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Appl Microbiol Biotechnol (2012) 93:1729

DOI 10.1007/s00253-011-3651-2

MINI-REVIEW

Efficient use of shrimp waste: present and future trends


Prameela Kandra & Murali Mohan Challa &
Hemalatha Kalangi Padma Jyothi

Received: 27 July 2011 / Revised: 30 September 2011 / Accepted: 17 October 2011 / Published online: 4 November 2011
# Springer-Verlag 2011

Abstract The production of shrimp waste from shrimp Keywords Shrimp waste . Toxic chemicals . Chitin .
processing industries has undergone a dramatic increase in Pigments . Therapies
recent years. Continued production of this biomaterial
without corresponding development of utilizing technology
has resulted in waste collection, disposal, and pollution Introduction
problems. Currently used chemical process releases toxic
chemicals such as HCl, acetic acid, and NaOH into aquatic Aquaculture is the world's fastest growing food-production
ecosystem as byproducts which will spoil the aquatic flora sector in the recent years, providing an acceptable, protein
and fauna. Environmental protection regulations have rich supplement to, and substitute for, wild aquatic animals
become stricter. Now, there is a need to treat and utilize and plants. Asia plays a leading role in shrimp farming,
the waste in most efficient manner. The shrimp waste accounting for almost 80% of world shrimp production
contains several bioactive compounds such as chitin, (Fuchs et al. 1999; Rosenberry 1998). Shrimp is a high-
pigments, amino acids, and fatty acids. These bioactive value aquacultural product, and is processed for the meat,
compounds have a wide range of applications including leaving the carapace and head as waste products (Omum
medical, therapies, cosmetics, paper, pulp and textile 1992; Knorr 1991). Shrimp landed by large trawlers are,
industries, biotechnology, and food applications. This however, deheaded at sea or supplied to processing
current review article present the utilization of shrimp industries. The main unutilized source of marine protein
waste as well as an alternative technology to replace and oils is heads of shrimp from packaging and processing
hazardous chemical method that address the future trends industry. Heads are usually removed in peeling sheds near
in total utilization of shrimp waste for recovery of bioactive the landing or at packing plants. Generally, shrimp is
compounds. exported in frozen form without exoskeleton. About 45
48% by weight of shrimp raw material is discarded as waste
depending on species (Sachindra et al. 2005).
P. Kandra (*) : M. M. Challa An inevitable increase in waste produced by the
Department of Biotechnology, GITAM Institute of Technology, processing industry is of no use (Subasinghe 1999).The
GITAM University,
biomaterial or biowaste contains many valuable compounds
Visakhapatnam 530045 Andhra Pradesh, India
e-mail: chprameela5@gmail.com that after appropriate processing can add substantially to
overall profitability. This shrimp biomaterial can be
M. M. Challa
e-mail: drmurali@gitam.edu valorized without fractionation. Usually, it is applied as
such for feeding in veterinary practice and aquaculture.
H. Kalangi Padma Jyothi Medium- and large-scale processing has been developed to
Department of Biochemistry, College of Science & Technology,
dry the waste and to mix it with other agricultural raw
Andhra University,
Visakhapatnam 530045 Andhra Pradesh, India materials to produce animal feed. The most common
e-mail: hemalathakpj@gmail.com technique for shrimp waste utilization is the artisan practice
18 Appl Microbiol Biotechnol (2012) 93:1729

of sun drying. This procedure has low hygienic control and from the nutritional point of view. The amount of shrimp
the products are limited for animal consumption. Shrimp waste (4048%) contains head and body carapace (Sachin-
waste is then considered in landfills, soil dumping, and dra et al. 2005). Only 5% of shrimp waste is used mostly
discarded in sea water resulting in the major surface for animal feed. The shrimp waste composed mainly of
pollution, unpleasant smell in coastal areas, and constituting protein (40%), minerals (35%) and chitin (1430%)
an important concern of environmental pollution. Usually, (Synowiecki and Al-Khateeb 2000) and is very rich in
shrimp waste is dried on the beaches which encourage carotenoid pigments mainly Astaxanthin (Britton 1997;
environmental problems (Mathew and Nair 2006). Gimeno et al. 2007). In efficient utilization of these marine
In particular, discarding of shrimp waste is a serious shrimp waste becomes an accumulation from processing
environmental problem because valuable living resources are plants.
wasted. Populations of endangered species are threatened due Shrimp head waste fermented in the presence of sugar
to environmental pollution (Morgan and Chuenpagdue 2003). molasses by using Lactobacillus plantarum was co-dried
In any case, it is widely accepted that ecological impact is with 15% feather meal is used as silage meal. Fermented
significant by discarding shrimp waste (Kelleher 2005). shrimp head waste meal can be used to replace fish meal
Coastal aquaculture is diverse in terms of the resources used; (30%) for feeding to African catfish Clarias gariepinus
the scale and nature of the practices adopted and varied (Nwanna and Daramola 2001). Use of fish silage for partial
environmental characteristics. A major problem with shrimp or complete replacement of fish meal in diets of Nile tilapia
biomaterial valorization is the high perishability of the (Oreochromis niloticus) and African catfish (C. gariepinus)
material (Anonymous 1997). Under tropical climatic con- (Al-Azab 2005; Soltan et al. 2008). Shrimp head waste is
ditions, decay starts within an hour after processing and leads also currently used in the preparation of prawn head soup
to the production of biogenic amines with a very offensive (B.B.C. Food recipes).
smell. If this decay is unavoidable or not prevented, the
biomaterial turns into real waste, and due to its high protein
content, it becomes a real threat to the environment and a Chitin
financial burden if not discarded properly.
It is obvious for both environmental and economic Chitin is one of the most abundant renewable biopolymers
reasons that, wherever possible, appropriate technology on earth that can be obtained as a cheap biopolymer from
should be applied to prevent decay and to convert the marine sources (Muzzarelli 1997). After cellulose, chitin is
biomaterial into valuable products. Technology should the most abundant polysaccharide in nature and is primarily
provide systems for the delay or prevention of decay and present in the exoskeletons of crustaceans (such as crabs,
procedures for fractionation. Therefore, there is a signifi- shrimp, lobsters, etc.) and also in various insects, worms,
cant interest regarding recycling of shrimp waste. This fungi, and mushrooms in varying amount (Arcidiacono and
review focuses on present utilization and recent findings; Kaplan 1992). It is biocompatible, biodegradable, and bio-
well-known biotechnologies commonly used for the treat- absorbable, with antibacterial and wound-healing abilities
ment of shrimp waste that address the future trends in total with low immunogenicity. Therefore, there have been many
utilization of shrimp waste for recovery of bioactive reports on its biomedical applications (Jolls and Muzzarelli
compounds. However, before presenting the specific features 1999). Accordingly, a very broad range of applications in
of selected technologies, it is first necessary to briefly different fields such as food technology, material science,
summarize the existing chemical method for degradation of microbiology, agriculture, wastewater treatment, drug delivery
shrimp waste. systems, tissue engineering, and bionanotechnology have
been reported (Feisal and Montarop 2010).
Henri Braconnot, a French professor of natural history,
Present utilization of shrimp waste discovered chitin in 1811 after the discovery of a material
particularly resistant to usual chemicals by Hachett, an
The higher protein content used in Asian diets fits with the English scientist in 1799. In 1843, Lassaigne demonstrated
more carnivorous feeding habits of the main shrimp species the presence of nitrogen in chitin (Jeuniaux 1996). Henri
cultured. Moreover, carnivorous shrimp species are less Braconnot named it as fungine. In 1823, Odier found the
able to harness the natural pond biota than their more same material in insects and plants and named it as chitine
omnivorous or detrivorous counterparts (Tacon and (Muzzarelli and Mozzarelli 2009). Chitin is not only an
Akiyama 1997). Shrimp for human food represents around essential component of invertebrates but may also be
78% both in developed and developing countries, leaving present in vertebrates. Unlike cellulose, chitin can be a
about 22% for non-food uses (Vannuccini 2004). Therefore, source of nitrogen as well as carbon (C:N=8:1) (Struszczyk
shrimp and it's derived byproducts are considered important 2006).
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol (2012) 93:1729 19

Chitin is a poly-beta-1, 4-N-acetylglucosamine (Roberts Deproteination


1992). Chitosan is a modified, natural carbohydrate
polymer derived by deacetylation of chitin. Chitin is In the first step, the waste is treated with 4% sodium
insoluble in water due to its intermolecular hydrogen bonds hydroxide (NaOH) at elevated temperatures 70120C
(Minke and Blackwell 1978), but water-soluble chitin- (Yang et al. 2000; Rao et al. 2000). Under these conditions,
based derivatives such as chitosan or carboxymethyl chitin the protein becomes detached from the solid component of
can be obtained. One of their most important features is the the shrimp waste. To prevent oxidation of the products, the
ability (flexibility) to be shaped into different forms such as process is usually carried out in a nitrogen atmosphere and
fibers, hydrogels, beads, sponges, and membranes (Mano et in the presence of sodium borohydride (NaBH4). After
al. 2007). The origin of chitin affects its crystallinity, purity, completion of the deproteination step, the protein hydroly-
polymer chain arrangement, and dictates its properties sate is removed easily by separation of the solids from the
(Rinaudo 2006). Chitin contains 67% nitrogen and in its protein slurry by filtration. The protein hydrolysate can be
deacetylated form, chitosan contains 79.5% nitrogen. In dried and used in the form of a cake or powder as a protein
chitosan, 60% to 80% of the acetyl groups available in supplement in feed. This protein hydrolysate also contains
chitin are removed (Mathur and Narang 1990). There are most of the shrimp flavor. The solid fraction consists
three forms of chitin: , , and chitin. The -form, which mainly of chitin and calcium carbonate. It also contains
is mainly obtained from crab and shrimp shells, is widely most of the pigment. This process may not be considered as
distributed. Both and chitin/chitosan are commercially a good recovery option because it is expensive and non-
available. The -chitin chains are aligned in anti-parallel environmental friendly process (Rao et al. 2002).
fashion. The anti-parallel arrangement in -chitin gives rise
to strong hydrogen bonding and consequently makes it Demineralization
more stable (Sikorski et al. 2009). According to Synowiecki
and Al-khateeb (2003), shrimp waste contains approxi- In the next step, the solid fraction is treated with 4%
mately 1430% chitin on dry weight basis depending on hydrochloric acid (HCl) which converts the insoluble
the processing method. The traditional sources of chitin are calcium carbonate into soluble calcium chloride that can
from shrimp, Antarctic krill, crab, and lobster processing subsequently be removed by washing. With appropriate
(Muzzarelli 1997; Shahidi and Synowiecki 1991). Chitin is deproteinization and demineralization, the remaining product
an environmentally friendly material (Mahmoud et al. consists mainly of chitin with minor amounts of protein and
2007). Controlled deacetylation produce chitosan with calcium that can be judged from a weak Biuret reaction and a
approximately 50% free amine (Knorr 1991). low weight after ashing, respectively. The use of acids harms
The various technologies that can be used in shrimp physical and chemical properties of chitin results in harmful
waste bioremediation are summarized along with the effluent wastewater and increase the cost of chitin-purifying
existing chemical method for degradation of shrimp waste. process (Mahmoud et al. 2007). The chitin product should be
white. It is insoluble in alkali and in most acids and organic
solvents. Due to its low reactivity, chitin is usually
Chemical process deacetylated to chitosan.

Several researchers have reported a chemical process for Deacetylation


demineralization and deproteinization by treatment with
acid and alkali to remove calcium carbonate and protein. In Deacetylation of chitin into chitosan requires strong
traditional chemical methods for isolating chitin from chemical conditions, 50% NaOH, and elevated temper-
shrimp waste 4% NaOH is used for deproteinization and atures as high as 7090C. The highest degree of
4% HCl for demineralization. Using of strong acid results deacetylation possible is desired, and several treatments
in detrimental effects on molecular weight and negatively are usually required to reach a sufficient degree to obtain a
effect on intrinsic properties of the purified chitin (Percot marketable product. Chitin deacetylated by 7090% (also
and Viton Domard 2003). Although traditional chitin referred to as 3010% acetylated chitosan) is considered to
production methods are efficient in recovering chitin, they be a good end product (Fig. 1). The material should be low
render other biomolecules like proteins and lipids including in protein and ash. Chitosan can be dissolved in 12%
carotenoids useless, during protein removal and demineral- acetic acid, and high viscosity of this solution is indicative
ization (Healy et al. 2003; Rao and Stevens 2005). Acid of a well-prepared chitosan. If too rigorous conditions are
ensilage with milder organic acids has been reported to applied during deacetylation, the main chain of the chitin
stabilize carotenoids and their further recovery (Sachindra breaks and this result in low viscosity of chitosan dissolved
et al. 2007). in acetic acid. In addition, the broken molecules cause
20 Appl Microbiol Biotechnol (2012) 93:1729

Shrimp head waste commercial enzymes, there is now a need to develop an


efficient and economical method for extracting proteins
from shrimp head waste.

Homogenization Microbial fermentation method


Deproteinization
(4%NaOH, 900C, 1 hour) One interesting new technology for extraction of chitin that
offers an alternative to the more harsh chemical methods is
fermentation by using microorganisms. Fermentation has
Deproteinized Flake
been envisaged as one of the most eco-friendly, safe,
technologically flexible, and economically viable alterna-
Decalcification
tive methods (Rao et al. 2000; Shirai et al. 2001; Healy et
(4% HCl)
Chitin al. 2003; Bhaskar et al. 2007; Prameela et al. 2010a, c, d).
Fermentation of shrimp waste with lactic acid bacteria
Deacetylation results in production of a solid portion of chitin and a liquor
(50% NaOH) containing shrimp proteins, minerals, pigments, and
Chitosan nutrients (Rao and Stevens 2005; Prameela et al. 2010a).
Deproteinization of the biowaste occurs mainly by proteo-
Fig. 1 Production of chitin and chitosan by the chemical method
lytic enzyme produced by Lactobacillus (Woods 1998).
This process results in clean chitin fraction and liquor with
high content of soluble peptides and free amino acids
discoloration and condensation, resulting in reduced trans- (Fagberno 1996). Ensilation can also be conducted by
parency and solubility. A good chitosan preparation has a addition of organic acids combined with Lactobacillus
low ash content (<1%) and dissolves well in acetic acid treatment (Dapkevicius et al. 1998). The efficiency of lactic
giving high transparency (>90% transmission). acid bacteria depends on the quality of inoculums, glucose,
initial pH, and pH during fermentation (Mathew and Nair
2006). Lactic acid produced by the process of break down
Alternative technology to replace hazardous chemical of glucose, creating the low pH condition of ensilation;
method suppress the growth of microorganisms involved in
spoilage of shrimp waste (Legarrenta et al. 1996). The
Enzymatic method for recovery of protein and chitin lactic acid reacts with calcium carbonate component in the
chitin fraction leading to the fermentation of calcium
A new process for deproteinization of chitin from shrimp lactate, which gets precipitated and can be removed by
head was studied (Maryam Mizani and Mahmood Aminlari washing.
2007). Recovery of the protein fraction of the shrimp waste Deproteinization of shrimp head waste also occurs by
has been widely studied by enzymatic hydrolysis method autolysis phenomenon. The phenomenon of autolysis was
(Simpson and Haard 1985; Cano-Lopez et al. 1987). found in many fishes and shrimp waste. The endogenous
Certain proteolytic enzymes such as alcalase (Maryam et enzymes such as phosphorylases, lipases, cathepsins, and
al. 2005; Guerard et al. 2007) and trypsin (Synowiecki and gut enzymes would degrade the tissues when they were
Al-Khateeb 2000) have been used to extract the proteins dead (Mukundan et al. 1986). Autolysis of shrimp head
from shrimp waste. Application of sodium sulfite, Alcalase waste occurs at different temperatures (40C, 50C, 60C,
(a commercial proteinase), Triton X-100, and combination and gradual temperature) with a protein recovery of 43.6%,
of these reagents in association with mild chemical 73.6%, 50.3%, and 87.4%, respectively, at its initial pH.
treatment improved quality and quantity of the protein as Autolysis of shrimp head waste served best for the
well as chitin. The enzymatic deproteinization process has preparation of hydrolysate with the maximum degree of
limited value due to residual small peptides directly hydrolysis 48.6% and the maximum protein recovery of
attached to chitin molecules ranging from 4.4% to 7.9% 87.4% (Wenhong et al. 2009). However, there is little
of total weight (Synowiecki and Al- Khateeb 2000). information available about the autolysis of shrimp head
However, in this method, using chemical agents in waste.
combination with proteolytic enzyme significantly reduced Improvement of lactic acid fermentation has been
proteinaceous fraction of precipitate (Maryam Mizani and generally accomplished by testing one variable at a time
Mahmood Aminlari 2007). This method is described in (Meraz et al. 1992). The fermentation of shrimp heads was
Fig. 2. As these processes are costly because of the use of tested in modified aeration conditions in presence of
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol (2012) 93:1729 21

Fig. 2 Two-stage method for


chitin production (enzymatic Shrimp head waste
method for deproteinization)
Tris Buffer pH 8 (1:1, w/v) with or without

Homogenization
Alcalase &/ or Triton x- 100

Hydrolysis (T=40 oC, t=1 h, pH=8)

Enzyme inactivation PMSF (1 mmol/L)

Centrifugation (10000xg, 45 min)

Precipitate Supernatant

Mild alkali treatment Lyophylisation

Acetone Decoloration Protein hydrolysate

Drying (60 oC, 1h)

Chitin

constant sugar and inoculum levels. In this case, the for demineralization of deproteinized crustacean shells for
selection criteria used was low pH (Fagberno 1996; chitin production. Synowiecki and Al-Khatab (2003)
Prameela et al. 2010a, b). Many researchers have studied studied the essential amino acids index and protein
the lactic acid fermentation combined with chemical treat- efficiency ratio value of an Alcalase 2.4 L digestion of
ments (Healy et al. 1994; Shirai et al. 1997; Zakaria et al. shrimp waste discards. The removal of protein and calcium
1998) and with different carbon sources as a natural energy from shells is by a combination of enzymatic activity and
source as well (Hall and Silva 1992; Fagberno 1996; mineral solubilization by organic acid produced in bacterial
Prameela et al. 2010b). Treatment of minced scampi waste growth (Luis et al. 2003; Prameela et al. 2010a). Growth
by culture of Lactobacillus paracasei strain A3 was and temperature of microorganisms in culture medium has
investigated by Zakaria et al. 1998. All these studies were an effect on chitin and astaxanthin recovery from shrimp
on deproteinization of raw material and how demineraliza- waste (Carr et al. 2002; Neith et al. 2009). Microorganisms
tion was affected by various inoculum amounts (Meraz et studied include Lactobacillus plantarum (Rao et al. 2000;
al. 1992; Shirai et al. 2001; Rao et al. 2002; Prameela et al. Prameela et al. 2010a, b), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Wang
2010c). and Chio 1998), Pseudomonas maltophilia (Wang and Chio
Srinivas et al. (2006) studied fermentable shrimp waste 1998), Bacillus subtilis (Yang et al. 2000; He et al. 2006),
under different salt concentrations with amylolytic and non- L. paracasei (Shirai et al. 2001), Lecanicilecium fungicola
amylolytic Lactobacillus strains for chitin production. (Laura et al. 2006), Pencillium chrysogenum (Patidar et al.
Mahmoud et al. (2007) found unconventional approaches 2005), Pediococcus acidolactici (Bhaskar et al. 2007;
22 Appl Microbiol Biotechnol (2012) 93:1729

Prameela et al. 2010d). Homemade natural probiotic (curd) Chitin has an interesting property of converting itself to
was used in extraction of chitin and carotenoids from oligosaccharides because oligosaccharides are water soluble
shrimp waste (Prameela et al. 2010c). The composition of and possess versatile functional properties such as anti-
natural probiotic was evaluated and found to be composed tumor activity and antimicrobial activity (Suzuki et al.
of Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. plantarum, Lactobacillus 1986; Wang et al. 2006, 2008; Liang et al. 2007). Chitin
bulgaricus, Pediococcus acidilactici, and Streptococcus and its derivatives have many properties that make them
thermophilus (unpublished data). Kyung-Taek et al. attractive for a wide variety of applications, from food,
(2007) studied demineralization of crab shell waste by P. nutrition and cosmetics to biomedicine, aquaculture, and
aeruginosa F 722. Deproteinization of the biowaste occurs the environment (Knapczyk and Brzozowski 1982; Lang
mainly by proteolytic enzymes produced by added micro- and Clausen 1985; Holland 1986). Chitin has many
organisms and protease present endogenously in the applications including functional food ingredients, medi-
biowaste (Bautista et al. 2001; Shirai et al. 2001; Cira et cines, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, textiles, fine chemicals,
al. 2002). An integrated bioconversion of shrimp was for water treatment and biodegradable packaging films
proposed, whereby protein, pigment, and main biopolymer (Park et al. 2005; Bautista et al. 2001; Yang et al. 2000).
chitin can be isolated for industrial for common use. In this Their antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties make
context, a process which involves the total utilization of them particularly useful for biomedical applications such as
shell waste is highly valuable (Fig. 3). wound dressing, weight loss agent, blood cholesterol
control, surgical sutures and aid in cataract surgery and
periodontal disease treatment (Stanford 1987; Rockway
Shrimp head waste 2000; Taha and Swailam 2002). In the present review, a
variety of applications are summarized in Table 1.

Grinding
Future trends in total utilization of shrimp waste
(Shrimp waste: distilled water 1:1 w/v)
It is clear that the shrimp waste and discards utilization
situation has changed dramatically since 1970s. Now, there
are more possibilities for enhancing returns by extraction
Mixing and utilization of shrimp byproducts (Gildberg 2002), but
(5% inoculum, 15% carbon source, 2% salt)
there are still more to come. The existing hazardous
chemical method causes environmental pollution as well
as great loss to the bioactive compounds that can be
Incubation at 370C 10C in an orbital shaker at 100rpm isolated from shrimp waste such as protein, pigments, and
fatty acids. The enzymatic processes of extraction of chitin
are costly for the high expenses in commercial enzymes.
Fermentation for 72h There is now a need to develop an efficient, simpler, eco-
friendly, economical, and commercially viable method for
extracting all the possible bioactive compounds present in
Filtration shrimp head waste. Automation of the extraction process is
(Cheese cloth) an essential future trend for the minimization of expenses
and safety of the labor involved in the process. In this
Filtrate Protein section, we mention some of these new components that
can be obtained from shrimp waste and could constitute an
Residue incipient industry or possibility of becoming so.

Washing with distilled water (1:10 w/v) Bioactive compounds

New biologically active compounds have been isolated


from shrimp discards. One discovery was antimicrobial
Chitin activity representing a defense mechanism of the shrimp
Fig. 3 Flow chart indicating fermentation of shrimp waste by using hemocyte histone proteins (Patat et al. 2004; Blanco et al.
microorganisms 2007).
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol (2012) 93:1729 23

Table 1 Applications of bioactive compound chitin and chitosan from shrimp waste

Application Product Mechanism Reference

Immunology Chitin Activation of complement and macrophages Minami et al. 1998;


Freier et al. 2005.
Hemostasis Chitin nano-fiber Activation of platelets Klokkevold et al. 1999
Wound healing Chitosan membrane Ability to protect skin by preventing bacterial invasion Mi et al. 2001; Ong et al.
2008
Medical Chitosan acetate bandage Antibacterial activity when applied to burnt skin Dai et al. 2009
contaminated with P. aeruginosa
Scaffold for the regeneration Chitin (1)Ability to form temporary matrix, (2) ability to form Brandl et al. 2007
of tissue porous structure for tissue to grow, (3) biodegradability,
and finally (4) non-toxic byproducts from the digestion
Nerve regeneration Chitooligosaccharide Used as neuroprotective material with an ability to Gong et al. 2009
improve injured peripheral nerve regeneration
Blood cholesterol control Chitosan It combines with bile acids in the digestive tract, and Maezaki et al. 1993
excretes them into the feces, thus decreasing the
resorption of bile acids, so that the cholesterol pool
in the body was decreased and the level of serum
cholesterol consequently decreased
Drug delivery carriers N-succinyl-chitosan, carboxymethyl These associated macromolecules have been shown to Janes et al. 2001
chitin, chitosan hydrogel, transport through mucosa and epithelia more efficiently
hydroxyethyl chitin
Cationic chitosan With other natural polymers. It has been shown to Haidar et al. 2008
enhance the drug encapsulation efficiency of liposomes
via the layer-by-layer (L-b-L) self-assembly technique
Nanoparticles of chitosan In association with polyethylene oxide have been used Calvo et al. 1997
as protein carrier
Chitosan and tripolyphosphate. Developed oral delivery system Bodmeier et al. 1989
Antioxidant Aminoethyl-chitin Antioxidant activity against free radicals such as 1,1- Je and Kim 2006
diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl,
superoxide, and peroxyl groups
Antimicrobial activity Chitosan Ability of chitin and its derivatives to activate defense El Ghaouth et al. 1992
mechanisms of the host organisms such as inducing
the accumulation of chitinases and other
pathogenesis-related proteins
Gene therapy Galactosylated chitosan Can condense DNA and forms small discrete particles Erbacher et al. 1998
in particular conditions; hence it has many potential
applications for gene delivery
Food technology Chitosan-based films To improve the preservation of vacuum-packaged Ouattara et al. 2000
processed meat and it could delay the growth of
Entrobacteriaceae, which are indigenous bacteria in
the food products
Agriculture Chitin oligosaccharides They could also promote carrot somatic embryos De Jong et al. 1993; Ito
survival, to boost the defense system in rice et al. 1997; Okada et
al. 2001
Chitin fragments Can desensitize the perception system of tomato, Felix et al. 1998
which can lead to improvement of the defense
mechanism in tomato cells
Lipo-chitin Can induce the formation of nodule in soybean root Minami et al. 1996
Bio-nanotechnology Graphitic carbon nanocapsules, The fabrication of bioinspired micro-electromechanical Cheng and Pisano 2008;
tungsten carbide and tungsten systems Wang et al. 2010
carbides/graphitic carbon
composites
Chitin whiskers 3D networks Gopalan and Dufresne
2003
Electrolyte Chitin and H2SO4 electrolyte High chargedischarge ability Yamazaki et al. 2009
Heavy metals and other Chitin phosphate Absorb uranium in the presence of sodium carbonate Sakaguchi et al. 1981
pollutants removal solution
Chitosan-based chelating resins Absorb mercury, Ti, Mo, W, U Hakim et al. 2008a, b;
Oshita et al. 2008
Chitin and chitosan Have copper removal capability which could help to Peiselt et al. 2004
obtain more stable diesel oil
Chitosan Adsorption of organic pollutants Aksu 2005
24 Appl Microbiol Biotechnol (2012) 93:1729

Table 1 (continued)

Application Product Mechanism Reference

Intelligent materials or Chitin-based polyurethane Shape memory materials can remember and regain Zia et al. 2009
composites their original shape after the removal of the stimulus
Energy production Chitin Chitin has also been utilized by Clostridium Evvyernie et al. 2000;
paraputrificum M-21 to produce hydrogen gas. This Morimoto et al. 2005
gas is considered to be a potential source of
alternative energy

Pigments of Vitamin A and has a possible role in human health.


Many studies have been conducted to extract astaxanthin
Valuable pigments have been found in a variety of shrimp from shrimp waste using various methods such as enzy-
waste material. Various studies have reported the presence matic process (Gildberg and Stenberg 2001; Armenta-
and recovery of pigments such as astaxanthin and its esters, Lpez et al. 2002; De Holanda and Netto 2006), fermen-
-carotene (Shahidi et al. 1998). Carotenoids are a group of tation process (Sachindra et al. 2007), extraction using
fat soluble pigments that can be found in many plants, organic solvents (Sachindra et al. 2006), and extraction
algae, microorganisms, and animals. Carotenoids have been using vegetable oils (Sachindra and Mahendrakar 2005),
extracted using shrimp waste from processing head and since astaxanthin is an oil soluble pigment. Several
shell of Penaeus indicus applying different organic solvents vegetable oils such as sunflower oil, ground nut oil, ginger
(Sachindra et al. 2005). oil, mustard oil, soybean oil, coconut oil, rice bran oil, and
The occurrence of carotenoids in crustaceans is mainly cod liver oil have been used to extract this pigment from
due to the absorption of pigments from the diet, which they crustaceans and fish waste (Chen and Meyers 1982; Shahidi
deposit as such or transfer metabolically to keto or hydroxyl and Synowiecki 1991; Sachindra and Mahendrakar 2005).
derivatives (Davies 1985; Castillo et al. 1982). Carotenoids The amount of carotenoid present in P. monodon was 24%,
were also extracted from fish eggs as reported by Li et al. saturated fatty acids 7.8%, and unsaturated fatty acids
2005 and from sea food industry wastewater using fish 31.7% (Sachindra et al. 2005). Minerals in shell fish waste
scales waste as an adsorbent (Stepnowski et al. 2004). The usually consist of 90%, CaCo3/calcium phosphate and 10%
principal carotenoid is astaxanthin formed from ingested in krill waste (Anderson 1975).
beta carotene through oxidative transformation (Katayama
et al. 1971; Latscha 1990). Astaxanthin and its esters have
been isolated as major pigments from temperate water, Essential amino acids
shrimp Pandalus borealis and Penaeus japonicus (Negre-
Sadargues et al. 1993; Shahidi et al. 1998). The qualitative The amino acid composition of original shrimp waste and
and quantitative distribution of carotenoids in different the powder obtained after lyophilization of fermented
body components of four shrimp species Penaeus monodon, shrimp waste is having all the essential amino acids except
P. indicus, Metapenaeus dobsonii, and Prapenalopsis tryptophan, which is absent in both original shrimp waste as
styliceru were studied (Sachindra et al. 2005). The highest well as fermented liquor (Bhaskar et al. 2010). When
total carotenoid content was observed in head than in compared to different standard reference proteins, threonine
carapace (Sachindra et al. 2005). These valuable pigments was found to be most limiting in both original shrimp waste
would be a cheaper alternative, applicable to a wide variety as well as fermented liquor. Barring tyrosine, the fermented
of industrial needs such as coloration of some surimi-based liquor retained all the amino acids present in original
products or aquaculture feed formulations. shrimp waste, indicating the fact that fermentation had not
Furthermore, these pigments are important in medical adversely affected the amino acid composition (Bhaskar et
and biomedical applications. Astaxanthin inhibits prostate al. 2010). Simpson and Haard (1985) studied the amino
cancer and modulating immune responses against tumor acid composition of carateno proteins isolated from shrimp
cells (Guerin et al. 2003). It also inhibits bladder carcino- waste by enzymatic methods and found to be dominated by
genesis (Tanaka et al. 1994). The antioxidant activity has glutamic acid and aspartic acid. The composition of
been reported to be ten times stronger than -carotene fermented liquor is recommended for common carp
(Naguib 2000). It has applications in functional food, feed juveniles (NRC 1993) as well as that of the reference
for crustaceans and Salmonidae, and cosmetic industries protein recommended by FAO/WHO (1985). It can be used
(De Holanda and Netto 2006). This pigment is a precursor as a growth enhancer and immuno stimulant in aquaculture
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol (2012) 93:1729 25

(Amar et al. 2000). Shrimp waste protein hydrolysates are operation. Therefore, extensive research should be carried out
known to be nutritionally superior as feed ingredients due to explore bioactive compounds and their activities from
to high amount of essential amino acids (Gildberg and shrimp waste.
Stenberg 2001). The amino acid composition of the
fermented liquor obtained during degradation is also made Acknowledgements KP is grateful to Prof. K. Aruna Lakshmi and
Prof. R. Sinha for helpful discussion.
up of essential amino acids required by marine Penaeus
shrimp (Millamena et al. 1996a, b; 1997, 1998 and 1999).
Sachindra and Bhaskar (2008) have evaluated and reported
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