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ill +h.o. \.tf!d.l.u. V;f- J..t.toLb ~ ~ ~ rC)Jll) .M \-MtJ:

+hDIJ:; J;.., pct:i:h oLope-1'ln te. ~t.Ubh - ~-

Stan c.on\J~l'al) #r tu-ou.


o. .
Ij- I-ltoLt \J.I.) <a lven OU;l Di- ~ S~tem tuJ-'Yl +uL
-&I'~ I.rJ J..tJott.Jj) t.e1"t sl d~ e d 1'l..U3ctJ:i v e tmd j1,.

'. J)
.

J..U.att 04\ ahM::nbed b'l ~ S~tem ~ ~

91\ ~ J-l.tGt1; l.IYJ CJ91'VS t'd .HJ.l d + ; ve..


<.tfln.b1YT4+ ',u:wrn3 -to ftfO,I1TPlI cr.> "M+ .W! C11f.l 14
IUO/-Wu-o-;.p. ~S --0 (fJ' Z =P04-t <?COOLl'yi' <ittlqHrPUCQ r.Il.U.~
<> 1f'
~ .1lWl:1 "l: -fa a bU 1V 4;:> fi-r vnQ11...4'CI+fYlU.4.IS <.f+lfr)
$'a G~ toL(4) :z. ~ ~~ ~
.
VU trn.A..\ 4J.!l.+ij\1\
?G ~'Uhnm4<J t.e+,IO'i !(QI ~;:)
~ <IU'1UT1U --y~ ~ ';"lUo;:) 1=0 11}
,/11"
~JJ lQj:t.t:rp ~J. 1
.f... (1'>11" '~)1r
-f.Q ~ l-vv1l\f iJ <#,' 0) 'iiI-'U ~4? 1:.
~. ,,(~\
'l(, 'H vucn l1J' j-j ,tp ..-proJ
~e ze )

- ()
@ ~K)Qcn- 'T' HmH QL( IC) Tl'011-i \/[\ Ull 0
;;J~U1fp UOchrfO lIPV4 --0 . rr 'il~W.UJU Ft-p 0 OJ I-lT\.f+ u:r I..G~ d 0 rrr.r ~Q ntL
'1Ge
(N] e
l~ W
~ (' ([. R's '8 I + loX. L/) -+ ~ e (t fd:. n -+ R~~ ,s) -= ~~ ~
UJ:'O.n1~ ~? vr 'Y'~>t)POi..f1- 0,
1J.rl)').& c;rn.at ~ worn:3 mo rrot
"Ii -: 1;
/
[~J ~Q. -
t~~J
'II
h"p R h"p X
[~0t1..t+ ~~=t I-a)
")( ~ ~ e ~ (IX e
;::
1- ( I
u G mU4., ~S" op 8~!m01'JOt "11lt f;h.ca\A.lb (h 'JG)f
'~ '.:httP ...-po"J1G;' '0'4+ I rn(j)
f\lcrG--~N
9
I~ - 2@
.()) >
'uql=fU~ ~ Of' ':flO4t 08
'U,.(d.LCYYVli 'r~ J.(lV(Y1"2\. tnQ"flOJ-"2. ,
0=0
.. '1J O.m t.nJ'I1::. 1'.:f1?i'i) Ii) l- 0"hI 4>
~ /:.ov(Yl~ lflOT(Oj- +u(,~ o-p ~4f as
15lfffi~ ~ -t a ~o:n+t,
o
h = Ie
o
< z t-=\ <n.f OJ \:) '"O
-Rp Rq ~ P,IS 4-f oq ~')DJAfIO
_ <.rDl+t n P Wo --x., f:o

uQm~ i1' 'Q"' 7.. f.1' ~'ioo/-fns qO~ ru,If.TP 1fC}m ttf'

~.~4-n-6" 'a9 Ua;) ~~J\ ~ mlq' lt~ -o.u.

( H-q~;):l"(I~ J\
:""'l'P 1.A;.}4Q'P1"l~ .... ) . .: :11 O'(L o I.. \ -::>J...;) .....
L~''' Ii. ",' "". 'H; V\,.T;; ~) '" L-<-.\;' -u.

;' ..1 \,j.7 rY'~ (,'I


. d", e J 4 I f..1/1
" I,;j-I
'\ ,.
~ (p,:","" \:J_.--'t-(

'..l.1>I\'d
-f!-@ YOJuot u! ~SID6'ctPs dq \:4to"J UQ~ ~+
.. j
(
1.1\
..,.~ -
""""1. f\ fki
~ '"t~- ::;
1:. ~ ,Act
~~. 0 't.~
,,/\
.;:;:,
~
.:0J- . -d '(J.
-'dA.
7.1\.
-::;;
T- '.l..'(l -l(1~ )
1\
T 'I\C l.Cl -. l.(~J
de.
A
J..(t ..... =:; d~
_l.:~ -;;: Ad
.l(~Q~
Je
tr ~~(~~)

.L'd -::; 1\ d
~ == -LC-;:) d( ~~) A(~~) ~:~

~ ~~ ~.:t uo JIDj
.1 'd
-

q-II
ItT =-d
.l'd -::: <'G{-f\)d ~
..J.:(j ; qd -.e f\ d
I
CD- "'-I _ _
. d(.l~ j
-eli
() - AfJ
d
9 + l.'?;t ~ "P
cl
(q-/() d
Ci;r+ l'd --: 1\
J..(i - '1d + .L'-d :: 11 d
L~ -== qd- Ad
[1(-JO'15J
1Vft..t1.olll [S~.l

Tniea~ aiina actcto"

-ttu. 1;Qe+o.!tl Wtu.C.h rn-kitt9 tnt. ~u.htHOn be.c..ome. Sxqc.+

b':t SI'M~ ~P'd"n8 wif-n an C':l(.Qtf ~t..H'on +ho..n +hOlt.

~f"J'QtIII "fc.yC:tc:rt Wi Olr.ll.td <In-t e a-'1..OlJ:ih9 ~cm.

~ l.V) c.o~e.)1 ...

dz.. = ~ d:x.. + C-:I() d~

Olf> ~~" ng E tdov1 '.!. .f.N...o'l e h)

J?z. ') '"'Z..


d )!..."Y =F 311 ~ 1.

.t :::.-f

,'.J d I) fI) , n t -fu..U..o w Eu..lo..v1 'A +n.,c.,o.:n.e.f))

I\.U..l.t:t I' tu.yl n 9 I'n Ectf..t.Dtb.'Ci"h ~ QflL ~ ?(.'l. r Y?t J


l- ~
~ ':l-u-n c. H '0'7) b e.dI t'nL -

d'Z.. 'J d'L + 7t


~'2.-
t:
""i''I.- _~'1.
dlf.

d "t.'l.._4-'2'L...~, 1
- , ~~~-'- -----=-- ::
~)!;.!fi "- .-.- a "d (:j)~ :c
A

x.'l...
N"..J -ltv iune.+r'on fa1..Low EuJ..co1'~ ~'re I'l1 ....

+tun.. fhcd ftA..\n Jv, Sto...t:z.. 'f.u-n U:;t'0 n


Now +tAL . fu..n~tn'l be c..o m.tL e:~c..f-

I
1"~

50 -.;>t12.1. In "l:"'-*tt.9 ~t'\ fq c. +try


"'Tlt ~ 'PJU} ~ -p u.t>

l::J'ldf'( ll:>Jt}U~ ltoq" PU"dcfTp U~"Q;)~ -r:rnr! ~ ~"-nu *".

..
INTER NAL tNl: RCtY
.-

~
0'1' CI. I n +l'ftn"Mc ( ".
r::TUJ1g If
./~
(,~ .,...J..f'
[E: on uJ

if :rntenn.a.l En.vt9)1 J., S t-ecJ::J.. ~Uio h

'* It\:l ~t\.f Y J., an e~ teM iv e P.)1.t)1:>eKh1'

~ ;the- "a.lU.~ ~ &o".~I'\(. ~Wf'n" S~H~lb olJ-I1e.h d V(=>


a.t\J..tII'~ wo..t::lV1J.. ~ 4lu.... ~~_tl'le 0';1 Q g~s"em~
~
) LAE c EI. -E,);:: fl'11E
l.b m t).l'Urn ,'on

"
'\ "',,
~
\_,
'\

.'.' -,-E',
'
w~
~
t:J.D tu .,,, '\
, '
' 1.,.
-k..t...e...S'j lI+em
"
.fl
-* C p ,'L.. 9~")
-::.+('111

F,l) '~'>I
t* ,=> Ive

'XfClIVY\II~ . .
7 ,\ , \
,
:. ~ ~!' <.:.. \ lA.Htt'" do ru. bl.( ~
" '" .. -t- E1.,.
s.'1~+-ehl....
11 E e E 2.. - 1:-, ::. -,'v'(..

"l:h (ie.n.

(j. LuO;:n~ u/) oLoru.... ~n ~. g~+eh1 :tn+-e.n n~ e.t'W1g',.

J:cY\.,.l..W) ())

'3:n UJ o..n I< ~ cJ.o h.IL ~ ';j.f..we S)to fvn.. ~ +en haUL &'l..u-W ~

d.t.(~~,
,\l,(J4j
~ 0 \.410 o.t UUIl:! -n.(o Of lI..I Pel..,. JQ 1\ U OJ . hrua UOJ +I
,rn\oJ.l.<rrJO cHl lC"N ~.) 'dG) Im4t:nN lib") ABUYU3
[m+1o -= ~" )
m+19 :. 13 - to.3
S:r(fNI~r{'ANCE 01= TNTERfAL ENERGY : l'
If'( I-uau c~ct:l ell. CDnn+t v~

He.ot:l. Cha "9 e GU.. CtJ rn to rrl voI..t.unt. J;.;, CatJ.J...td


c~ &b ~+eJ1MD. ~'d.

41E iC '!-.,. w ,.
1.1 E z:: z....... P. d8v

11 e- l)

ct:k.. U> tw f"QI-o +- \t o.lU nu.....

~~ ':!:! q.- t>

/\~ GJ~;
. -.r...-- \-'1

16E ;qJ VJo~""k~t\L ~q


ft:r;r.f\ ~~ 3d;;f) ;:M.te~~ EJ'll."i1
b"'R\ if!

o'f
.(;

Olr11
~ ~ '-\.hem.' I?:. n I:) r (P4'i) w O~~

(d v :0) , +t\.Q.n +uJ.. j-UJ.)(..:f:- c h 01 1\9 c & ea,U..td


C"'-.

Change -J,b in 1-eJ1"ha&. ~ ..


:pr.>PJf-f 0) "~n"1IC!.("d -OOl'..
n.cn.,..,. ':)).Gatt;) OS::C
A(tt) ~; =A
..1Yii-Plt-t-OJ ~lflll~4lqO':) emu &er'4-t oSl:.
~(~) ~- = .~
TsobCUfic EX Pt~I'Oh. c.f)..ff I"C l~en t [c( ] [ 0( :: 2:
v
(0~T/P
vI J '

r:J. - Show.& +hCCl Jh C3-U..aJ) e JJ, +em p. i'etRe p..1.tu..( e


UJ fh i ~ ('J<.lCU) e J.t, VoJJ.uru..

" <t ,- h~ V,'na olL9'U~ct ~

,
L e UJ e c.a h S~ thOt.:t 0< UJl
. , \

J.D 0 boou\c. S. 'X-fcm s4,:Ol'"L

~'U\e....d

'I+ having tL olim..o.n~\\Dn. T-L


'"
(Tcm".)

"

ThJ. VoJ.w. U"J- ~ iTrt Q n BdttJt.l ~cU c .:!..


T

f.:nooft ~inte we know tf,0Lt

PV:: R.T i
I
I
v= RT
P

dV) P -- CdTT ()
r\)T P TO] r

r_dV) ::: -E.. 1


"aT p
P

f_dV) repP.

~JT

...
< 0(= "..:1.. (~)
V oT P

-= -l R R L :1
V P pv
::::.
itT T
# ;1.
. ~!:,:-!' ..' .'
"J.~i
'()
-d - JOti
d
Q+ I ~ - d(~)
J
::2
J[ [cr+_-L:;r J~eP ) J(~
d
q +- J.:'2:J ::: f\
q cf ..J. J.. "tl = Ad
iUll\toH4~\I\4-(l1 'nOb );) .AOJ- }o~-a"fTllJ.t\ "T'rY1' 1T'tVT'O~
-
'tr'6)
&4. '4 in d, _ou.::e
,'
-fW.- vcU.tu
'l ! "
ttt-- 0{ fu- v ond.tn ... wedJ. ~V4Uitrn,

(p +!..) (V"k) =' ~T -!D


v c(=
1-
"I
(ft)~
C),. r
,
,\t4e Olo :!.'n,}. O\U. l-U.t.> \f~ t'r}' Jv cd:- c.o~reH'i~ ?.>ut'Ih~ _~Q)
dT

fi [tP4~) ('1-/,j :;.4- CRT] fJ


dt \i Pf' cit

:r. It

( p~ 9. ) sl (V -b)... ( V-tl) .4.. (p + '?L ) :::. R


v'Ii. dt d t v~

c p.,.. 9..,) fd V) +. lV-i)) r 0 + .., i:! J t;.y\=~

t,

" rd t P vJ (CH) P

(t-t.1) (~)
v')t (it P
+ Cv - b) (-2q) f~)
V 3. " d 't P
:: R

(cb!.):'
.
., '..(
ciT ..,
'
'v l--'
lr". r
(p +;!-) -~Q('" -b~)

~:1
:: fl'
( d
cr;.
V)
p
.:: [ ,~
( P+ Qb , _ 2.ct (V-~

, J
V,.. V3 .

0( ~
-V1 Le~+$) -!.q ("-2~
..,1. ,,3

1< __l
~ ~
- [
!

" 15r
tv--b) -
- ~q
V')
(v ... ~)

~ ::: If<
~[ ... RTVl - MI J
..
2"
_"''II
~V .. ~>2
"'~(<:;;;;Ejl4",i>,

'\I9.l..

d... ;:
R\J'4..
, iAI l:!!!"'t>'I'

t:<'iV3 ... let (v .. b)1


TSotf101mcUL c.omp~ib;Ji~ c.o'"EJ.::f.,'c.,'euJ:

~:. -.!.
v elY)
'
~p T

~ -Show~ +hoct:. p~UJ-(.Q. 'ilnc-"U.OUeh witt> de{kL' tIl

, Vo.lJ,.u\1e t-hOct'~ ~ ,a. -hau -,'ve .ifaf1..

0,"l'1l"i11"''' .bn. p-I


........ ...,J ", 51 .!>'Unb
l..(j1L_

tru.. v~ o-a fS -fay an 8 dtCl9 ~ct.b [J3:: 1:.]


. f:>
3:'
p,,:: RT
~
v =
-RTP
dV)
( .a-P 't
= (.st.
Jp T
RT )
T

(d~) ': RT .-:1..


\OP)T f.>2..

f3= -L itT. _,
V" ;>2.
=:.

-RT
p'V. ~
::
M l
M f
f3 .::
..L
p
.l J.}(
T = Y
1\ d
"i"'T
I\(.!~J
dP
1\ [ (:& )1 J" t*J
1\
-
J..~ ':: 4
..L'd .:: t\d
OO~ ~-1-~d a.qp
'Su~ l\b4 '4fJ..td...L 1> ~J "flJ(ft '" rno~s 'k
=1\
En+ha.lI'M :.

En+11a1P \1 dD CL S-let.tt, ~ Cfi'OtJ , ~ JJ, I'Cl..:I:I) 8nc:t.t.tJende.Lc.;t

Ent-hcU..P~ J.., a.. J..U.oU.. CDn~ OJ- ~ S~st~m cd:. a. c.ol"\.\ent

p~l.lk..C. omd d:.etn p, \Ui"L4.n ~ of etn u;, -0 ~en I

fno..:l:t'\tm a.J:i~, En+ncdp ~ In .Q..u..m tr.t ~e.n TlDUl .uJt(~ ~ d

f'v.
1 Ii = U+ fv J
we Ol..ha. t'J'UDU,)W'Ut ttu. E n +hOl.lf~ , UJ e ~~ rnLtlUH}.}(~ 'ft.,u.

~h.(lnae. JJ, Cn+habl:t.

C hcinge. til'> Sn4tltlJ.t1~ a.:t. ronM temp. I f.x.v,UXL ~ ~ ~

J..u.o.d.. c. ha h ge SO,

e:." it'! UJ-qUL'd. HIlI.\f"'" 'l:'ntV1 t') cU ~~ E.

t" , +'t- \'


\.
I
c ...
" ----------~~ \.
...... ... ... \"
(,

\ ..

r "I
f-a-/notL
'E.z...
Sf-elb.J
System,.

-'. :4-1 ~ i - J.o.u,.u- ~ +tu.rJ m 0 cl..Jd n04 Y)') ,"cA

8 I:: -= 9.- P AV

E,.,-E 1 :. '1.-- PLVl,-vl'


E2.. -f!. :.. q, - fv2.- + ('vI

E 1. .,. Plla.. :: q, 1- E I + !'V,

le,.+ pv,,) o:n., ( 1:,.,. f "I) J.., ..}(L;.x.tI)~ b~ ct.


..L____ .' _ .1',..., .,. ..J Ck.Lk". at-.. "L. ,
[J-p -:; H~ I
-"1, ~ , H- -y H .
'H +b :: "f-f
.~t;i:Jk'd pwo +Ubf t\.t<n Tlo
Ula+f)~s"""6lff ~ +tJafuOJ :r:lOQ).H pTrPCQ O'Sfl<) vt (I\d .... =f)
.
)c..41lb~, 22. [2.0\5J

~
MtXx- Well- Enuat.tioh:-+
-v

MQ'lC wtll E't,u..o.tti.on J.a., iV1~ ttl- chcmge in

5nte.nn'~~.

+h..li> Ect,u..ttion ShOWh +h&:t 3tltenn~~:J.

ChClXlCJ e..\ to i +h Si mu.L+e..nJiD tv>~ Chang e o:r

S o.md V

dE = T dS T (-P) dv - CD

We Cctn 0.40 CotlCJ.Lloct..L

[au: Gt. c.o~~nt sJ

-' I

\ ~)$
o I
_ ;\ L
= -p 1
{j
E.) ~ Id.~ -fPVdV~
l
.
.5}
(Jv I S
..f,..
\1fJ1
d f:)
- r\:chl E.) ;: ~
6y
:c. p f.d'
\ dv,.) C_'.J
s

we c.q n ells 0 tcd.c.u..lJll.+ e


Co~H-&
+
I (-.)v =T 1 d =- T d oS (-f) d v
.lJ.-o

l dt)
" ciS \J '-
_T(91)
~Cf-j"r

we. t.ah eUSo CoLlCJ,.1..l.aL+~ rn Q~- we.t.a.. ~n. ~


j ,...). Lp ~ ""flOn"Y1) \.t::c...
;.....
(-) ~
.1- _ _ _ _ __
------5

, ,
d,;::= TdS + C-P) dv ..-(1)
.
E e .Jet,v)

ctbove. . ot.lt.O.tJ:.Loo ghow~ +ho.t.t E. t~ fun tf-,'on o-;r. S ct'r)d V

dF.:
= ( 4..)v d s. + (jds
d~ chi
v
J. ~;)

LoYY'lrWd.. t \J 01\')'\ d tii)

dE = Tds.+ (-p)qv

'.E (~ Uc.th ~ c..::l{on.. l.ltl J:L ~t .fo.u.ol.&


Eul.Du1 '). #u..o.)U.Yn;) Ap P..J...;i Ins "Eu.J.401 '). +n.l::.aOt'JI ~

(::). = -(~)
ciS V

f'1C\)t-

we.lL Eq,r\ In t~nv., O:T change ..A.b

nH)'u.,,'j..~

dH = "dp .... Tds

( dV) _ (dT)
dl f.... d"PJs

Above ~cU:lon..!L\l\..oUJ.4 thoU: En+I1c:U..t>'A- ChGtnse

t..ui+h Simu.L4en~-4:1 c..~e J.., S OWl P


o
1f
o ( .Eft)
dp
::~
V dH ~ Vdp~fdj

dH ;::
1t
\Jd~+ 14g (~)~
d
= vtP
IY
(cll-f\ _ 'i eX
"a ~
fJ!l)
p
=T j

J ah \

1 ~--., /'r ".~ \j


\ "'lIoIr.
.

'.'
s -= (.. d(lPl
~s -JIA" ~ s- = J(~~) ..
0-
A :::
::::: ~ (d~~)
J. PS -~I\ l(~) .
~
0 "-
..Lp S - d p/\ =~p
d(~)
"p",
'it) hr. ~d(\I.H.(;J
--
AP
J- = ..LrtiP )
..l. PS - 1\ P d- = vp
d 5
1\,
" ;
d 1. ,A,
/\ S ?o' d S
.~~ 6
'a1~rn d 9 ~ (Yf~:xrp
-- e
J -
(
\
"e
~!
6~
S~) J S~)~
J..e (\.1(
f,
j ,
.l(re '\
if J c;:,)
.J 1.
S(f\P)
hp?1'ff
A(s-p'l
;"'p/ - (b)
4= ~q U-a1\1 @, or d -n.m~ n.t-t
[-ounoT upaUl'O'6'" <rrr0\U t.a. QN J
"l.IO.H .ISoq wo\> +UD\-\'UOi ~ UI~+SJlS '0 Lc:Q.:f ~~tm~
.2. 012-~ (N..tJ5)
~ Tndiu:ttL t&h1:ch ot1J2. &1 +rut .fo..U-.oUJ Jthc9. ~'Oh tM N07
~-'1Jtee..;l. (,.(~~') I:lt/1m) .rl Lt'U1t)H"C.~ ~'.:::f1 F)

lq) - (dT)
oV s
= (~ )
;,ts V
lU::ro1 e c..:t)

~ -l a'iDs::: (ava$ )f'


0,
(Not Lo~ec.+J

~)
fld;)
oV r
= t(avJ ';):r; v
(Lo~~C-:t:)

~) -( H)P :r --
'0
e V
)
0 IT p,
lCD~.-U)

~o~~~~) .

~-' ~ to ~e.c:t +-h..u1m ocUat'lC4 m 1~C.b ~o n ctm 01"\9 ~ +a.u..owl'''1 k

~q) d t:E) ::: _p o


( dV $ 'it

lb)
l dfH)
(j'V
:: - r
~ (~~~~F
~
/
(081) :: - F .-<1,#-
~,."","c.,,~rr.
\,.C')
oV S

"-~,
l
C\~) :::-J
dV j

!tol3

=
~I 1-Lu yY"\C\)twW- ~oh5UAir cl..udved from 1-tu. t~o-n

d~ =- Vdp- (S)dT
CD(~\ :: (~\J
dT)r d r,
IE.;!.) ::- - C:i! ,
\ cl.t: ~ \dP Jr
~ (.t\.2) -=. - (li)
ciT P a P , "
I,
('dr) _Io'f"
(1\0 r() (>\ - l'dr \ (\;)
,f=- ~i-'1!t +tto1mo~hQm~C Eq,llOI tilin oa- ~ 8-kt:b. ..

we know t-hCt.J:: from .f-t.U... (flC-\.X wQJ.l ~~-

dE =. T d s. - Pd V s' . t , ~

br'f.f. Sot-b S,'de wr'+n ..!HL?l?e~ to EJ l~


V , Ot..:l Lon>.-toni J:.a..ro p
-V. -T
A

l~)
av T
:. T
av / - P (~)
(.!i) T .w, T
dE ::: Tds --PdV

(~)T :: T (~) -f

?Iv T

. : (~)
av r
: : (2..)
. \)\1
(-~ e) - T (d3TP ) v
T -,
P
:tr "

E)
l,d
av,..
=9. TnfennctO. 9..)1 e SoS u,)u... 031.. ..".
.
C tmf J

\'
~)
l ~" T
a! a. co~-t:-l- T ~ wu.d.

change jJ, :tnie)1nCUl ~~ UJith Chdnge fn VQ.lJ..J...hU.


cU: ~ .coru 4;-1.. dt.rn~. In COLlJ.,Ld 9n--1 e.tIno..O. p.).UJV)U)'t.t.

+ CQ.l..c.u. Lot.:t.1hn &(1. an ten MJL p>wv.> lA.HJL ffl .OJn 8 cUa.Q. ga.t"

Pv ::: RT P = RT
V
) _ t..)(~
RVV
1!'.
( 91
I~) ::::T'lCldf) -r ttT v - y d.:r
\ d" T dT 'J ! ,

.\r

~ Wr)u ~ t
L~ \
~ If-i rci.! \ T __ p,;( - h
*' PI-f1 S:r:cAL 8X(fWrF:tC.I\NcE OF TW'TERNAt. ~RESStJ~E' RbI?
IN :X:D~~LCi AS !:,

." ,.. . -,, ,, ., ., .. \

1'\ . (
....'-.,.i'" " ------::> I' T
T
. Sf
(XWbIcd) E-z....
C. "4-t 'NiU)
'E c{ T
.fctr r~,~ 7
~E=O C!)'r [dEca)

g.'nee we KnoUJ f-ho... ~ '3cUotO. <1~ ~ k flo

5nte>1ec::J:1on blUl mo.JJt~..,)...O nlo ~':.f ..iJJ UJCU)4--e.d


o:nclen to . . . _
'urnr oUe:rJu>me +u.t.. .9nteJi e.ett:D"~ u.n 9..so+-h..u1 moUt 'X.)?ett'VV)ion
~ ,
ftrf om 9d...locJt .~~ +tu.J..u.: \.l.J.)' No c.nOfnI)Je ~ ~e.'ln~

tJ'UJ-'t..f~ b Ito ~nl'+"a.a.. ~ "i-rnc&. ~~.

80,
r-[6-e-::.0-)
O'r
IoS == 0]

~ . C e tt.\.t c. ~ e. ~ ft>'l fen n&.O. ~ ~ '\.U; +h-


GhrJnge J.n vo.lU.rn e ot.:l. t.ONH ~p' .J.o

&tu.cd. j;o l:.e.)1 o

(~) =0
\av T
:r~~~J

<-

~ In-le.nnct.O P..k.uv)U>U. ;lei" oth 3~ 9~ zeno


C70
- - (;; ,,'-'.,,1 I/''''''n f'",''' DnTJ ~d f'Ql.U",,'dfl.(f?
~-tQ~ 1VfIT?-n-ow CYI i ~ u o.rr~f~)-Q \-WJ? -rot 2. ~ ~ ~
v\
~~ r~~~--~--

'---1:~

p
1
-t,f\
jr_ .~ +~
J$4'~~
d- ~~ ("-E- t-d)
. \
'1;1\
..l.bl = (q-I\) (10 .... d J
0::::
~(~)
;:-,9/=
~
d- ~cf ::
(4-A)
d - -..l.~ :::
d-
.(q-Aj ::
'c:f x-L ~(-:~)
(q-.I\)
,
::: n(~:j
- '?J
..J:Y I\k~J) _ I\(~)
.JF ~\ ~ - dP
(q:~) = d
.L~ =qd- Ad
.L~ ;:; (q-AJd
u)
lJ-Q;):::pon'b~ ~b P .J..od-. -n..m1cVT1"6'd -otaU I-CIf-US "'0111' T-flOTl'"Q-p::rJ
"'t 1\/0 at Qllmda V('> I'T' 'f1l Ci) O)..(d 2. CQ: I-G f\ d U U l4> cn-m ~<Illii'd GlflL(i-Gtl\f
, "

~7JOOW tlJ~JlrYl1 cnlq Ua~dlGtlJ.9 Q1: --mp ~ ~LtOJ am 08

~~ ,

.~ ~ 0Ltt- miG

'1..f <ffrJdl{d-; ~ 1JVft:' 7IU4<::J) I-Q n Q o:r ~Q cr-r pat<nO tI\ vr' Rhnua 01'1i- ~
i'WflS (R~ "1"Yt+ ~4-ns !lOt. Lto4-(n
0, ~ ~ ~ Vf1"' ~~O .l I
~ ~
"t' 1\ ' dltu:S: ~ ,
~ tlo'v'}f ~JlI/cY;).liJu~:rt t()~ n vr roB Q"lOl1 ~ .A.Ofn-mwrn-d oUlU.(afllJ
. .1(..Lt)
f\"" l\e..L - ::: ..
dP/\ +spJ. = HP
~ UQ~ 1S"f')cY\ ~)JUJ wo"::} < ~ (Y\QU~ 'dM
. : ~S f.Ep ~o:r.ronb:i D,IWtoUPrpaW~t pU Q ")3S -f'
\\Ir .
,. GKi4e>-lia.. 10 ::)1 S po n <\-eI n e.l~ : ..

9 H _ p

/ /G
(Ll s () _V ---:r
A
liN

B~Seefn.9 +ta 3\'9)") OJ chcmge t'n Hw1moolynClrrdc. pCOtCUll-U:eJj

we QoIn 'p..91 e otrcl +tu.. p..9{.O~ s 1'0 n +lneow> I .9t.!LVe.nAOtbb.,

o.n. &:tUill b.91.ltt rn

E.n<1roPM chan8e.:.. \i"e)

(~S)4IV '> 0 t: Spontettu.n~J

(/).s) ttlJ :: 0 [Re v.e.nsctblL 0'" E:qJ.A1Ji~u"'J

Chc.tn~e uJ.> En4-hoJpij

C<1H]S,P<. -v ls porHe!hD-o~J

l6H)s,p =0 [t<.e.,v~ ~ E~I't/mJ

ChQnae Lin al\bb~ f.xtl..l En.o1..9~

rt.lG)
\f P,T
<:: 0 [Sp0n\elneJWJJ

( AIn ) :::
t,T
0 {E.e v e-'tACLb.J.L -n- E c:v.u. J
:hQh 9e Jb J-taJ.. hOLm 0-\ 'Z f.)1.D.A c.h.u1g:f.

(p. A)"'rT <: 0


[ Spon.] .

. ~ A) "'T=0 [ R e.v ... Eq,w" J


:harts e ~ 9nttrtncu. e:.~'if..

(AE)v,s< 0 r SpOOl]

(At.)Vt~ =p [Rev. <t f9.u.t,J


.l(~) A(.l..~
I\e "to (l1 .:1.. - :=
-
A ..l.' 1>-
I\J.~
[. W +1 J ~ - J\:)-4:J
d( ..ls..) "(!:1 1\ .... _ d.....
I\e cJ e J ...L - .., v
@ Cp- tv::: .,. (~) . (~)
~,. v 'OT P

1'''100::1-::::> S::: f C TI' 'iJ)

To ttd. di.ff'e.n-i-l ot1.

dS := (dS)dT+
dT v
(~) a'll
JV T

PI'vl'de bO+h S(de b~ dT Cf.:t t.o~~n-t f~1..(XQ.

S
(J~)"l
( cJ )
JT p
_
- dT v + (~ 1 (av)
J
()\f T ~dT r
f\,u.tUjM{1 bo ttl S,'d e b~ T

T (dS)
dT P
: : T. ( ~ ) V ~T
+ T.(~) . (. dV) P
3V T JT

... T ds;: d q, Gue \c,.now t-ho.+ .fY 0 tn E.ntfop'1- ChC!.th.,e)

(~\
aT)p
;: O'tv)
( ~T )v
+ (o<t;:)
aV}T
(OV)
aT p

l': 3"\-a.:t torutt ,::. a H.. ':aCJ. cu. to 1'\1)\:1.' V .::3E]

( :~.), .:: (!..)


3T v
.+ T (li) aT ~
(.EY..)
~T P

,..
L' ~ . I~ ..-
J=)"om m~1- wW- ~Y) '"

[( ~)T =U:)vJ
Cp --- Cv ;- ~ (~ ) ~ (*) p

Cp_ Cv = T C:~)~ (~) p


*- Cp - Cv :::: R r -fOr ct n IolL.ot.Q.. - ~ey ]

f..l100d ,--t

Cp-Cv = T, (ap) (E) P ;)T v 3T

Pv =- RT r::r d.lU. gcu Eq, tJ.DtJ;:;i0'1l J

.. (~~)v ~ -Vf<
..
'
( JV)
. ;;:::_
3T P
R
r

Puf +w. vCLl...U..LZ> In CLb"ove Cifh

Cp- C:~ :: To R
-'
V
-PR "

C'p-c" := TR " R
rv
- CJ;> ... cv :::: (W' ~
W

[ Cp-t'v t~l.

,,;

~:
~~--'-----.--.--... -----
I
i
6
I
II\. '-r.'F'.L - A)~
/ 1 .
.J<" e,,,,x.,.)
,"")o'.L
u -::
.l(~", d(t!. )
I\e) .1.(
.1(~) = .L (~) J(:~)_
t-" .l (~) y~~ rc:)
(0

...
J\(.J.e )
. dE'
,,
.l-(~) (~) J..- ::. 1\) -d~
/\e b de
:::>
"J - cf J I
~

~J ;
~~f~
(q-A;
-d ')(.
~ -Y ...L - -d)
"-:>
-'?dJ - d( ~~ ~
.):(i J
0+ J.f~'d - d( ~;)
d
q. +- J.. '?J
== A
q
---
.1 'd -:::: ('1 -1\) .
.Q
(q-A)
- ~
~ (Cj-.I\j
=

J.i? - 'd h( ~~ )
(~ -AI
-

J.~ :::d
Cp - Cv :: R [ I + ~Q.. 1 fu J1..t.OLl 90L.&"
P..TV

ll> . . .qV2.) (V-b) :.::. RT -(j)

..
Cp - CV -= T ( ;~) V' (~ Jr -

B~ CD

( ~) -?

dT)V

(P+ft) (Y-b) =RT

V2

lp+~J = -
RT
( Y-b)

-- p RT Q.
l \I-b) \72.

'l~)
dT V
d
dr
[R..T
M -
Q..]
V~ v

Po )(
()v .:
( V-b) ! - 0

(if)v - l~b)
R -t i i)

( ~)
dT P
~
0'+ .~) ::: -
RT
< .v-b)

(:1" [ p+ .'l_ 1 ). : ELRr~l


.
b + C~)
V3
(c!!')
dT P
Rx 4 C'i>t. (V-by-I]
d, 1: ll'

- R x [1. tv-b' .... + TX


(-I f~J
&"-bJ\.~ r p
1
-~ (~)
\/3 . CI, P
:::: _R
l\r-b) Rr
tv -b)'1.
(dV)
CiT P

- ~J(~)
~

r~
~ vs \drp
R
(\J:b)

liT, C)t:65 - aQ(V-b)Jl~) : . 1


[ f.. CV-b)"a. ". V9 d,.. P

2-.
.[ LV-b) .
!lq CV-b)l l~
12 J dT)P
\ =- 1.

(~~)p =
-
!:

l~
.
t.':f-b)
_2q CV-b2 ]
V3. R
....
ptA): ~ \J ctU.U j.k) E.<:VA~ -+

Cp- Cv
= TX R
~-b)
')t [J T _
.
2Q(\I-b)
]
L\I-b) V3~ R

Cp-(v ,:: Tx ~ (
l'v-b)
T~ul..~ -- Th otn.8.t>n.- E J;= F B :, ~ ~

VO~OL.U ~~

~I~' PL~:
I

_~~-'.II-'--f~\I~,~p'l - B I 4 'v.; ..-" .

'-l'O\ti 4~"f)>. 4-03- t'\


Wltl"k ta doru... b~ 4U.L. l'::1Uem
':iVl\l exAt~, +('. h" t~ lp~V")
c: Wb'J'\t. ,'I.. do tv.. 0" ru-t- S~ a+emJ ~f,,, ~

'* tit 5f tM a. ex..p enirJUX)~ '()b~~va1:iDn ~~h 8~

~ ~CA. <jClJ) Jo Cl.i.lX)we.d -to xp~nd o..dA'cLbcd:i~

thod"
f+u.. d:Q.tn pi 0jJ- t-ta.
from ~ ~ p~esS W-t4- ct..o J...ow p~essUXJ2.

cv.. In 4-\AL ~lnoc..Q... ~+cctt. c.hCln~eA,..

.
*" ... JbulL-Thomum &..ffe.c+ In CL ..lJ)o En+hc.t.J.pI'c.' P...l10C~

[Net wO-'t",done = f , V,-I'2.V2.}

Stnte.we-knoUJ+had)iYon, :n+ J.D.LLu 03- +h.J.nmoc.4l nctm ,'CA

bE. = q,..+w
q, =- 0 c. q d 1~Cl.ba.::b.C:.. f-'t..O Y2.l.A4J

E'2.-E lC p,V, -Pl.VL


1_-_

E'2.+ f2.V'2,. =- EI+ P,vl

[H'2. = lid
4H =- 0 J
01'

1C) 1; '= ~J

'InVertSlon. J::unp. ~~

.. The -:lett)~, b e..Lot& l..&h.i"ch... .+tu. 9~ beta me Co 0.9. d.Dul h

~ e~CU\M\ 0 n -' +h.at::L teh'>Pf J.o Co. l.lD..aI rn ven.Mon Temp.

-11> AJi.. +tte... 'd~e'> .ohow ~oJ..ina E-fFeDt 'E.x.ce.l't

Hychn 9e.n.. t J-tQl.iurn. bUYZ.. Jhv&V>t'On d:D.hip. O(J-

{k) omd J-lQ. ~.An ..lo t.e


Ji C9tn!..t te. Q.ch~\le

ct. .R/To

.l'e +h-L{} 8 hI> UJ fu.ct;tin 8 e.-fff!c+

rmi DERIVAT'ION' Or:- TsOENTftAl.-PTr:. Tou LE-THoMSON COr::.t=:t Cl:ENT : ..


~ po S e. H 1',& ,\)5. .j..u.n tiLe 11.- o:J. P Cttfld T ~)

H '= :f 'C P, T) 4
.1Y
.- d H = Ld. H) d.F t- f,J..,) dT'
CoJ~ T '(aT r
..>Un~eck +0
I

&Ff. both side UJ,'(-h dr a.:;t: WnM{' ,.,

dH=f.dH)JP+ C.... dr
*
o "ell';

o = LdH) -x,1 + cp .(~)


\dP ~ dp ~

- Cp (~~)~ = (i!!.)
ap r

( J
~ ()P
T) H
=- ll;r.T. ::
~'~-~<.
~ (..ll:!)
C" ~ dP T
J
L
~.-~--

LLTo T ~ To-tLlQ... -100m So n. cot1-, 'ct'eu...:t


0t-J<;)j;t;3 "'LIOS' W Q 4J.. - "01'1 0.. en Q 4 ~
.J.ou rnqp ~ omJOB ~ \'t'l'1Q4S 9':rrn~'b4 c.:4-l
-=

-~ T ;:
r(:4~~+ ~(it) l
<.I;:>
J. [ Cn4 +4"3\ ~] - 1 - =
I\d + 3 ::: H : ..
- ~lf+ ma(J~ -am aJuJf'

-
-:J........... _
H(dQ)
~lf - lR
\ .
<J (..l.P) d;:)
[1\- AP LJ T
d{'J
..L( Hel::: d( J.pAp \)J... - 1\
i ( d (' '\ d(J.P~
Hf ) 1- f'.Pj.J.:. 1\
J.[~
I-tp ]
\.
(6)
-c.-1. 'd d
[ h}Wh1<NJ) 0 + +
"lJ ~ ,-;ft,

L"'d =I'J .:J
~ d
Q (It + (~) {' -+ 'i
:m
I
I
1,
-
( led d
(t>
J - q + '=b - 1}j :: f\
1\
~ - qd +- i) -..L'd = I\d
-
. 11\ 1\
1.)i == V; - b +- qd - Ad
= .1(~~) _ :,
Pu. +tu. U Q..Lu..e. &.::f Cb 1 i h Eq" - { l )

It.:r:r ::: _1
c p
[ !.9._
RT
*1- b-/J
It.7 . r_ ::; _1 [2..~
_._._..b J'.
Cp RT

conti.tt.h\on t)j JoulJL-ThoJ'\llSOn. Gffe.c-t: '=t

Ia..ll.ou. geM clo~'nt Show Tou1.t. Tho/llson Sffec.+

lL1.T fo..- fln 9d.tot.Q.. Cj~ ~ Eq,UOlQ. do ZeJ10

Iso -En+hc:t.lPic JOuLe... ihotmoh. . {()j~,'c.Ie..J:t. tk &t,UOt.l -to J.t:.:,-.

(l!) c)p If
= J.t'[:T- ;;: -1
c."
f d..,l
l Ir

l4ll ~CU)a C\.:t 'R/T ,. hot.U& c.oD..l..ih a : Ffet..+ Except ''''yd'1'Ogell.


-;r.T
-t ~m bt0z i-LL.Uv ~vetUl'on ..:h.h')~. d..o ~ not Q.Ch ive.b..U cct. RIT

<J n ....hi. ~ e 03- R-eWL fj c..tJ.,. +w.. ncd::l..u-u.. OJ J.L:r. To

J,tJr. = +.i.. [~-1>J

Cp R'T

-I' 3n +tuL (JJtA.Q... OJ- ~ CjC(J.> 11i-tu. hodJ...u..u.. ~ ...l..t.r."'f. J:., +ive J .i.:L.~

f-ha.t LOO J.tn8 .tol:le.s ~te.

<3 ~ +h..e V a.1..tu. ~. ...It:,. T.....an - i v e J:l m.to.ru -th04J:. I-U.oJ: I' n 9 ~ '(. p..tm f e.
j~ i-UL \J cU.lu.. 01 ..It:r.T. ~ zen 0 ,'+ m -e.~ n..\ f-h oU::- n.D..i +h VI .I-lt.ocf:.i" ,.

nO!T1 c..cC!)...li.n3 Od- ~~:lot.ke-. p..!D(te

...It'T.T' :::(dr)
ap
: : +lve
H
C. (fjO .J.1~J

J..l !Tc t ~;).., :: . . lve ( I-wu ;h8)


A te I1l ~. ott. u9tu'c. tt. gcu JM...oUJ l tu1. then h li.llltin 9 n &.91 c..ooii ns.
+hct d4.tn~. .ib tee I uJ f hU e)'(.,\ t' 0 n. t.e..m ~.

J.t.T T. :: .!. [~ -b]


Cp R.T

o ::: ..L [:l-' - bJ


c.p RT

2.q
=b
Rr.

l.~ = T. 1 TC' ~ :t:nv~I'()n +em~.

A-bove Tt' -\-U..L <jm ~hOlUA ~ t..f'Fen-t~

cmd. .- b e.lOw ~ J:.n v enhf\~r1) ..tun", gClJ ~ho~ coo-tirv;;

Cf.fec.+

90 J-~ E-Ff~t, +~ <dcu 10 Cl~ ~*and hm


~ ~ p.9-UM\.U'(L au J..oU) .~.!1U.N) UhL ) t-h.u--u..- ~ a Qhol"f~
1b O~, +ho- E~ 0(1- cha~ cl.t.f;>end upon J..nf+lClQ.
Ternp') p~J)~ clt ffe)i1l.Ol!e ) . hO:t::l..u-u... ~- ~ LU\.tet.
ISOTHER MAL 'PROCESS

I
-t: 1
Re\1-vv,CJ.h.R4 r~C/b...tt..

1 $
I
"
EXPUrw:Oh
"l
toM \,!:rUM lo h
f~ 8lt..f>etvli Ot')

Tt'l
I
+eJ1 rn.tQ1 h::f:b,
'.
.'.
i

.r I
l
~)tpervn/o h (j)1'I):>~I! Of')

Iso+h.o1mctO.. Reven~ E:X:pU'V)i on 0-'1 oom"~I'on {l)Y 00 IoluJt.Q gCtf:

. tn E")(p~lon. ~ cS..utP03e Q.. Stl s+em totu'c.n (Dn+a.ih Qh ~ctLoJL ~~

~and Jno+tu.nrn~ -Nom v, to V2. ~ ~ (OI.AA. Jt.h?p. ...}<.unoltt

Sarna .~ C(, ~ ~~t be abSO!tl' b~thL SW1.:nC1Jnd"~.


i
I

q .....
s,q.e.t'\MJ'ott
..
'. ot*

~(''
. . II
".
'"


, ..

v,..
.;> .. .. , : i "
J .. ..."f,."",-- ~

"T. Vi ~ Pex T
Sow,c.e
[.f.q.] 2,.

(. u.l..~Jtbb t'(f A E :?

5n ttu. CfWlt. 01 9d..l.cU ~~ ,EW, a 3u..neHon 0(1 -Ie...,.,,,.


db .Jem~. ~a.itU. )lame ..!.hi Hc& ~ ... ~,rtctJl. Sted..L
C.hcUlqe. db "aYltV1NAD... e~ ';l J., fCf,t.t.acL .i.o ZeJto

1:4E:ll]
91"1 +hi. o..Olc:tIlcd:t'c S!jsteJ'))'

"Terrlt, ~ SQhI e I ~ E clESt,lt)ot c.hah,e..

e8l.
OY')~ ~~
.~J- . t?~ ~ ~ ~ -t". Of \/\
. ~p ~OJ( ~dy;~' ~ ~\
~ "-1~ '1?t-"CV\ ~M XJ. /JIrwMnf '~x3 cD
~(rfl 'W ~ ~ ,~--;".~~) Ffj~ ~~
~ ~f.~.
~~
\.
YJi~1l1
av=~ ~\7J
COy ;~'ll 0-:00 .L\l
..L:'1.'$ -+ 3q- -:: tA.\l
(-1. (j) v ~ 3q 3 y\ \}
(Ad) \I 4.- 3\] ::\\\1
. )9J ~ ,IJ
~ IvJ~Jf;
,.,1
I~'
.,"i
41
0- ~fl
ra~~ "vl
.J .) f
.
, ~ ~ '" .l \
[~~J.~__~id .
1\PJ dE h ~
a~;J'V
pof)1O ~ Oft. Of ~~;40>
f~~O)! ~ .~~i'f;~~.
~~ -
I~ WOl~U~~J
.C1 :::< h~
.~ !
..
~
&-1
~I
~~] .""-..,
G-al;]
0.,.. b ..".~ a
Q.. -:::> \1\\'0 ' 0 ~ 3\J d "'\I.
Q d ::1 \0 I () -d 3\1 H\j' 3'1
'OYlJ~
~}JOchJouJ ~ Irt1~~{ ~. oM
v

~~)rvrvd >fj o"CUJ --Yo . wrm J101'
[?<1\-1~}J~~bJ c8J
C\*'l -: : . 0
f\J Cl +- b ::. 3'J
"I'>l~ ~r"'d <')i1f:;~ JIj - '1\ ~ c'\ J
{,t~
~
~(IA~-tt\)tb-~j
,LI .. Cf'> 4- b '" 0 ~
.a:
c!\ *'~ :.- 3~ ~ ~:
~)~
'~~~
~\\~~~
6:
\~::
,~,
8:
i~.<>
~~
J
i~

1 (~

\j'< \ (~

. t~
~ -pf'O ~ \@~
~~~ 1
fe;.'M"O()~ Clp.rp-wYOf'16J ~
('W~~};~~)Q'3\ ~
vJ L 1a
I '
-t.J _ .
-t.o' ""- "VJ\
I
I
l7J -: :; iiA1.( "
Jv..IJ\ I
.1
("III y.fIld ;<J" ) "cq--- ~ '.1\ - < <A ) -t.<l - '" 1)\
T7T
~ r4YOl- "':; l:;'~ ~ Cf(p:;;-;v(J)" , 'Ofrl'0:!' "00"1'i'j0-KO~
~G-U) ,I
\.II
~
(we O"fl J .,...-<J ~ '/\ 'd '," -o:.l.. CI
(
A
. ~ LrO .lGllA -' :;- C'1
dki ~ :;. ~MYi
~?t,WYQf~~~
---wtr) ~ Yf1~~) ~ .!{((y~0" Jf(fYf
rF1J of cA
(t1\_11\) 'J. -l( (\I\~--Cl\l~d -:. C'\
.'5f.J I a I, <# ["?,, b b'l } :: b ]
--z; ~ .. , <; b U'<i - " 6
-
'J-~ ~t1 fV~ 8 ~d
L CC6 au t...l + ,r
-::; 7;
.:, .-z::$
a IG r .7J X't Il 'b" u)4 cl.D,J ~ h ti <9 ""'"
0-'1
tA; vvo o..Q 1:, '/JI) 1'[. &l ~ ::;
e
"\ - i:: (\t - \J ~ ..
[r,f -L)-<l ] vro ~(1 ~ ~
~
&.
.~
e;
~-:;
e;;r::
Ct.~
~'::'
e::
~
~
~
~
~'"
.......~..-.

'
~ ..
~~:~
1
t
1

, .. 1


I
. :~
~(j)
(if- I
Pr ~ J~(}\)
<:.J "\ .
~J -to ~
.
('1\ -~I\ J :OJ ~
,fj);
\~
,"
..
..'
~
~
F"+1 }\1%~S @ f9
('1-7 Wub \'5 .(J;) :~
@:
~~t'\))O~ ::: b-:::C'\ ~ t~
q::; "'v G1 ~
Q.- ~ 3'7 G:J .'~
,1
.
~
~
~
~
~
() -: :. h @c
'0' ~ C"\ ~) )0 v\\?pus.. (C\-) 'io "Vp (~ @
\) <.; ~q (1.7-) ~ \A;~~it5 ~ (b~\ :)6 4>,':> (" :
Q~3q
I ' rI\-:J. Q ~
~VV{~~~-:'.~' b
~-L(J ~ 3 CI -:=. b ("i
\1,.::>\\<1 ~:
Q~ ~')l \"'If . ~ r:l(} ~
Q..-_ .::::l
Q..~3~ <::1 ~~"e
~t:Jy--""
~ [~1 ~~
~~
~,
~
I .'.
~
~
& A., ~
7/J. Sl 1AP~~rQ ~~J...II }o>pj.kJa' ~ ~
~?~~I~~ =;~~.~
.
I
Jvvt'oL ~~ fO ~f,) ~
1-1OQf"'~ fl7. ~f.~.~ N) !
--~
. ~ "',:. ,. -: VIP\~~~ ~ril -
" J. ~ ....
I ~
. --- .....
I,
[2"OC.+obeJ1,2.0\sJ

-: Adict.bcd:i.c P.910CeM fey om TollctO.. <;.tcLt: :.:

Re\1 ens i b..l.t.


1
:t: ':J.
~:lC)et\MI' 0 h c..o""PX4f>j, 0 11 . \J'Qccom In +c.n 1'IUAlJc.t
01'
~
I ~
f~ 2,q, eINv') (0 I'\.
~~eb, c.oW)~

Ad-icth. [

~ Ac.licthaJic R.e. v e>1Ai bk' Eq, t 9<U.b

.. ~'() n... 0';} tl e

Pex

O!l1 U)riI -IVy a n Icl.t.ot.L

fc" ,
\\ \.

N/l CV \:\ .' " ,


\tt:'Pi' t'..\', I>

-~--~-.-y , ,I '\ t .. , 't


~ > !"1'
E x~ i:lLt\rv)1 01'1. ... ~ 'I' - .,. \. ~ 1'2.
::- ('.
"" ", \\ .....
.. ,
"'(J \. , ..., "/ I'

.c ~IJ

Pex I
, <'
" .. Pl,:"
'( .............
(. \ ...

...
, (..om t~ ,'on. > ,.. .....

~1i
. . .' ~v

12.

~>I7

Ai nee we KnoUJ +hcd In QdlCWcA.he P.:ti..bCfN) fLu

S~tem S:?C..p ~ COtY.Iv~'t. d +u..u-u..


.
\..l? &E. fa1{e
ftJ..ac.r.e Gwld te.m~, Oc.Uo ChQ~u..

So fllE ~- ~~~::,1i' J
.. 9 n e:x.t>. ., T'l- c::: T. , ~ Jt> Co rn p, ;. T 2. .,. T,
Ccdc.,IOLb'on O"';f Chang e J..n e.ntho.l.t>'J- ( AI:!>~

~n+hoJ.. ~ Cna n~ ~ d-w,.' n8 flu.. p..HOc.e.&& ,bc.1)"Z. En \-hol.lht J.:.t.l"m

8nClUclt. 8rr\-eJ1 htlll en.t!H.! ~ 0 ~ a...l!.o c h cmgB5

r: .t; f1 '= h (1' ur" - r,) I


So, in E)( rt1V\? ,'on T'l.- LT,
'\.~l
lh c..oWl~.x.tMI\Ol?, T').."7",
'.

Cct.lC.uJ.otJ:. n c>j W o,)"ti.:l. oI..D h.CL ~ .,.


in Gtdt'ct.~Olb.f p.:rwceM we.. ~..)t..II)wf a ~Cl'\. C. 1'\...4.. ~ C4J, . q,"J
J.,inte pj = K -= t.o~tant:
'l 9 A+moC.t\~ 0cJ- ~~

om d S~ S 4-1."tt\. ca 0 e!.. ,firom ..in i +t'd S'fet.b. fo di nQl... S to1:t

\::>IV~ = f,.vt :p k

.rint e we knbW +t"l0l.t. -f<rT tw. e.o.lC .at.:ti.on II CJ3. -'UVe1. Wdrl<. olohIL-

VL.

W -= . J f dv
VI

'It. k .dv
:: - S Vi
'\I,

."J,.
= -\<. S V-I dv
'It

[ V-y. +I] V'L-


-
;:: - k
(-ttl'
VI

:-K [ -'t.t! - 'VI-t+l]


Vl.
-
[-"(.,+1]
I ... r v .. \1, 1
= ~ [P,2.. VL - f, ", J

C-t-tl J

-! C t} RT2,. - n RT, J

[-l-tl]

r---
tT2.-~
t =
- , ,-
nR
[t-I]
--~---1
!

fa", ~~ din. ~ Ii > T2,

itrt c.ct'1) ",. .. T 2.. .,. T,

wO'1k tan a.1JLo be Q':dtu.lDthA_ a.dtCtbctlic su..v LUO.5'r~ done


Cern a...lA..O -be LctJ-c..uJ.aL+e.d t 1"\ +~Ynh t);J.. Change...ib

~n t'>t~ ~tf

jyo m -3-i ~ + .....loWJ'" Vj. '++un mo ~ IlCtm ,'cx.


,?O CA cUe-. ''T()C~J
8E. = /'-" -+ w
@t = W]
\ hCvtT2,.-T,)::W 1
~: 1<~ l\. bIw Tero p. 4- \I olttroe In WL C/2LQ v-;t 1A-cttCLba:!-.U
SUlJ~\bJL p~te,8A :=+

Adlai

t;tll 'VI
d/t.-::6
ct.,...o
-7
\ '
~TL
' W,

'1 , PI

since LU e ,know U..,ct.t &om D+ JJ.wJ- tlj +hv1m~notmJ'c;&

du.: dC\,~ ~d V

du.=. 0 - pdv

Cv.dr = - RT d~':' [~oru.mcl.a.t-~, .9d~~]


v
1:nt~, bo~ Sl'd e

'l
C. JT. eLr
T
~ ~"k.'! ~
,'. V
1i 'VI

Cv j.I}. T1-
, 11 = - R ..ttJ. hV,
J.t\.- ~ =, -{cp - cv2 J.rJ V2
1i CV v, (: C'p ~ t)
ell

(t-O do
..La
-Tr
T'l..
":
Vz.

V.

.Q.~
-1i
T....
= ~ (~Ji-( ,
..f-o.ka'h8 ctn+i.J..oa Of) bo+-h side
----,
1i =
"Ti..
l /-l'i::
".

r~ y-,
,\

.r.)t)1 e.!l1en.& I b-k


-!-
Vac c u rn b.9L f.9-u.JL I! x.;o.t n.JI.? I~
'----

PC.lI :;: 0 .

v~ 'ol.f

~
<..
.. " '''to c.
t:
4
1.'.'
... C.

f;
......... ,
.......... .,:t< ..
.

.i... .,:".

hi::: Pex" ely


II ':. n.
o 0

llE. r.;t+;t

16e:~ 0 t'
'l1H:: .6 4- PAV
~H :::-
llE + A CR'rJ
L::. \-f .::. b. E -+ R. tJT C\-{.u.uL No lAJCYf'1t No LhCIt'''Ce I'n

L::.H ':: AE -t- '0


<f-e.tn~. .to ilT ... ~ J

-l ~'H ::: AE =u J
CaKt..tlotum o-a fh.o.t rn 0 04:1n omu'c 1'c.V-C.CU.1'1\.U:et1 ,',., i-lLt. Ctl-u..L ":f AdlCtbcU:tt.
f~ '~~GmNion ~.h.. ~qhl\?ton in vaccul'l):

t i} COt.Lc..uJatb..O~(~E) ~ ,we. 'Know +*U2..;I:. in '\IOIt.ct.ltl) r.H.A/)~w-u...k "Zenn.J S.c>

1+u.>-t:A i}.. no c.hOf"':!'e.lh ~teJ1 hot.O- E:..tum~ ~ e~CUV>Alon omd +hau:- ~

~ J:o (Ae <:::0)

tii) t~on 01 ~ti ~ 9}'\tornao. ~~ J;, a ~w.d oa En~~,,,to


L:~

Ii J,., aJ..t.ohot e.hCJn9~ d..t...t9-u'rf eu.pQnl J.n Vqc.cum,


~o) \AH 20)
Oib t~ ~ wo'"'* ~! -:) <&> 'VqCCUVo ~~qtv\?rot1 o~ P~w-u.. J,., ze;v.c
o~ +t.u.. rJ).U.N)ID<Jl. ~ tl" atDjCJbv.lt +0 ~ S'}U-eKn ~ c:en.o) ~o j'\h~
+h-u-UL ~ 'nO UJ~ cUlha.- J-" \IC\IUU m ~~"h)m'cm,
YhoJ:;--le.mW::L~) W:: - fc'!l' c:\111
fe:~.::: 0 ('\fUCtum J
:r~Vem"bh p!K.D~
J
'I:h+VHY\~d..t.tt.tt. r~oce&

-r- 1
Ex pCUVv'\ l E) 1\ t
U:J ""fT eM. 'on..

A I; = "cv CT,. - ii)

lHI",= net> C"i -li)

w = - Pex (V').._",)

::: - p~)( r" RTQ,.

--
P1..-
~]
t'l

.W :::.
- 1'2. [h RT'2, _

~RT!J
Ii 1',

T2.. .t...Ta ~ f" E~a n..Al>l'''''''


12. > Ti .., -fr:rr. CD tflf~'

d) c.a.LCU1c:ttiOl1 01- AEf. ..


.------------------
~E
= h tv C. T1. -Tt)
T2, ~ 1;

T:t.>1i
(

Crl) (a1..CulIU:tl19'T) va- 4 H ~ !


,;t'

[ LlH-= .l'1Ep CT~-Tj)y


liil) Cct.lc.u..La.U:iOh &J. wtN1'-. cJ..e-ne. ".

W= -P1 [OP.T'l._ hRTIJ


1\ P,.. 1'1

.: ~n Co. se t:Ij. e~qn 5 S I'b n.. ,r

(''2.. ~ V,

f 9h COAL ~ to m ""'.wHO n...


fflo noo.i:o ml'c;
<9tw>: ~ Otu. rnD...lL C)j. Clh "9d..tCt4-r~~ a...t '2":;f<lC ex.pa npend,!. ..9-UUJett. ~ A-cLh.bl~
tl;om a \I Ql.u.~ 1.0 d em:! +0 ')..0 dc..tn'1..

to1.cu.l.otJ;t. , q., /l.Q, AH ,w crnd 0vy>LLlJ\"- o\..W>tL ~ z i R]

.. , cl' - ()f =: R

c~ - 3'R '::. R

'-

Cp:::. . R

'.1.

.6E = .;L+w -: : W

iH:: = h Cv C T!)....-<r,)
, ' '1!i';;'
. '.: ,t v.,., t ( ~ /;J"
,... 1>--" ,

.6E :;: -"' I CV CT'2.- 300 K'


At& z' Cv (. T'l- - 3(0)

Jl ': r \f'J..)t-1
'\
0.,
.
~ ~VI
.,. .
t ..-'"'<t'!;: ~~~ ;; ,-- .(~-

21 c:: l~) '{.-J


"'f.i- 10

"2}. :::: L~ )"t..


1

M.

'5
_R
t -; --
-
S :::.\d,
:l-. :::. ~
C'I
~It.
-v

to:;: l~) \,(.-"


t -=:. l~) 0 d,
.... (').,)0"::: "S' s
'3t>o (2)'" b
--;::.
T~ ::; 300 ;:: IS8.9 ~ \B.9 K
T1.-
J.5IS

..n..n 300 - .ih,2.--= O. ' .....2.0 ~


= 3 'i7
"t
(0 0 E - oJ. )'~1. ~ ~ t. I -::. "3 V
(!.1.-l:.L) "'J'u..:: 39'
H V '0'1 V 'M r 'b '-r.poyrrypcQ fj~ Q""(. o.t- 'i,IVtJ P 01 W
l1.tf1arol\ !t..tQ.,y 'tU4='I'O 1. +P n.m wrn-4 ~U..!IG4x3 'rT<c\.tcr;) ~ ~~
~JP:>q1O,llOlO Itta<tart> :Jotz 1'"b na~ ~~ u'O -f.o ~ TUQ 'h'\9
..r: S:t \. LQE Z ..... l-\V
(j
l:t'h\'}h-:::.
-r,
(OQ ~- 6 B \ J 'f l to & }I.. 9 ~ \ :::
(lJ..- "f:.L J cI :J' q ::: H V
M+Q = 5lV
J: v8c. \-=
(n I) }(.Sol't l- =
S'~
S ~ tte~8)( 5' S5 :::
"t:
[lll-1 "~'8 X = 39'
-r,
(GOt. G91 ) ~~ = 3\1
o @
btc,;l-t W

1\ E- ~ VII

W'=- -Ve~. [\l1,.-'JI'J

Wz. -1.['20-\01

W -:. - \ 0 ct::I:::YO' dcxn '3

w': -10)( g'?'''..1

0,082

w _ - I 012. b -:Toul.t.

p...5"10ee5~ I\~ j~.

l:t. E '= W :: -lo\Q. ~

.6E ;:! C.v ('-1j...-7/; =-10112.,.(.

:!. R(T'J,..-3ool<:.) == _10\Q.b


2

3 't 8,'314 [T'l.-- 30'1) J !;:. -IO\ll, t


1. J;
1Q..I.I"t I

TIJ..- - 30 0 ::::. -I () '2. lo/t '2..


a.BIU '" 3

T2-- '300 -= -IOI(l..,~ ')(2. = lit-a I" qt,


"'-*q".~l-

"'f').. = 2 ltj. '1\4.

A~ ':: her C T'l-_T"

=- H- 2~ 81314
'l..
r 2187- 31>0]

'::
~ , S 'I. 8 t 3l\.\ L

:;;.
_ \~S\. 85t4 Jou..lJ

'1--:.::.1
';>I Q 0 B ;;;. '>l !) t . -:.:.""tJ.
01:;
~=-
.vb' sbb'l
- hb(: b-c.
"'-0.5 k 71 - "-.L
f\-;J
'A ;::; d;)
Z,(OI)
.>
oS L ::::~
(';bf9~ ::: .J\ j)
~
I\? ;::; hlC;'@ -t~?P60 '_'1(01)
= oSL
~ =AJ - J,)
:::: "ll..
l-1 (of) osL
--
f\-:J
'....l OW ""~dlllQ..c.tti'bt: ::; 4,:)
>I os L. Vf' '4 Ufd+
(f'"};}.'+,'O.,1 f.~ 'ljl(,fV po J 0+ ~w"JP 1 l.U Q~ ~rroCflO:llOIO
.~ 'I\'m(:; P"/Tp'Uobca ~1O~6 I..tO f..o TrOW ~o _:~
~~'bbl
21- I Ot..tobe.Jt. , 2015

COn1protLson. btw ISDi-he;J:1mct.l c:md adlh.bcdt'c p.}1t:1ce~.&:-at

" (compruUs,ot:') 01 Iso- ~ qd,Q. f~pOlhMl!o-oJ

(CUt -J ~ when 0.. S\js+ern Sh::u1+ed C P~lJ.J-tL (fl') omd V~ (v.')] J.J>
.:\:too di f fen en t ~1+ucttiO n tilru. J;, Q ell'a 00t:bC. crY)d ClYOGl ttw1 J.o I":

Iso+h.01 maO.) d..u~n9 bot /') qq nMl'oh :HI'lCtO. f..HtN)t..O-tL Pt J..,


SOl t'lU- In bo+h ;-ru.. Si +t.tsd.iP n..

t':t- Viio
~
. y.:r;",:
.~
.'
f!'''
4'

"'II'
",,\

..

~(~~r .
Pi ~i
~ Pf'Jadfq

t:o ~ JAo +ttt>fmC\9. E')t In::! ru.t.>\'on. -:)

rt RT::: Pive = P.f Vta o. --CD

Be(C1.W)e .:h.mp, tit> ~rYle fo!)1.. acl..iabcdic ~e.e8A

'l
Pi VLY. = P.f Va.dl'CL -CiD

t.)"}orn \.b ~

! == ( \n~e)"' .----'@
Pi CVl
f:JU) Nl - llt) l
~ =: ryQdfCl~) _~)

"4 ~,u

':
d
~
( tiJ"IPbl\ < .O'<:!f\ 1
~ .~
'b!Pb" < Q"ii.'f\
....
~I\

.::: 1'/i)\IP~ J\l~ ')..

Th.e o.bove ~uJ. 8how.3 thot.L i-W... ~1'f"\Q..L VCll.t.Ltn.a. ...in +tu- CDl.U.

OJ 9so\-h.U1mcu. c'.:!C.fClnAtU'On r. VI'.s 0.1 J" 8.9Uat..;le.n i-t1aJ.n .:ir'nClSl

vo!u..rru.. ~ tht. Cot.U. c.:e ad l'ct ba.:tic. +ttiA ~o p.n.ove +n CO:


, L~
wo'" 'b. ol.O ru. ~ +tu.. ~ e. 01 :r:$oftu,:J\tncd.. f.x.pCI(\J\J) Ibn \.Y.) ~eJ1
(

+ban WD""k done J.b +no.. CCWl ~ AclL'ctbct1J.c ~~CltlMl'01}o

Ccut- It
When ~'~ncti Vfll.umL JJ, both .th.Q. Cbu\ el. OJ..

tqcUQ.. <tJ -:tsoth.) 6}u.. Some (V; ,_

.fo~ :tso tt\J,)1mOl.O. p-'10c.e~.&

Pl'Vi. ---,) PL~oo Vf .... <D

fcrr Ad fet. p.:>toc e&a

't.

p, ,,~ ~ PQd.Oqo V.fl. -@

-from l~)

PC:
fl'S.O
= ~ll
Vi.
_ (Dt)

t::

from C'It)

1
fi
PC'.k:Ja o
= l2)
\I t
----{Ill)

-----
"UO.l W \H"'41c3 ~ l:) 1pb f.(l ~ ?IYl--t tA} 7\-O'l~~d
~u.lj lAl11\ft J.G~6 '1' UQ!W\.tlOthc.~ VOWlmoC+ OS.:I, W -mt1)
-m+ cty' "n(Y)Wl1'6'd ""OlO\J,I~ -.v}f 'f11I\.tf 'i'cnovro ~Yl').(" al\oq kl ~4+
'~lp~J < .OV.I c1
.'~
O'i'.'tt q,""d
<
7 7

(
~) '1 f"1~ J
_J
-1
- h'\ornWWnS
4f-~ CAL co LA.,.:rON OF THERNODV MAMIe PARAf\1E.TE'R IN c flSE 0 F-.

ISO THE R. M t:\L ~6'Vt5'Q.srBlE PRoc~ss FtlR AN REAl. qAS : -:II

01 CC\lculJ:lU:io n c)j OJ 0 91f< d..&tu...

we ~ h6W +hDtJ:;

fe... n n,01.a.. .,.

( p+ ~~l..) (V _ h b) = n RT

p -=
-n RT _
lv- hb) -
00'1..,
V '1.

W:::. - 5 V2-
p. dV
VI

..... W:::.
j V
[ nRT
(v -nb) -
-an~ ] dv
'11-

\IV :=
- J
[ "I 'ORT
"1.
dv
(V-hi
ah~ ~]1 v...

w - n RT J..h..(V2,.-h ~ + 011.2- C J:.. - 1.) ]


[ tv, _ hb) Vt. VI
"'1\ 1 ,.lH'J -
T - T -- 391
I(11\
I~[ f\ ]
"'11\ r -e YO - - av
1,/\
~~ f 'ttl t> -::::
I\p 3P J
"t,/\
~P.lS 4-\9 'drU:r.,
-r./\
/\ p . i,lIb = 3p
CcLtc.u1.a.ti.o n. <!1J .6 H

!ihte we know fh.ot1::

_'. Dl..l.)1..i h a I'h,\ t-,'t:U-. S+<:ctJ.

H. = EI + p,v, -IT>
f t no.L ,lf6...tt.

~h :::. E"l + P2. V2.. -

trD - (:J:)

l-h- H, ::; E'1.- E, + P2.V~ - P.v,


..oH = AI:. + P2. VI. - ,,v.
.
~

f ::: OIlT
lv- hb) - abt..
v~

.., Pl ::: nRT an'\..,


. --'--
lv, -hb) -v?
... f'l. :: nRT
-lV2.- hb)
Q)')'2...

v.,..l.

~h.Att...

4H = 61; + r~
tlYa-hb)
_an''12.1-)..,] v
1. -
f !'> R T,
lfy0b} -
en'l..1"
v.7.. I

N6t<~0"'~I.m h V,-...lw) 1;1 tMTVi-1fhl IJ


'14- 11\
~l.I- "11\ ~T' 1 ~ U =b
/V\+-b =. 3\7
c.oW)rwU.s~n b(W UJo~k clDht. ,'" i-lc.t. tOUA. OJ .9tt.UeK.Jib.J.t f-'"lO(~~ foy an.
:z:ol.JI.oll 9cq om d R~ Cd oc..H - (:r: so t-tun t1')Qjl P!H..Oc.eNI:t

..: we know thDcJ:. In a. ~ 9~-

W~UIL = n,RTJ.hV2--hb +0"''1. (2..-1..J - (1]


CR-ev.l '" - h b VI" V,

t l)J o !Itl clOh.t. J.n :r:d..tDt.l. <Jd.L..oJ

Wrcucd. = n Po T ~h \1.2..
_Cii]
C ,,~v.J V,

C:',,,- e.,cl'ttnsston. IIh.. '> '" J

Hu.h. {Jl) - 0:)

h""~
Wr~ - \IV ~.= n R..,. .1" Vl.
VI
, -- hRiV)..,-hb_Qf)'-[l_,]
VI-he \/" ~ Cbto'Z ~ & CD~t-t.,J
.,. v ~ $lrn..at.U.J

VVIclettl - W~ = nR~:l.. - tt r.!Y!: _ cml.


7 ~I 7' VI
r 1.. -1 ]
L \r~ VI

WXolea.A. - W 31..t.cd.. = - an'L. l ..!..V:a. - Vt.L 1


I
!
""rcl.t.aj. - W.xw. -:::: ctn'L. [ ..l -
VI
1
~
1
C' (n E"pc.rw>"oh. v~ J" o..lwOUf!> c.~eJ1}+ v, 1

( W 'I:d..ttlU-- \N R eQ.t) -\(om e.A + ive


ctncl 'we- ct.l.no'3ofe:J1e.e.p-l fo f'vlrm OJ- \'n+otCepr

, '
9' 811, COUL ~ 8 dJ.aU). QcV!. ~ ~ ~ U/) CD nv e9-CU.d J..hG UJo'lf ~ alb tLe

~ ~t) +tu. (~e U1 .}UOJl 3QJJ.. )...01'YlL p~ ~ ~'d t.W LUCU)f~d &h +ert~
WJ- o
o:j. O~h'U- ..to ~e~on.
CA'RNOT- ()'eLE

r-reltt:d IJa. H..u~ bei~J


,u,
Cmew,', H..toU: ~ w-o Yk-)
~ 0-1 To+ec.t J.-Uad ~ WOY"-) .

SoU)'( (e (li)

9l0K (T,.)

:rtuu1otHn~ stethd

c.. hetmbo.n.
~t.od.. trlcV.> ,J>-~
,~

~
~O.>(
.... - ~ ~<;
( ~
""
J l

~
..

,....

So tJ..)I.c. e
:

. .
tit'
....

""

~
Ii

." I
....
I{
ft,.L- ,
!I
.. ~
iP
"
"

. '"
.... N2.~-!>,,~
..,~ c. ~, /'

TI ~
:. ::;:} '"
(.~
~. Sowue
-: ~ , ,';'
.. ,.. ........... f'...

--~ ~~nd' T.

," ~ CARwnT
1: " . ," '
\!. '" ~ ... .
OjC\-E 'dJ
j .~ <' <( \ . ,Vj

".'. .-......

~. ~t ~\
' :.~'. VI
i ... .:: ....... _~

,:rns: kt~dS T~
.......
$

t
\ r "''':~
'In.4s....".

~ ...- .. .
~'" - .......

::' ~ . . /?f'
'':.

:.
.
....
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If
, J'

"." .. -;"
.... # ..
V)
T",
t,

'. , ., t ~-

. "J:~". S t-en'If
\ ...

,.. ~~~x
. ,". 'It
,.: - . . T".
<}I'n](, (' ~
~ ,. v:J~

-"",6.. . .~
:'
T2.

th~ i ~I nl<
~os~
L28'10\.2 0 1S]

"i:~)]C
.J
To+et.l
We~K w = [R T> - Tt )

9i J.n 0... 3mo..eQt.~) 9cl...tolQ., l-Iypot-hL+,'tctJI E.ng,'ru. UH,.'Ch


a){J. <aOI'n~ \:to ota.mOJ!.+~ mQx,'mun1 c.onve)<.t.ib,'..!J''*1:/- h..iLcU

~ u.h)51~

1'"
<an OJ1.olu1.. +0 JLhoUJ'na mOl'ltfmum lJJO",",*) H..t.su..t fee/dna ad.!.
+tAL P~teM xwvu,'b.1J. onnd Co tlh I'd Vlfna 8~ g~
OJ.> 0... w0911tt'"8 Su.b)Jante

...
(cothO+6 ~e>Utb)...l Eng/'ne openoc.:t.tn~ ~~ .fu~ f-'WteJu.>

R..ot {..Lu. .fcu,a pSi oc.~ oo-u.. ..kCUJ e.w.. I' b...l9.

'tVu.- e.f f' I'cl'encif ~ ~not ne tne onJJa. olJ..pend U/'on.

Ope)1ctJ.:t~ jMn p'

in ct. ~ not Re \J. E na I' n e J.hhpib. ~ fet1:I~nt- Cf..ll. +h.L

Y' .)ti} teN> a..9-LQ.. ...9-t.UJ~i &JlA ~I'n~ 9 cll ac Q.~cU.~, lNO""'kI'~
c:S.ub,t,+esnte b.ct we ~~ f.f.fIC fet'lCcj 100-/...,...

~OJ)1t. qmoun-t Ul- f-Uact (-~,,) ..iJ, ~Je.c ~-ed +a {-uL ~U9U1..Oundl~

~ff-IC;CJ)~ crt CIE 3ndLpend.L.vc::t ~ ~"nlr 'iJc.4Lk'1n(e. I:xd


~ oUfed ttpcn op e>1a.:1L"?J .:te rn p'
~ Sot.o1ce:

whOCh ..ib mo.intcu:nd cu.. -high temp,1i Of7)cl

~ aUJt.o tJ31..Ovt'de ~" ~ rSo+h..tnmcc1 e~~I'Vv.>Ion

=t' Sln~.....

. tt9tu.'ch u" rncUl'ltetkud ct.t J...DlJ) e.t1 j:ayn~. T2..

W1u.'t.h.. act: et.1> Obh e"t.b e>t, ~ f." Il l: c.::C. 0 .

+hccl- J)) pOJ-L. ~ Stu-tJ-t ouna.lin ~

4~t11)~9 )2.teLnd~ ..

3ct: J., wu.d c.lJ..o-t.ina cu..ct.i'C(bc.tf.t.'c FXf'CInM.fOn 0-'1 CD~~"OT\'

=tLuo.91~in~ Sub,.t...f-ant.ea

-'
tlj:rol..t.ot4-~~- UJe +er~I'n~ 5c.lt.ot.O. <dCl-\ OJ.> Q LuC.).~1~Ina.

cfuw..U-emte bt.oz. +tuJ.u. In no ~I')t~'on btw 9~


h\.o.lQ.cu..u.. ..La +tu..k.A- ~ not wCV\.:tin,s c)1. ~'d .:b:llk.e p...f..4lce
~ E:>!fa t\M ,'on C!I1 (.D Ynfc9-UNl "0 h O(J- 'ij Q.I...t.oLL ~.

=+ c.cU.~n. oa- i-U.o1mocltdoOtmt'c ra.?t.Of..rn.t..te>t .~ V~lV>

p.swc..~! & tl4- LQC)tno-t- e.n.ginQ.

[11 Reve>v.r.l6..tc. rs 0 f-t1..u1 me&. E.'x.pouvv) j 0 h. : ':t


L
2.8,QC.J.obe)t,2.DI5j
~."b\ 0 '(V

~
-0
t~""lV'

....

~O

~~ P,V,1j .-s..
~A ~e.~

~
r
-3 ~\o.,...
-. ____ ._~ __.?gf1- " ,. T,

-
.~

~
=cV
c:J.
II
......li(.l'
i-c...'Il' ~
e'-'f~

c .
~rlvi"'2.
Rev. Iso. C,orr,p."u..,..\/)I'Oh..

t I'J :ts 0 +h.u1 vruA.l


DOI'e.)C\,Qhl fJ-vl-TJ
f,VITI
~ vc:. ",.\I'd eH,\.. J!r )B
A
[).v>o
~E:'O .... -bE:: ct," w
6H -::.0
<: n '.::: l. rn..oJJL)
q.1 .. w::: h RT, J..h. y.=
AT:= 0 V,

fL.VI- Ta A-Hq E>l'Pqn' f3Yl T2..


~'l ~"c
~qr\IVdcn.
13 ~( ., tC
o
6E=t-t W

IN>U
DE. ::: C.v tT'l.-li) :W

AT<O
.L\H::. CpC.T 2 -li)

( P~"~1i-) 'j:.so. C,.om p)(.to Cpq VI.( T?-)


{}'] Is.o+tun.rmtl.
C -4'l.t ~'D
c.om~~Jon..
6E ",,0
t:::N<.O
~I-I ::. 0
AT :::0

DE :;;..l:w

t~1 Adittbc:t.u:t '/4-T'J...


b AJI'CI\tol'1'l~3f1 P, V, Ti

co ttl ,Si..I..M I'61l.. )A

6E = LV CT. _:it.)
6 H::: eft eli -'(1)
llv <0
t\T)O

9' To+a..l WO.51~ ~ J-n Reve. Coot."o+ E:.n91~n..Q..

wTo~ W Iso<Hw!, + Wqd.\~, + \NI'~ + INcul'ot,~.

';~ \;>t.I. ~Ptln. flmp.

W = R'TI J:.n V1.


+ R T!l.- ...Ill') 'V 4- 41
VI v-;}

W-::: . R Ii ...,lh '!; -t R T L Jtn VIf

VI Vs

'11. V2-t-I = T;. V-a


"(-1 C.B-?c-J

Tj
Tt-
: l ~~) '(-1

l;. v+t - I e Tj \I, '(-I [ D-> AJ

T, :. ~)t-I
T'L.

l ~~)H t::.. l~) t-l

\Ie, \rtf
'Iz.
- Va

VI Vq.
V'l
:::::
---
'13
I ;

Vv :::- R Tt ~tl V2. + l4-T2. J. h. Yl

'J\ V2

W-::: J2..T1 j.t) 'h. R T2 Jlh~


'VI VI
w=
QOkO
R CT1. - Tl) .J1n V'l..
V, ;~

Ca.Lc.ulo1.ttOn. OJ. g:f.ft~c..t'en~. ~ CacH..hot Enafne ! ~

~ = WT\)ttlL :: 4, -
't-,
~2.. ~ j ~(TI-T~)
VI
lro fft'cl'enCij) q.,

;RT'~
'VI

[~ ::. WToted-
q.1
= 'f" -~I-

"',
=
TI~T~J
'~

Cf)~:Hc feu.:t bj- Pen mtnOinre ~ Ca.nl1ot h..t...ot..t: E r\SI'ne : ...

ReciP'ro(a.a. o~ Ef-f-,tc.Cenc';l ui, c.cU..lLd Co1-:f..,'cl'e..t.U; D1


par{-o'lS rna h C"~ -

COP -- ....L ::::: = 11 =.'tr H..u:U: ct.b)..OJt,b.


\i-T\
~ l;-T, 9-, -ttr2- To telQ W()9'\ ~ c:I.D hL!
'I
EFFfclen C>J' ~ C(l)t not r<e f 91.J.~'rto.:tL.

't~
lj-1i
'"
';1
='
q" - CJ, ....

ct.:L
-
cop:: q.L
T2..
Tt-T....
-
1,. - q..t
!1.
''0 ::::
(,,1. -!.L = 1.t,
[f4u.tdt 'd-~ ~ '4~Tf' mat' ]
~~~~jd~ -+QU~v
:1 4=: .J.~.:t;'~ \-Ot(1G"Q1
puo aU,IBu::J ~ 40c.Ha:Q -ea "'U~Cr'l'K40(J ~O+?ld ~ .ifF
Note,'-=t
CARNOT - THEoREm

<t AJt P<'.>tio c!.U: m",~ lu'tu. WCl,>r"J'n 9 ..9U.\J h S r~ bILU


fu .al.nnu. ct::Lwo d:.o..m}H ~V~ .&l!fh'u. ~+f"t./'ent~."
CClhc1.W.lftm ~:7

Eff{denl.'~ c.run nQ.VE!)-J be f;Cp..Lad- d:u I cro ~/,

Ccetho+ -OU CJ.t. UJ tL9\~ both 00) CL ~ f2h,g tllQ. ot"n d

~~~T-

~ +tu.. p..9-UJ c:. eM OJ- to.v-t hot J,.t, ~ e.,9-tJ) I'b...f.L. ).Lo . UJ o~

dhtlQ.. ~ m~~l~mum but: tuLVen be. 1004

; Cruthot 4jd.o.- & Q Hvpo+-rul:i~ ~elo.. bc..e'Z. &.t t'J.. fe>tfec~


.s-u.v e.9'V> J'bJJ- r.5H:.D t ea-& ~
. E-r.fI'c-t'eJ1~ ~ ~hot f3.nJ 1'1Lt ~ 11.UJeJ1 be I oo~/ ~ rnu:uv..

+hod to Yl1 fJ.tie Con \J e.>-t.tiv I~ 01- H . ..DU:. In +0 LUo..:tt 'k ~

.u-n~OMIbJ.a.

=--.

( LUIO~Ol{JdJ. ) .
~ ot.( L<1OJ -k c.u .... Im,rp - ~ -:L. 7

(o;rro~ IbH>O) .... Co -= S \i ]


,o-<,&: 1~ I~I"""" ~ ~()'{llO ~ [Ol-AJ--=- s"v J
'J~(;P~l"pp (Q =: tv J
Cdf\~+}.h tl7~ 't,.4> t.L.lJltt'lr')) IJ;.1ilc ~~ 6;'" [<>1\,,+ -= SV J
'o~
(iQ : ~
GO"\. - 00 ( - !L.
[QQ{. :z 6bJ (?Qi :z 1..L. J
" o QI') : "'0 -QQf)
"1J:t."""'- OQ~
~ ("H~' - -Zj.-z, -: 0 Q""'C. - QQ ~
Q Q"
- -Qa~
'iJ oah +~"'t -= ~.;>\\)Jlt:
P..!l-f. 001; ... ~
~ ..... OQ~
'1:> <:1.+0 Q'"t)
M - '...t. - !.1...

iI>
0 1:1J
11J o to
Loat) ::: m
2.9, ocfobeJ1 2.015

Enf:n'O'p'iJ : ...

*" J.t J., a. S-tedJ.:ru.nt:tio t)

'* 3-:. . Ui)ct. ~ ';(.1 e ruive p.:xo p~ .

c;J-l.'J.> Uht t J.D Jou.U../ f<.e..l\dn

*" ~;I 0.. S~+ern un de.n9oina c.hang e !J +hO.D +IU. SWUt ound,'n9
rnw..t be etffqc.ted b';l ~,.~.e...

So, l,.l9t"li.l..L CJU.t.. QSlbf.cu ,toe a.J.JJ;ct..ty.. ~ .As $ 'It- ;. As S'CA.1'C7l'

we Cllll
m~ ~foS8 d..t5iL've .htfoP';;f cnomae u.1.L'c..h..
JJ> ~ 'tu.c:.d. d{)

[M= ~ J
't ~ Httti: qbSO!}Jb

eg. Suppo!>e Cl. ~tern wtu..'c..h ~vin8 +emp, T


f

rj.~ cthAD91b iu.oct l V from .~ SU9OU)Uho..lil'l9

fh.Q.n 1\S (S~ietn) =- +~.


T

, , , , , .,.
\ , ,
T "' '"\.

" ~ " :'j..


~ '"
$'2,.
s,

. . ... [ $. -,;, = lI9OJ>! ~ 3:.>Ul/-/


~~ T
'-~ ~
~n ca. Tota.n. ~n<lYOP'd ch.Q.Ln'3 e foStn ~f'\J. p~ce8:!'-?-

~ ,
+q,.
E.xpatvv>l\'h. _----::;..........s)--S''2,.
$\ T
~ " ... ,' ::;, ........ ...

. ,~... ........ ,)."

'. ~ ,":,
I. .. )
\ ' : ,,\~ .... 4 \
, , , ......
: ~ '... t ... .:. ... ~.
~---------------- \ ~ .. . ... ..
.:::. ~Ql.s aVl-GltllUfl V
::. S
[0 V'
1

..L

.""l(\.(T\ S '5 V
~- -
.l. z:. IS -<:s
.:: '~$"S9
'b+
I 0 < "AAU s 'V 1
a ;::. ..L. /0 --:. . laC1SS \l
4UIll' \.I"'P -jfllOCTl o-r o:r -nrp d"J lOl"xf . C) ~ v:r ~ 0 Pv..p
t.lOjlWta)~el o:r cm-p aJlOT4 ~~--.o:r Vf' 'liflO'l6o'(flO
~-aBuo\.().('O
X
P~~Q Rq ~suo4U-4aJ -1- 0 4. or 1irP11l0 ~ ~ 'P-4dt 3 1'l..U..
\ 3A\+"" '>!IsSV' 1
..l.
\
. -\. "
1 ~ " ""
(:--
.,
\ ~..... _... -
.'
...... .... ... .""
1 0 = ..... US\i' J
o = I~SS 'V
f'T-PJf'Q'5I.
'f['
[ lN~ U 0 Q"l.(KnS
'"1..ffJl Nbf.tto\) ON]
. '. - ... '> '\
:.... '. >
:# Cct1cu.tru.:tion. OJ- gnt~p~ Change OJ 0- S~+etn tAJ-tw-u.

+emp. Qrnd \lclt..trru. tJ nden 8 0 ~rnu..:t;u:t.iol..U> c.. ~ e: t?

fb y an. 9 ci.LtA1.. ~~ -=>

de'::. d l!. - Pdv C Fyo m Is+ L C1 W tl':f.. ttun m 0 ~ na m I' ('..& ]

d $;:: dq...
T

d" :. 7dS

'" ._..
.... ~ c ~~
,
.,
<;
:' fv ;:: n RT
-
.'. p-=- nRT
v

4+JJ
, '.
:-" ';. ... t "
{
- .. , - S,
'. t
s'!

"I
I'

P, Ii '1,

n, Cv d T '= 'TdS- n RT dv
-v
~
'2-
n Cv S '!; + rLR S tv ""z.
- JdS
$1
1i VI

'1
rt Cv &n. T2- + h. R ~h. "2- = bS
Ii Vt

\lo,lU.me chclh8 e lul'ttl c..oru tem+ fempl t "So +h.tnmcu..J

dT:: 0

[ L':!. S 's.ttunmo.t. = n.. f{ .in Va.


v.
l
"

Fb.)t I'So- Cho.)1t'c p-'1...Oc.e&.8 [d v :: 0] , t-hLh...

~ if F? ;;pAsss=:.

6 s I'SO Ch b.:ru'C = he\, ..in. T'2.


Ti
i,
t'.:
L

I Ca.lc.u.lOl.liOn OJ. IJ. S OJ a.. Stjs+em ~ temp cmd p-.9WV>WiL

undenfjo <i3l'rn..uileMotU ehClng e tt

....o
n'c" ..ih T'2. -+ n R Jln V1 ': ~S
11 VI

[: from Olbove ~ln1 J

we kn@w +tn.t ) from roU-oll get! ~

PV ut CohA~
T

PI VI c p~ \11-

Ii T'l..

(*)(~) "' ~:')


n Qv..lh Tl- +
1i
J1..R Jlh.(12:)
11
~I ~)
\ p~
== ~s

n c" J.n T1. 1- h R J.nJT2-) + hR d,h,.. f.t = 6 S.


Ii \11 Pl.

(Ii Cv + nR.) ,.~~ T'2.+t\~Jl.n- 1\ _ AS


Ii - I
- p2.

.. I) C: ~ - .....C " ::: n R..


nCr : : : h R. + n. Cv

! h Cp J. n... T'2.
Tj
+ n. R SI'I.-- 'r.,I ~ liS l
Cd to hb t t rJ-U.N.> UX1. -:'

Fa'" ISobo!1U'c.. p-'"Wc.:e&,& ....


r dp =0]
(). S XSobo.nfe ': n cp .in T2.
T.

a. COtutt +e..." p. Cl:s.:>.f-tunmot.a.. p.:rwteN> J

6 g ,'SoH'U)'1...mocJ.. == -n R ..in. It
"2

1t Entr-'op~ Chonge ~ PhQ.u)e ~CUl.b~ ynlJtl;L'fn). 11:


cluxin<a Phwe tiJcm.~-nnma.tion. J::Ul1p., f-"UJlU}t.Q., tone
Q::feiO

...9-Ulm ot.Ul. CD rv.,. -bt :>

e~. So..lid <2hcmge..t. .into J.Jl:t W'd

J..t.'ct tud c.ht) ng a " 9 CV:>


So..lid 11 n 90l.A..
. ::te.
e'3 [ D~ Co2, -'I' etA CL r<ef7,g~II\:t:.J
1lJ.~W})

i
L -1t~ I-\..UJ.L:l; 'S~'h ~ fqa.,eI {"'1 '
( .6.s;:: .t.H ] S o.ud --::::
-=:--
.uq,U'd' ~[I AS c _ I.Ht ]
'3!ra: -ive g"'1 h '
T 'fIl. ( 1uw>1'OYl) r....
( Al' _
~ - -
.t.H 1 ( "e4>D;)tI...')
Li<\w:d ~ 5~ ~[ l'1S := -l)i1 J
-
T* T\,
[ !JS = Atl 1 ~o ll'd" ,. SeM ~ [~S _ ~I-t ')
- (suh) C _J
IJqbt - 'Sl.lb.
e'g,

&!t. "'Ca.lcuJ..oW. .f.tt.L lDta.f no!v-op\j ChClllge IJ.9hw -lo~ O;J- WClte)J

Q;t Pt>t.llCu.lw1 QmOUl'li tio Chall9et d:b -10' C diJ..ire. cu:

pv-d:ic.u.1.cut Q rnou..n i

SoL"''9

-lo"c if Sttpen Coo..ttd wOt..b..n] ~ [-to'C] I'ee

~s='? .

- I 0<)C \Ai ct.t.f)1


---~~ O"'C(wQJ:en) ~ O"cc.,ce) - - - " ':"'Jo~cO'(!e)
Jl.. .3- .lJ.
6S , 0$1. ASS'

~kdeJ
.!l s, = hcp....iLn. 2..73
2'- '3

l)S~ = - LH-t'
2.73

~S3 -= h (' p ...0. h 2.. Gj


Jlo
Ci..ce) 2.. 75

,6S= 6S!,+ ~>1+ .oS.l

e'9'
,r,'.
Qot 1 hlOf ~ So.Ud T2 ) J..U<:t.,W'd r!l- !-

LObo kJ

SQDjd[T:L) ~ Jiquid t:rJ-)


J).
...,. J1\J.Lld(;r,.)
SoJid lT~) -? 410 Ie;
4 3 8.:f K ~ ~8:r I< ,as,J
3(;0 As 2,..
l:lS, SSHf\f
1ft
Tm = '38:t 1)( Cp x ..9.n. 1!!
~Sl ::
C.Solid 1',) 11> ': 5lt ." 4 I< pi tn IIlpJ
'3to
6$1 ~ ,<31 :: ~ J
f<tr'qiJ It.) ( .. :: 8o. b1 1<'" tno l-' -" mbL1
~.s
Toku
=
154'\.41.4 )( ...o..ra. ~l T 78'10 + 80.&-=1 Jln. 4ft:)
'3'0 3S'T 3'flq.

:= S'4trU 'I Ob'12. + 20 1 '33 t 80.C.1 ~O'Dfi1

::. 2..8S3 4 J 'kim ot:'

:::. 2- e. 9 "J" "'..., mOl~1 [1>J

41- EhtfOP~ c.pcma e ~h9 Cl .9-U.Clc.iion #

3A -+ 4-B _ - - - - - , : : , "S C

1 1
J,
SIc
SA Sa

L\S :=
'SSe - C4SB + '3S'A)

SA ::: qbSo..lu:lL "e.nrJr""1::I El* -.h..mt>.


~ovel'! +w.n ok

<SfI ::: o. OJ:: O' K "">f.::u;.JS r~& c..onve.nJ)I'C-O)


(.'3, ~oJ.d- l'~
L meL (AW
SA ,,=0 CU:. OK
~bso..l.u:h 'Gn<lrol>lI C!\J: o~ QI'UJ E.J.n..rne...d
W> "Z.e:r10 r: c.otw enni"",.J +- ~~den-)
A C.sa.W) ---'-
-c:-- .B CGIlb)
SA Sg

A CCt) --==
..... ts C~ 1 (6S : : +tveJ
we. rO!w~ ~
A?C>7 + ~07
.~ C OJ)
~

Ft Ctr' ~ B (~J 't '1! (~) \t)S!:: + Iv~)

~$ ':.: -rIve

,4u.n:r ~~d J2.uo :po tyra UllT~


-Roo -to R4o"""u::J 1lJ1TClYqb 1J1"lliUJ ur UJ~'" ql.(a2..
""1l1JLf+ --anoq1o ~(J.J1J"f3 -n.t4 ctr ~~ R4o}.(lu"3 T4l *
0 1..C'dz. CIJl ~ 0 --qnro-rcpo 'flO
~ It..hr:J 12ruo f.o R4oJt,.uEl ~ l.IOJ~t\U(T) o:r EUrP'G'OJ::>tJ *"
2q~ Oc.l::obe.n I 2.015

~esi clu.oJ., ENTROP,!

AccC)~~ 1'0 +ru.... +h01d ~ '-, THE SNlR.OPy Of:. PER FECTLY

G'ISTTIL'I.~ E S'UB!'TANCE AT ABSOLUTE Ok


.
\JI) "Len 0
.,

StU:. ..thJj) J.ou& ~ a E. 'ICC e."t ton a.l~o.

eg. ~ (0 C~ta.uLN.. <311 ut.tu.k.J- cd:. ClbJ..oJJJ.:t-e. 0 'k

.k not "Z.eno bt..oz Co rno.lcLc..uJL -PlQ\Je

~o oUF-fe.rtQ..t..U:. o.91..L~on

(;

co
1
Co co Co

OEe L.EO c..u co

Co C-t) oc. c..o

(!..t>
cv Cc- Co

rnct.t:hm1ct:tLtctt -ffJtmuJct. ~ Rlh!C.t.tw& r;n4Yop~

[s~ Uttw 1
\ R~ 9cv.. toru-H.
\
\AI ~ o91l.eu:lct.cloh.

e,g. ~ to YJ)o~) No, . N'2.o) 1-12.0 ek. ~ CllL -Puu. V 4.. d::;Luo

o.9ti.eh~bn a C<..bJA,Ju.l () K
7,1\
'"0 - 9P
-t~J "

-eJ\ (ct- ..\ )

15 - .1~ == <1 ,
- Sp
..L ...1
.1.. f\P
- d - 'bp
sf :::; "'P
- ...
...lp 1\:) ':l! '3p
Tp -\-
J\P l(AP~
1\:)
-it
~(kP) :.
,,~ ) -+ .J..P 3p "3P
/\P
J.( TP
~( AP) ~ A( ~p ) ::;; ap
I\P ':3 P lP 3P
(I\~)f -::: 3
.
~ u'" '(\
"U _1'" -!J..

~ ~ U ..... ~ 4..4l" A.J U :. S p

lCtsut '-tI>IO)
&W' Ih.n. rntl..tO>t h"fooP\t OJ- CL GtI.g~ co aJ:, Ctb.taJ.u:tL () ~

~ R~~ - R...an 2. @D 2..tn ('L @) -2

~. StandCWld 6n4rot";f OJ. OJ-tt, Co Ol..t. 0 K

(I) 0 '03 ,,7/mou... keJ..v{1')


(h R..Q.h. 2- tii) '2. S Itt "3/m 0 Jl.J... kUVftl
(iii) , eJto
Rx :::::@) S.7 t.. II :r f 'm o.J.:t!.. I<-~ \lIn

l~a.b.. -2.003)
(9.t..IL

N2. + '3 I-f 2. (g ) ---!> 2.. NH,,(Q)


<lI)

:: ~)( (19~.3) - 3 X (130.') - \~lI5

.::.. ~ y. \,,2.3 - '3)( \30'b - 191-5

= - I 99.~ J" IK moJ.

c. -4"1\) e Us n ~~ &tCJ...t4, t+u:t.:t +huu..t.M C1 dec .9U.PUl et) in


t- h.t. <:;t OJ) eow> ;.. pee I'eh J.uni'1 tut- .9Uact=tbn.'

[S~i. ~ E.n tffop~ E..fC. o:f( <:II ~ ~LU Su:tV1J>' d6\ Endro 1''1-
V1~
.:I)'
e'1 .,. i V e ;, u::rrtJri1]

-
~ 2. Q t 9) - -....
;> tlt.. C9)

c. s \00 nte nJo/.Ah r -'1..Oce& ]


Aq =- ~i"e.
6. H .:i -i lie..
llS :::. - j\Je
Ok. .. 1 c...o rl)P~'E'd
OhJL rn o..k OJ- :rcltot1 f1c:u ~
'\I,
".
~I
4

A. 'F...

.os :: n Cv Jtn T1. -4- n R . ...Q.." Vl.


1\ V,
AS = 1')( Cv ...G..n.2.T,. + lX R,. J.n VI
Ti

AS = Cv llhqt + R...o.n..l.. . ~~
;Fi'" 4-
AS ::;.
Cv ..n.n Q. + R Jl.n.. .L
4-
IJS = c.v. .J..f')'2 + lZ..tn C!-)..:2

.0$ ::. Cv. -.0.0 til... ~ R ...o..n. 'l..

I ()S - .J.n. 2. CC.v- 2.;R)) .

t%'4f 2 tno.U. en.. A!)1aon qat.

..TJ:: ~oo Ie;

Ii :: 5'oo~

65 .= n. c "1.. T 2-
T,

6$ =: Q..X' Cv 'X ..D. r\ 516


30-.6

.os. :. .'1- 3 ')( It X Jl.h.'


~ 3

IJS :. ~ )( 8 '3 III )( 1..0.., '!)


3

('2 m o"H) D S =,24 9 4~ J.Jl ..':


3
ll. YnoJL) 65 = 2 Lt <3112 J.tt. i ::: h' '3 -::j- :r K -I Yh 0 l-l

'2.

t-h .... 3 H2. ) 2.1'11-13'

T =- 29SK

6 S~~.:: - 191 :r \<:-1

.6 H"'s~~. "'" - ~ ,.g K. j


:::: -91.C6'1,U3J

Cr~-.f} l-tLoLk:
to ~I Te mp' -t j?~t..l9-tQ. I \ sMs tem. ~ .l1-zt1
3'=ICf: St..U'01 o ~ GfIFtIj
ct1 .,. fv e el*lJ
Lj S TIlhU.::: 6 S s ~ t.. of- Ll S s t!J..X)'j

= - l 9'i :r k -I + ( +-3 ,.8 )( I 03 )


2.9'8

-19':f- :rK.~1 + 9/.8')(10 3


2-98

::: -rc:J=I:r K+I + 308d)'S

;;:;: I 1\ 05
I r K-I

&l4 I .., T, == 3 0 0 1<;

Ta..::: 400 K

C" ':: (5 -fO'IT)

~s ::: .
?

t, S::: h Cp dI

JC'5+ 0
400
T

~s :::: '")( ItT) dr


300
T
..L
HV :::: sq
1
,~1Q UA L o..ao Ih i;:; 1-10UJ..c 60 J~ I h ::.
~
~ [1I1m
,~lQlU j..}.1 1: sn - II -::.
01+ S h' I ::::
01+
[8"6 10 J s =
01+ ( o'S -66 1$J S -::::
00 I x I-a +
[ 00 t 4"0"' - r/:.0 "CJ1J"6' 1 s :.
[qOS"-O!l h ] 1'0 +- [oOE UT' -QQh u-f ] 5 :::
OOE 00
(.iI-oJ + (.1 uv-J .s ::
()a~
oct"
00 O0't
.L
.11' 1 oQ +- .lp 5
5 J = ~
QQ.,. oap
~f!- n,: fotno.!e
Cp = 300 ~k""
('".e
.
'?
=>

tl. C t> - "'cv == l1.r{

'Oc300- /Ia'){LV = S.'314~'o

300 -cv e . Q.314~IO

300- 8,314 ~ IO!::. Cv

300 - 83llI t- ev

C" ::: 300- 83.14

ev ::: 21G,86'J'"k...J

Ltf ~ 2..1~ "J" K-I [ bJ

~I '2'E"
llth 2$ ~et:lt - :loU

LA.)"!. (300k,! bC(1) ---:\) 1 A-'l (2..001<., It:! bCOl)

6,.5 ;::: f) C, &t1. T2. ;.. n t< Jln.. V,.


ii Pb.
= 1~ 9 'lC: R't. Jln.:!:JIE + I}( 93IU't ..Qh. ~
2. 3pp 10

5" y 813111 ~ JLh... ~ e 31U 'It 1:~, 302)


"":" 3
.,9143bQ?.
4~t ~-q..){ .un ~)

~t. ?':l-)C Jlh ('1-). (t:t. ftl3bCf L

=- ~ I' 5 ~ ')( (y 41> '5 (~rllIS b.9 2


~
1-1 (lI..Ii ... -';...c 'khl -bl ":, 'SV
O~ ':0 ~nl 'S' =< sQ
"
or1 1.fU' ~ hIS '8 X.l ;:::~17
[,d
V \.flf' ~ \.I ='S'V
W-t 10 1 "fl.l 0. ro Tl-01 <.Nn-<;'
J
-4> --"...(Y'\ fI'\'1'1.Cd )0. u.<CIJ"I ~\..UvnH.()Vf p <..t<:1~ a m~ l'lUllt'::t uw
lb~O ~hlf:'e :; SQ
iii btl I 'i'
1,
,fI1
.1t "'l.f1f' ~ hl~ 18 j( I -:; HI
rt\M~PGC
"1\ ~~----
'4 ttr.:4 'l-t'.i'CQ
~ -s: ~ IS V ,:porrrJTflOJ
~: GIBI3'S e~ ENERChY :~
It.
CoM-\'tl; pJ

o I:t J" CL E7..+enJive P~P~P

Oil T+ I"j}) a. Stet i e f'unc+ro n

o :t.' ~ q fOl)YJ) ~ EJlV1g~ Whl\Ch CCln be l.lA.Ld In Cfn'(j.. LW.:fuJ.. woY/<\

a. J; in. f~ EtuJ1~~ .k <:.U>e ru Q non ... mec-hClnl'cu.Q UJO-'1K

TfI~ \J n it Jj, T.oUlt..

e mct:lh.d.ma.:titot.t 81- J.ct b be. OJ .!Hlttet) ~

a =: Ii.... TS

~ H In Ct toteUl ~t1.U4 tj Od- a.. g~tern


~ TS ~ un~ f1U1!~,

[ o~ U cao SC4J thod ot.t.no.st.cl.t.9-t COtn' h ti've.t1 be. UAL

Olh ct. tu O.9{ ~ ~ bto 'Z. lL tu..Ld ~ , .tu.Jq '<I


~ su.bJ,ktnr. ~e.. -I-Luly -Phwle]

Denivat:ion OJ Mal we.tt Eq,l.t.Ct.tion In ..fe'llm OJ- G..


"
G"
4::: H-T~

G,::: \)+ PV-TS e' Ii '::: ff+ pv]

PHf. botl> s,' de


d G ::: dE + f'dv - T cl S - 5 dT + \r q r

... , dE .:;; dCf.--Pd v


, d f::- TSj - Pdv
lM+lQ T. .::. 7d
I.U~ I ::: 'a
1:;- \A
9V
-
"'"t &' J16)
CD'~
(6D-01.-~; )
..l.'d ::
4
J..""tI -:::;. J\
[ J.. 11 =z I\d .8 Jp f\ = !)P
1\ -=::.
J(2.f)
iJp
... rw f:> U10TptQ fu UV10J ~ (.fO"' W""dJcn-' d O'P u..t~-t os 0
<>
Ub ~ A~ ~f ~ o6u104-o . to U~1':rp~J ..
~ Ca.lc.uta..tiol1.r OJ ~G; So.9t.. Q ~ t:t1o n .

~~~'----------------
L),G::- ~c PRobUtT - ZGRe:AITfl-N,r

e,~.
3 A ..,. LIB --.:J) 5c

A &1, ",>:1"1 hlo.J.a

B
Gt J. "",SI . . . c1J..
c
q!. !S> :II moJl...L

[ ~~ = l3' (13 - 4Ci - '3q, I

==> RtJ1 SPOh+ettu..OI.M p.9UlC-e.8A ~4 o..lWGt~ be -rve


.u,
4~'C 6H _r1)S

. ,
A S ~ ~~ ~Os.""",'ve
.6t; g"trEUf~ ~ ~e paUHve 01' ,~at.t1\1e.
'f'
.'. A4 ~l~ ~veJ
[tl G d,1 _tly orr~.I) ('('/-rT

~\-I ~ '\rctJ..u.L ~ s <=f'


5~ f):::(}-eA~

H
2.01 S, "I ove.rnbm, 03

*" P.)t6\1 e. +nett ;:C}f S pon ~eoW JA9Wte.M 4cn.iD JJ.M t-h1U? -ze.no
0:~p:n.oc..)

\ Q '"
we. know fhed thL j-tuct change ..9.b at. S1!.\J~JlJL P..k.DtfN) J.'J

rn tfrtL +han fhL J.t.J...oct.. chal.h I) e..in CL r~v~1\~ f.9W Cet.}

d q 9<..U1. > dq, ,,'.91,)1'

T ds > dq,;~,
" (As: *v)
o> d'tr~' - TdS -CD

( dq,i!Kn') P ::: dH -

flU. fh.t v c:UJ..u. "<I (2.) ~n CD

D > ciH-TdS

o > (dG)" f .. . < r r


.
. >'1 vr .
r , ... . ,
....
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.
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,
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Gibbb J-IOPho,l-tz- E~uoction
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s~
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we KhbW +hOtt. .. '-,
, \ \

"'"' t..
G-=H-TS ~

o ..
faSt &mtiM ~
:"-"
GI '!: HI - T s, -<D

fto 1f'nCtQ., Gl-::: l.'h.- TS, ~

a.:t c.o~~n r jit"'r\ p. .,


AG:: 6 H - IllS -

"

...L -,-p )
bY' =
-Hv - d( ~V) P
.
d (.l.P
@- "tS - = lOP )
_
_.l(~)
4' - lS-
I.!! lOP
d(..l.P\
$'- ~ bp)
l..PS-d.pA =9P
l4a1.mhal+z -funt#ot)

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.
...
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"

.... "
-'
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'1lu.n mosio..+
fHcNI'ng k.te.tJ:. ~~I\+Y']
.t,
~e

f()51 -(T,V)

Wo~~~ j-u.hCJion
091.
Helm hoJ.+Z. flH'lH.fon 09-{ 1\'

A::: E - TS
T ~1l91clt>-t.
E.~

~ T..1: ~ CL 1\t.H.9 tl j-uh ttLot'l

9 9l: ~ a.Uo .xfeh.fl.tve P~P~

~ I..t Uni". ~~W>~ ~ joult

.::r, q;b.t.t, CLl.Ju) Co.t.tU.d to 0-'1 K 'j.w,C;tt'o" om d ~ eM.1 e d b'<1 A'


~ lNtun GL s,'t!+ern U ndengo"na CJwnge cd: a. tDMt-t, V<UJJ.roe

+ht..t:1 f-Vui'f E~ 'd f~ t enm I'n <a-n te'l' nCUi .run ~ y <f
\.UJ1.m \;j 0 u. S' u.bwa~ diJ." .9-tal1rt- fro m t-otetJ. rurt.f ~ I W e
ge..t Hettnhd-+z f~ ~:f 091 w(')~~ tunU::tbn ,

m .{6~ SpOIl fettLo ~ (Cd A) ltV < o}


..L~ ~+ 'd P =- 'Jr
(.1):1 J e+ tip :::; !J(1
(A-J)f + \;; P .:; bp
J.,ps.... SP..L- 3p.;; vp '\'
&..i---3 ::::\:1 '~Jl-J.PA-"Pd ++~-l-ap .::;;'Jp
[o~J.p .;J ~s- SP-L-dpl\+APd+3p. =~p
:~:';
1~'
S..L-I\d+ =I ::. b
SJ.-11 =--!J
('tIV:::. b ~ cnoD mrp 6 l.t lJ Jt.Y- ( 1-o'J GYlii'd Q)OU-t I-<T4-f Q s:t UP J.\ l:f ~
'P~ M~ P-'tOt>~ :~
~~O$e. 'z.-.io 0.. .fu.ht:t.tol1 04 -)
~

'Z.= 1 (T, P, h, /'I-l.'"l - ... ~ _. h\')

'" ~ 3~stem hClvl'ng cltffeJtJUd rnQb.. c)j. .9c:::u~


Cn,) h1, l'l3, .~--~. 01')
~ Th.L. To.f-qJ. cU ~ of. tr.J. +uM ~

dz. .:::.
( ~) clr + (~) <lP
dT
r, n
D
I. 71
n:a., n... -,.,i C>P T. "I, nlt, 02.",.1* "hi

+ (~)ont + r drz. \ 302.


d n! f> r. .
a..t t..otv..t.. 'T, ~ P
I,n'l.~hl
~ ~7'T, P,h" "3. ~ ~ . hi

dZ .::: (d'Z.) On',


.....
~._ hi d~ )OhL
(""in!,. ~
an, T, p, 02.,1')3
-I-
li P, h, t n 3r .. hi d2.) an,
( in; !
1,1', h/,"l,n., ... "i

d"Z. == (a"l..)
~
dhl' T, f, h,O"l.I'
, *. Cn,'-I)
:.u
pwttic.tD.. ~ p.Jt.o Pe>t.t:v
\\0)
~th thelOge J1l ill
+tu.i, Ji-, ca.u.te. d p. J)) P, b t.o Z ti"Z.len ) E) AJ 1 -to m pon M1: OJ
+tAL 8'j ~ -te:m w-tuJ...tt cw... ot:h.tl-t {.o-n-) pO hU..tJ:; cu-u.. <J> rtl! te/h-l.

Note;=} DJThe p~Dpe.>-t.l{e.! ~ In DCCun &n ttu... Pu.xt ..Qkt1:t cJd.


4tAJ- ern, do dif-leJ(.(UA.;t ~.9L i-tu. ~pW-Ul. S~ steJr)
CPUHL~)
e~ W hen we qddl~'1J' om. molt. 01 wcU:en pUrt.t. Wctke11 loocn,:J CT;}

Whtnwe ae.t .6\J ::::. f~Ch}:i. &CbZ.~~ tnou... ut waJ;e>-t = ~ cm~)


t .... ~._ JI.~ ShrlW.1LI1I nL. ....
hH-l/I ' " , liP addl'nq Q L n1.Dll. 0:1 p-r){J &'11
9.rl +he c.haha e ~ P~J>e>-("11 1%1 aropWtl. JUet.1:.L Jo <U-LLS~ d.U.u

+0 btl>'Z. vtt cli f f e.n.o..u..t 90 te}Ut<:.t;W n .::l:oLt<. e. p-toL ce.

t
CHEMICAL 'PoTENT.rAL

~
Te.., ... D
:~-~rr: .rMo..o.. 1.t t -= .5..
-- . L cu:m n

J.t~. =~~tnf J..epenckv.A:)

z:;:.q
!, ~I'
h4

U~J T.
J.t.i :: -

p. h.,n" .... Co,'-')

--
hI :::
(~;) T , V, n.2.. I .. hi

.il2. :: dl1

(
3n2. )T, P, 0" nl- .. n/

~ ( -dG) ,
:: emS T,p,f'I.,n!Z.l- . - hi
~ ChCmse ~ f!TU.l1. E.ntxf~ WI'+n ChCl hg e J.o p~ CompDOeut
J...t, C( s 3stem w h" ch co l1tet..Ln I' t) 8 c:l.f)ff'. no, C4- rn o...l.U.> wt\.(Ju. aJ..t
~+h.01 -rno1J..b oo-u.. t.o ru~ n ~

If Cu'bb'J. i.9UL h.0t9~ cnangeJ wr't-h f-hL c.hange -in tJ~ Cornt;orwhl

~ c..o N tc1n t T + P w h.o-u. QJ.l t9 f-h.u1 CD mpo fl..Ul t c:O-Q. Co tq tel nt

thCLt In ~~~ChOnlIl'c.otD. poten+fctQ.

~ fo:Jt (). pw-u. 8+o.t.t f~ 81'\.U-\g~ pex.rn.o...tt c.h C"c.tl1.Ld Ch.e./nt'catQ.

potenH'a.Q..o jl-etndW1d ~c.od pot~ COn be ou:;fr'ru.d

fo9-L 0.. pw-u ~ 0:1 Q. CD rfI po un d) q m6 u n+ .l m QU. } ! Qt;;t;hl' pSC.UVHtJ

CU::. arua tetop, f-l1.Qh J.i Ji,. c.aU.U.d Jl:lemdJund c..h..tun..o;CfJtil pot~

(J.t0] = t.'n.

+ ~+andOO1d Ci"ulmlCQfA.. ro+enJ:ia.t~ o~ attpendJ.r. upot) ..ur1~.


~ Ch.UY\iCQ{Q pote.vctict2. ~ a pe.lltti.c.ul.oot U)t1>;oru..n::'...:h _a.
8mpL1>U- !tab- d.LPef'Jd).. ~on T <P P both

JA.:::: 1l0 .,. RT..4h ~ -.\0/ lhotel m trcI- r~'ctD. v...9ttmWU


.
t J.,L" l.L. -t- R 'f ~ ~ ...f, I'" +eIr,.,.. ~ m.nU. I'ro WOIl.
cturniCatl Po~Ctlt COIn ~o be.. .9<..tp.9WeuJ:t.Ji db dl'ffi
th.u1 tTl oC?1.Jjrn'm.LccUta

Ii
g p
Ci:
I
-v
I, ~
-T
( dA
ont)vn ~ Jt.t A

d
-1:L
. ( dht ~ $, f
I.'
":::.ut

de;)
( oht: -Jh
P,T

(~:,)s,~ " lLL

-=f:P ::;'> Vcotiaio~ &I chUnic.aut- ~ W;tf'k.J:tfm~ :;tit.

i: o
G de.Q;~eh LNff'h ~mpl ~ ~ \
, .,
.
Jl Ut -a..l&o !:Ie J" Wrt-h ;f.em)>

=;) ~'T PhaA.l trct..tv.l fe.t1 c:fCr J.Li: Scm'\.ll. ~hrr)

we Know +tied -:i)

(-~~ ) ~ J4
ohi T,'

e O..ul
d -( dCt )
:h- lini aT

- 3'J.. q
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::: a.LLl
.,. "T'
-QJ
d:Ci:: V ti p- Sd T

r\.dT
o~)
('
=-$

~~ CD omd
o'1.G - .- CdS)
,mj
ohi+,aT -
{()!L~) :: - S
a~4 =- Si -@ ", ~ ()T P . l
'Ohi~T
~o

IA~

~ ~ \ soJid"

JJ.l
I
1
J..l.'ct,t..u' a

diM
Tm 1S Tb
Temp. -l'

Ts::: Su..bJirncU.loi'l Jim}>'

Tb::: BoUlna ..:lltnp'


ro e.l.ti'ha ...ttml>'
\.f~tl:~ V~on ~ c..hctn~e.
/' Tm "'"
clu.micw.. poteHc:U. wt+-h. I'", t-et"tlP'

::1" cltYrto8 PhtX.,\e 1fc.maf.tJ11 Ch..Unfau.e.. pote..llUit.t9. .)Utncuh 4rlSCI m e 'iOlr bO.fU. iU> ,hIM $.
Cw Ju"u.. T, V, '" tUl 0 tkc1 comJ1oN-1..1.t a.o-u. c..D ~+el~ J "

:9
Mnte we Know thod C, In ~ .fu.nUOh }J) .i:L rfI,lW't ,fcl.wUl

E~ l~ ttuo.5i.Qli r
, --------.
1

0 (J.t0) := - Sl.
( aT f
'J""nmp'
#t Ca.ltu1ct.tion ttl- th..u-nnod,&nCltnfe.- PcetCtfl'lf.iVl [~H"'ll!tll~ JjVrr; l\S/l)~' n.A~~,lqlJ
Jh ita ~e OJ 9cllCt! gcu~

:4 ~-2. toJ"llplllJd ~ if 11
JI1
._"
. ~ .. . .... .... ..... .... "" . '\ "
'-.~ ~', ,.~f'~
...

: ~:~ "............... ",.


#' ...... ..
'"
. . . . .~
--</(, "',""" '",

... ...
~r+~ .9tttnovir'llJ~~~ -,'t;"
-, .., '" . \}
'\
~ \\),'J.
..." "
,t
t.
"', . . . It
\\, \ ... \ r
0,,'\.' ~n,.~;: \ n3~ :, JIlt <:' CCIU'fl VWrtmen-l) ( " "", ~ " ' \ ~ \:" 't\. \.\ ~
. '.
I.~t. . -~.., ~ ... 0:-...."
"~-,,
t
.~ ~ , ..
'\.\ \ \ . \ '"
.\
t t

[~ c.ompW<..tment
to :... ,. : ....,. ....
'\ \.
'" ,.;.\ , .. r
. . . . :-t.
....
.. J \'"
.. ,,"
't t . ......
~':... '\.. \. ... \~,-",~,~ ... ~ ... ,~,
15'5' o.,eh dX ~ < \. \ ",,- \ ..
-.

. . "t"'( ..';.. ..... ~, ,! ... "<... <


~

~J

X ."~\"" .' \., '


...... ~ , ........." .... ,\ .......\., ~ " '" ,t ,.,

~e ~ (lIf.u,""'n~ LA f~ ml,~,.ng)

11, CfU.ttt s tcW.J *' - -.- 11 l ': .lt~ + RT ..Ln ')(~

JJ~ = CI 112- =.t4 ... RT ...ln~


PI
1)2. .1(1 cJtj -+ )t TJ.l} 't.3
) '0
..l.!z. = Ct .u.4 ::. ltt' +- p:rJ.n Xl{
n2.
h3,
Jt3 = Ch n,Jt, + h~2-+ ..n3..4,+ .h..,..tt..,
n3 GThted-:;
CAHen rnfx,trtJ
hlf, .ll.4 ::: U4
n~

GtTO.fo.l:: .nlJ..if+ n,.J.t~ +n~j.h4- OqJ.ff


(gefo.9Q nlhrn9J

Ll tnY'llfltrn3:= GTokd. C; Tutc.U.


CAF+e)1 ( Befo".ut
mhcing) rnhd"!1 )

::: Cn,.J.l, + 01-1.11 ,.. "'hA3 ... -' \) -C. OlJt,o + Oz...J..Iao+OJ..I.Il+--.

-= n I (~IO + RT Jll'l X, ) -... n 2. C...u: +- RT.JL f> X.0 + "3 ( JJ10 t. r.f}nJ
-t
- (hI oUt + 02. J.iLo + ... y

=
"I R. T .Q,., XI 7- n.d<'T .on x.2. T _ ......
C9

~G::
~~,
I<. T L 1',,' J.tl ')( r

AGtnht :: R znr Jln~i


T

1. r~ <S;rnhl'.] =: RJ"!(hl\J.hft))
aT l T f JT r

-- 64 mf')( +..L (lJ CA,4mr,.), ':: 0 -Q)


T aT k

': AGml)(.:: l\Hmr~. + T (a(tJlim~.))


aT P

Di'v,\de, both stcle bM T"l. +-na.J'),

~Groh. flHmf~' -\- .J'jJdCAl1~f't.)


--~ ... ,2- ~L ()T P
T2-

-- LlHmtJ, AGrn~'1t 4:-..l.-


T~ T
(0dr(A~mhl) )p '\ _ @
T"2

\
"<
g~ Eq,,1l- CD ~

~Hmr~.
-
T 'l
::: 0

!.6limr>i. ~u 1
;
;
l:~
-,' ~ -fD ;:;:'!:I 9
. '.fly
6 = --roT ~.L \I
~t8
;;::::::::::::=
2 mob.. O:i N2..

'3 m. oJ.. e.. I>cf. -.H 2-

2.- moll- oa- N H.3

MrnI,in8""" a,SIu.)( ~ S-h CiJ {~).lln (!) -tL:-) .9-hC~) J


.- e.3't.\~)(~,303 [2.JAJil ~+
:or
3~3.'t +?-~~)]

- lQt '3IU ~ ~I 303 ')( [. 4 ~ 2:.+


.,.
'3.J..ut1 g':f J
_ - B,31U ~ 2.1303'1.. [- t, .~,,~ + t- br'3' ox .'n]
~ _ 8, '3' u. ~ Q.. ~ 03 [ - 2.,,, 2 - I t 0 3 q ]
_ S.3IU ~ <fg03(~<8o)

b Q.80 -;r K-I

~e~~
~~
-=::
., ~di,,
oW \I eM

~ I.r'U rctr 6fiVt


--
U ft'lon(Jtoml'c. e.)(pc4D'

ci.L(;Uo I'm't,.
Oldra
. do-I~ ~
U .tr
f ')t~" .
L i'lo. <!II :} ~ 0(, fl.o ttdiln' ,-< V " ';;;:;:::i
f\-I.tl, V} cGfo m.. IXJ I-Lt.ot;t. CDt-ptl..J) I! ~
..p Tm <Tp -< Tr
l'\1 0 t'lO CI.J'o'rrl.L'c. :;;i) I.e-m p. ~ d.t-p e,bdJ!,M-l-

.....
(R~ "'~~.fV\ O"N
\.{O~d:fY1T. C~
tfl=' h-I\-'") U::U: IP+~
~ .: ; =-...~- ;. _. ,
0
1.1 O~..v; ....0 1.(0.>1'11.<'ltYq1" Gu "!' "'1"1"'1+ cr( .......,.,...au.t ~ (T\ 1'\ Q ff'" Ja\ uS
04 (J'j' LC}'nIt ~NJCC; W\ltO 1I~t'l3 1.1+1 00 ~UpqUA 1(.)f(X)5 1lJIPB D U<l4M ~
c::nu~S 'l",I':IIl('OcYl ~~ "" LTI1I\Ul>-n.ttOs ) 2019 J'
i "1.l\l.I~~u.H;1 V . = 1](J!K~.t t1 'Q 1
[ IX. "T',IXZ. '!I -- ~ """"""4' INjll'"S\i' ]
p~ \J~1L11 tf

~' 0 he m o..tJ.. tJ;f Ce2, ,0 tu. mQ.lL V1- NO '2- <t d:UJo ~ OJ.. 0,2.

u.w-u.. 0"" )( -e.d OU:; '300 k c..a,.lCUJ..QA.te. -k..u- ...h hot1'i ~ m hl',J

AH rni-d,t)f I)vm'~t'., ~Ami.ltt". A

.L -malA- Od- Colt.


.L rtl 0.0- ua- N 02
'l- m Q.lJ.. oct C 2..

ACt = RT [ fJ.h l:. +


.,.
I J.n 1 +
4-
2. ..l.n ~
'if 2.
1

t.1 ~ == RT [ 9....l.n t + 2....th-i:]


6'\ :::. it T X ~'1l03 t "-..!U.'!4: + J.~ !:)

6q :' 8,314~ '300''')( -<'303.X [;!t')( CO.tb) - ';t')( (b,?t)) 1


:. BIg)", 'l(St1'O ~ ~"ol~ [-1'2.. --o,c.)

;;: ~'~JL!)t SttO )C~t~o>~ (:..-1'8)

:: _'0, ';1 ....

GH*~. 0)- ACt::: A A :: - 10J 3:'14

:::. -10' 3'+4 KJ"


65 :: -M :: ... '341'58 -;;r
T

0'11..
!l\lrn";tin2f ~ 0
~ 1)$-::: bRJ.n'l..

&tlJlri
t .2t, kl.:::.
kl
r. [T~-1j]
R lIT2-
r 1+-'11.,i n,'nUb Eq~
eJtt1 fe~rn O";t ~ Co~ 1-qvtt]

&h kp, -= ~H~ Tl.-


l<Pfl. R
[
Tt:Ti
nJ Ih te.r,m OJ kj/ ['1u.i. Cof1A1:tJ

\J~ n1- HOff RJJ)j).1:!,o 1)

JLr> .tee, = ~ ~o [li-1i 1 [ 11, +enn~C!J- kc J


kcz. fl. 1l./.1.

-::} fo~ c.ru.xnlc.a& <tUil.ib~um i-t''+ C.onclifl'On., S~tem rnvJ) + be


c.1o se r T. U/) Dtf nc:rrru1: JJ; NcLt::to-u.. J

1<1
A 'C ~ &
K2. d\e'\')
\"~
<?'<fl ~0 Xi'()~e..
k o-~ ;{~
,>~e&f> C~-~)
:1)

.
k)(-1
J ./ vf\\ ~ ~

Kp ',<t/' SM 4M
;f) I[1t
~I
\;)('\ if
QX \ f k~ ~ [~ll{) 4
k'" ,
'{'
'3A- ~4B
eXIt]J
~~o0
~~ }J' , k.c.. '" (cI>J4-
t. C..t'n re'" Yfl 1J1rO.-cJ.}VI~~
. -/)~ ~JIl.yY A 1 ~I

~v \Y' #
-
'/<1--
::=
[(J.tJ3 1\ :::: Hu.n m ~ r\CI nu'c.
.9t,W~
\

Cv vd tJ..el\l))
'{--~~
\~ /, cf Kf.:: ,..L~ s J" Cdnll t~ ,...,u~ 1
\\1 \ \ lJUi"::,
r

~ ~,<,o ~:; I
cU.l .
f
P

: ,

, .
1
[05.q>1,9. 015

-\
1. (JLn \<Pl = AHI)

q'f
~1'2-

1-. CJlh kt) -=. ,l)E o


dT
R'Tl..

L -- -

-: 'CLAS:r.IHJS- C.LAYPI:.RoHR1;:{ATl;o N

" Ll4 = tct


0 , 'OOtk4mJ
E't}-till

[Pha.oe- "".... -IO.,h~'~.~'.'::;J.. ~O+~ <0 J-(t:u>Z <d 1'qJJb)


<\1' .0(1-=0

CJct,.,\.ew, r--(JI'-~""Vh
~Ol J.th')i,()h 0 U fit ~iI"I ...
U;) et.Nilid1'h~ 1091 GJ~ phone
nCtM&mctJL'on Ct. t:>h.lW)e +.J-tatrUfi'yroa.b-bh tAJ11jch tk at
,'nu'cll'c1i.t p.9-tOt..eM.) ~ +ttit> ttJ..L ,f:9X'(lr') r.9<..tl'Y)~J

~ b.9tl\tm ton Q. , f -'1.U Etlt.tl.:! ~ t'l(I-- ctwo <il'ff exJlh t ):> h ou) eJ

Eic. ()}U f.q tw..O..

joll ~'3' 0::) ThJxa. tiD OL J..ot O"J- photM. !f'feLhJ)fe:n

tb A(So..Ud) ~~uid)
"'"

t'ri) AQ-'twa) '::


~ A(g~)

@
~), ~ A~~)

s" ... ~
Sf'll
MoW'ocJ1,.{ ~
Ithtnltk
~n. S~~LlCq,uid &tuL.
Ii CS~l , > A CJ.iltu.t'clJ

~ SttUid
c.hClne~ Jntu ~d a.:;l +tt.U'r tyt.tlf-fna: point
~ +tW> ~ oth..uJ%b ~ cd Q M~H ,p~1.tK.Il

from +tu ~unolina cl.tu-U-nf) ~ pOMe -a~-fuymCLttbn


. 0 p
tho.. J,1~8n &j- \-l.la..t ctbAOShb tJ.D -H ve.

C'3-1TR tl..t'q,LU'd .ct SOlt'd t..r1Td1 ell -tve]

A rS} -..... '). A Ct.)

...
6,(')) ~ C,CA J ['l:I: t.oru,tt T.p P.)feM.W<.t..J -ill

A.J a.. .-tJi't lAX "In c..9-U.OU) ~ -oa ..nmp I (T + d:r ~ P-+ d p).

G;CS) -t dOtes) ~ t.(.Q; -+ cft1tc.D.) -GD

iTom CD cf

d Gte S) 4= dtrt C,J.}

...,
apPJ,J., in, mQ~ welt ECJwx.t.lon...,

~Gt)d f' - SO) d T - Vet) dp- Sr...., dr

-df
dT
c As _Q!9
\J cj; - vrS) .j

fA"vO ~e... AS = AH -(IV)


~-\"" .
r\~ 'o"~.-v. ~ T

~~~~~~ r ~ " .:_~. ) ;r:~~Qj A~~": ~_

j..Q
J(!
(Bi\ ~.L _ J..p
-/;V - JP
(ci)1\ - rr&l\) -=:h.. '--
I Hy
. ,
.Lp
-SV ::: Jp
...
(B) tJ :=.
. . ===:-'
-

'~
:J."J.._ J"
[ 11. - 'tJ..
~rUGAc:tTy :9 ,
# . ,
~ ~ ~
ta!l'cll ~
I~w.""~1<1W (,"""'eo,,,,j r~.;.,- "'-........ ~"1) ~"f) (;"'3" u: "IJ r,..c:'

Jl. 'I.
(SCCLp"na ~cttJ .

* II & Q Co~ect-d P..9ttMUHJ2. tt9ttic:h Lit.> LtAUl ~ sunJ! ~ru

"* ~C\ct'11 0-& (). ~ 9~ tonWn CLl.l \f.UL ~ec.J:ion t&hich

Jo .::l!:Ut -e j:U!lt lh ~oD.. 8~ .

"* IJ: cr.n ctlt\o be un c\ w4eln d m Q.L sco.tptn a fu olW tlt cJ<J Q

~~.

*" -ttttlllllUu 1l"UJ)



N'ewa "te.nm.l. ..in 8 fveh b)j
tt
t;. N. Lew I~

~ Q JJ)w p..9UM w-u. ~ p~ tu-u dlhl1lihfl towCt}td C:eJW

~ %t ~ ~ be.iuuve w CL eJdtDtl~.

-'

we know tho.Lt f JJ Cl ~OlUf<d f P ..in


. r~t\}(.i

tJ~~ fir> = ~ [ ~ctti*O ~'c1ent)

J.L'm ;I Ip := L [: 'i~l
p~o

B
Tnt ~ be.hctvi~ ~ Q CUD& ~.
M~rnCW:W ~n "d ~ctu+lJ ::?

We know <\-hot.tJ

{s-ttD.. erlbt9~ .-fvy on 3Cl..!.\Q. (ja.1 at ().. f6Ctl'c.u..lout


.:ie h1 p. c..an be (JJ.stlJ:::lan CfJl -

Gt::: Gt + Rr .,i.t> P -G)

tl1..i:? <8.-x.pS.N>t'on COIn be. UlU...d .fe.-r .><.t.a.l ~ also


~ tI Bnttrocllld+:j (U. Y\Q.UJ- tenm 1')

Gt -= G + R. T ~f -

f.){jL En.o-tq~ 1<rr. an ~ ~ Cd:. P~+tb.tlo.o1

d:.1rn;. (OfF) be w~"'eh. CI bove..,

Ect'" ..a,} cllffen..o.nt(cd:t .~oth ..tid e uh .911+0 P a.


to ~ta n:t dimp'

( ~)
dPjT
:: '0 + RT [~~n;)J
dp l'

(~~)T RT .st (J. h


[ cjr 4)J T -em)

7).0

': d (f ::. \rdp - ~ LCl Co~H- T i d t""r.:::.O

(~i)T v.(~ c

pvJ; +to- VitLu.L trJ- )cl ~) f' Y\ G])


~dP i
VMetU. = RT Cd cJl.t) f)

dP r

V-'t w.' d r :: RTed ..nn.f) - elY)

~ = Vm(r~) - V~(~)

f\tuL.Hp~ dp poth .Ll'de btl dp

O<.dp =- VIWI(7el~ d p- .
VW,(XUU) cl f

o{d P = -~ T d f - R T d (~h f)
p

~'. ":Inte. bo th g,'d e. . ,.

.Sf0/.. d P == RT S~ - ~ r 5d ~h 1)
o p

f 0(. 4 P = + RT J.h f - RT .A..n -1

r o
-(.elf = - RT r J. flp]
f
-2.
RT
S.( dp
0
'" J.h fIr
-
Jp')o os .1.11.._<3
J T
Jp')o os .1.11.._<3
J T
~ C/vf""K'J WI
,
J
d P GJ--z.)
o
J P GJ-Z) ~J -= J/f trr
~ J
~ C/vf""K'J WI
,
J
d P GJ--z.)
o
J P GJ-Z) ~J -= J/f trr
~ J
d
Ltf
I "'" - l.~
'n ,~ 117
J.}A;:: ~d - Ad
J.(j::: (q-~II)d
3~ -:; ['31dCIGWdf\b
.... a hot(3 P'l'O'tt~
'8~'O' ., - ?
J
(1-1 (il U4.t";ll ~ .. -al\~+::> H'i7
(1-1 Q U4.c}l 16....) ql\J :::. HV "v r - a+tJ
1'\
--.1'O\l.11~( q6'QUJ. \1)
"'4-+ l'O9 XJ:rPM
(LLO,mwn-s -moj.dfj )
, ...
, '.
~ --- . '
)

;
" ............ . -
I
.
.. . " , . -. -. .. ...
~ llkfl'va:.tion I2hena~ 2. lh&u~ Ert()'t.g~ _ AVU1~e p, \::1 etJ. 'R~+elnt

.::} 1h.L p~ol.J...u;(;, ftrrtn JJJ E:.'~ ott'uJltn ,'e. R.. ~ h In +tun m 004; oQltyn'~..!.."I:oLbU-

"* ie..tnr 0 ~ tM ng-12. tL.~ I-Ud.t th F votlJe.d OT otb-S 0 -'1 b


::

(~1 r k r'W.tt\CJJt.LL~ eon~ f~ J


ll,
,ff2. fcnrrn " I:'n.a t.C-W ,'JtI ~ ci
tn'\l) ~o~bJ..(... b t.c'l "tiCIl!tHf e
, ./L. .
,~,\,,,~L.O s--u...OLU C\~
hr!)z: f' <:'1
~ h"o'-4,ttJ ~)n Vet\.~ ,M<'jYl I
....'(~
AI1 '=
HJl. -It,!:;.' ",,'ve f t rno..u !I!t, 't1_U f~\,u't..t. ~
;:0 h"I H. 90 +?\'I'Il,.i o~e.
-OM AH J

R~n b/w 6H omd AE {'n +he COvu.. Ui- "L::t.4d~t e"l


Co nJ)tI;,~ v..'rr 1

n"At "" 7/
~ n& 13(t)

PVJ!I -= hI\- RT rRettt:taht] -tJ)

nil RT Cp~J
1"
PVa ::. @ vr f..~ ft
e1' d
{(1
",e. yI'
~ clI .~ '9 f'lf' \
l1r) -C';}:) "(fI..p ,VI' fl' ,(\ rJ>
//~.
PCVs - V,,) -=(na-h,,) R'T
~ &fl~"

P IJV == il"8 ~T ~

H -= E 4- fv {~D
oH :: d E + J (p vY fiori>
0

~I
0'" ~ j E -+ -Pc]v + vjr1
(bJ9 . - - - (6J~
,,'ffl
~frd.o l-{"G) ~ VL(O airnUfO) U~ ~U40# ~
~ u~ "Ul.ft ~ aSuo40 ~c:t004+U3 04-t ~ mmr 'I~S;}H 0+ 4.t.O~tt
)1
HV a~(---------
Ntlme9-Uia1. ~Hon on, LJ
~~
" 1_ .... '
U\U..L.U".
&tt.u:- c.nto~tLt:t., th.L J6ietndct..'1d 't-U-D=ct C'J- -(armQ,Lt;lbh OJ- rn..o.;thane
*

CJ-tlf (.9) + :iCh.C.9) ~ Ce2.tg)..,. 2H.I!.~ CJL)

lH1'~C.2:.q8K} := -890.35 ~3'

U 2.. + 1. 0,2 (,) ---4) H.z.DtJl)


(9) 2-

lUi 0 C2qSI<.) = - 2-8 s O/~4 J(.'J"

C C3JsdPh,',.bJ .,. D2.t9? --"""I~ C O.2.C.9)


A H 11 r M 8~' -= ..... '3 g. 3S I K'J"'
c Ca~ctP~':V + 2-l--!.z.fq) ~ L Ii" rq)
11 H<) (2-tl8 It{) ~ )

.~ C:'ctlc..uJ.ct.U ~LlA 6r.:)'H") 'lO ttl Cbcn'lse lS'", aboue ,9ULQtcJ;.ton.

BIctCD

c + ~7
:c::
- )Yl-C9' .. ~
t'J!.J
Cf!4
("1
+ ~ , I:J. H'" C' t 9'-'1 \) I '3 S ).!J'

~ l-iJ- -+ ~ !J a.~, , AJ-I:::- -2.8"5',94 kJ ){'2..

C
S'rC!') + ~ ~~ /lHO ::: -3tJjlSI \(..1

'1-'1...
Co( 31"o.;hl'ie' + ~ \-12. ( Cf) .............., C Ii \f (Cf) 6H'h (89 0 .35 -2.8'5,84- 3 "i-lo S,)

~
<aC'.iol'35-:~'X2.35dl~ - 37~,5J

&, 9 D '3 5 - 5 ,+ l-G S _ 3-q '3"'1 :sl

:::. S~O~'35- .945.1.9'


-- t;)4 <a~ l<-J"
(v 1l1lO<I!lO tt) ~1<i!.o.\Q II~'
I: lCnCt.(-rn-v 1 tL s < ~ S
,4~ UlIJTOJ:r-fhOd +u -;.rnq r 1.(;Q ~~4 W1iV T
( ~w /1JXYlcJ.) ~o - p,m1:{11
.4<LCT-f' ~d -nv /.ClO q T I.('Q Wf10 T :p:J d)U ~Gl'h<8
(OU~0neZ) VHI1d J ~~ P!fU:
o t (}fntnlJ J ~H V
a z. L'1f11.fMJ J ~H\7
o i:- [~m.towS J Iii \J

[~s ~Stl '1" :>,I'IGllII<4I.C'S J


0.:::
(;"lq~04U>S J :HV
0:.= c~ C!..t8J !~\7
(.
0:;::. [(6J7:Q J {H'J
~ (6)' G) -'t
o I.(a:z. -po p~ B1, Vv'lD ~ I <t lMf-f' Pd,t1-po4~
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