If rp , rd and r denote respectively the

radii of the trajectories of these particles, then


(a) r = rp < rd (b) r = rp > rd (c) r > rp < rd (d) r = rp = rd

Q4. If B points in x-direction and E points in z-direction, and a particle of mass m and
charge Q at rest is released from origin, then particle will follow Cycloidal path. Which
QB
of the following coupled differential equation represents Cycloidal path ( where = )
m
E E
(a) x = y, y = x (b) x = z , z = x
B B
E E
(c) z = y, y = z (d) y = z , z = y
B B


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Q5. A proton, deuteron and an -particle having the same kinetic energy are moving in
circular trajectories in a constant magnetic field. If rp , rd and r denote respectively the

radii of the trajectories of these particles, then the ratio rp : rd : r is

(a) 1:1: 2 (b) 1: 2 :1 (c) 2 :1:1 (d) 1:1:1


Q6. A particle having a charge Q and mass m moves along a circle of radius R under the
action of a magnetic field B. When the particle is at a point P, a uniform electric field is
switched on and it is found that the particle continues on the tangent through P with a
uniform velocity. The magnitude of the electric field is:
m RQB RQB 2
(d) RQB .
2
(a) QB (b) (c)
m m
Q7. Two particles X and Y having equal charges, after being accelerated through the same
potential difference, enter a region of uniform magnetic field and describe circular paths
of radii R1 and R2 respectively. The ratio of the mass of X to that Y is
2
R1 R2 R1 R1
(a) (b) (c) (d) R
R2 R1 R2 2

Q8. A charged particle moves in a helical path under the influence of a constant
magnetic field. The initial velocity is such that the component along the
magnetic field is twice the component in the plane normal to the magnetic l
field. The ratio / R of the pitch to the radius R of the helical path is
(a) / 2 (b) 4 (c) 2 (d) 2R


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NAT (Numerical Answer Type)
Q9. The maximum energy of deuteron coming out of a cyclotron accelerator is 20 MeV . The
maximum energy of protons that can be obtained from the accelerator is .. MeV
Q10. In a cyclotron, -particles are accelerated using RF source of frequency12 MeV . The

frequency of RF source if -particles are replaced by 2 He3 particles.. MeV

MSQ (Multiple Select Questions)

Q11. If B points in x-direction and E points in z-direction, and a particle of mass m and
charge Q at rest is released from origin, then particle will follow Cycloidal path. Which
QB E
of the following expressions are true for Cycloidal path ( where = and R = )
m B
E E
(a) z = y, y = z (b) y = z , z = y
B B

(c) ( y Rt ) + z 2 = R 2 (d) ( z Rt ) + y 2 = R 2
2 2


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Solutions
MCQ (Multiple Choice Questions)
Ans. 1: (a)
me v mv m v 4m p v
Solution: Re = , R p = p = 1836 Re , R = = = 2 Rp
eB eB q B 2eB
Ans. 2: (d)
qB f ' q ' m q 4m p 4
Solution: f = = = = f ' = 20 MHz
2 m f q m ' q 3m p 3

Ans. 3: (a)
mv 2mK 1 2 4
Solution: r = r= rp : rd : r = : :
qB qB 1 1 2

rp : rd : r = 1: 2 :1 or r = rp < rd

Ans. 4: (d)

( )
Solution: F = Q E + v B = Q ( E z + Bz y By z ) = ma = m ( y y + z z )

E QB
y = z , z = y where = (cylotron frequency)
B m
Ans. 5: (b)
mv 2mK 1 2 4
Solution: r = r= rp : rd : r = : :
qB qB 1 1 2

rp : rd : r = 1: 2 :1 .

Ans. 6: (c)
mv RQB 2
Solution: QE = QvB E = vB and R= E= .
QB m
Ans. 7: (c)
1 1 m1v12 = m2 v22 (1)
Solution: K X = m1v12 = qV and KY = m2 v22 = qV
2 2
The magnetic force provides centripetal force to the charged particle


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m v2 m2 v2
2
mv m v
1 1 = qv1 B; = qv2 B 1 1 = 2 2 (2)
R R2 R1 R2
1
2
m1 R1
=
m2 R2
From (1) and (2),

Ans. 8: (b)
Solution: v|| = 2v

2 R 2 R l
Pitch of the helix l = v||T = v|| = 2v = 4 R = 4
v v R

NAT (Numerical Answer Type)


Ans. 9: 40
2
q2 B2r 2 k p q p md q 2 2m p
Solution: KEmax = = = k p = 2kd = 40 MeV
2m kd qd m p q mp

Ans. 10: 16
qB f ' q ' m q 4m p 4
Solution: f = = = = f ' = 16 MHz
2 m f q m ' q 3m p 3

MSQ (Multiple Select Questions)


Ans. 11: (b) and (c)

( )
Solution: F = Q E + v B = Q ( E z + Bz y By z ) = ma = m ( y y + z z )

E QB
y = z, z = y where = (cylotron frequency)
B m


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Chapter - 4
Electromagnetic Induction
4.1 Faradays Law

v v
I I I

B B B

(a ) changing (b )
(c)
magnetic field
Experiment 1: He pulled a loop of wire to the right through a magnetic field. A current
flowed in the loop (Figure a).
Experiment 2: He moved the magnet to the left, holding the loop still. Again, a current
flowed in the loop (Figure b).
Experiment 3: With both the loop and the magnet at rest, he changed the strength of the
field (he used an electromagnet, and varied the current in the coil). Once again current
flowed in the loop (Figure c).
Thus, universal flux rule is that, whenever (and for whatever reason) the magnetic flux
d
through a loop changes, an e.m.f. ( ) will appear in the loop =
dt
In experiment 2, A changing magnetic field induces an electric field.
It is this induced electric field that accounts for the e.m.f.
d
Also the induced e.m.f = E dl = (where magnetic flux = B.d a )
dt
Then E is related to the change in B by the equation

B B
E dl = t .d a E =
t


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4.1.1 Lenzs Law
In Faradays law negative sign represents the Lenzs law. (The induced current will flow
in such a direction that the flux it produces tends to cancel the change).
For example if the magnetic flux is increasing then induced e.m.f will try to reduce and
vice versa.
Example: A long solenoid, of radius a, is driven by alternating current, so that the field inside is

sinusoidal B ( t ) = B0 cos (t ) z . A circular loop of wire, of radius a and resistance R, is


2
placed inside the solenoid, and coaxial with it. Find the current induced in the loop, as a
function of time.
a2 1
Solution: Magnetic flux through the loop = B. A = B0 cos (t ) = a 2 B0 cos (t )
4 4
d 1 2 1
Induced emf ( t ) = = a B0 sin t = 0 sin t 0 = a 2 B0
dt 4 4

(t ) a 2 B0 sin t a 2 B0
Induced current i ( t ) =
= = i0 sin t i0 =
R 4R 4R
Example: A square loop (side a) is mounted on a vertical shaft and rotated at angular velocity .
A uniform magnetic field B points to the right. Find the induced emf ( t ) for this

alternating current generator.


Solution: Magnetic flux = B. A = BA cos = Ba 2 cos t
d
Induced emf ( t ) = = Ba 2 sin t
dt


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Example: A metal bar of mass m slides frictionlessly on two parallel conducting rails a distance
l apart. A resistor R is connected across the rails and a uniform magnetic field B , pointing
into the page, fills the entire region.

R l v

(a) If the bar moves to the right at speed v, what ismthe current in the resistor? In what
direction does it flow?
(b) What is the magnetic force on the bar?
d dx Blv
Solution: (a) = = Bl = Blv ; = IR I = (downwardin R) .
dt dt R
B 2l 2 v
(b) F = IlB = (to the left)
R
Example: A square loop of wire (side a) lies on a table, a distance r from a very long straight
wire, which carries a current I. a
(a) Find the flux of B through the loop.
a
(b) If some one now pulls the loop directly away from the
wire, at speed v, what emf is generated? In what direction
r
does the current flow?
(c) What if the loop is pulled to the right at speed v, instead I
of moving away?
r +a
0 I 1 I r+a
Solution: (a) = B.d a =
2 r ( adr ) = 2 ln r
r
0

d Ia d r + a
(b) = = 0 ln
dt 2 dt r

0 Ia 1 dr 1 dr 0 Ia 2v
= = (counter clockwise)
2 r + a dt r dt 2 r (r + a )
(c) Flux is constant so = 0 .

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Example: A long solenoid, of radius a and n turns per unit length carries a time-dependent
current I ( t ) in the direction. Find the electric field (magnitude and direction) at a

distance r from the axis (both inside and outside the solenoid).
Solution: Field due to solenoid B ( t ) = 0 nI ( t ) z inside and zero outside.

Inside solenoid ( r < a ):


d dI ( t ) r dI ( t )
E.dl = dt B.d a E ( 2 r ) = 0 n dt r E = 0 n 2 dt .
2

Outside solenoid ( r > a ):


d dI ( t )
E.dl = dt B.d a E ( 2 r ) = 0 n dt a
2

na 2 dI ( t ) B(t )
E= 0 .
2r dt
Example: A uniform magnetic field B ( t ) , pointing straight up, fills the

shaded circular region of figure shown below. If B is changing with


time, what is the induced electric field?
Solution: E ( t ) points in the circumferential direction, just like the magnetic field inside a long

straight wire carrying a uniform current density.


Draw an Amperian loop of radius r and apply Faradays Law:
B(t )
d dB ( t )
E.dl =
dt
E ( 2 r ) =
d
dt
r 2 B ( t ) = r 2 (
dt
. )
r dB ( t )
Thus E= .
2 dt r
If B is increasing, E runs clockwise, as viewed from above.


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4.1.2 Inductance

If a steady current I1 flows in a loop 1, it produces magnetic field B1 . Some of the field
lines pass through loop 2, let 2 be the flux of
B1
B1 through 2.
Loop -2
0 dl1 R
From Biot-Savart law, B1 = I1 ,
4 R2
Therefore flux through loop 2 is 2 = B1 d a2 .
Loop -1
I1
Thus 2 = M 21 I1 , where M 21 is the constant of
proportionality; it is known as the mutual inductance of the two loops. Now

(
2 = B1 d a2 = A1 .d a 2 = ) A .dl
1 2

0 1 dl1 dl1
Since A1 =
4 R
2 = 0 1
4 R
.dl2

0 I1 dl1 dl2
2 = M 21 I1 M 21 =
4 R
This is the Neumann formula; it involves double line integral-one integration around
loop1, the other around loop2.
Thus
(a) M 21 is a purely geometrical quantity depends on sizes, shapes and relative position of
two loops.
(b) M 21 = M 12 = M
If flux through loop 2, varies then induce emf in loop 2 is
d2 dI
2 = = M 1 .
dt dt
Changing current not only induces an emf in any nearby loops, it also induces an emf in
the source loop itself. Again field (and therefore flux) is proportional to the current.
= LI where L is self inductance of the loop


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If the current changes, the emf induced in the same loop is
dI
= L .
dt
Inductance is measured in henries (H); a henry is a volt-second per ampere.
Inductance (like capacitance) is an intrinsically positive quantity. Lenz's law, which is
enforced by minus sign, which means the emf is in such a direction to oppose and change
in current. For this reason, it is called a back emf. Whenever we try to alter the current,
we must fight against this back emf.
4.1.3 Energy Stored in the field
It takes a certain amount of energy to start a current flowing in a circuit. The work done
on a unit charge, against the back emf, in one trip around the circuit is (the mines sign
is due to the fact that work is being done by us against the emf, not the work done by the
emf). The amount of charge per unit time passing down the wire is I. So the total work
dW d
done per unit time is, = I = LI
dt dt
If we start with zero current and build it up to a final value I,
1 2
The work done (Integrating the last equation over time) is W = LI
2

Since = LI = B.d a = A .d a =
S S
( ) A.dl , where P is the perimeter of the loop and S
P

is any surface bounded by P.

A.dl W = 2 ( A.I )dl


1 1
Therefore W= I
2 0 0

The generalization to volume current is: W =


1
2 V
( )
A.J d

We can simplify above equation as


1
W=
2 0
all space
B 2 d


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MCQ (Multiple Choice Questions)
Q1. A current i p flows through the primary coil of a transformer. The graph of i p (t ) as a

function of time t is shown in the figure below.


i p (t )

1 2 3 t

Which of the following graphs represents the current i S in the secondary coil?
(a) (b) is
is

1 2 3
t

1 2 3 t

(c) is (d) is

1 2 3t

1 2 3t
Q2. A horizontal metal disc rotates about the vertical axis in a uniform magnetic field
pointing up as shown in the figure. A circuit is made by connecting one end A of a
resistor to the centre of the disc and the other end B to its edge through a sliding contact.
The current that flows through the resistor is B

(a) zero B A

(b) DC from A to B
(c) DC from B to A S

(d) AC


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Q3. A uniform and constant magnetic field B coming out of the plane of the paper exists in a
rectangular region as shown in the figure. A conducting rod PQ is rotated about O with a
uniform angular speed in the plane of the paper. The emf EPQ induced between P and Q
is best represented by the graph
B

Q
(a) E PQ (b) E PQ

O O
t t

(c) (d)

E PQ E PQ

O O
t t

Q4. Consider a solenoid of radius R with n turns per unit length, in which a time dependent
current I = I 0 sin t ( where R / c << 1) flows. The magnitude of the electric field at a

perpendicular distance r > R from the axis of symmetry of the solenoid, is


1
(a) 0 (b) 0 nI 0 R 2 cos t
2r
1 1
(c) 0 nI 0 r sin t (d) 0 nI 0 r cos t
2 2


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Q5. An infinitely long wire carrying a current I (t ) = I 0 cos t is
placed at a distance L from a square loop of side L as
L
shown in figure. If the resistance of the loop is R, then the
amplitude of the induced current in the loop is:
0 2 L 0 0 8L 0 L
(a) (b) ln 2
4 R 4 R
0 4 L 0 0 2 L 0 (t )
(c) ln 2 (d) ln 2
4 R 4 R
Q6. A large circular coil of N turns and radius R carries a time varying current I (t ) = I 0 sin t .

A small circular coil of n turns and radius r ( r << R ) is placed at the center of the large

coil such that the coils are concentric and coplanar. The induced emf in the small coil
(a) Leads the current in the large coil by / 2
(b) Lags the current in the large coil by
(c) is in phase with the current in the large coil
(d) Lags the current in the large coil by / 2
Q7. A thin conducting wire is bent into a circular loop of radius r and placed in a time
dependent magnetic field of magnetic induction (t ) = 0 e t z where 0 > 0, > 0

such that the plane of the loop is perpendicular to (t ) . Then the induced emf in the loop
is:
(a) r 2 B0 e t (b) r 2 B0 e t

(c) r 2 B0 e t (d) r 2 B0 e t
Q8. A square loop of wire, with sides of length L, lies in the first quadrant of the xy plane,
with one corner at the origin. In this region there is a non-uniform time dependent
magnetic field B ( y, t ) = Ky 3t 2 z (where K is a constant). Then the induced emf in the

loop is
1 1 1 1
(a) KtL2 (b) KtL4 (c) KtL5 (d) KtL5
2 4 2 2


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Q9. A solenoid with an iron core is connected in series with a battery of emf V and it is found
that a constant current I 0 passes through the solenoid. If at t = 0 , the iron core is pulled

out from the solenoid quickly in a time t , which one of the following could be a correct
description of the current passing through the solenoid?

(a ) I (b ) I
I0 I0

0 t 0 t
(c ) I (d ) I
I0 I0

0 t 0 t
Q10. A metallic square loop ABCD is moving in its own plane with velocity V in a uniform
magnetic field perpendicular to its plane as shown in the figure. An electric field is
induced.
A B
(a) in AD, but not in BC
(b) in BC, but not in AD V
(c) neither in AD nor in BC
(d) in both AD and BC
D C


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NAT (Numerical Answer Type)
Q11. A small loop of wire of area A = 0.01 m 2 , N = 40 turns and resistance R = 40 is
initially kept in a uniform magnetic field B in such a way that the field is normal to the
loop. When it is pulled out of the magnetic field a total charge of Q = 2 105 C flows

through the coil. The magnetic field B is 103 Tesla


Q12. A conducting circular loop is placed in a uniform magnetic field of 0.02 Tesla , with its
plane perpendicular to the field. If the radius of the loop starts shrinking at a constant
rate 1.0 mm / sec , then the magnitude of e.m.f. induced in the loop, at the instant when the
radius is 4.0 cm will be V . (Answer must be an integer)
Q13. A long solenoid, of radius a, is driven by alternating current, so that the field inside is

sinusoidal: B ( t ) = B0 cos (t ) z . A circular loop of wire, of radius a and resistance R,


2
is placed inside the solenoid, and coaxial with it. Then the amplitude of current induced
a 2 B0
in the loop, as a function of time is . Then the value of is
R
MSQ (Multiple Select Questions)
Q14. Consider a solenoid of radius R with n turns per unit length, in which a time dependent
current I = I 0 sin t ( where R / c << 1) flows. Then which of the following statements

are true for magnitude of the electric field at a perpendicular distance r from the axis of
symmetry?

(a) Electric field E = 0 for r > R

1
(b) Electric field E = 0 nI 0 R 2 cos t for r > R
2r
1
(c) Electric field E = 0 nI 0 r sin t for r < R
2
1
(d) Electric field E = 0 nI 0 r cos t for r < R
2


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Solutions
MCQ (Multiple Choice Questions)
Ans. 1: (b)
Ans. 2: (b)
Ans. 3: (a)
Ans. 4: (b)
B
Solution: E dl = t da; ( B = nI ( t ) z )
0 .

2 R 2
R
dI
E 2 r = 0 n
dt
r = 0
2 r dr = 0 n I 0 cos t
2

1
E = 0 nI 0 R 2 cos t
2r
Ans. 5: (d)
0 ( t ) 2 L 1 ( t ) = 0 I ( t ) L ln 2
Solution: Magnetic flux = B d a =
2 L r
Ldr
2
d 0 LI 0 sin t
= = ln 2 I ( t ) = I 0 cos t
dt 2 R
0 2 LI 0 sin t
= ln 2
4 R
Ans. 6: (a)
d dB dI
Solution: = = A cos t sin t sin t
dt dt dt 2 2
Ans. 7: (a)
d
Solution: = = r 2 B0 e t
dt
Ans. 8: (d)

Kt 2 L5 d
L L
1
Solution: = Bdxdy = Kt 2 dx y 3 dy = = = KtL5
0 0
4 dt 2

Ans. 9: (a)
Ans. 10: (d)


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NAT (Numerical Answer Type)
Ans. 11: 2
Solution: Magnetic flux through the loop = NBA
d 1 d dQ 1
Induced e.m.f = and induced current i = = d = dQ .
dt R dt dt R
1
( 40 B 0.01) = 2 105 B = 2 103 T
40
Ans. 12: 5.0
d BdA Bdr 2 2 Bdr
Solution: = = = = r
dt dt dr dt
22
= 2 2 102 (1 103 ) 4 102 = 48 107 V = 4.8 106 V = 5.0V
7
Ans. 13: 0.25
a2 1
Solution: Magnetic flux through the loop = B. A = B0 cos (t ) = a 2 B0 cos (t )
4 4
d 1 2 1
Induced emf ( t ) = = a B0 sin t = 0 sin t 0 = a 2 B0
dt 4 4
(t ) a 2 B0 sin t a 2 B0
Induced current i ( t ) = = = i0 sin t i0 =
R 4R 4R
MSQ (Multiple Select Questions)
Ans. 14: (b) and (d)

Solution: E dl =
B
t
da ; (B = nI (t )z ).
0

2 R 2
R
dI
For r > R E 2 r = 0 n
dt
r = 0
2 r dr = 0 n I 0 cos t
2

1
E = 0 nI 0 R 2 cos t
2r
2 r 2
r
dI
For r < R E 2 r = 0 n
dt
r = 0
2 r dr = 0 n I 0 cos t
2
1
E = 0 nI 0 r cos t
2


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Chapter - 5
Maxwell's Equations
5.1 Maxwells Equation in Free Space
5.1.1 Electrodynamics before Maxwells

(i) (Gauss Law),

0
(ii) B 0 (No name),

B
(iii) (Fardays Law),
t
(iv) B 0 J (Amperes law).
Taking divergence of equation (iii) we get

B
.( E ) .
.B 0 . So equation (iii) is valid.
t t

Again taking divergence of equation (iv) we have .( B ) 0 (.J ) ;
the left side must be zero, but the right side, in general, is not.

For steady currents .J 0 , but for time varying fields ( .J ) the Ampere's law
t
can not be right.
5.1.2 How Maxwell fixed Amperes Law
From continuity equation and Gauss Law

E E
.J ( 0 .E ) . 0 . J 0 0 .
t t t t

E
Thus B 0 J 0 0
t
A changing electric field induces a magnetic field.

E
Maxwell called this extra term the displacement current J d 0 .
t

E
Integral form of Ampere's law B.dl 0 I enc 0 0 .d a
t

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5.1.3 Paradox of Charging Capacitor Amperia loop

I
Capacitor

Battery
Displacement current resolves the paradox of charging capacitor. If the capacitor plates
1 1 Q
are very close together, then the electric field between them is: E where Q
0 0 A
is the charge on the plate and A is its area.
E 1 Q 1
Thus, between the plates I
t 0 A t 0 A

If we choose the flat surface, then E 0 and I enc I



E
B.dl 0 I enc 0 0 .d a B.dl 0 I .
t
If, on the other hand, we use the balloon-shaped surface, then I enc 0 , then

E I
t .d a 0


E
B.dl 0 I enc 0 0 .d a B.dl 0 I
t
So we get the same answer for either surface, though in the first case it comes from the
genuine current and in the second from the displacement current.

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5.1.4 Maxwells Equation in Free Space



(i) (Gauss Law),
0

(ii) B 0 (No name),

B
(iii) (Fardays Law),
t

E
(iv) B 0 J 0 0 (Amperes law with Maxwell's correction).
t
5.2 Maxwells Equation in Linear Isotropic Media
For materials that are subject to electric and magnetic polarization there is more
convenient way to write Maxwell's equations. Inside polarized matter there will be
accumulation of bound charge and current over which we don't have direct control.
So we will reformulate Maxwell's equation in such a way as to make explicit reference
only to those sources we control directly: the free charges and currents.

We know that an electric polarization P produces a bound charge density b .P .

Likewise, a magnetic polarization (or magnetization) M results in a bound

current J b M .
Due to time varying field any change in the electric polarization involves a flow of

(bound) charge, (call it polarization current J P ), which must be included in the total
current.
Consider a small piece of polarized material. The
polarization introduces a charge density b P at one P
da
b
end and b at the other (since b P.n ). If P now
b
increases a bit, the charge on each end increases
b
accordingly, giving a net current-carrying, dI da
t

P
Thus the polarization current J P
t

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The polarization current has nothing to do with the bound current, J b . The bound current

( J b M ) is associated with magnetization of the material and involves the spin and
orbital motion of electrons.

In view of all this, the total charge density f b f .P ,

P
and the total current density J J f J b J P J f M .
t
Gauss's law can now be written as:
1

0

0

f .P

or D f where D 0 E P

Now, Ampere's law (with Maxwell's term) becomes



P E
B 0 J f M 0 0 ,
t t

D B
or H J f where H M
t 0
In terms of free charges and currents, then, Maxwell's equations read

(i) D f , (ii) B 0 ,

B D
(iii) , (iii) H J f
t t

For linear media, P 0 e E and M m H ,
1
So D E , and H B where 0 1 e , 0 1 m


D
and displacement current J d .
t

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Integral form

(i) D d a Q fenc
S

over any closed surface S.
(ii) B d a 0
S
d
(iii) E dl Bda
P
dt s
for any surface S bounded by the closed loop P.
d
(iv) H dl I fenc D d a
P
dt s

5.3 Boundary Conditions on the Fields at Interfaces n



D1
a
l 1
1
2
2


f Kf
D2

(a) Dabove
Dbelow f

from (i) and (ii)
(b) Babove Bbelow
|| ||
(c) E above E below

|| || from (iii) and (iv)
(d) H above H below K f n

In particular, if there is no free charge or free current at the interface between medium1
and medium 2, then
|| ||
(c) E 1 E 2
(a) 1 E 2 E 0
1

2
and 1 || 1 || .
(b) B1 B2 (d) B1 B 2 0
1 2

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MCQ (Multiple Choice Questions)


Q1. An oscillating voltage V t V0 sin t is applied across a parallel plate capacitor having

a plate separation d. The displacement current density through the capacitor is


V t V0 sin t

0V0 cos t 0 0V0 cos t


(a) (b)
d d
0 0V0 cos t 0V0 sin t
(c) (d)
d d
Q2. For a parallel plate capacitor of area A and separation d, across which a sinusoidal voltage
V0 sin t is applied, the average value of the displacement current is (the capacitor is

placed in vacuum)
0 AV0 0 A 0 AV0
(a) zero (b) (c) (d)
d 2d 2d
Q3. For a parallel plate capacitor of area A and separation d, across which a sinusoidal voltage
V0 sin t is applied, the peak value of the displacement current is (the capacitor is placed

in vacuum)
0 AV0 0 A 0 AV0
(a) zero (b) (c) (d)
d 2d 2d
Q4. For a parallel plate capacitor of area A and separation d, across which a sinusoidal voltage
V0 sin t is applied, the r.m.s value of the displacement current is (the capacitor is placed

in vacuum)
0 AV0 0 A 0 AV0
(a) zero (b) (c) (d)
d 2d 2d

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Q5. A parallel plate capacitor has circular plates of radius R. It is being charged by a current I.

Then the magnetic induction B at a point between the plates at a distance R/2 from the
axis of the capacitor is:
0 I I I I
(a) B (b) B 0 (c) B 0 (d) B 0
2R 4R 6R 8R

Q6.
The divergence of a magnetic field B r , t from a time varying current density J r , t is

(a) always zero as there are no magnetic monopoles



(b) non-zero and proportional to the rate of change of electric field E r , t from the

current density

(c) non-zero and proportional to the divergence of electric field E r , t from the current
density
(d) non-zero and proportional to the current density
Q7. A charged capacitor (C) is connected in series with an inductor (L). When the
displacement current reduces to zero, the energy of the LC circuit is
(a) stored entirely in its magnetic field.
(b) stored entirely in its electric field.
(c) distributed equally among its electric and magnetic fields.
(d) radiated out of the circuit.
Q8. Which one of the following Maxwells equations implies the absence of magnetic
monopoles?

(a) / 0 (b) 0

(c) / t (d) (1 / c 2 ) / t 0 J
Q9. Which of the following expressions is correct for a dielectric?

(a) D d a Q free enclosed (b) da


1
Q free enclosed
surface surface

(c) D da
1
Q free enclosed (d) E da
1
Q free enclosed
surface
surface

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Q10. Faraday Lenz law relates the rate of change of magnetic flux with the emf developed.
Which of the following equations represents the above law?

B
(a)
t
(b) B dl 0 0
t
dS

(c) B 0 0

t
(d)
dp
t

q vB

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Solutions
MCQ (Multiple Choice Questions)
Ans. 1: (a)
E 0 V t 0V0 cos t
Solution: Displacement current density J d 0
t d t d
Ans. 2: (a)
E 0 V 0 AV
Solution: J d 0 V0 cos t I d J d A 0 0 cos t
t d t d d
Average value 0
Ans. 3: (b)
E 0 V 0 AV
Solution: J d 0 V0 cos t I d J d A 0 0 cos t
t d t d d
0 AV0
Peak value Vm
d
Ans. 4: (d)
E 0 V 0 AV
Solution: J d 0 V0 cos t I d J d A 0 0 cos t
t d t d d
0 AV0 AV
Peak value Vm and R.M.S value Vrms 0 0
d 2d
Ans. 5: (b)
E
Solution: B.d l I
0 enc 0 0
S
t
.d a

Consider an amperian loop of radius r r R , then I enc 0 and since

Q (t ) E I
E
2
R 0 t R 2 0

I Ir I I
Thus B 2r 0 0 2
r 2 B(r ) 0 2 B( R 2) 0 B 0
R 0 2R 4R 4R
Ans. 6: (a)
Ans. 7: (b)
Ans. 8: (b)
Ans. 9: (a)
Ans. 10: (a)

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Chapter - 6
Electromagnetic Waves
6.1 Poynting Theorem (Work Energy Theorem of Electrodynamics)
The work necessary to assemble a static charge distribution is
0
2
We = E d , where E is the resulting electric field
2

The work required to get currents going (against the back emf) is
1
Wm =
2 0 B 2 d , where B is the resulting magnetic field

This suggests that the total energy in the electromagnetic field is

1 B2
U em = 0E +
2
d .
2 0
Suppose we have some charge and current configuration which at time t, produces
fields E & B . In next instant dt the charges moves around a bit. The work is done by
electromagnetic forces acting on these charges in the interval dt .
According to Lorentz Force Law, the work done on a charge q is
F dl = q( E + v B) v dt = qE v dt .

Now q = d and v = J , so the rate at which work is done on all the charges in a
volume V is
dW
dt
( )
= E.J d .
V

E J is the work done per unit time, per unit volume- which is the power delivered per
unit volume. Use AmperesMaxwell law to eliminate J :

E E
B = 0 J + 0 0
t
( )
E B = 0 E J + 0 0 E (
t
)
E
EJ =
1
0
( )
E B 0 E
t


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B
( )
Since . E B = B. E E. B ( )
and E =
t
( )
B
It follows that E. B = B. ( ) t
(
. E B )
1 1 2 1
EJ = 0E +
2 t
2
B . E B
0 0
( )
d 1 1 2
( E B) d a ,
dW 1
Then = 0E2 + B d
dt dt V 2 0 0 S

where S is the surface bounding V.


This is Poynting's theorem; it is the work energy theorem of electrodynamics.
The first integral on the right is the total energy stored in the fields, U em .
The second term evidently, represents the rate at which energy is carries out of V, across
its boundary surface, by the electromagnetic fields.
Poynting's theorem says, that, the work done on the charges by the electromagnetic
force is equal to the decrease in energy stored in the field, less the energy that flowed out
through the surface.
The energy per unit time, per unit area, transported by the fields is called the Poynting
vector

S
1
0
( E B) .
S d a is the energy per unit time crossing the infinitesimal surface d a - the energy or
energy flux density.
6.2 Waves in One Dimension (Sinusoidal waves)
6.2.1 The Wave Equation
A wave propagating with speed v in z-direction can be expressed as:
2 f 1 2 f
=
z 2 v 2 t 2
It admits as solutions all functions of the form
f ( z , t ) = g ( z vt ) .

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But functions of the form g ( z vt ) are not the only solutions. The wave equation

involves the square of v, so we can generate another class of solutions by simply


changing the sign of the velocity:
f ( z , t ) = h ( z + vt ) .

This, of course, represents a wave propagating in the negative z-direction.


The most general solution to the wave equation is the sum of a wave to the right and a
wave to the left:
f ( z , t ) = g ( z vt ) + h ( z + vt ) .

(Notice that the wave equation is linear: the sum of any two solutions is itself a solution.)
Every solution to the wave equation can be expressed in this form.
Example: Check which of the following functions satisfy the wave equation (where symbols
have their usual meaning and A, are constants of suitable dimensions)

(a) f ( z , t ) = Ae (b) f ( z , t ) = A sin [ ( z vt )]


( z vt )2

A ( z 2 + vt )
(c) f ( z , t ) = (d) f ( z , t ) = Ae
( z vt ) + 1
2

(e) f ( z , t ) = A sin ( z ) cos ( vt )


3

f
Solution: (a) f ( z , t ) = Ae = Ae z vt 2 ( z vt )
( z vt )2 ( )2

z
2 f
( z vt )
( ( ) ) ( z vt )
2 ( z vt )
2 2
= 2 Ae + 2 z vt Ae
z 2
2 f
= Ae z vt 2 + 4 2 ( z vt )
( )2 2

z 2
f
f ( z , t ) = Ae z vt = Ae z vt 2 v ( z vt )
( ) 2
( ) 2

t
f
2
2 = 2 v 2 Ae z vt + 2 v ( z vt ) Ae z vt 2 v ( z vt )
( )2 ( )2

t
2 f
2 = v 2 Ae z vt 2 + 4 2 ( z vt )
( )2 2

t
f
2
1 f
2
= 2 2 (Wave Equation)
z 2
v t

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f
2
1 f
2
(b) f ( z , t ) = A sin [ ( z vt )] 2 = 2 2 (Wave Equation)
z v t
A 2 f 1 2 f
(c) f ( z , t ) = = (Wave Equation)
( z vt ) + 1 z 2 v 2 t 2
2

( z 2 + vt ) 2 f 1 2 f
(d) f ( z , t ) = Ae (Not a Wave Equation)
z 2 v 2 t 2
2 f 1 2 f
(e) f ( z , t ) = A sin ( z ) cos ( vt ) =
3
(Wave Equation)
z 2 v 2 t 2
6.2.2 Terminology
Let us consider a function f ( z , t ) = A cos [ k ( z vt ) + ] , where A is the amplitude of the

wave (it is positive, and represents the maximum displacement from equilibrium).
The argument of the cosine is called the phase, and is the phase constant (normally,
we use a value in the range 0 < 2 ).

Figure given below shows this function at time t = 0 . Notice that at z = vt , the phase
k
is zero; let's call this the central maximum. If = 0 , central maximum passes the origin

at time t = 0 ; more generally k is the distance by which the central maximum (and
therefore the entire wave) is delayed.

Central
maximum f ( z, 0 )


v
A
/k
z

2
Finally k is the wave number; it is related to the wavelength as = , for when z
k
2
advances by , the cosine executes one complete cycle.
k


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As time passes, the entire wave train proceeds to the right, at speed v . Time period of
2
one complete cycle is T = .
kv
1 kv v
The frequency (number of oscillations per unit time) is = = = .
T 2
The angular frequency = 2 = kv
In terms of angular frequency , the sinusoidal wave can be represented as
f ( z , t ) = A cos ( kz t + ) .

A sinusoidal oscillation of wave number k and angular frequency traveling to the left
would be written
f ( z , t ) = A cos ( kz + t ) .

Comparing this with the wave traveling to the right reveals that, in effect, we could
simply switch the sign of k to produce a wave with the same amplitude, phase constant,
frequency, and wavelength, traveling in the opposite direction.
Central
f ( z, 0 ) maximum


v
z
/k

6.2.3 Complex notation


In view of Euler's formula ei = cos + i sin ,
the sinusoidal wave f ( z , t ) = A cos ( kz t + ) can be written as

f ( z , t ) = Re Aei( kz t + ) ,

where Re ( ) denotes the real part of the complex number . This invites us to introduce

the complex wave function


f ( z , t ) = Aei( kz t )


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i
with the complex amplitude A = Ae absorbing the phase constant.

The actual wave function is the real part of f :

f ( z, t ) = Re f ( z , t ) .

The advantage of the complex notation is that exponentials are much easier to manipulate
than sines and cosines.
6.2.4 Polarization
In longitudinal wave, the displacement from the equilibrium is along the direction of
propagation. Sound waves, which are nothing but compression waves in air, are
longitudinal.
Electromagnetic waves are transverse in nature. In a transverse wave displacement is
perpendicular to the direction of propagation.
There are two dimensions perpendicular to any given line of propagation. Accordingly,
transverse waves occur in two independent state of polarization:
Vertical polarization f v ( z, t ) = Aei( kz t ) x ,

Horizontal polarization f h ( z, t ) = Aei( kz t ) y ,

or along any other direction in the xy plane


f ( z, t ) = Aei( kz t ) n .

The polarization vector n defines the plane of vibration. Because the waves are
transverse, n is perpendicular to the direction of propagation:
n.z = 0
In terms of polarization angle ,
n = cos x + sin y
Thus wave in figure(c) can be considered a superposition of two waves-one horizontally
polarized, the other vertically:

(
f ( z, t ) = A cos e ( ) i kz t )
(
x + A sin e ()
i kz t )
y


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x x
.
v v

z z

y ( a ) Vertical polarization y
( b ) Horizontal polarization
x

v
n

y
( c ) Polarization vector

6.3 Electromagnetic Waves in Vacuum


6.3.1 The Wave Equation for E and B

Maxwells equations in free space ( = 0 and J = 0 ) can be written as,

(i) .E = 0 (ii) .B = 0

B E
(iii) E = (iv) B = 0 0
t t
Taking curl of equation (iii) and using equation (i) & (ii) we get,

E
(
B
)
E = ( )
.E E = t B E = t 0 0 t
2 2
( )
t

2 E
2 E = 0 0
t 2
2 B
Similarly, B = 0 0 2
2

t

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1 2 f
Thus, E and B satisfy the wave equation 2 f = .
v t 2
So, EM waves travels with a speed
1
v= = 3 108 m / s = c (velocity of light in free space)
0 0

where 0 = 4 107 N , 0 = 8.86 1012 C


2

A 2
Nm 2
6.3.2 Monochromatic Plane Waves
Suppose waves are traveling in the z-direction and have no x or y dependence; these are
called plane waves because the fields are uniform over every plane perpendicular to the
direction of propagation.
x

c
0

z
0 / c

y
The plane waves can be represented as:
E (z , t ) = E 0 e i (kz t ) , B ( z , t ) = B0 e i (kz t )
~ ~ ~ ~

~ ~
where E0 and B0 are the (complex) amplitudes (the physical fields, of course are the real
~ ~
parts of E and B ).
Since .E = 0 and .B =0 , it follows that

(E ) = (B )
0 z 0 z =0

That is, electromagnetic waves are transverse: the electric and magnetic fields are
perpendicular to the direction of propagation.
B
Also E =
t


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k ( E0 ) = ( B0 ) , k ( E0 ) = ( B0 )
y x x y

k
In compact form B0 = ( z E 0 )

Evidently E & B are in phase and mutually perpendicular; their (real) amplitudes are
related by,
k 1
Bo = Eo = E0 .
c
There is nothing special about the z direction; we can generalize the monochromatic
plane waves traveling in an arbitrary direction. The propagation vector or wave vector k
points in the direction of propagation, whose magnitude is the wave number k. The scalar
product k .r is the appropriate generalization of kz, so c
k
( )
E (r , t ) = E0e
i k .r t
n,

B (r,t ) =
1
c
E 0e
i ( k . r t )
( 1
)
k n = k E
c

where n is polarization vector. r


Also (
E ( r , t ) = c k B )
k r

Because E is transverse, ( B is also transverse):


n k = 0 .
The actual (real) electric and magnetic fields in a monochromatic plane wave with
propagation vector k and polarization n are

(
E ( r , t ) = E0 cos k .r t + n )
B (r,t ) =
1
c
(
E0 cos k .r t + ) ( k n )


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Example: Write down the electric and magnetic fields for a plane monochromatic wave of
amplitude E0 , frequency and phase angle zero that is

(a) Traveling in the y-direction and polarized in the x-direction.


(b) Traveling in the direction from the origin to the point (1,1,1) with polarization

parallel to xy plane.
Solution: (a) E = E0 cos ( ky t ) x and

1 E E
B = k E = 0 cos(ky wt )( y x ) = 0 cos(ky wt ) z
c c c
x + y + z 1 x y
(b) k = ; n = x + y n.k = 0 = = n =

c 3 2 2

E ( r , t ) = E0 cos ( k .r t ) n where k .r = (x + y + z)
3c
x y
E ( r , t ) = E0 cos ( x + y + z ) t
3c 2

x + y + z x y
( x + y + z ) t
1 1
B= kE = E0 cos
3c c 3 2


( x + y + z ) t ( x + y 2 z )
E0
B= cos
2 3c 3c
6.3.3 Energy and Momentum in Electromagnetic Wave
The energy per unit volume stored in electromagnetic field is

1 1 2
u = 0E2 + B
2 0
In case of monochromatic plane wave
E2
B2 = = 0 0 E 2
c 2

1 1 2
So the electric and magnetic contributions are equal i.e. uE = uB = 0 E 2 = B .
2 2 0

u = uE + uB = 0 E 2 = 0 E0 2 cos 2 (kz wt + ) .

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As the wave travels, it carries this energy along with it. The energy flux density (energy
per unit area, per unit time) transported by the fields is given by the Pointing vector
1
S= ( E B)
0
For monochromatic plane wave propagating in the z-direction,
S = c 0 E02 cos 2 (kz wt + ) z = cu z .

The energy per unit time, per unit area, transported by the wave is therefore uc .
Electromagnetic fields not only carry energy, they also carry momentum. The
momentum density stored in the field is
1
= S.
c2
For monochromatic plane wave,
1 1
= 0 E0 2 cos 2 (kz wt + ) z = u z .
c c
1
Average energy density u = 0 E02 ,
2
1
Average of Poynting vector S = c 0 E02 z ,
2
1
Average momentum density = 0 E02 z .
2c
The average power per unit area transported by an electromagnetic wave is called the
intensity
1
I = S = c 0 E02 .
2
Note:
(a) When light falls on perfect absorber it delivers its momentum to the surface. In a
time t the momentum transfer is A
c
p = Act ,

so the radiation pressure (average force per unit area) is


ct

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1 p 1 I
P= = 0 E02 = .
A t 2 c
(b) When light falls on perfect reflector, the radiation pressure
2I
P=
c
because the momentum changes direction, instead of being absorbed.
Example: The electric and magnetic fields of an electromagnetic waves in the free space
are = 0 cos (t kz ) x , = 0 cos (t kz ) y where x , y being unit vectors in x and y

directions respectively. Then find the intensity of electromagnetic wave.


1 ( AB 1 AB
Solution: S = E B ) = 0 0 cos 2 (t kz ) z I = S = . 0 0
0 0 2 0
6.4 Electromagnetic Waves in Matter
Inside matter, but in regions where there is no free charge or free current ( f and J f )

Maxwells Equation becomes,


(i) .D = 0 (ii) .B = 0
B D
(iii) E = (iv) H =
t t
1
If the medium is linear and homogeneous, D = E and H= B

Now the wave equation inside matter is
2 E 2 B
2 E = and 2
B = .
t 2 t 2
Thus EM waves propagate through a linear homogenous medium at a speed

1 c
v= = where n =
n 0 0

Thus n = r is the index of refraction (since r = 1 for non-magnetic material).

1 1 1
The energy density u = E 2 + B 2 u = E02
2 2


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1 1
( )
^
The Poynting vector S = E B S = v E02 z
2
1
Intensity I = S = vE02
2
Thus in a medium c v , 0 and 0

6.5 Electromagnetic Waves in Conductors


Any initial free charge density f (0) given to conductor dissipate in a characteristic time

/ where is conductivity and


f ( t ) = e ( / ) t f ( 0 )
This reflects the familiar fact that if we put some free charge on conductor, it will flow
out to the edges.
Free current density in a conductor is J f = E .
Thus Maxwells equations inside conductor are

(i) E = 0 (ii) B = 0

B E
(iii) E = (iv) B = + E
t t
We get modified wave equation for E and B as

2 E E 2 B B
2 E = + and 2 B = +
t 2
t t t
The admissible plane wave solution is

E ( z, t ) = E 0 e i (k z t ) , B ( z, t ) = B 0 e i (k z t ) where wave number k is complex


~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

If we put the solution in wave equation, we get k 2 = 2 + i .

Let k = k + i where k and are real and imaginary part of k .


1/ 2 1/ 2

2 2

k = 1 + + and = 1 +

1 1
2 2

Thus, E ( z , t ) = E 0 e z ei( kz t ) , B ( z , t ) = B 0 e z ei( kz t )



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1
The distance it takes to reduce the amplitude by a factor of is called the skin depth (d)
e
1
d= ;

it is a measure of how far the wave penetrates into the conductor.
The real part of k determines the wavelength, the propagation speed, and the index of
refraction:
2 ck
= , v= , n=
k k
Like any complex number, k can be expressed in terms of its modulus and phase:
k = Kei


( k)
2

where K = k = k + = 1 + 2

2
and tan 1

The complex amplitudes E0 = E0 ei E and B0 = B0 ei B are related by

k Kei
B0 = E0 B0 ei B = E0 ei E .

Evidently the electric and magnetic fields are no longer in phase; in fact B E = , the

magnetic field lags behind the electric fields.


1/ 2
B0 K
2

= = 1 +
E0

Thus, E ( z , t ) = E0 e z cos ( kz t + E ) x , B ( z , t ) = B0 e z cos ( kz t + E + ) y

Note:
(a) In a poor conductor ( << )


= i.e. independent of frequency.
2
(b) In a very good conductor ( >> )


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1 2 1
=k = d = = =
2 f
(c) When an electromagnetic wave strikes a perfect conductor ( ) then all waves
are reflected back i.e. E0 R = E0 I and E0T = 0 .

Example: An electromagnetic wave of frequency 10 GHz is propagating through a conductor


1
having conductivity 6 107 ( m ) and >> . Then find the skin depth of the
conductor.
2 1 1
Solution: d = = = = 6 107 m
f 3.14 10 6 10 4 10
10 7 7

Example: An electromagnetic plane wave is propagating inside a conductor with electric


field E ( z , t ) = E0 e z cos ( kz t + E ) x . Then calculate the intensity of the wave inside
the conductor.
Solution: E ( z , t ) = E0 e z cos ( kz t + E ) x B = B0 e z cos ( kz t + E + ) y

1(
E B) =
1
S= E0 B0 e 2 z cos ( kz t + E ) cos ( kz t + E + )

1 1 1
I= S = E0 B0 e 2 z cos cos ( + ) d = E0 B0 e 2 z cos
2 2

k k2 + 2
tan = cos = and B0 = E0
k k2 + 2
k
I= E02 e 2 xz
2


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MCQ (Multiple Choice Questions)
Q1. A current I is created by a narrow beam of protons moving in vacuum with constant
velocity v . The magnitude of the Poynting vector S outside the beam at a radial distance
r (much larger than the width of the beam) from the axis, are
I I
(a) S = (b) S =
4 0 vr
2 2
4 0 vr 4
2

I2 I2
(c) S = (d) S =
4 2 0 vr 2 4 2 0 vr 4
Q2. Two electromagnetic waves are travelling along the z-direction in vacuum. The electric
vectors of the two waves are

1 = i 0 cos(kz t ) + j 0 sin (kz t )

and 2 = i 0 sin (kz t ) + j 0 cos(kz t )


The state of polarization of the wave resulting from the superposition of these two waves
is:
(a) circular (b) plane (c) elliptical (d) unpolarised
Q3. The E field of a plane EM wave is E ( z , t ) = E0 sin ( kz + t ) y . The magnetic field of this
wave is given by
kE0 E0
(a) B ( z , t ) = sin ( kz + t ) x (b) B ( z , t ) = sin ( kz + t ) x
k
E0 kE0
(c) B ( z , t ) = sin ( kz + t ) z (d) B ( z , t ) = sin ( kz + t ) z
k
Q4. The B field of a plane EM wave is B ( y , t ) = B0 sin ( ky t ) z . The electric field of this
wave is given by
B0
(a) E ( y, t ) = sin ( ky t ) y (b) E ( y , t ) = cB0 sin ( ky t ) y
c
B0
(c) E ( y , t ) = sin ( ky t ) x (d) E ( y , t ) = cB0 sin ( ky t ) x
c


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The electric field E1 ( r , t ) = E0 ( x + iy ) exp i ( kz t ) and E 2 ( r , t ) = E0 e (
i kz t )
Q5. x of an

electromagnetic wave propagating along positive z-direction, have state polarization.


(a) Plane polarized and circularly polarized
(b) Circularly polarized and plane polarized
(c) Elliptically polarized and plane polarized
(d) Both are plane polarized
Q6. The electric field of an electromagnetic wave is given by
^ ^
E = E1 cos (t kz ) x + E2 sin (t kz ) y

The state of polarization of the electromagnetic wave is:


(a) Circular, clockwise (b) circular, anti-clockwise
(d) Elliptical, clockwise (d) elliptical, anti-clockwise
Q7. Assume that a lamp radiates power P in free space uniformly in all directions. What is
the magnitude of electric field strength at a distance r from the lamp?
P P P P
(a) (b) (c) (d)
c 0 r 2
2 c 0 r 2 2 c 0 r 2 c 0 r 2

Q8. A plane progressive wave is traveling with wave vector k , n is the unit vector in the
direction of amplitude. If the wave is longitudinal, then which of the following is correct?
(a) n k 0, n k = 0 (b) n k = 0, n k = 0

(c) n k = 0, n k 0 (d) n k 0, n.k 0


Q9. In a non-conducting medium characterized by = 0 , = 0 and conductivity = 0 , the

electric field (in Vm-1) is given by = 20sin 108 t kz y . The magnetic


1
field H (in Am ) , is given by
20k
(a) 20k in(108 t kz ) x (b) sin(108 t kz ) y
10 0
8

20k
(c) sin(108 t kz ) x (d) 20k in(108 t kz ) x
10 0
8


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Q10. A plane electromagnetic wave has the magnetic field given by
k
B ( x, y, z , t ) = B0 sin ( x + y ) + t z ,
2
where k is the wave number and x , y and z are the cartesian unit vectors in x, y and z
directions, respectively. Then the corresponding electric field is given by
k ( x + y )
(a) E = cB0 sin ( x + y ) + t
2 2

k ( x + y )
(b) E = cB0 sin ( x + y ) + t
2 2

k ( x y )
(c) E = cB0 sin ( x + y ) + t
2 2

k (x y )
(d) E = cB0 sin ( x + y ) + t
2 2
Q11. A plane electromagnetic wave has the magnetic field given by
k
B ( x, y, z , t ) = B0 sin ( x + y ) t z ,
2
where k is the wave number and x , y and z are the cartesian unit vectors in x, y and z
directions, respectively. Then the average Poynting vector is given by
cB02 ( x y ) cB02 ( x y )
(a) (b)
2 0 2 2 0 2

cB02 ( x + y ) cB02 ( x + y )
(c) (d)
2 0 2 2 0 2

Q12. The electric field (r , t ) for a circularly polarized electromagnetic wave propagating
along the positive z direction is:
(a) (r , t ) = 0 ( x + y ) exp[i (kz t )] (b) (r , t ) = 0 ( x + iy ) exp[i (kz t )]

(c) (r , t ) = 0 ( x + iy ) exp[i (kz + t )] (d) (r , t ) = 0 ( x + y ) exp[i (kz + t )]


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Q13. The state of polarization of light wave with the electric field vector
0 cos ( kz t ) + yE
E = xE 0 cos ( kz t ) is

(a) Circularly polarized


(b) Elliptically polarized with the major axis along x-axis
(c) Linearly polarized along z-direction
(d) Linearly polarized at 45o to x-axis
Q14. A beam of light of frequency is reflected from a dielectric-metal interface at normal
incidence. The refractive index of the dielectric medium is n and that of the metal is
n2 = n(1 + i ) . If the beam is polarised parallel to the interface, then the phase change
experienced by the light upon reflection is
(a) tan(2 / ) (b) tan 1 (1 / ) (c) tan 1 (2 / ) (d) tan 1 (2 )

NAT (Numerical Answer Type)


Q15. Assume that a lamp radiates 5 Watts of power in free space uniformly in all directions.
Then the magnitude of electric field strength (in V / m ) at a distance 1 m from the lamp
is.
Q16. The plane electromagnetic wave in fee space in SI units are given by the expressions
x
Ex = 0, E y = 2 cos 2 1014 t + and Ez = 0
c 2

The wavelength of the wave is.. 106 m


Q17. An electromagnetic wave with ( z , t ) = 0 cos ( t k z ) x is traveling in free space and

crosses a disc of radius 2 m placed perpendicular to the z-axis. If 0 = 60 V / m , the


average power, in Watt, crossing the disc along the z-direction is.
Q18. The intensity of sunlight hitting the earth is about 1300 W / m 2 . If sunlight strikes a

perfect reflector, then the pressure it would exert will be. 106 N / m 2


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Q19. The intensity of sunlight hitting the earth is about 1300 W / m 2 . If sunlight strikes a

perfect absorber, then the pressure it would exert will be. 106 N / m 2
Q20. Consider the superposition of two coherent electromagnetic waves whose electric field

vectors are given by E1 = iE0 cos t and E2 = jE0 cos t + . The intensity of the
2
0
resulting wave is given by E 2 = 0 E02 , where E 2 is the time average of E2. Then
2
the value of is.
Q21. The refractive index of a medium in which the electric field of an electromagnetic wave

(
is given in MKS units by E = E0 cos 107 x + 107 y 1015 t z is.. )
Q22. An electromagnetically-shielded room is designed so that at a frequency = 10 7 rad/s
the intensity of the external radiation that penetrates the room is 1% of the incident

10 6 (m ) is the conductivity of the shielding material, its


1 1
radiation. If =
2
minimum thickness should be (given that ln10 = 2.3 ) ..mm
Q23. An electromagnetic wave of frequency 10 GHz is propagating through a conductor
1
having conductivity 6 107 ( m ) . Then skin depth of the conductor is.. m
(Assume = 0 , = 0 )

MSQ (Multiple Select Questions)


Q24. Which of the following functions satisfy the wave equation (where symbols have their
usual meaning)

(a) f ( z , t ) = Ae (b) f ( z , t ) = A sin [ ( z vt )]


( z vt )2

( z 2 + vt ) A
(c) f ( z , t ) = Ae (d) f ( z , t ) =

( z vt ) + 1
2

Q25. Which of the following functions satisfy the wave equation (where symbols have their
usual meaning)

(a) f ( z , t ) = A sin ( bz ) cos ( bvt ) (b) f ( z , t ) = A sin [ ( z vt )]


3

( z 2 + vt ) A
(c) f ( z , t ) = Ae (d) f ( z , t ) =

( z vt ) + 1
2


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Q26. Consider the following statements:
(a) An electromagnetic wave incident upon a perfectly absorbing surface exerts pressure
equal to that when the electromagnetic wave is incident upon a perfectly reflecting
surface.
(b) The radiation pressure is directly proportional to the magnitude of Poynting vector.
(c) An electromagnetic wave incident upon a perfectly absorbing surface exerts pressure
equal to half of that when the electromagnetic wave is incident upon a perfectly reflecting
surface.
(d) The radiation pressure is not proportional to the magnitude of Poynting vector.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
Q27. A plane electromagnetic wave is propagating in a lossless dielectric. The electric field is
given by
( ) [ {
E ( x, y, z , t ) = E 0 x + 2 Az exp ik 0 ct + x + 3 z , ( )}]
where c is the speed of light in vacuum, E0 , A and k0 are constant and x and z are unit
vectors along the x- and z-axes. n is the refractive index of the medium and A is some
constant. Then which of the following are true?
1 1
(a) n = 2 (b) n = 4 (c) A = (d) A =
6 6
Q28. An electromagnetic wave propagates inside a conductor. Then which of the following
statements are true.
(a) The amplitude of E and B decreases exponentially.
(b) There is phase delay between E and B
(c) E and B are perpendicular to each other
(d) Phase delay does not depend on particular conductor used


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Solutions
MCQ (Multiple Choice Questions)
Ans. 1: (c)
Solution: Let charge per unit length be , hence I = u in z-direction.
I
The magnetic field at a distance r is B = 0 .
2r
I
The electric field at a distance r is E = r = r .
2 0 r 2 0 ur

EB I2
Hence Poynting vector S = = z
0 4 2 0 ur 2
Ans. 2: (b)
Ans. 3: (a)
k E kz E0 sin ( kz + t ) y kE0 kE0
Solution: B = = = sin ( kz + t ) x = sin ( kz + t ) x

Ans. 4: (d)

Solution: E=
c
k
( c
)
k B = ky B0 sin ( ky t ) z
k
= cB0 sin ( ky t ) x = E0 sin ( ky t ) x

Ans. 5: (b)
Solution: E1 ( r , t ) = E0 ( x + iy ) [ cos ( kz t ) + i sin ( kz t )]

Real part = E0 [ cos ( kz t ) x sin ( kz t ) y ]

E x = E0 cos ( kz t ) , E y = E0 sin ( kz t ) E x2 + E y2 = E02 (Circular polarization)

Ans. 6: (d)
Solution: Ex = E1 cos (t kz ) , E y = E2 sin (t kz ) .

Thus resultant is elliptically polarized wave.


At z = 0, Ex = E1 cos (t ) , E y = E2 sin (t )


When t = 0, Ex = E1 , E y = 0 and when t = , Ex = 0, E y = E2
2

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Ans. 7: (c)
P 1 P P P
Solution: I = = 0 E02 c = E02 = E0 =
A 2 4 r 2
2 0 cr 2
2 0 cr 2

Ans. 8: (c)
Ans. 9: (c)
1 1 20k
Solution: H = kE = kz 20sin(108 t kz ) y = 8 sin(108 t kz ) x
0 0108
10 0
Ans. 10: (d)
k
Solution: k = ( x + y ) and wave is propagating in k direction.
2

c k ( x + y ) ( x + y )k
E=
c
k
( )
k B =
k
B0 sin

+ t z
2 2

k (x y )
E = cB0 sin ( x + y ) + t
2 2
Ans. 11: (c)
k cB02 cB02 x + y cB02 x + y
Solution: k = ( x + y ) and S = k= =
2 2 0 20 2 20 2
Ans. 12: (b)
Solution: (r , t ) = 0 ( x + iy ) exp[i (kz t )] Ex = 0 cos(kz t ), E y = 0 sin(kz t )

Ex2 + E y2 = E02 (circular polarisation)

Ans. 13: (d)


Ans. 14: (c)
1 v1 c/n
Solution: Since E0 R = E0 I where = = = 1 + i
1+ v2 c / n (1 + i )

i ei /2 i( /2+ )
E0 R = 0 I
E = E0 I = e E0 I where tan = .
2 + i 2 i
4+ e 4+ 2
2

2 2
Thus phase change = ( / 2 + ) tan = cot = = tan 1


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NAT (Numerical Answer Type)

Ans. 15: 17
P 1 P P P 1 2P
Solution: I = = 0 E02 c = E02 = E0 = =
A 2 4 r 2
2 0 cr 2
2 0 cr 2
4 0 cr 2

1 2P 25
E0 = = 9 109 = 10 3 17
4 0 cr 3 108 (1)
2 2

Ans. 16: 3
2 1014 2 c 3 108
Solution: k = = = 14 = = 3 106 m
c 10 1014

Ans. 17: 60
P 1
I= P = IA = 0 cE02 r 2 = 60 Watt .
A 2
Ans. 18: 8.66
2 2 1300
Solution: P = = = 8.66 106 N / m 2
c 3 108
Ans. 19: 4.33
1300
Solution: P = = = 4.33 106 N / m 2
c 3 108

Ans. 20: 0.5


Solution: E 2 = E12 + E22 + 2 E1 E2 = E02 cos 2 t + E02 cos 2 ( t + ) + 2 E02 cos t.cos ( t + )

0 0 E02 E02 1
E2 = + + 2 E02 . cos = 0 E02 (1 + cos ) = 0 E02 cos 2 ( / 2 )
2 2 2 2 2 2
0 1
E 2 = 0 E02 cos 2 ( / 4 ) = 0 E02
2 2
Ans. 21: 4.2
108 c
Solution: = 10 , k = 2 10 v = =
15 7
n= = 3.0 2 = 4.2
k 2 v
Ans. 22: 2.3

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1 I0
Solution: I = I 0 e 2 z z =
2 I
ln

I0 1 1
where = 100, = = 106 4 107 107 = 103
I 2 2 2
1
z= ln (100 ) = 2.3 mm
2 103
Ans. 23: 0.6
2 2
Solution: d = = = 6 107 m = 0.6 m
2 3.14 10 6 10 4 10
107 7

MSQ (Multiple Select Questions)


Ans. 24: (a), (b), (d)
Ans. 25: (a), (b) and (d)
Ans. 26: (b) and (c)
Ans. 27: (a) and (d)
( ) [ {
Solution: E ( x, y, z , t ) = E 0 x + 2 Az exp ik 0 ct + x + 3 z . ( )}]
(
Comparing with term e i (k r t ) k = k 0 x + 3 z and = k 0 c . )
k0c c
Since v = = = Refractive index n = 2 .
k k 02 + 3k 02 2

( )( )
Since k n = 0 k 0 x + 3 z x + 2 Az = 0 k 0 1 + A 6 = 0 A = ( ) 1
6
Ans. 28: (a), (b), (c)


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Chapter -7
Applications of Electromagnetic waves
7.1 Reflection and Refraction at Dielectric Interface
7.1.1 Normal Incidence
Suppose xy plane forms the boundary between two linear media. A plane wave of
frequency , traveling in the z-direction and polarized in the x direction, approaches the
interface from the left then
Incident Wave
JG
E I ( z , t ) = E 0 I ei ( k1z t ) x

JG E i ( k z t )
B I ( z , t ) = 0 I e 1 y x
v1 1 2 T
I
Reflected Wave v1 v2
JG T
E R ( z , t ) = E 0 R ei ( k1z t ) x I
z
JG E  y
B R ( z , t ) = 0 R e 1 i ( k z wt )
y
v1 R
R Interface
Transmitted Wave v1
JG
E T ( z , t ) = E 0T ei ( k2 z t ) x

JG E i ( k z t )
B T ( z , t ) = 0 T
e 2 y
v2
At z = 0 , the combined field on the left E I + E R and B I + B R , must join the fields on the

right ET & BT , in accordance with the boundary conditions


JG || JG || 1 JG || 1 JG ||
(i) 1 E1 = 2 E2 (ii) B1 = B2 (iii) E1 = E 2 (iv) B1 = B2
1 2
In this case there are no electric component perpendicular to the surface, so (i) & (ii) are
trivial. However (iii) gives E 0 I + E 0 R = E 0T

E 0 I (  0 R )  0T
While (iv) gives, + = or  0 I  0 R =  0T
1v1 1v1 2 v2


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v n
where = 1 1 = 1 2 .
2v2 2 n1

1  2 
Solving above two equations we get  0 R = 
0 I , 0T = 0 I .
1+ 1+
v1 n2
If 1 = 2 =0 = = (For non-magnetic medium)
v2 n1

v v 2v2 
 0 R = 2 1  0 I ,  0T = 0 I
v2 + v1 v1 + v2
Note: Reflected wave is in phase if v2 > v1 or n2 < n1 and out of phase if

v2 < v1 or n2 > n1 .
In terms of indices of refraction the real amplitudes are

n1 n2 2n1
0 R = 0 I , 0T = 0 I .
n1 + n2 n1 + n2

1
Since Intensity I = vE02 , then the ratio of the reflected intensity to the incident intensity
2
2 2
I E n n
is the Reflection coefficient R = R = 0 R = 1 2 .
I I E0 I n1 + n2

The ratio of the transmitted intensity to the incident intensity is the Transmission
coefficient
2
I v E 4n1n2
T = T = 2 2 0T = R +T =1
I I 1v1 E0 I ( n1 + n2 )2

Example: Calculate the reflection coefficient for light at an air-to-dielectric interface


( 1 = 2 = 0 , n1 = 1, n2 = 1.5) at optical frequency = 4 1015 s 1 .
2
n n 1 1.5
2

Solution: Reflection coefficient R = 1 2 = = 0.04 or 4%


n1 + n2 1 + 1.5
Thus only 4% of light is reflected and 96% is transmitted.


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7.1.2 Oblique Incidence
In oblique incidence an incoming wave G
kR
meets the boundary at an arbitrary
G
angle I . Of course, normal incidence is kT
R
really just a special case of oblique T
incidence with I = 0 . Suppose that a z
I
Plane of Incidence
monochromatic plane wave of
frequency , approaches the interface G 1 2
kI
from the left then
Incident Wave
JG G JG JG G 1 JG
( )
G G
E I (r , t ) = E 0 I ei ( k I .r t ) , B I (r , t ) = kI E I
v1
Reflected Wave
JG G JG JG G 1 JG
( )
G G
E R (r , t ) = E 0 R ei ( k R .r t ) , B R (r , t ) = kR E R
v1
Transmitted Wave
JG G JG JG G 1 JG
( )
G G
E T (r , t ) = E 0T ei ( k T .r t ) , B T ( r , t ) = kT E T
v2
All three waves have the same frequency . The three wave numbers are related by
( = kv ) as
v2 n1
k I v1 = k R v1 = kT v2 = or k I = k R =
kT = kT
v1 n2
JG JG JG JG JG JG
The combined field in medium (1), E I + E R and B I + B R , must join the fields E T & B T
in medium (2), using the boundary conditions
JG || JG || 1 JG || 1 JG ||
(i) 1 E1 = 2 E2

(ii) B1 = B2 (iii) E1 = E 2 (iv) B1 = B2
1 2


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First Law (Plane of Incidence)
The incident, reflected and transmitted wave vectors form a plane (called the plane of
incidence), which also includes normal to the surface.
Second law (Law of Reflection)
The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection i.e.
I = R
Third Law: (Law of Refraction, or Snells law)
sin T n1
=
sin I n2
7.1.3 Fresnels Relation (Parallel and Perpendicular Polarization)
Case-I: (Polarization in the Plane of Incidence) G
kR JG JG
Applying Boundary conditions, we get ER T
JG G
Reflected and transmitted amplitudes BR kT
JG
 2  R T
E 0 R = E 0T = T
E0 I and E0 I
+ + z
JG
I
cos T v n
where = and = 11 = 1 2 I G
cos I 2 v2 2 n1 kI
JG 1 2
These are known as Fresnels equations. I
Notice that transmitted wave is always in phase with the incident one; the reflected wave
is either in phase , if > , or 1800 out phase if < .
The amplitudes of the transmitted and reflected waves depend on the angle of incidence,
because is a function of I :
2
1 1 sin 2 I
n
1 sin 2 T n2
= =
cos I cos I


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Brewsters Angle
At Brewsters angle ( B ) reflected light is completely extinguished when = , or

1 2
sin B =
2
2
n1 2
n
2

n2 2
For non-magnetic medium ( 1 2 ), so , sin 2 B , and hence
n1 1+ 2
n2
tan B and T + B = 90o
n1

Thus at Brewster angle ( I = B ) reflected and transmitted rays are perpendicular to each

other.
Critical Angle
When light enters from denser to rarer medium ( n1 > n 2 ) then after a critical angle ( C )
there is total internal reflection.
sin 900 n1 n2
= sin c = at C , T = 90o
sin c n2 n1
Reflection and Transmission Coefficient
JG
The power per unit are striking the interface is S .z . Thus the incident intensity is
1
I I = 1v1 E02I cos I ,
2
while reflected and transmitted intensities are
1 1
I R = 1v1 E02R cos R and IT = 2 v2 E02T cos T
2 2
2
E
2
I
Reflection coefficient R = R = 0R =
I I E0 I +
2 2
I v E cos T 2
Transmission coefficient T = T = 2 2 0T =
I I 1v1 E0 I cos I +
R +T =1

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Case-II: (Polarization Perpendicular to plane of Incidence G
kR JG
Applying Boundary conditions, we get BR
JG JG G
Reflected and transmitted amplitudes ER T kT
JG
 1   2  R T
E 0 R = E 0 I and E 0T = E 0 I T
1 + 1 + z
I
cos T 1v1 1n2
where = and = = G JG
cos I 2 v2 2 n1kI
1 2 I
JG
I
In this case Brewsters angle ( B ) is not possible i.e reflected light is never completely

extinguished (since = 1 is not possible).


Reflection and Transmission coefficient
JG
The power per unit are striking the interface is S .z . Thus the incident intensity is
1
I I = 1v1 E02I cos I ,
2
while reflected and transmitted intensities are
1 1
I R = 1v1 E02R cos R and IT = 2 v2 E02T cos T
2 2
2 2
I E 1
Reflection coefficient R = R = 0 R =
I I E0 I 1 +
2 2
I v E cos T 2
Transmission coefficient T = T = 2 2 0T =
I I 1v1 E0 I cos I 1 +
R +T =1
7.2 Reflection at Conducting Surface (Normal Incidence)
Suppose xy plane forms the boundary between a non-conducting linear medium (1) and a
conductor (2). A plane wave of frequency , traveling in the z-direction and polarized in
the x direction, approaches the interface from the left then
Incident Wave


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JG
E I ( z, t ) = E 0 I ei ( k1z t ) x

JG E i ( k z t )
B I ( z, t ) = 0 I e 1 y x
v1 1 2 T
I
Reflected Wave v1 v2
JG T
E R ( z , t ) = E 0 R ei ( k1z t ) x I
z
JG E  y
B R ( z, t ) = 0 R ei ( k1z wt ) y
v1 R
R Interface
v1

Transmitted Wave
JG
E T ( z , t ) = E 0T ei ( k2 z t ) x



JG k
B T ( z , t ) = 2 E 0T ei ( k2 z t ) y


where k2 = k2 + i 2 where k2 and 2 are real and imaginary part of k2 .
1/ 2 1/ 2

2 2

k2 = 1 + + 1 and 2 = 1 + 1
2


2


At z = 0 , the combined field on the left E I + E R and B I + B R , must join the fields on the

right ET & BT , in accordance with the boundary conditions


JG || JG || 1 JG || 1 JG ||
(i) 1 E1 = 2 E2 (ii) B1 = B2 (iii) E1 = E 2 (iv) B1 = B2
1 2
In this case there are no electric component perpendicular to the surface, so (i) & (ii) are
trivial.
However (iii) gives E 0 I + E 0 R = E 0T

E 0 I (  0 R ) k
While (iv) gives, + = 2  0T or  0 I  0 R =   0T
1v1 1v1 2


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v
where  = 1 1 k2 .
2

1   2 
Solving above two equations we get  0 R = 0 I ,  0T = 0 I .
 1 + 
1+

Note: (i) For a perfect conductor ( = ) , k2 =  = . Thus

 0 R =  0 I ,  0T = 0 .

In this case wave is totally reflected, with a 1800 phase shift.

2
(ii) For good conductor (  ) , k2 2 = .
2

1v1 2
 = (1 + i ) = 1v1 (1 + i )  = (1 + i ) where = 1v1 .
2 2 22 2 2

Reflection Coefficient

E 1  1 i 1 + i (1 ) +
2 2 2 2
I
R = R = 0R = = =
II E 0 I 1 +  1 + + i 1 + i (1 + ) +
2 2

Example: Calculate the reflection coefficient for light at an air-to-silver interface

( 1 )
= 2 = 0 , 1 = 0 , = 6 107 1m 1 at optical frequency = 4 1015 s 1 .

Solution: = 0 c

=c
0
= ( 3 108 )
( 6 10 )( 4 10 ) = 29
7 7

20 2 2 ( 4 10 ) 15

Reflection coefficient

(1 ) + 2 ( 28 ) + 292
2 2

R= = = 0.93 or 93% .
(1 + ) + 2 ( 30 ) + 292
2 2

Thus 93% of light is reflected and only 7% is transmitted.


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MCQ (Multiple Choice Questions)
Q.1 Unpolarized light falls from air to a planer air-glass interface (refractive index of glass
is 1.5 ) and the reflected light is observed to be plane polarized. The polarized vector and
the angle of incidence 1 are

(a) Perpendicular to the plane of incidence and 1 = 420

(b) Parallel to the plane of incidence and 1 = 560

(c) Perpendicular to the plane of incidence and 1 = 560

(d) Parallel to the plane of incidence and 1 = 520

Q2. For normal incident at an air-glass interface with n = 1.5 the fraction of energy reflected
is given by
(a) 0.40 (b) 0.20 (c) 0.16 (d) 0.04
Q3. The Fresnel relations between the amplitudes of incident and reflected electromagnetic
waves at an interface between air and a dielectric of refractive index , are
cos r cos i incident cos r cos i
||reflected = || and reflected
= incident

cos r + cos i cos r + cos i
The subscripts & and refer to polarization, parallel and normal to the plane of
incidence respectively. Here i and r are the angles of incidence and refraction
respectively. The condition for the reflected ray to be completely polarized is
(a) cos i = cos r (b) cos i = cos r
(c) cos i = cos r (d) cos i = cos r


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Q4. A plane electromagnetic wave traveling in vacuum is incident normally on a non-
magnetic, non-absorbing medium of refractive index ( n ) . The incident ( Ei ) , reflected

( Er ) and transmitted ( Et ) electric fields are given as,

Ei = E exp i ( kz t ) , Er = E0 r exp i ( kr z t ) , Et = E0t exp i ( kt z t )

If E = 2 V / m and n = 1.5 then the application of appropriate boundary conditions leads


to
3 7 1 8
(a) E0 r = V / m, E0t = V / m (b) E0 r = V / m, E0t = V / m
5 5 5 5
2 8 4 6
(c) E0 r = V / m, E0t = V / m (d) E0 r = V / m, E0t = V / m
5 5 5 5
Q5. A plane electromagnetic wave of frequency is incident normally on an air-dielectric
interface. The dielectric is linear, isotropic, non-magnetic and its refractive index is n.
The reflectance (R) and transmittance (T) from the interface are

n 1 n 1
2
4n 2
(a) R = , T= (b) R = , T =
n +1 (n + 1) 2 n +1 (n + 1) 2

n 1 (n 1) 2
3
4n 3 4n 2
(c) R = , T = (d) R = , T =
n +1 (n + 1)3 n +1 (n + 1) 2

Q6. A plane wave traveling with a velocity c1 in a medium of density 1 is incident normally

on an interface with another medium of density 2 in which the wave velocity is c2 . If

4 1 2 c1c2
the fraction of energy transmitted is . The fraction of energy reflected is
( 1c1 + 2c2 )
2

equal to (assuming no absorption):


1c1 2 c2 1c1 2 c2
(a) (b)
1c1 + 2 c2 ( 1c1 + 2c2 )
2

( 1c1 2c2 )
2 2
c 2 c2
(c) (d) 1 1
1c1 + 2 c2 1c1 + 2 c2


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Q7. For a particular medium C is the critical angle for total internal reflection and B is the
Brewster angle for the same medium. Then which one of the following relationships will
hold?
(a) sin C = cot B (b) cos C = tan B

(c) tan C = sin B (d) cot C = cos B

NAT (Numerical Answer Type)


Q8. A plane electromagnetic wave traveling in free space is incident normally on a glass plate
of refractive index 3/2. If there is no absorption by the glass, its transmittivity
is.
Q9. Unpolarized light is incident on an air-dielectric interface. The interface is the xy plane
and the plane of incidence is yz plane. The electric field of the reflected light is given

ik
by E = E 0 x exp ( )
3 y + z it , where k is the propagation constant in air and is
2
the angular frequency of the light. Assume magnetic permeability = 0 . The dielectric
constant of the second medium is.


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Solutions
MCQ (Multiple Choice Questions)
Ans. 1: (c)
Solution: 1 = B = tan 1 ( ) = 560

Ans. 2: (d)
2
n n 1 1.5 1 4
2

Solution: R = 1 2 = = = 0.04
n1 + n2 1 + 1.5 4 25

Ans. 3: (a)
Ans. 4: (c)
n n 1 1.5 1 2
Solution: E0 R = 1 2 E0 I E0 R = 2 = = = 0.40 V / m
n1 + n2 1 + 1.5 2.5 5

2n1 2 4 8
E0 R = E0 I E0 R = 2 = = = 1.60 V / m
n1 + n2 1 + 1.5 2.5 5

Ans. 5: (a)
Ans. 6: (d)

4 1 2 c1c2 c 2 c2
2

Solution: R + T = 1 R = 1 T = 1 = 1 1
( 1c1 + 2c2 ) 1c1 + 2 c2
2

Ans. 7: (a)
Solution: Let us assume light enters from rarer medium (2) to denser medium (1).
n1
Then tan B =
n2
n2
At same interface sin C = .
n1
1
tan B = sin C = cot B
sin c


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NAT (Numerical Answer Type)
Ans. 8: 96%
2
n n2 1 3/ 2
2
1 4
Solution: R = 1 = = = .04 or 4% T = 1 R = 0.96 or 96%
n1 + n2 1+ 3/ 2 4 25

Ans. 9: 3
Solution: Since reflected light is plane polarized, then angle of reflection is Brewster
n
angle tan R = tan B = 2 = n 2 .
n1
G k k
k=
2
( )
3 y + z tan B = y
kz
= 3 n2 = r = 3 r = 3


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Chapter - 8
Potential and Field Formulation for Time Varying Fields
1.1 Scalar and Vector Potentials
We want general solution to Maxwell's Equations,
JG JG
(i) = (Gauss Law),
0
JG JG
(ii) B = 0 (No name),
JG
JG JG B
(iii) = (Fardays Law),
t
JG
JG JG JG E
(iv) B = 0 J + 0 0 (Amperes law).
t
G JG G JG G JG G
( ) ( )
Given r , t and J r , t what are the fields E r , t and B r , t ? ( ) ( )
JG JG JG
From equation (ii) we can still write B = A
Putting this into Faraday's Law (iii)
G G
JG JG JG JG JG JG A G A JG
=
t
(
A +
t
=)0 E +
t
= V

G
G JG A
E = V
t
Now from equation (i)
JG G
2V +
t
(
A =
0
) .....(1)

From equation (iv)


G
JG JG JG JG JG V 2 A JG JG JG JG JG JG JG
( )
A = 0 J 0 0
t

0 0 2
t
; A = . A 2
A ( ) ( )
G
2G 2 A JG JG G V G
A 0 0 2 A + 0 0 = J ..(2)
t t
0


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Equations (1) and (2) contain all the information of Maxwells equations. Thus we need
JG
to calculate only four components (one for V and three for A ) instead of six components
JG JG
(three for E and three for B ).
Example: In an infinite straight wire constant current I 0 is turned on abruptly at t = 0 . Then

corresponding retarded potentials are given by


r 2
( ct )
2
G G G 0 I 0 ct +
V ( r , t ) = 0, A(r ,t ) = ln z
2 r

Find the fields corresponding to these potentials.
JG
JG A 0 I 0 c
Solution: The electric field is E ( r , t ) = = z
t 2 ( ct ) r 2
2

JG JG G A I ct
And the magnetic field is B( r , t ) = A = z = 0 0
r 2 r ( ct )
2
r 2

1.2 Gauge Transformation


JG JJG
(
Suppose we have two sets of potentials, V , A and V , A , which correspond to the ) ( )
same electric and magnetic fields.
JJG JG JG
Thus A = A + and V = V + .
JJG JG JJG JG JG JG JG JG
Since B = A = B = 0 = .
JG
Two potentials also give the same E ,
JJG JG
JJG JG A JG JG
So E = V ' = E + = 0,
t t
JG
or + =0 + = k (t ) = + k (t )
t t t
t
Actually, we might as well absorb k ( t ) into , defining a new by adding k (t )dt to
0


the old one. This will not affect the gradient of ; it just adds k ( t ) to .
t

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JJG JG JG
A = A +

It follows that
V =V
t
JG JG
Conclusion: For any old scalar function , we can add to A , provided we
JG
simultaneously subtract from V. None of these will affect the physical quantities E
t
JG JG
and B . Such changes in V and A are called gauge transformations.
1.3 Coulomb and Lorentz Gauge
G G
Coulomb Gauge reads A = 0.
JG G V
Lorentz Gauge condition is A = 0 0 .
t
G
2G 2 A JG JG G V G G
Since A 0 0 2 A + 0 0
t
= 0 J and V +
t
2

t
A = ,
0
( )

Using Lorentz Gauge condition
G
G 2 A G 2V
A 0 0 2 = 0 J and 2V 0 0 2 = .
2

t t 0
JG
The virtue of the Lorentz gauge is that it treats V and A on an equal footing: the same

2
differential operator 0 0 2 ,2 (called the d' Alembertian) occurs in both
2

t
equations:
JG JG
(ii) , A = o J
2
(i) ,2 V = ,
0
0 Q0
Example: For a vector potential A the divergence of A is A = where Q0 is a constant
4 r 2

of appropriate dimensions. Find the corresponding scalar potential V r , t that makes A ( )


and V Lorentz gauge invariant.
JG JG V Q V 1 Qo t
Solution: A = 0 0 0 20 = 0 0 V =
t 4 r t 4 0 r 2


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Chapter - 9
Simple AC Circuits with R, L and C Components
9.1 Kirchhoffs Law
9.1.1 Kirchhoffs Voltage Law (KVL)
Kirchhoffs voltage law states that the voltage applied to a closed circuit equals the sum
of the voltage drops in that circuit. In series circuits it can be expressed as follows:
Voltage applied = sum of voltage drops
VA = V1 + V2 + V3
where VA is the applied voltage and V1, V2 and V3 are voltage drops.
Another way of stating KVL is that the algebraic sum of the voltage rises and voltage
drops must be equal to zero. A voltage source or emf is considered a voltage rise; a
voltage across a resistor is a voltage drop.
Voltage applied sum of voltage drops = 0
Substitute letters: VA V1 V2 V3 = 0 or VA (V1 + V2 + V3) = 0
Using a symbol, , we have
V = VA V1 V2 V3 = 0
in which V, the algebraic sum of all the voltages around any closed circuit, equals zero.
We assign a + sign to a voltage rise and a sign to
a voltage drop for the V = 0 formula (as shown in figure below). In tracing voltage
drops around a circuit, start at the negative terminal of the voltage source. The path from
the negative terminal to the positive terminal of the source is voltage rise. In figure if we
start at point a, the negative terminal of the battery, and move around the circuit in the
direction abcda, we go through VA from to + and VA = +100V. If we start at point b and
move in the opposite direction badcb, we go through VA from + to and VA = 100 V.
The voltage drop across any resistance will be negative (-) if we trace it in the + to
direction. Thus in figure, if we trace the circuit in the direction abcda, V1 = 50V,
V2 = 30V and V3 = 20V. The voltage drop will be positive (+) if we go through the
resistance in the to + direction. So in tracing the circuit in the direction abcda, we have
V = VA V1 V2 V3 = 0

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V1 = 50V
b c
+ R1
I V = V A V1 V 2 V3
+ + = 100 50 30 20
V A = 100V R 2 V2 = 30V
= 100 100

=0
R
3 +
a d
V3 = 20V
Figure: Illustration of V = 0

9.1.2 Kirchhoffs Current Law (KCL)


Kirchhofs current law states that the sum of the currents entering a junction is equal to
the sum of the currents leaving the junction. Suppose we have six currents leaving and
entering a common junction or point, shown as P. This common point is also called a
node.
Substitute letters: I6
I1
I1 + I3 + I4 + I6 = I2 + I5
I5
If we consider that the currents flowing
toward a junction are positive (+) and those I2
P
currents flowing away from the same junction I4

are negative (-), then this law also states that


I3
the algebraic sum of all the currents meeting
at a common junction is zero. Using the Common point, junction, or node

symbol , we have Figure: Currents at a common point

I=0
where I, the algebraic sum of all the currents at the common point is zero.
I1 I2 + I3 + I4 I5 + I6 = 0
If the negative terms are transposed to the right side of the equal sign, we would have the
same form as the original equation.


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9.1.3 Mesh Current
A simplification of Kirchhoffs laws is a method that makes use of mesh or loop currents.
A mesh is any closed path of a circuit. It does not matter whether the path contains a
voltage source. In solving a circuit with mesh currents, we first must decide which paths
will be the meshes. Then we assign a mesh current to each mesh. For convenience, mesh
currents are usually assigned in a clockwise direction. Kirchhoffs voltage law is then
applied about the path of each mesh. The resulting equations determine the unknown
mesh currents. From these currents, the current or voltage of any resistor can be found.

c + R1 d + R3 e
V1 V3
I1 I2
+ +
+
VA V2 R2 VB

+
I1 I2
Mesh 1 Mesh 2
b a f
Figure: Two-mesh circuit

In figure shown above, we have a two-mesh circuit marked mesh 1 and mesh 2. Mesh 1
is path abcda and mesh 2 is path adefa. All voltage sources and resistances are known. A
procedure for finding mesh currents I1 and I2 is as follows:
Step 1: After the meshes are selected, show the direction of mesh currents I1 and I2 in a
clockwise direction. Mark the voltage polarity across each resistor, consistent
with the assumed current. Remember that conventional current flow in a resistor
produces positive polarity where the current enters.
Step 2: Apply Kirchhoffs voltage law, V = 0, around each mesh. Trace each mesh in the
direction of mesh current. Note that there are two different currents (I1, I2)
flowing in opposite directions through the same resistor, R2, which is common to
both meshes. For this reason two sets of polarities are shown by R2 (as shown in
figure). Trace mesh 1 in direction abcda.
+VA I1R1 I1R2 + I2R2 = 0

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+VA I1 (R1 + R2) + I2R2 = 0
or + I1 (R1 + R2) I2R2 = VA ..(1)
Note that in the first expression I2R2 is + since we go through a voltage drop from to +.
Trace mesh 2 in direction adefa.
I2R2 + I1R2 I2R3 VB = 0
+ I1R2 I2 (R2 + R3) = VB ..(2)
Note that I1R2 is a + voltage drop since we go through a voltage drop from to +.
Step 3: Find I1 and I2 by solving equations (1) and (2) simultaneously.
Step 4: When mesh currents are known, find all resistor voltage drops by using Ohms
law.
Step 5: Check the solution of mesh currents by tracing mesh abcdefa.
VA I1R1 I2R3 VB = 0
9.2 Alternating Current
9.2.1 Sine Wave
The instantaneous value of voltage at any point on the sine wave is expressed by the
equation v = VM sin
where v = instantaneous value of voltage, V , VM = maximum value of voltage, V
= angle
9.2.2 Alternating Current
When a sine wave of alternating voltage is connected across a load resistance, the current
that flows in the circuit is also a sine wave as shown in figure below.

AC
current
i, A 0 90o 180o 270o 360o o

Figure: One cycle of alternating current


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9.2.3 Frequency and Period
The number of cycles per second is called frequency. It is indicated by the symbol f and
is expressed in hertz (Hz). One cycle per second equals one hertz. Thus 60 cycles per
second (sometimes abbreviated cps) equals 60 Hz. A frequency of 2 Hz (figure b) is
twice the frequency of 1 Hz (figure a).

v or i 1 Hz v or i 2 Hz
+ +

0 0 1 3 1 Time, s
1 1 3 1 Time, s 1
2 4 4 2 4
4

(a ) f = 1 Hz (b ) f = 2 Hz

Figure: Comparison of frequencies


The amount of time for the completion of 1 cycle is the period. It is indicated by the
symbol T for time and is expressed in seconds (s). Frequency and period are reciprocals
of each other.
1 1
or T= f =
T f
The higher the frequency, the shorter the period.
The angle of 360 represents the time for 1 cycle, or the period T. So we can show the
horizontal axis of the sine wave in units of either electrical degrees or seconds.
1 cycle
v or i

0
90 D 180 D 270 D 360 D D
1 3
T 1T T T t, s
4 2 4

1 period

Figure: Relationship between electrical degrees and time



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The wavelength is the length of one complete wave or cycle. It depends upon the
frequency of the periodic variation and its velocity of transmission. Expressed as a
formula,
velocity
=
frequency
For electromagnetic radio waves, the velocity in air or a vacuum is 3 108 m/s, which is
c
the speed of light. =
f
where = wavelength, m , c = speed of light 3 108 m/s, a constant
f = radio frequency, Hz
9.2.4 Phase Relationships
The phase angle between two waveforms of the same frequency is the angular difference
at a given instant of time. As an example, the phase angle between waves B and A
(figure a) is 90. Take the instant of time at 90. The horizontal axis is shown in angular
units of time. Wave B starts at maximum value and reduces to zero value at 90, while
wave A starts at zero and increases to maximum value at 90. This 90 phase angle
between waves B and A is maintained throughout the complete cycle and all successive
cycles. At any instant of time, wave B has the value that wave A will have 90 later.
Wave B is a cosine wave because it is displaced 90 from wave A, which is a sine wave.
Both waveforms are called sinusoids.
Cosin wave B VB
Voltage Sine wave A
Counterclockwise
+ direction
90 o
0 o
VA
180o 270o 360
90o Time
Reference

phasor

(a) Waveforms (b) Phasor diagram

Figure: Wave B leads wave A by a phase angle of 90o



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9.2.5 Phasors
To compare phase angles or phases of alternating voltages and currents, it is more
convenient to use phasor diagrams corresponding to the voltage and current waveforms.
A phasor is a quantity that has magnitude and direction. The terms phasor and vector are
used for quantities that have direction. However, a phasor quantity varies with time,
while a vector quantity has direction in space. The length of the arrow in a phasor
diagram indicates the magnitude of the alternating voltage. The angle of the arrow with
respect to the horizontal axis indicates the phase angle. One waveform is chosen as the
reference. Then the second waveform can be compared with the reference by means of
the angle between the phasor arrows. For example, the phasor VA represents the voltage
wave A with a phase angle of 0 (figure b as shown above). The phasor VB is vertical to
show the phase angle of 90 with respect to phasor VA, which is the reference. Since lead
angles are shown in the counterclockwise direction from the reference phasor, VB leads
VA by 90. VB

Counterclockwise
direction Reference
phasor
90 o
VA VB
90 o
Reference
phasor
Clockwise
direction

VA

(a) VB leads VA by 90 (b) VA lags VB by 90

Figure: Leading and lagging phase angles


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Generally, the reference phasor is horizontal corresponding to 0. If VB were
shown as the reference, VA would have to be 90 clockwise in order to have the same
phase angle. In this case VA lags VB by 90. There is no fundamental difference between
VB leading VA by 90 (figure a as shown below) or VA lagging VB by 90 (figure b as
shown above).
When two waves are in phase (figure a as shown below), the phase angle is zero. Then
the amplitudes add (figure b as shown below).
VA

VB
VB VA
0 = 0o

VB VA

(a) Waveforms (b) Phasor diagram

Figure: Two waves in phase with angle of 0o

When two waves are exactly out of phase (figure a as shown below), the phase angle is
180. Their amplitudes are opposing (figure b as shown below). Equal values of opposite
phase cancel each other.
VA

VB VA
0 = 180o

VB VA
VB

(a) Waveforms (b) Phasor diagram

Figure: Two waves in opposite phase with angle of 180o



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9.2.6 Characteristic Value of Voltage and Current
Since an ac sine wave voltage or current has many instantaneous values throughout the
cycle, it is convenient to specify magnitudes for comparing one wave with another. The
peak, average or root-mean-square (rms) value can be specified. These values apply to
current or voltage.

rms = 0.707 peak


av = 0.637 peak

+ rms Peak
Amplitude, v or i

av value value
value
Peak - to -
0 o o o o peak value
90 180 270 360

Figure: Amplitude values for ac sine wave

The peak value is the maximum value VM or IM. It applies to either the positive or
negative peak. The peak-to-peak (p-p) value may be specified and is double the peak
value when the positive and negative peaks are symmetrical.
The average value is the arithmetic average of all values in a sine wave for 1 half-cycle.
The half-cycle is used for the average because over a full cycle the average value is zero.
Average value = 0.637 peak value
or Vav = 0.637 VM
Iav = 0.637 IM
The root-mean-square value or effective value is 0.707 times the peak value.
RMS value = 0.707 peak value
or Vrms = 0.707 VM
Irms = 0.707 IM


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The rms value of an alternating sine wave corresponds to the same amount of direct
current or voltage in heating power. An alternating voltage with an rms value of 115 V,
for example, is just as effective in heating the filament of a light bulb as 115 V from a
steady dc voltage source. For this reason, the rms value is also called the effective value.
Unless indicated otherwise, all sine wave ac measurements are given in
rms values. The letters V and I are used to denote rms voltage and current. For instance, V
= 220 V (an ac power line voltage) is understood to mean 220 V rms.
Use Table given below as a convenient way to convert from one characteristic value to
another.
Table: Conversion Table for AC Sine Wave Voltage and Current

Multiply the Value By To Get the Value


Peak 2 Peak-to-peak
Peak-to-peak 0.5 Peak
Peak 0.637 Average
Average 1.570 Peak
Peak 0.707 RMS (effective)
RMS (effective) 1.414 Peak
Average 1.110 RMS (effective)
RMS (effective) 0.901 Average

9.2.7 Resistance in AC Circuits


In an ac circuit with only resistance, the current variations are in phase with the applied
voltage (as shown in figure below). This in-phase relationship between V and I means
that such an ac circuit can be analyzed by the same methods used for dc circuits.
Therefore, Ohms laws for dc circuits are applicable also to ac circuits with resistance
only. The calculations in ac circuits are generally in rms values, unless otherwise
specified. For the series circuit, I = V/R = 110/10 = 11 A. The rms power dissipation is
P = I2R = 112(10) = 1210 W.


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v
I = 11 A

+ i

Amplitude
V = 110 V R L 10 0
I V
Time

(a) Schematic diagram (b) Waveforms of i and c (c) Phasor diagram, I in


phase with V
Figure: AC circuit with only resistance

9.3 Inductive Circuits


9.3.1 Introduction
The ability of a conductor to induce voltage in itself when the current changes is its
self-inductance or simply inductance. The symbol for inductance is L, and its unit is the
henry (H). One henry is the amount of inductance that permits one volt to be induced
when the current changes at the rate of one ampere per second. The formula for
inductance is i
= 1 A/s
vL t
L=
i t
V
where L = inductance, H vL = 1 V L = 1H
v L = induced voltage across the coil, V
i t = rate of change of current, A/s
Figure: The inductance of a coil is
1H when a change of 1 A/s
induces 1V across the coil

i
The self-induced voltage v L from) is vL = L .
t


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When the current in a conductor or coil changes, the varying flux can cut
across any other conductor or coil located nearby, thus inducing voltages in both. A
varying current in L1 , therefore, induces voltages across L1 and across L2 (as shown in
figure below). When the induced voltage v L 2 produces current in L2 , its varying magnetic
field induces voltage in L1 . Hence, the two coils L1 and
i
L2 have mutual inductance because current change in L2
L1 vL2
one coil can induce voltage in the other. The unit of
mutual inductance is the henry, and the symbol is LM .
Two coils have LM of 1H when a current change of 1 Magnetic flux

A/s in one coil induces 1 V in the other coil. Figure: Mutual inductance
Between L1a and L 2

The schematic symbol for two coils with mutual inductance is shown in figure below.

L1 L2

(a) Air core (b) Iron core

Figure: Schematic symbols for two coils with mutual inductance

9.3.2 Inductive Reactance


Inductive reactance X L is the opposition to ac current due to the inductance in the
circuit. The unit of inductive reactance is the ohm. The formula for inductive reactance is
X L = 2 fL
Since 2 = 2 (3.14 ) = 6.28, X L = 6.28 fL
where X L = inductive reactance, , f = frequency , Hz, L = inductance, H
If any two quantities are known the third can be found


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XL XL
L= and f =
6.28 f 6.28 L
In a circuit containing only inductance (as shown in figure below, Ohms law can be used
to find current and voltage by substituting X L for R.
VL IL
IL =
XL
V VL XL
V
XL = L V = VL
IL

VL = I L X L
Figure: Circuit with only X L
where I L = current through the inductance, A
V L = voltage across the inductance, V

X L = inductive reactance,
9.3.3 Inductors in Series or Parallel
If inductors are spaced sufficiently far apart so that they do not interact
electromagnetically with each other; their values can be combined just like resistors when
connected together. If a number of inductors are connected in series (as shown in figure
below), the total inductance LT is the sum of the individual inductances, or
Series: LT = L1 + L2 + L3 + " + Ln
L1 L2 Ln LT

Figure: Inductances in series without mutual coupling

If two series-connected coils are spaced close together so that their magnetic field lines
interlink, their mutual inductance will have an effect on the circuit. In that case the total
inductance is

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LT = L1 + L2 2 LM

where LM is the mutual inductance between the coils. The plus (+) sign is used if the
coils are arranged in series-aiding form, while the minus (-) sign is used if the coils are
connected in series-opposing form. Series aiding means that the common current
produces the same direction of magnetic field for the two coils. The series-opposing
connection results in opposite fields.
Three different arrangements for coils L1 and L2 are shown both pictorially and
schematically as shown in figure below. In figue a coils are spaced too far apart to
interact electromagnetically. There is no mutual inductance, so LM is zero. The total
inductance is LT = L1 + L2 . In figue b, the coils are spaced close together and have
windings in the same direction, as indicated by the dots. The coils are series-aiding, so
LT = L1 + L2 + 2 LM . In figure c, the coil windings are in the opposite direction, so the
coils are series-opposing, and LT = L1 + L2 2 LM .
Spaced far
apart
L1 L2 LM = 0
LT = L1 + L2
LM = 0

Schematic diagram
(a) No mutual inductance
Spaced
closely LM
L1 L2

LT = L1 + L2 + 2LM

Schematic diagram
(b) Series-aiding

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Spaced
closely LM
L1 L2 (reversed)

LT = L1 + L2 2LM

Schematic diagram
(c) Series-opposing

Figure: L1 and L2 in series with mutual coupling LM

The large dots above the coil (figure b and c) are used to indicate the polarity of the
windings without having to show the actual physical construction. Coils with dots at the
same end (figure b) have the same polarity or same direction of winding. When current
enters the dotted ends for L1 and L2 , their fields are aiding and LM has the same sense
as L .
If inductors are spaced sufficiently far apart so that their mutual inductance is negligible
(LM = 0 ), the rules for combining inductors in parallel are the same as for resistors. If a
number of inductors are connected in parallel (as shown in figure below), their total
inductance LT is
1 1 1 1 1
Parallel: = + + +"+
LT L1 L2 L3 Ln

L1 L2 L3 Ln LT

Figure: Inductances in parallel without mutual coupling


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The total inductance of two coils connected in parallel is
L1 L2
Parallel: LT =
L1 + L2
All inductances must be given as the same units. The shortcuts for calculating parallel R
can be used with parallel L. For example, if two 8-mH inductors are in parallel, the total
inductance is LT = L / n = 8 / 2 = 4 mH.
9.3.4 Inductive Circuits
9.3.4.1 Inductance Only
If an ac voltage v is applied across a circuit having only inductance (figure a), the
resulting ac current through the inductance, i L , will lag the voltage across the inductance,
v L , by 90 (figure b and c). Voltage v and v L are the same because the total applied
voltage is dropped only across the inductance. Both i L and v L are sine waves with the
same frequency. Lowercase letters such as i and v indicate instantaneous values; capital
letters such as I and V show dc or ac rms values.

V ,VL
vL

iL iL
Amplitude, v, i

v vL
L 90 180 270 360
0 Lead direction
Time (counterclockwise)
90
I L , reference
(a) Schematic diagram (c) Time diagram (c) Phasor diagram

Figure: Circuit with L only


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9.3.4.2 RL in Series
When a coil has series resistance (figure a shown below), the rms current I is limited by
both X L and R . I is the same in X L and R since they are in series. The voltage drop
across R is V R = IR, and the voltage drop across X L is VL = IX L . The current I through
X L must lag V L by 90 because this is the phase angle between current through an
inductance and its self-induced voltage (figure b). The current I through R and its IR
voltage drop are in phase so the phase angle is 0 .
VR

R VL
I

XL VL
VT

90
I
VR
(a) Circuit (c) Phasor diagram

Figure: R and X L in series

To combine two waveforms out of phase, we add their equivalent phasors. The method is
to add the tail of one phasor to the arrowhead of
the other, using the angle to show their relative V T = V R2 + V L2
VL
phase. The sum of the phasors is a resultant = arctan
VT VR
V L = IX
phasors from the start of one phasor to the end L

of the other phasor. Since V R and V L phasors


I , reference
form a right angle, the resultant phasor is the V R = IR

hypotenuse of a right triangle. From the Figure: Phasor-voltage triangle


geometry of a right triangle, the resultant is

VT = VR2 + VL2


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where the total voltage VT is the phasor sum of the two voltages V R and VL that are 90
out of phase. All the voltages must be in the same units-rms values, peak values, or
instantaneous values. For example, when VT is an rms value, V R and VL also are rms
values. Most of the ac calculations will be made in rms units.
VL V
The phase angle between VT and V R is tan = or = arctan L
VR VR

Since V R is in phase with I , is also the phase angle between VT and I where I lags VT .
Impedance in Series RL
The resultant of the phasor addition of R and X L is called impedance. The symbol for
impedance is Z. Impedance is the total opposition to
the flow of current, expressed in ohms. The
impedance triangle (as shown in figure) corresponds Z = R 2 + X L2
to the voltage triangle, but the common factor I XL = arctan
XL
Z R
cancels. The equations for impedance and phase
angle are derived as follows:
R
VT2 = V R2 + V L2 Figure: Phasor addition of R and
(IZ ) 2
= (IR ) + (IX L ) Z = R + X
2 2 2 2 2 X L to find Z
L

Z = R 2 + X L2

XL X
tan = or = arctan L
R R
9.3.4.3 RL in Parallel
For parallel circuits with R and X L (figure a shown below), the same applied voltage
VT is across R and X L since both are in parallel with VT . There is no phase difference
between these voltages. Therefore VT will be used as the reference phasor. The resistive
branch current I R = VT / R is in phase with VT . The inductive branch current I L = VT / X L
lags VT by 90 (figure b) because the current in an inductance lags the voltage across it
by 90 . The phasor sum of I R and I L equals the total line current I T (figure c), or

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I T = I R2 + I L2

IL
tan =
IR

IL
= arctan -
IR IR

IT VT IR IR
V T , reference
90

VT R XL
IT = I R2 + I L2
IT IL
IL
= arctan
IR

IL

(a) Circuit (b) Phasor diagram (c) Current-Phasor triangle

Figure: R and X L in parallel

Impedance in Parallel RL
For the general case of calculating the total impedance Z T of R and X L in parallel,
assume any number for the applied voltage VT because in the calculation of Z T in terms
of the branch currents the value of VT cancels. A convenient value to assume for VT is
the value of either R or X L , whichever is the higher number. This is only one method
among others for calculating Z T .
9.3.5 Q of a Coil
The quality or merit Q of a coil is indicated by the equation
X L 6.28 fL
Q= =
Ri Ri

where Ri is the internal resistance of the coil equal to the resistance of the wire in the coil
(figure a). Q is a numerical value without any units since the ohms cancel in the ratio of


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reactance to resistance. If the Q of a coil is 200, it
means that the X L of the coil is 200 times more than
XL
its Ri . The Q of a coil may range in the value from less XL
Q=
than 10 for a low-Q coil up to 1000 for a very high Q Ri
Ri
coil. Radio frequency (RF) coils have a Q of about 30
to 300.
As an example, a coil with an X L of 300 and a Ri Figure: Schematic diagrm of Q of a coil.
X L and Ri are distributed uniformly
of 3 has a Q of 300/3 =100.
over the length of the coil
9.3.6 Power in RL Circuit
Real power
In an ac circuit with inductive reactance, P = VI cos
V , reference

the line current I lags the applied voltage
V. The real power P is equal to the voltage Apparent power Reactive power
Q = VI sin
multiplied by one that portion of the line S = VI
current which is in phase with the voltage.
Therefore, Real power
Figure: Power triangle for RL circuit
P = V(I cos ) = VI cos
where is the phase angle between V and I, and cos is the power factor (PF) of the

circuit. Also, Real power P = I 2 R


where R is the total resistive component of the circuit.
Reactive power Q in voltamperes reactive (VAR), is expressed as follows:
Reactive power Q = VI sin
Apparent power S is the product of V x I. The unit is voltamperes (VA). In formula form,
Apparent power S = VI
In all the power formulas, the V and I are in rms values. The relationships of real, reactive
and apparent power can be illustrated by the phasor diagram of power (as shown in above
figure).


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9.4 Capacitive Circuits
9.4.1 Capacitance
Electrically, capacitance is the ability to store an electric charge. Capacitance is equal to
the amount of charge that can be stored in a capacitor divided by the voltage applied
Q
across the plates C=
V
where C = capacitance, F; Q = amount of charge, C; V = voltage, V
Q
Above equation can be rewritten as follows: Q = CV or V = .
C
The unit of capacitance is the farad (F). The farad is that capacitance that will store one
coulomb of charge in the dielectric when the voltae applied across the capacitor terminals
is one volt.
9.4.2 Capacitive Reactance
Capacitive reactance X C is the opposition to the flow of ac current due to the capacitance
in the circuit. The unit of capacitive reactance is the ohm. Capacitive reactance can be
found by using the equation
1 1 0.159
XC = = =
2fC 6.28 fC fC

where X C = capacitive reactance, ; f = frequency, Hz; C = capacitance, F


If any two quantities are known, the third can be found
0.159 0.159
C= and f =
fX C CX C
Voltage and current in a circuit containing only capacitive reactance can be found using
Ohms law. However, in the case of a capacitive circuit, R is replaced by X C .

VC VC
VC = I C X C or IC = or XC =
XC IC

where I C = current through the capacitor A; VC = voltage across the capacitor, V

X C = capacitive reactance,


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9.4.3 Capacitors in Series or Parallel
When capacitors are connected in series (as shown in figure below) the total capacitance
CT is
1 1 1 1 1
Series: = + + +"+
CT C1 C 2 C 3 Cn
The total capacitance of two capacitors in series is
C1C 2
Series: CT =
C1 + C 2
When n number of series capacitors have the same capacitance, CT = C / n .
C1 C2 C3 Cn CT

Figure: Capacitances in series

When capacitors are connected in parallel (as shown in figure below), the total
capacitance CT is the sum of the individual capacitances.
Parallel: CT = C1 + C 2 + C 3 + " + C n

"

C1 C2 C3 Cn CT

"

Figure: Capacitances in parallel


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9.4.4 Capacitive Circuits
9.4.4.1 Capacitance Only
If an ac voltage v is applied across a circuit having only capacitance (figure a), the
resulting ac current through the capacitance ic , will lead the voltage across the

capacitance, vC , by 90 (figure b and c), (Quantities expressed as lowercase letters, ic

and vC , indicate instantaneous values.) Voltages v and vC are the same because they are

parallel. Both ic and vC are sine waves with the same frequency. In series circuits, the

current I C is the horizontal phasor for reference (figure d) so the voltage VC can be

considered to lag I C by 90 .

I c IC
vc 90 0
ic
Amplitude, v, i

v C 180 360 Lead


vc
90 270 Time direction
0
90 V ,V C
ic V ,V C

(a) Schematic (b) Time diagram, (c) Phasor diagram, (d) Phasor diagram,
diagram i c leads v c by 90 0 V reference I C reference

Figure: Circuit with C only


9.4.4.2 RC in Series
As with inductive circuits, the combination of resistance and capacitive reactance
(figure a shown below) is called impedance. In a series circuit containing R and X C , the

same current I flows in X C and R. The voltage drop across R is V R = IR, and the voltage

drop across X C is VC = IX C . The voltage across X C lags the current through X C by

90 (figure b shown below). The voltage across R is in phase with I since resistance does
not produce a phase shift.


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VR
VR
I , reference
I 90
R

VT XC VC

VC

(a) Circuit (b) Phasor diagram

Figure: R and X C in series

To find the total voltage VT , we add phasors V R and VC . Since they form a right triangle

(as shoen in figure below), VT = V R2 + VC2 VR = IR

Note that the IX C phasor is downward, exactly

opposite from an IX L phasor, because of the VT = V R + VC


2 2 VC = IX C

opposite phase angle.


The phase angle between VT and V R is
Figure: Voltage-triangle phasor
expressed according to the following equation:
VC VC
tan = or = arctan
VR VR
Impedance in Series RC
The voltage triangle corresponds to the impedance triangle because the common factor I
in VC and VR cancels.
R
IX C X
VC = IX C , V R = IR , tan = = C XC
IR R
Z Z = R 2 + X C2
Impedance Z is equal to the phasor sum of R and X C
Figure: Series RC impedance triangle
Z = R 2 + X C2

The phase angle is


XC
= arctan
R

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9.4.4.3 RC in Parallel
In the RC parallel circuit (figure a shown below), the voltage is the same across the
source, R, and X C since they are all in parallel. Each branch has its individual current.

The resistive branch current I R = VT / R is in phase with VT . The capacitive branch


current I C = VT X C leads VT by 90 (figure b shown below). The phasor diagram has

the source voltage VT as the reference phasor because it is the same throughout the
circuit. The total line current I T equals the phasor sum of I R and I C (figure c shown
below).

IT IR IC IC
IT
VT R XC I T = I R2 + I C2
IC

90
IR VT IR

(a) Circuit (b) Phasor diagram (c) Current- triangle phasor

Figure: X C and R in parallel

IC IC
I T = I R2 + I C2 , tan = or = arctan
IR IR
Impedance in Parallel RC
The impedance of a parallel circuit equals the total voltage VT divided by the total
current I T .

VT
ZT =
IT


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9.4.5 Power in RC Circuits
The power formulas given previously for RL circuits are equally applicable to RC
circuits.
Real power P = VI cos

V2
P = I 2R =
R
Reactive power Q = VI sin
Apparent power S = VI
Note: Capacitance, like inductance, consumes no power. The only part of the circuit
consuming power is the resistance.
Summary Table for Series and Parallel RC Circuits
X C and R in Series X C and R in Parallel

I the same in X C and R VT the same across X C and R

VT = VR2 + VC2 I T = I R2 + I C2

VT VT
Z = R 2 + X C2 = ZT =
I IT
VC lags VR by 90 I C lags I R by 90
XC IC
= arctan = arctan
R IR


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9.5 Single Phase Circuits
9.5.1 RLC in Series
Current in a series circuit containing resistance, inductive reactance, and capacitive
reactance (figure a shown below) is determined by the total impedance of the
combination. The current I is the same in R, XL, and XC since they are in series. The
voltage drop across each element is found by Ohms law:
VR = IR VL = IXL VC = IXC
Where VR = voltage drop across the resistance, V
VL = voltage drop across the inductance, V
VC = voltage drop across the capacitance, V
I
VL VL = IX L
R VR

VL VC
VT
VL VC + 90 o
VR = IR
VT XL VL
I I
90 o VR VR

VT = VR2 + (VL VC )
2
VC VC = IX C
XC V V
VC = arctan L C
VR

(a) Series RLC circuit diagram (b) Phasor diagram; VL > VC (c) Voltage-phasor triangle, VL > VC

Figure: R, XL, and XC in series; XL > XC for inductive circuit

The voltage drop across the resistance is in phase with current through the resistance
(figure b shown above). The voltage across the inductance leads the current through the
capacitance by 90. The voltage across the capacitance lags the current through the
capacitance by 90 . Since VL and VC are exactly 180 out of phase and acting in exactly


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opposite directions, they are added algebraically. When XL is greater than XC the circuit is
inductive, VL is greater than VC and I lags VT (figure c shown below).
When XC is greater than XL, the circuit is capacitive. Now VC is greater than VL so that I
leads VT (figure shown below)
VL

+ 90 o
VR
I I
90 o VR
VC VL
VT
VC VL

VT = VR2 + (VC VL )
2

VC VC VL
= arctan
VR

(a) Phasor diagram; VC > VL (b) Voltage-phasor triangle, VC > VL

Figure: R, XL, and XC in series; XC > XL for capacitive circuit

When XL > XC, the voltage-phasor diagram shows that the total voltage VT and phase
angle are as follows:
VL VC
VT = VR2 + (V L VC ) = arctan
2
and
VR
When XC > XL
V VL
VT = VR2 + (VC VL ) and = arctan C
2

VR


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9.5.1.1 Impedance in Series RLC
Impedance Z is equal to the phasor sum of R, XL, and XC. In figure a shown below:

XL > XC, Z = R 2 + ( X L X C )
2
When

In figure b shown below:

XC > XL, Z = R 2 + ( X C X L )
2
When

It is convenient to define net reactance X as


X = XL XC

Then Z = R2 + X 2
for both inductive and capacitive RLC series circuits.
R

Z
XC X L = X
XL XC = X Z

R

R 2 + (X L X C ) = R 2 + (X C X L ) =
2
Z =
2
R2 + X 2 Z= R2 + X 2
X X
= arctan = arctan
R R
(a) X L > X C (b) X C > X L

Figure: Series RLC impedance-phasor triangle


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9.5.2 RLC in Parallel
A three- branch parallel ac circuit (figure a shown below) has resistance in one branch,
inductance in the second branch, and capacitance in the third branch. The voltage is the
same across each parallel branch, so VT = VR = VL = VC. The applied voltage VT is used as
the reference line to measure phase angle . The total current IT is the phasor sum of IR,
IL, and IC. The current in the resistance IR is in phase with the applied voltage VT (figure b
shown below). The current in the inductance IL lags the voltage VT by 90. The current in
the capacitor IC leads the voltage VT by 90. IL and IC are exactly 180 out of phase and
thus acting in opposite directions. When IL >IC, IT lags VT (figure c shown below) so the
parallel RLC circuit is considered inductive. I
C

+ 90 o
IT IR IL IC IR VT IR VT , reference

I L IC 90 o
IT I L IC
VT VR VL VC

I T = I R2 + (I L I C )
2

IL
I L IC
= arctan
IT
(a) Parallel RLC circuit diagram (b) Phasor diagram, IL > IC (c) Current-phasor triangle, IL > IC

Figure: R, XL, and XC in parallel; IL > IC for inductive circuit


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If IC > IL, the current relationship and phasor triangle (figure shown below) show that IT
now leads VT so this type of parallel RLC circuit is considered capacitive.
IC

IT IC I L
IC I L + 90 o

90 o IR VT IR VT ' reference

IL

(a) Phasor diagram; IC > IL (b) Current-phasor triangle, IC > IL

Figure: R, XL, and XC in parallel; IC > IL for capacitive circuit

When IL > IC the circuit is inductive and


I L IC
I T = I R2 + (I L I C ) and = arctan
2

IR

and when IC > IL, the circuit is capacitive and


IC I L
IT = I R2 + ( I C I L )
2
and = arctan
IR
Note: In a parallel RLC circuit, when XL > XC, the capacitive current will be greater than
the inductive current and the circuit is capacitive. When XC > XL, the inductive current is
greater than the capacitive current and the circuit is inductive. These relationships are
opposite to those for a series RLC circuit.
9.5.2.1 Impedance in Parallel RLC
The total impedance ZT of a parallel RLC circuit equals the total voltage VT divided by the
total current IT.
VT
ZT =
IT


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9.5.3 RL and RC in Parallel
Total current IT for a circuit containing parallel branches of RL and RC (figure shown
below) is the phasor sum of the branch currents I1 and I2. A convenient way to find IT is
to
(1) Add algebraically horizontal components of I1 and I2 with respect to the phasor
reference VT,
(2) Add algebraically the vertical components of I1 and I2, and
(3) Form a right triangle with these two sums as legs and calculate the value of the
hypotenuse (IT) and its angle to the horizontal.

IT I1 I2
R1 R2

VT
L1 C2

Branch 1 Branch 2
Figure: Parallel RL and RC branches

9.5.4 Power and Power Factor


The instantaneous power p is the product of the current i and the voltage v at that instant
of time t.
p = vi
When v and i are either positive or both negative, their product p is positive. Therefore,
power is being expended throughout the cycle (figure a shown below). If v is negative
while i is positive during any part of the cycle (figure b shown below), or if i is negative
while v is positive, their product will be negative. This negative power is not available
for work; it is power returned to the line.


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Power

p2 Power

Voltage Voltage Negative Power


p1
Current
v1 Current
i1

t1 t2
Time
i2 Time

v2

Figure (a): Power-time diagram when Figure (b): Power-time diagram in series RL
voltage and current are in circuit where current lags voltage
phase by phase angle

The product of the voltage across the resistance and the current through the resistance is
always positive and is called real power. Real power can be considered as resistive power
that is dissipated as heat. Since the voltage across a reactance is always 90 out phase
with the current through the reactance, the product px = vxix is always negative. This
product is called reactive power and is due to the reactance of a circuit. Similarly, the
product of the line voltage and the line current is known as apparent power.
Real power, reactive power, and apparent power can be represented by a right triangle
(figure a shown below). From this triangle the power formulas are:
Real power P = VR I R = VI cos , W

V2
or P = I 2R P= ,W
R
Reactive power Q = V X I X = VI sin , VAR
Apparent power S = VI , VA


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With line voltage V as reference phasor, in an inductive circuit, S lags P (figure b shown
below); while in a capacitive circuit, S leads P (figure c shown below).

P
V , reference

Q lagging
Reactive power S
Q = VXIX = VI sin
(Power returned to line)
(b) Lagging PF (e.g., induction motor)

P = VR I R = VI cos
Real power
True power S
Active power Q leading
(Power available for work)
V , reference
P
(a) General formulas (c) Leading PF (e.g. synchronous
motor, bank of capacitors)

Figure: Power triangle

The ratio of real power to apparent power, called the power factor (PF), is
Real power
Real power V I VI cos
PF = = R R = = cos
apparent power VI VI
P
Also PF = cos =
VI
The cos of a circuit is the power factor, PF, of the circuit. The power factor determines
what portion of apparent power is real power and can vary from 1 when the phase angle
is 0, to 0 when is 90. When = 0 o , P = VI, the formula for voltage and current of
circuit in phase. When = 90 o , P = VI 0 = 0, indicating that no power is being
expended or consumed.


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A circuit in which the current lags the voltage (i.e. an inductive circuit) is said to have a
lagging PF; a circuit in which the current leads the voltage (i.e., a capacitive circuit) is
said to have a leading PF.
Power factor is expressed as a decimal or as a percentage. A power factor of 0.7 is the
same as a power factor of 70 percent. At unity (PF = 1, or 100 percent), the current and
voltage are in phase. A 70 percent PF means that the device uses only 70 percent of the
voltampere input. It is desirable to design circuits that have a high PF since such circuits
make the most efficient use of the current delivered to the load.
When we state that a motor draws 10 kVA (1 kVA = 1000 VA) from a power line, we
recognize that this is the apparent power taken by the motor. Kilovoltamperes always
refers to the apparent power. Similarly, when we say a motor draws 10 kW, we mean that
the real power taken by the motor is 10 kW.
Power Factor Correction
In order to make the most efficient use of the current delivered to a load, we desire a high
PF or a PF that approaches unity. A low PF is generally due to the large inductive loads,
such as induction motors, which take a lagging current. In order to correct this low PF, it
is necessary to bring the current as closely in phase with the voltage as possible. That is,
the phase angle is made as small as possible. This is usually done by placing a
capacitive load, which produces a leading current, in parallel with the inductive load.
9.6 Series and Parallel Resonance
We have observed that in many circuits inductors and capacitors are connected in series
or in parallel. Such circuits are often referred to as RLC circuits. One of the most
important characteristics of a RLC circuit is that it can be made to respond most
effectively to a single given frequency. When operated in this condition, the circuit is said
to be in resonance with or resonant to the operating frequency.
A series or a parallel RLC circuit that is operated at resonance has certain properties that
allow it to respond selectively to certain frequencies while rejecting others. A circuit
operated to provide frequency selectivity is called a tuned circuit. Tuned circuits are used
in impedance matching, bandpass filters, and oscillators.

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9.6.1 Series Resonance

The RLC series circuit (figure a shown below) has an impedance Z = R 2 + ( X L X C ) .


2

The circuit is at resonance when the inductive reactance XL is equal to the capacitive
reactance XC (figure b shown below).

X L = 2fL

R L
XL
I X L = X C at f r

VT
fr Frequency f

XC

C
1
XC =
2fC

(a) Schematic diagram (b) XL = XC but are 180 out of phase at fr

Figure: Series resonance for RLC circuit at resonant frequency fr

At resonance XL = XC
1
Where X L = 2 f L and X C =
2 f C
1 1
Then at resonance, 2 f L = f2=
2 f C (2 )2 LC
1 0.159
f = fr = = . (1)
2 LC LC
where fr = resonance frequency, Hz; L = inductance, H; C = capacitance, F
For any LC product [equation (1)] there is only one resonant frequency. Thus, various
combinations of L and C may be used to achieve resonance if the LC product remains the


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same. Equation (1) may be solved for L or C to find the inductance or capacitance needed
to from a series resonant circuit at a given frequency.
1 0.0254 1 0.0254
L= = and C = =
4 f r C
2 2
fr2
4 f r L
2 2
f r2 L
Since XL = XC, XL XC = 0 so that

Z = R 2 + (X L X C ) = R 2 = R
2

Since the impedance at resonance Z equals the resistance R, the impedance is a minimum.
With minimum impedance, the circuit has maximum current determined by I = V/R. The
resonant circuit has a phase angle equal to 00 so that the power factor is unity.
XL = XC Maximum
XC > XL XL > XC current at f r

High Q
Impedance Z

Current I

Inducive Medium Q
Capacitive region
region Low Q

Resonant point
Z=R
f = fr f = fr Frequency f
High
Frequency f R
Medium R
Low R
(a) Impedance response curve (b) Current response curve

Figure: Characteristics of series RLC circuit at resonance

At frequencies below the resonant frequency (figure a shown above). XC is


greater than XL so the circuit consists of resistance and capacitive reactance. However, at
frequencies above the resonant frequency, XL is greater than XC so that circuit consists of
resistance and inductive reactance. At resonance, maximum current is produced for
different values of resistance (figure b shown above). With a low resistance, maximum


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current increases sharply toward and decreases sharply from its maximum current as the
circuit is tuned to and away from the resonant frequency. This condition where the curve
is narrow at the resonant frequency provides good selectivity. With an increase of
resistance, the curve broadens so that selectivity is less.
9.6.1.1 Q of Series Circuit
The degree to which a series-tuned circuit is selective is proportional to the ratio of its
XL
inductive reactance to its resistance. This ratio is known as the Q of the circuit and is
R
XL
expressed as follows: Q =
R
where Q = quality factor or figure of merit
XL = inductive reactance,
R = resistance,
The lower the resistance, the higher the value of Q, the higher the Q the sharper and more
selective is the resonant curve. Q has the same value if calculated with XC instead of XL
since they are equal at resonance. Q = 150 is a high Q. Typical values are 50 to 250. Less
than 10 is a low Q; more than 300 is a very high Q.
The Q of the circuit of the circuit is generally considered in terms of XL since the coil has
the series resistance of the circuit. In this case, the Q of the coil and the Q of the series
resonant circuit are the same. If extra resistance is added, the Q of the circuit will be less
than the Q of the coil. The highest possible Q for the circuit is the Q of the coil.
The Q of the resonant circuit can be considered a magnification factor that determines
how much the voltage across L or C is increased by the resonant rise of current in a series
circuit.
V L = VC = QVT


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9.6.2 Parallel Resonance
9.6.2.1 Pure Parallel LC circuit
In the pure LC parallel-tuned circuit (that is, one in which there is no resistance), the coil
and capacitor are placed in parallel and the applied voltage VT appears across these circuit
components (figure shown below). In this parallel-tuned circuit, as in the series-tuned
circuit, resonance occurs when the inductive reactance is equal to the capacitive
reactance.
XL = XC
Because the applied voltage is common to both branches,
VL = VC
VL V
So that = C , I L = IC
XL XC
The current in the inductive branch IL equals the current in the capacitive branch IC.
IL lags the applied voltage VT by 90, while IC leads the voltage by 90 (figure b shown
below). Since the phasor currents IL and IC are equal and out of phase by 180, their
vector sum is zero so that the total current IT is zero. Under this condition the impedance
of the circuit at the resonant frequency must be infinite in value.

IC
IT
I L = IC
IL IC IT = 0

VT = VL = VC XL XC VT , reference

IL

(a) Schematic diagram (b) Current-phasor diagram at resonance

Figure: Pure LC parallel circuit


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The formula for the resonant frequency of a pure LC parallel-tuned circuit is the same as
that for a series circuit.
1 0.159
fr = =
2 LC LC
If the resonant frequency is known, then the inductance or capacitance for a parallel
resonant LC circuit can be found by formulas.
0.0254 0.0254
L= and C=
f r2 C f r2 L
9.6.2.2 Practical Parallel LC Circuit
In a practical LC parallel-tuned circuit (figure a shown below), there is some resistance,
most of which is due to the resistance of the inductor wire. The resonant frequency of a
parallel circuit also is defined as that frequency at which the parallel circuit acts as a pure
resistance. Therefore, the line current IT must be in phase with the applied voltage VT
(unity power factor) (figure b shown below). This means that the out-of-phase or
quadrature component of the current through the inductive branch IL must be equal to the
current through the capacitive branch IC; and the total line current IT equals the in-phase
component of the current through the inductive branch, or IT = Ir (figure b shown below).
Since the impedance is maximum, IT is minimum.
IC
IT
IC IC = I L
I RL
R
IT = I R
VT XC VT
XL

IL I RL

(a) Schematic diagram (b) Current-phasor diagram at resonance

Figure: Practical parallel LC circuit



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The resonant frequency for the circuit (figure a shown above) is

1 1 R2
fr = 2 (2)
2 LC L
where f r = resonant frequency, Hz; L = inductance, H; C = capacitance, F;
R = resistance, .
If the Q of the coil is high, say greater than 10, or the term 1/LC >> R2/L2, then, for
practical purposes, the term R2/L2 can be disregarded. The result is that equation (2)
becomes equation (1), the resonant frequency formula for series resonance.
1
fr =
2 LC
the total impedance at resonance of the practical LC parallel circuit is
1
ZT =
RC
In terms of quality factor Q, ZT at resonance can also be found by
Q
Z T = X L Q = 2 f r LQ or ZT =
2 f r C
The impedance ZT of a practical parallel circuit is maximum at the resonant frequency
and decreases at frequencies below and above the resonant frequency (figure a shown
below). An increase in resistance decreases the impedance and causes the impedance to
vary less sharply as the circuit is tuned over a band of frequencies below and above the
resonant frequency (figure b shown below). At frequencies below resonance, XC > XL and
IL > IC so that the parallel-tuned circuit is inductive (figure a and c shown below). At
frequencies above resonance, the reverse condition is true, XL > XC and IC > IL, so that
now the circuit is capacitive (figure a and c shown below c). Since the impedance ZT is
maximum at parallel resonance, IT is minimum (figure c shown below).


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XL = XC IL = IC
Maximum
XC >XL XL > XC current at f r IL > IC IC > IL

High Q
Impedance ZT

Inductive Capacitive

Impedance ZT
region region

Current IT
Medium Q Capacitive
region
Low Q
Inductive Minimum
region line current
at f r

f = fr f = fr Frequency f f = fr
Frequency f High Frequency f
R

MediumR
Low R

(a ) (b) (c )
Figure: Impedance and current response curves of practical parallel LC circuit at resonance

9.6.2.3 Q of Parallel Circuit


For a parallel resonant circuit in which R is very low compared with X L ,
XL
Q=
R
where R is the resistance of the coil in series with X L . If the resistance of the source
supply is very high and there is no other resistance branch shunting the tuned circuit, the
Q of the parallel resonant circuit is the same as the Q of the coil.
9.6.3 Bandwidth and Power of Resonant Circuit
The width of the resonant band of frequencies centered around fr is called the bandwidth
of the tuned circuit. In figure a shown below, the group of frequencies with a response of
70.7 percent of maximum or more is considered the bandwidth of the tuned circuit. For a
series resonant circuit, the bandwidth is measured between the two frequencies f1 and f2
producing 70.7 percent of the maximum current at fr (figure b shown below). For a


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parallel resonant circuit, the bandwidth is measured between the two frequencies,
allowing 70.7 percent of the maximum total impedance at fr (figure c shown below).

70.7% of 70.7% of
Bandwidth max. current max. current
f = f 2 f 1
100 100 100
70.7% f f
80 80 80

Impedance ZT
response
Amplitude, %

Current IT
60 60 60

40 40 40

20 20 20

f1 fr f2 f1 f r f 2 f1 f r f 2
Frequency f Frequency f Frequency f
(a) General resonance (b) Series resonance (c) Parallel resonance

Figure: Bandwidth of a tuned LC circuit

At each frequency f1 and f2 the net capacitive or net inductive reactance equals the
resistance. Then ZT of the series RLC resonant circuit is 2 or 1.4 times greater than R.
The current then is I / 2 = 0.707 I . Since power is I2R or V2/R and (0.707)2 = 0.50, the
bandwidth at 70.7 percent response in current or voltage is also the bandwidth of half-
power points.
Bandwidth (BW) in terms of Q is
fr
BW = f 2 f1 = f =
Q
High Q means narrow bandwidth, whereas low Q yields greater bandwidth.
Either f1 or f2 is separated from fr by one-half of the total bandwidth, so these edge
frequencies can be calculated.
f f
f1 = f r and f2 = fr +
2 2


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Highest Q

Amplitude

Lowest Q

f
Frequencyf
Figure: Resonant response curves: higher Q provides sharper resonance, lower Q
provides broader response

Table: Comparison of Series and Parallel Resonance


Series Resonance Parallel Resonance(Q>10)
1 1
fr = fr =
2 LC 2 LC
I maximum at f r with = 0 0 I T maximum at f r with = 0 0
Impedance Z minimum at f r Impedance Z T maximum at f r
XL XL
Q= Q=
R R
Q rise in voltage= QVT Q rise in impedance= QX L
fr fr
Bandwidth f = Bandwidth f =
Q Q
Capacitive below fr , but Inductive below fr , but
inductive above f r capacitive above f r


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MCQ (Multiple Choice Questions)
Q1. A voltage of 15V ac is applied to a 150 H coil connected in series with a 169 pF
capacitor. The total series resistance is 7.5 which includes the coil winding resistance,
the resistance of the connecting leads, and the leakage resistance of the capacitor. The
circuit is resonant at 1000 kHz. Then the behavior of circuit at frequency of 1200 kHz is
(a) Resistive (b) Capacitive
(c) Inductive (d) both Inductive and Capacitive
Q2. A voltage of 15V ac is applied to a 150 H coil connected in series with a 169 pF
capacitor. The total series resistance is 7.5 which includes the coil winding resistance,
the resistance of the connecting leads, and the leakage resistance of the capacitor. The
circuit is resonant at 1000 kHz. Then the behavior of circuit at frequency of 1000 kHz is
(a) Resistive (b) Capacitive
(c) Inductive (d) both Inductive and Capacitive
Q3. In a simple radio receiver tuning circuit (series RLC circuit), resistance is 7.5 ,
inductance is 400 H and the circuit is resonant at 500 kHz . Then the value of series
capacitor is:
(a) 252 pF (b) 254 pF
(c) 256 pF (d) 258 pF
Q4. A voltage of 15V ac is applied to a 150 H coil connected in series with a 169 pF
capacitor. The total series resistance is 7.5 . The circuit is resonant at1000 kHz . The
magnitude of current at 1000 kHz is
(a) 2 A (b) 4 A (c) 6 A (d) 8 A
Q5. An LCR series circuit with C = 0.1 F and having a resonance frequency of
1.6 kHz would have a quality factor (Q) of 10, if the series resistance is chosen to be
(a) 10 (b) 50 (c) 100 (d) 160


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Q6. A parallel resonant circuit appears as infinite impedance at the resonant frequency. A
400 H coil and a 25 pF capacitor are placed in parallel to form a wave trap in an
antenna. The resistance of the circuit is negligible. Then the resonant frequency is
(a) 1550 kHz (b) 1570 kHz
(c) 1590 kHz (d) 1610 kHz
Q7. For the circuit shown in figure the resonant frequency is:

(a) 300 kHz


R 6.7
(b) 350 kHz
VT =100V C 500 pF
(c) 450 kHz
L 203 H
(d) 500 kHz

Q8. Find the resonance frequency (in rad/sec) of the circuit shown in the figure below
(a) 1.0
2
(b) 1.6 V 0.25 F
(c) 2.0 3
2H
(d) 2.6

Q9. An LC circuit resonant at1000 kHz has a Q of 100. Then the edge frequencies are
respectively
(a) 995 kHz , 1005 kHz (b) 990 kHz, 1010 kHz
(c) 995 kHz, 1010 kHz (d) 990 kHz, 1005 kHz


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NAT (Numerical Answer Type)
Q10. A 150 resistor, a 10 F capacitor and a 0.1 H inductor are connected in series to an a.c.
source operating at an angular frequency . Then the value of (in rad / s ) for which
the combination acts as a pure resistive load is
Q11. In a simple radio receiver tuning circuit (series RLC circuit), resistance is 7.5 ,
inductance is 200 H and the capacitor is set at 200 pF . Then the resonant frequency is:
.. kHz
Q12. The capacitance of a parallel resonant circuit used as a wave trap in an antenna circuit
is 400 pF . Then the value of parallel inductance in order to reject a 800 kHz wave
is H
Q13. For the circuit shown in figure the impedance of the circuit is. k

R 6.7

VT =100V C 500 pF
L 203 H

Q14. A coil with a Q of 71.6 is connected in parallel with a capacitor to produce resonance
at 356 kHz . The impedance at resonance is found to be 64 k . Then the value of the
capacitor is. pF


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MSQ (Multiple Select Questions)
Q15. A 150 resistor, a 10 F capacitor and a 0.1 H inductor are connected in series to an a.c.
source operating at an angular frequency . The a.c. source is operated at a peak voltage
of 300 2 V and a frequency equal to half the resonance frequency of the circuit. Then
which of the following statements are true.
(a) The circuit is operating at = 5 102 rad / s
(b) The peak value of current in the circuit is 2 A

(c) The phase difference between the current and voltage is 450
(d) The peak value of voltage across the inductor is 100V
Q16. A 150 resistor, a 10 F capacitor and a 0.1 H inductor are connected in series to an a.c.
source operating at 150 2 sin 500t volts. Then which of the following statements are
true.
(a) The circuit is resonant at = 103 rad / s

(b) The circuit is resonant at = 5 102 rad / s


(c) The peak value of current at operating frequency in the circuit is 2 A
(d) The peak value of current at operating frequency in the circuit is 1 A
Q17. A 150 resistor, a 10 F capacitor and a 0.1 H inductor are connected in series to an a.c.
source operating at 150 2 sin 500t volts. Then which of the following statements are
true.
(a) The phase difference between the current and voltage is 600
(b) The phase difference between the current and voltage is 450
(c) The peak value of voltage across the inductor is 100V
(d) The peak value of voltage across the inductor is 50V


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Solutions
MCQ (Multiple Choice Questions)
Ans. 1: (c)
Ans. 2: (a)
Ans. 3: (b)
1 0.0254
Solution: f r = C = = 254 pF
2 LC f r2 L
Ans. 4: (b)
Solution: At resonance Z = R = 7.5
VT 15
Current I = = =2A
R 7.5
Ans. 5: (c)
1 1
Solution: Q = R= = 100
2 fRC 2 fQC
Ans. 6: (c)
1 0.159
Solution: f r = = = 1590 kHz
2 LC LC
Ans. 7: (d)
2
1 1 R2 1 1 6.7
Solution: f r = 2 = 6
= 500 kHz
2 LC L 2 ( 203 10 )( 500 10 ) 203 10
6 12

Ans. 8: (a)

1 R2 1 4
Solution: r = 2 = = 1.0
LC L 2 0.25 4
Ans. 9: (a)
f r 1000 103
Solution: f = = = 10 kHz
Q 100
f f
f1 = f r = 995 kHz and f 2 = f r + = 1005 kHz
2 2


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NAT (Numerical Answer Type)
Ans. 10: 1000
1 1
Solution: At resonance = = = 10 3 rad / s
6
LC 0.1 10 10
Ans. 11: 795
1 0.159
fr = = = 795 kHz
2 LC LC

Ans. 12: 99.2


1 0.0254
Solution: f r = L= = 99.2 H
2 LC f r2C
Ans. 13: 60.6
L 203 106
Solution: ZT = = = 60.6 k
(
RC 6.7 500 1012 )
Ans. 14: 500
Q Q 71.6
Solution: ZT = C = = = 500 pF
2 f r C 2 f r ZT 6.28 ( 356 103 )( 64 103 )

MSQ (Multiple Select Questions)


Ans. 15: (a), (b), (c), (d)
1 1
Solution: (a) At resonance = = = 103 rad / s = = 5 102 rad / s .
LC 0.110 10 6 2

(b) Given that peak voltage = 300 2 V and frequency = 5 102 rad / s .
1 1
R = 150 , X C = = = 200 , X L = L = 5 102 0.1 = 50
C 5 10 105
2

Z = R 2 + ( X C X L ) = 150 2 + (200 50) = 2 150 2 = 150 2 .


2 2

300 2
Peak current I M = =2A
150 2


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X XL 200 50
(c) = arctan C = arctan = 45 .
0

R 150

(d) Peak voltage across the inductor = I M X L = 2 50 = 100 V


Ans. 16: (a), (d)
1 1
Solution: At resonance = = = 103 rad / s
6
LC 0.110 10

Given that peak voltage = 150 2 V and operation frequency = 5 102 rad / s
1 1
R = 150 , X C = = = 200 , X L = L = 5 102 0.1 = 50
C 5 10 10
2 5

Z = R 2 + ( X C X L ) = 150 2 + (200 50) = 2 150 2 = 150 2 .


2 2

150 2
Peak current I M = =1 A
150 2
Ans. 17: (b), (d)
Solution: Given that peak voltage = 150 2 V and frequency = 5 102 rad / s
1 1
R = 150 , X C = = = 200 , X L = L = 5 102 0.1 = 50
C 5 10 10
2 5

Z = R 2 + ( X C X L ) = 150 2 + (200 50) = 2 150 2 = 150 2


2 2

150 2
Peak current I M = =1 A
150 2

Peak voltage across the inductor = I M X L = 1 50 = 50 V

XC XL 200 50
= arctan = arctan = 45 .
0

R 150


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Chapter - 10
Simple DC circuits with R, L and C components
10. Circuit Analysis by Classical Method
10.1 Introduction
Whenever a circuit is switched from one condition to another, either by a change in the
applied source or a change in the circuit elements, there is a transition period during
which the branch currents and element voltages change from their former values to new
ones. This period is called the transient. After the transient is passed, the circuit is said to
be in the steady state.
Now, the linear differential equation that describes the circuit will have two parts to its
solution. The complementary function corresponds to the transient state and the particular
solution corresponds to the steady state.
The v-i relation for an inductor or capacitor is a differential equation. A Circuit
containing an inductor L or a capacitor C and resistor R will have current and voltage
variables given by differential equations of the same form. It is a linear first order
differential equation with constant coefficients when values of R , L and C are constant.
L and C are storage element.. Circuits have two storage elements like one L and one C
are referred to as second order circuits.
The circuit changes are assumed to occur at time t = 0 and represented by a switch.
t =0 t =0
s
Closed / ON Open / OFF

t = 0 ; the instant prior to t = 0 and


t = 0+ ; the instant immediately after switching
Switching on or off an element or source in a circuit at t = 0 will not disturb the storage
element so that iL ( 0 ) = iL ( 0+ ) and vC ( 0 ) = vC ( 0+ )


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Circuit element: Resistance
V
Resistance R =
I
V2
Power absorbed by the resistor P = I 2 R =
R
t V 2t
and energy lost in the resistance in form of heat is W = Pdt = Pt = I 2 Rt =
0 R
Circuit element: Inductance
di
Voltage across inductance vL = L
dt
di
In a pure inductive circuit with applied voltage v , v + vL = 0 v = vL = L
dt
di t t di 1 2
Power absorbed by inductor P = vi = Li W = Pdt = Li = Li
dt 0 0 dt 2

vL dt = vL dt + iL ( 0 )
1 t 1 t
iL ( t ) =
L L 0
Circuit element: Capacitance

C=
q
v
,i=C
dv
dt
1 t
vC = iC dt + vC 0
C 0
( )
dv 1 2
P = vi = vC and W = Cv
dt 2


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10.2 Differential Equations
10.2.1 Type I-(First order Homogeneous Differential Equation)
dy
(t ) + Py(t ) = 0 where P is any constant
dt
dy (t )
= Pdt ln y (t ) = Pt + k ' , take k ' = ln k ln y ( t ) = Pt + ln k
y (t )

y (t ) = ke Pt where k is a constant
10.2.2 Type II-(First order Non Homogeneous Differential Equation)
dy
(t ) + Py(t ) = Q where P is a constant and Q may be a function of independent variable
dt
t or a constant.
d
[y(t )e Pt ] = Qe Pt y(t )e Pt = Qe Pt dt + k y(t ) = e Pt Qe Pt dt + ke Pt
dt
C .F . P.I .

If Q is constant, then y (t ) =
Q
+ ke Pt
P
10.3 Initial Conditions in Circuits
Number of initial conditions required is equal to the order of the differential equation for
an unique solution.
at t = 0 + at t =
R

L O.C . S .C .

C S .C . O.C .

I0
L
C+ C
OC
Vo

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10.4 Transient Response of Series R-L Circuit having DC Excitation

S R
t =0
V i(t ) L

If switch S is closed at t = 0 . Then the current through the circuit is i ( t ) . Applying KVL

around the loop, we will get


R
t
= 0 + i = i(t ) = + ke L
di di R V V
V + iR + L
dt dt L L R

Now L behaves as open circuit (O.C.) at switching, i (0 + ) = 0 k =


V
R

V t
R
Thus i (t ) = 1 e L
R

t
R R
t
V R (t ) = iR = V 1 e and V L (t ) = L = Ve L
L
di
dt

At t = 0 , i ( t ) = 0 , VL (t ) = V , VR (t ) = 0

V
At t = , i (t ) = and VL (t ) = 0, VR (t ) = V
R
L
When t = = (time constant)
R
V 1
i (t ) = 1 = 0.632 , VL (t ) = = 0.368V and VR (t ) = 0.632V
V V
R e R e
V (t )
V i (t )
V
R V R (t )
V 0.632V
0.632
R
0.368V V L (t )
t t
L L
= =
R R


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New Transient Condition
As circuit reaches at steady state (at t = ), suddenly switch is open and new condition
at t = 0 is shown. t =0 R
R
t
+ Ri = 0 i(t ) = k ' e L
di
Now L
dt V i(t ) L
at t = 0+ , the inductor keep the steady state

( ) ( )
i 0+ = i 0 =
V
R
R
V t
i (t ) = e L
V
Thus k'=
R R
Corresponding voltages across the resistor and inductor are
R R
t t
V ' R (t ) = i (t )R = Ve V 'L (t ) = L
di
L
and = Ve L
dt
i(t )
V
R V

V ' R (t )
V 0.368V
0.368 0 t
R t 0.368V
V 'C (t )
L
=
R
V


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10.5 Transient Response of Series R-C Circuit having DC Excitation
S R
t =0
V i(t ) VC (t )

If switch S is closed at t = 0 . Then the current through the circuit is i ( t ) . Applying KVL

around the loop, we will get

i (t )dt = 0 or V + Ri(t ) + i (t )dt + VC (0 ) = 0


t t
V + Ri(t ) +
1 1

C C0

Initially capacitor was uncharged VC (0 ) = 0


1

+ i(t ) = 0 i(t ) = ke RC
di 1 t
Differentiating above equation, we will get R
dt C

( )
1
V RC t
i(t ) =
V
At t = 0+ , i 0+ = =k e
R R
1
t
1
t
V R (t ) = i (t )R = Ve and VC (t ) = i(t )dt = V 1 e
R
1 t RC
C 0

At t = 0 ; i(t ) = and VC (t ) = 0, VR (t ) = V
V
R
At t = ; i(t ) = 0 and VC (t ) = V , VR (t ) = 0

At t = RC = ; i(t ) = e = 0.368 and VC (t ) = 0.632V , VR (t ) = 0.368V


V 1 V
R R

i(t ) V (t )
V
V
R
0.632V VC (t )
V VR (t )
0.368 0.368V
R t t
= RC = RC


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New Transient Condition
As circuit reaches at steady state (at t =