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ROAD LIGHT MANAGEMENT AND LIGHT

INTENSITY SYNCHRONOUS CONTROL


SYSTEM USING LDR
Project report submitted
In Partial fulfillment of the Requirements
for the Degree of

Bachelor of Technology
In
ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
SESSION 2014-15

By
Prakash Kumar (1106421073)
Nikita Singh (1106421064)
Anmol Garg (1106421019)
Preeti Kumari (1106421078)

Under the Supervision of


Mr. AVNISH SINGH
Assistant Professor, EN Department
Hindustan College of Science and Technology, Farah
MATHURA (U.P)

UTTAR PRADESH TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY


LUCKNOW
HINDUSTAN COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
FARAH, MATHURA. (U.P)

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the project entitled Road light management and light
intensity synchronous control system using LDR
Submitted by Prakash Kumar, Nikita Singh, Anmol Garg, Preeti Kumari in partial
fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Bachelor of Technology in the
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering at Hindustan College of
science and Technology, Farah Mathura. All the material incorporated into this
thesis is our own original and unaided work except where specific reference is
made by name or in the form of a numbered reference. It is an authentic work
carried out by them under my supervision and guidance.
To the best of my knowledge, the matter embodied in the thesis has not been
submitted to any other University/Institute for the award of any Degree or
Diploma.

Mrs. Richa Kapoor Mr. Avnish Singh


Head of Department Astt.Prof.(Project Guide)
EN Department EN Department

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HINDUSTAN COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
FARAH, MATHURA (U.P)

Certified that this project report Road light management and light intensity synchronous
control system using LDR is bonafide work of Prakash Kumar, Nikta Singh, Anmol Garg
& Preeti Kumari, who carried out project work under my supervision (Astt.Prof. Mr.Avnish
Singh. EN Department). During this project they had undergone the requisite work as
prescribed by UPTU.

Prakash Kumar (1106421073) Mr. Avnish Singh


Asst. Prof. (Project Guide)
EN Department
Nikta Singh (1106421064)

Anmol Garg (1106421019)

Preeti Kumari (1106421078)

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We believe that there has never been a more rewarding and challenging experience to be an
engineer.

It gives us great pride and immense pleasure to extend my sincere regards and deepest sense of
gratitude to our respected project guide Mr. AVNISH SINGH (Assistant Professor), Electrical
and Electronics Engineering, Hindustan College Of Science And Technology, Farah Mathura.

We are very grateful to Mrs. RICHA KAPOOR, Head of Department, Electrical and
Electronics Engineering .Hindustan College Of Science And Technology, Farah Mathura, for
providing us the necessary facilities required for this work.

We also extend our grateful thanks to faculties & staff.

We are also thankful to our classmates for their cooperation caring nature.

Last but not least with great pleasure, we express our thanks to all those who supported us
directly and indirectly.

Prakash Kumar (1106421073)

Nikita Singh (1106421073)

Anmol Garg (1106421019)

Preeti Kumari (1106421078)

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ABSTRACT

During the day night cricket match in the stadium, the lights are switched on synchronously
according to the change in light intensity in the ground. If all the high mask lights are switched
on simultaneously it will cause partial blindness for players and disturbed the match. So to avoid
this situation the lights are switched on one by one according to the change in light intensity
from day to night transition time.

In this project we have built a simple circuit using LDR and bar display driver IC to give 10
outputs synchronously to control 10 light bulbs by triac and opto-coupler isolation. When the
change in light intensity the in-built resistance of LDR changes which provide linear change in
voltage across the transistor which is used as input for bar display driver IC having array of in
built comparators giving output according to the linear change in input voltage to drive the triac
using opto-coupler to control the 60 watt bulbs synchronously. This system is also used for
street light control, hotels, hospitals etc.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Certificate...............................2

Declaration.3

Acknowledgement.4

Abstract..5

Table of Contents..................................6

CHAPTER 1

Introduction.15

1.1 Lightning Module...16


1.2 Comparator Module........16
1.3 Switching module...16

CHAPTER 2

Circuit diagram and Working of project.18

2.1 Lighting Module...18

2.2 Switching Module.20

2.3 Comparator module..22

2.4 Circuit Diagram........24

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Chapter 3

Component Description

3.1 LDR .25

3.2 LED..27

3.3 DIODE.29

3.4 RESISTOR...30

3.5 BATTERY32

3.6 BAR DISPLAY DRIVER IC (LM3914)34

3.7 TRANSISTOR.37

3.8 CAPACITOR...40

3.9 PCB (PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD).42

3.10 REGULATED IC 7805..44

3.11 SOLAR PANEL.46

Chapter 4

Performance Analysis

4.1 Performance Analysis of LED v/s Traditional Sodium Lights.......49

4.2 Performance Analysis of High Power LED...50

4.3 Comparison between LED street lamps and sodium lamps in performance..51

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4.4 Features of LED street Lights ...52

Chapter 5

Cost Analysis

5.1 Cost Analysis of LED street lights and Traditional Sodium Vapor Lights55

Chapter 6..Applications 57

Chapter 7.Future Scope 58

Advantages and disadvantages 59

Conclusion 60

References 61

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LIST OF TABLES

T.1 Performance Analysis of LED v/s Traditional Sodium


Lights.(PAGE NO:-49)

T.2 Comparison between led street lamp and sodium lamp in


performance.
(PAGE NO:-51)

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LIST OF FIGURES:-

LIST OF FIGURES:-

F.1 Lighting Module 19

F.2 Switching Module 21

F.3 Comparator Module 23

F.4 Circuit Diagram 24

F.5 LDR 25

F.6 LDR working 25

F.7 Cadmium Sulfide LDR 26

F.8 Red, Green and Blue LEDs 27

F.9 A single LED bulb 28

F.10 Resistance 30

F.11 Resistance Color code 31

F.12 Lead Acid Battery 33

F.13 LM 3914 34

F.14 LM 3914 with LEDs connection 36

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F.15 IC LM 3914 36

F.16 Transistors 37

F.17 Transistor 37

F.18 Capacitor 41

F.19 Two Capacitors 41

F.20 PCBs 42

F.21 PCB with LED 43

F.22 IC 7805 44

F.23 Solar panel 48

F.24 Solar Panel 48

F.25 Performance analysis of LED 50

F.26 Cost Analysis 55

F.27 Pie chart for 2010 56

F.28 Pie chart for 2015 56

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LIST OF CHARACTERSTICS GRAPHS:-

G.1 Resistance v/s Illumination graph of LDR 26

G.2 V-I characteristics of diode 29

G.3 Transistor V-I characteristics 39

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LIST OF COMPONENTS SYMBOLS

S.1 LDR 26

S.2 LED bulb 28

S.3 p-n junction diode 29

S.4 Resistor 31

S.5 Variable Resistor 31

S.6 Battery 33

S.7 Transistor 37

S.8 Electrolytic and non-electrolytic Capacitors 40

S.9 7805 IC pin configuration 44

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LIST OF SYMBOLS:-

R=Resistance

V= Voltage

I= Current

Vce= Collector to emitter voltage

Ic= Collector Current

R= Load Resistance

Q= Charge on capacitor

C= Capacitance

0= permittivity in free space

S= Electrode surface area

Lm= luminance

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

In this project we are using the Illumination technique to automatically control the flickering of
light during daytime and during night. Illumination is a technique of deliberate use of light to
achieve a practical or aesthetic effect. As during night the intensity of light needed is of high
intensity but during daytime the intensity of light needed is low. So to make it automatic we are
using LDR sensors to sense the intensity of light needed at that particular time. If there is
sufficient light, the intensity of light needed is low. So this will save the energy and in this we
are using the high intensity LEDs which will give proper light in the system as per requirement.
This technology was first used in Germany to have the street light with solar panel using LDR
sensors which were highly efficient, automatic in nature and saves lot of energy due to which
power loss and cost was reduced and efficiency was increased. This technique is also being used
at high levels too (in cricket stadiums) during a day-night match. As the intensity of light
decreases, the LDR sensors sense the change and gradually increases the intensity of light so that
sudden change in light dont affect the players and keep the game going. As the intensity of light
decreases,the lights in the stadium goes on increasing gradually and vice versa. Here we are
using 3 modules in the circuit namely:

Lightning module

Switching module

Comparator based module

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1.1) LIGHTNING MODULE

In this project our first part is lightning module in which we are using 20 LEDs of 0.5watt
power and which can give an output of 3.2V. The light source here are the LEDs which are self
sustaining. All the LEDs are of 30mA capacity where the arrangement of all the LEDs are like
2 LEDs are in series and finally they are arranged in parallel combination with the resistances.
All the LEDs give white light which start giving light two at a time so for 20 LEDs,10 power
indicators are used to indicate the flickering of LEDs.

1.2) COMPARATOR BASED MODULE

A sensing circuit is used where we make light sensor using LDR & transistor.When the light
falls on LDR, the resistance decrease and current Ib increases and in this way the transistor
becomes forward biased and it drops the current directly in proportion to light intensity of the
source. In daytime, the positive potential is dominant i.e. light does not glow while in the night
time or as the intensity of light is very low, the negative potential is dominant and give the
sample voltage to the comparator circuit. When the sample voltage is equal to or more than
reference voltage Vref, the sequential comparator gives 10 outputs in sequence i.e one by one
which operate the LEDs lights through a pnp transistor. Here the transistor is working as a
switch.

1.3) SWITCHING MODULE

Transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic signals and electrical
power. It is composed of semiconductor material with at least three terminals for connection to
an external Circuit.Transistor is working as a switch.If the circuit uses the Bipolar Transistor as a
Switch, then the biasing of the transistor, either NPN or PNP is arranged to operate the transistor
at both sides of the " I-V " characteristics .

Transistor Switch Operating Regions

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1.Cut-off Transistor

2.Saturation Region

Transistors are commonly used as electronic switches, both for high-power applications such
as switched-mode power supplies and for low-power applications such as logic gates.

In a grounded-emitter transistor circuit, such as the light-switch circuit shown, as the base
voltage rises, the emitter and collector currents rise exponentially. The collector voltage drops
because of reduced resistance from collector to emitter. If the voltage difference between the
collector and emitter were zero (or near zero), the collector current would be limited only by
the load resistance (light bulb) and the supply voltage. This is called saturation because current
is flowing from collector to emitter freely. When saturated the switch is said to be on.

Providing sufficient base drive current is a key problem in the use of bipolar transistors as
switches. The transistor provides current gain, allowing a relatively large current in the
collector to be switched by a much smaller current into the base terminal. The ratio of these
currents varies depending on the type of transistor, and even for a particular type, varies
depending on the collector current. In the example light-switch circuit shown, the resistor is
chosen to provide enough base current to ensure the transistor will be saturated.

In any switching circuit, values of input voltage would be chosen such that the output is either
completely off or completely on. The transistor is acting as a switch, and this type of operation
is common in digital circuits where only "on" and "off" values are relevant. Because the
controlled (output) power can be higher than the controlling (input) power, a transistor
can amplify a signal. Today, some transistors are packaged individually, but many more are
found embedded in integrated circuits.

The transistor's low cost, flexibility, and reliability have made it a ubiquitous device.
Transistorized mechatronic circuits have replaced electromechanical devices in controlling
appliances and machinery. It is often easier and cheaper to use a standard microcontroller and
write a computer program to carry out a control function than to design an equivalent
mechanical control function.

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:

CHAPTER 2 WORKING:

2.1) LIGHTING MODULE:-

This is the first module and starting module of our project. In this we are using 20 LEDs of
Watt each with the design of 2*10 LEDs in pair. There can be certain design issues in using
ten LEDs in pair. But still we are using it as in any other design the surface area may change. In
this two LEDs are in series with each other with resistance in series. Then the pair of LEDs
with resistance is joined with other pair of LEDs and resistance in Parallel and this process of
connecting these are done in a parallel pattern as it can be seen in the figure.

This is actually the heart of the project which helps in illuminating an area. In our project it is
basically made to be used in Street Lights with illuminating technique. As the intensity of light
decreases i.e. during night time the LEDs glow at their maximum with all LEDs glowing
during the dark time. But similarly as the intensity of light increases i.e. during sunrise the high
power LEDs starts getting OFF one-by-one. This concept is very well used in all the cricket
stadiums in many countries where day-night cricket matches are common. By this technique the
sudden flickering of light doesnt affect the cricket players. Due to this sudden flickering of light
the player cant see during any cricket match

In our project we are actually using this technique to save energy being waste by the Sodium
Vapor Lamps used earlier in Street Lights. As we are using high power LEDs so there is no
need for any AC source as the power can be provided by the Solar Energy as DC power will be
needed. So by utilizing the suns rays the Suns light can be used to convert sunlight into
electricity by means of Solar panel. Photons are the basic fundamental unit of any form of light
energy. The photons that are emitted by the sun (visible light) are captured by the solar panels.
The generation of electricity in the solar panels is possible because of a principle called as
photovoltaic effect.

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In this we need the light from LED to fall on ground. This can be seen in the module. In this the
intensity of light is synchronously controlled by using an LDR sensor which mainly works on the
principle that , as the resistance of LDR increases i.e. during dark the lights glows one by one in
pair synchronously. Similarly as the resistance of LDR decreases i.e. during daytime the Lights
gets off one by one synchronously. We are using resistance in it to control the flow of current in
the circuit so that the LEDs will be safe and no damage can be happened to the LEDs
connected in the module. This is the main function of the LIGHTING module we are using in
this project.

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(F.1)

2.2)SWITCHING MODULE

In the switching module we are using p-n-p transistor for switching purposes. Transistor is a
semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic signals and electrical power. It is
composed of semiconductor material with at least three terminals for connection to an
external Circuit. The p-n-p transistor is used as a switch which works mainly in two regions
as the cost of p-n-p transistor cost is less. Transistor is working as a switch. If the circuit uses
the Bipolar Transistor as a Switch, then the biasing of the transistor, either NPN or PNP is
arranged to operate the transistor at both sides of the I-V" characteristics.

Transistor Switch Operating Regions

1.Cut-off Transistor

2.Saturation Region

Transistors are commonly used as electronic switches, both for high-power applications such
as switched-mode power supplies and for low-power applications such as logic gates.

In a grounded-emitter transistor circuit, such as the light-switch circuit shown, as the base
voltage rises, the emitter and collector currents rise exponentially. The collector voltage drops
because of reduced resistance from collector to emitter. If the voltage difference between the
collector and emitter were zero (or near zero), the collector current would be limited only by
the load resistance (light bulb) and the supply voltage. This is called saturation because current
is flowing from collector to emitter freely. When saturated the switch is said to be on.

Providing sufficient base drive current is a key problem in the use of bipolar transistors as
switches.In the example light-switch circuit shown, the resistor is chosen to provide enough
base current to ensure the transistor will be saturated.

20
In any switching circuit, values of input voltage would be chosen such that the output is either
completely off, or completely on. The transistor is acting as a switch, and this type of operation
is common in digital circuits where only "on" and "off" values are relevant. Because the
controlled (output) power can be higher than the controlling (input) power, a transistor
can amplify a signal. Today, some transistors are packaged individually, but many more are
found embedded in integrated circuits. A logic gate consists of up to about twenty transistors
whereas an advanced microprocessor, as of 2009, can use as many as 3 billion transistors.

The transistor's low cost, flexibility, and reliability have made it a ubiquitous device.
Transistorized mechatronic circuits have replaced electromechanical devices in controlling
appliances and machinery. It is often easier and cheaper to use a standard microcontroller and
write a computer program to carry out a control function than to design an equivalent
mechanical control function.

21
(F.2)

2.3) COMPARATOR MODULE

As the name suggests comparator module, in this voltage is compared by the reference and
output voltage to let the LEDs function properly and synchronously. In this we are using
capacitors and resistor to form a complete comparator circuit with LM 3914 and IC 7805. In this
each capacitor has different use. The first capacitor of 10F is used for Biasing purpose. The

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second capacitor of 1000F is used as a filter capacitor. The third capacitor of 1F is used for
noise reduction in the circuit.

In this we are using four variable resistors in which one is use for the biasing of LDR, the
second one is used for controlling the forward current of pnp transistor joined in the module, the
third resistor is used for controlling the sensitivity of the whole process and the last resistor is
used for setting the reference voltage.

In this the LEDs are connected to the 10 out of 18 pins of LM 3914 to control the each pair of
LEDs connected in lighting module with each pin having different use. In this IC 7805 is used
to give the regulated output of 5V. A sensing circuit is used where we make light sensor using
LDR & transistor. When the light falls on LDR, the resistance decrease and current Ib increases,
this increase in current is compared by the reference value set in the circuit by the variable
resistor and in this way the transistor becomes forward biased and it drops the current directly in
proportion to light intensity of the source.

In daytime, the positive potential is dominant i.e. light does not glow while in the night time or
as the intensity of light is very low, the negative potential is dominant and give the sample
voltage to the comparator circuit. When the sample voltage is equal to or more than reference
voltage Vref, the sequential comparator gives 10 outputs in sequence i.e one by one which
operate the LEDs lights through a pnp transistor. Here the transistor is working as a switch.
Here there are 10 indicator LEDs which are used to represent the ON and OFF state of pair of
LEDs connected in the lighting module. This whole thing is done by just comparing the change
of output voltage with reference voltage. Any change in the value leads to change in ON and
OFF of the LEDs connected.

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(F.3)

2.4) CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

24
(F.4)

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CHAPTER THREE COMPONENTS USED:

3.1) LDR (LIGHT DEPENDENT RESISROR)

A photoresistor or light dependent resistor (LDR) is a resistor whose resistance decreases


with increasing incident light intensity; in other words, it exhibits photoconductivity.

A photoresistor is made of a high resistance semiconductor. If light falling on the device is of


high enough frequency, photons absorbed by the semiconductor give bound electrons enough
energy to jump into the conduction band. The resulting free electron (and its hole partner)
conduct electricity, thereby lowering resistance.

LDRs or Light Dependent Resistors are very useful especially in light/dark sensor circuits.
Normally the resistance of an LDR is very high, sometimes as high as 1000 000 ohms, but when
they are illuminated with light resistance drops dramatically.

When a light level of 1000 lux (bright light) is directed towards it, the resistance is 400R (ohms).

When a light level of 10 lux (very low light level) is directed


towards it, the resistance has risen dramatically to 10.43Mohm

(F.5) (F.6)

Working of LDR illustrated:-

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This is an example of a light sensor circuit :-

When the light level is low the resistance of the LDR is high. This prevents current from flowing
to the base of the transistors. Consequently the LED does not light.
However, when light shines onto the LDR its resistance falls and current flows into the base of
the first transistor and then the second transistor.The preset resistor can be turned up or down to
increase or decrease resistance, in this way it can make the circuit more or less sensitive.

(F.7) , (S.1) & (G.1)

3.2) LED (LIGHT EMITTING DIODE)

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A light emitting diode (LED) is essentially a PN junction that emits a monochromatic (single
color) light when operated in a forward biased direction. A light emitting diode (LED) is
essentially a PN junction that emits a monochromatic (single color) light when operated in a
forward biased direction. When a light-emitting diode is switched on, electrons are able to
recombine with holes within the device, releasing energy in the form of photons. This effect is
called electroluminescence and the color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the
photon) is determined by the energy band gap of the semiconductor. An LED lamp (or LED
light bulb) is a solid-state lamp that uses light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as the source of light.
LED lamps offer long service life and high energy efficiency, but initial costs are higher than
those of fluorescent and incandescent lamps. Chemical decomposition of LED chips reduces
luminous flux over life cycle as with conventional lamps.

(F.8)

Commercial LED lighting products use semiconductor light-emitting diode. LED lamps can be
made interchangeable with other types of lamps. Assemblies of high power light-emitting diodes
can be used to replace incandescent or fluorescent lamps. Some LED lamps are made with bases

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directly interchangeable with those of incandescent bulbs. Since the luminous efficiency (amount
of visible light produced per unit of electrical power input) varies widely between LED and
incandescent lamps, lamps are usefully marked with their lumen output to allow comparison with
other types of lamps. LED lamps are sometimes marked to show the watt rating of an
incandescent lamp with approximately the same lumen output, for consumer reference in
purchasing a lamp that will provide a similar level of illumination.

Requires 1.5~2.5V and 10 mA. To prevent overloading, use resistor 470 . LEDs can be AC
or DC powered or powered directly off of a solar panel. LEDs produce almost no heat; nearly
all the energy used is converted into light.

(F.9) (S.2)

3.3) DIODE

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In electronics, a diode is a two-terminal electronic component with an asymmetric transfer
characteristic, with low (ideally zero) resistance to current flow in one direction, and high
(ideally infinite) resistance in the other. A semiconductor diode, the most common type today, is
a crystalline piece of semiconductor material with a pn junction connected to two electrical
terminals.

S.3

The most common function of a diode is to allow an electric current to pass in one direction
(called the diode's forward direction), while blocking current in the opposite direction (the
reverse direction). Thus, the diode can be viewed as an electronic version of a check valve.

A current voltage diagram for a diode is being shown in the figure below :

(G.2)

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3.4)RESISTANCE

(F.10)

A resistor is a passive two-terminal electric component that implements electrical resistance as a


circuit element.The current through a resistor is in direct proportion to the voltage across the
resistor's terminals. This relationship is represented by Ohm's law:

where I is the current through the conductor in units of amperes, V is the potential difference
measured across the conductor in units of volts, and R is the resistance of the conductor in units
of ohms. The ratio of the voltage applied across a resistor's terminals to the intensity of current in
the circuit is called its resistance, and this can be assumed to be a constant (independent of the
voltage) for ordinary resistors working within their ratings.

In this project resistor are being used a s medium of pressure drop ant to regulate the voltage
supply accordingly. Here we are using 1K ohm, 1/4 watt resistor.

31
(F.11)

A variable resistor is a potentiometer with only two connecting wires instead of three. The pot
allows us to control the potential passed through a circuit. The variable resistance lets us adjust
the resistance between two points in a circuit. A variable resistance is useful when we don't know
in advance what resistor value will be required in a circuit. By using pots as an adjustable resistor
we can set the right value once the circuit is working. Controls like this are often called 'presets'
because they are set by the manufacturer before the circuit is sent to the customer. They're
usually hidden away inside the case of the equipment, away from the fingers of the users!

(S.4) (S.5)

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3.5) BATTERY

Battery of 6 volt is being used but the supply need to of 5 volt standard, so various resistors is
being added as a regulating arrangement in circuit module. Since power consumption is low
hence the size of batteries is also small. Leadacid batteries, invented in 1859 by French
physicist Gaston Plant, are the oldest type of rechargeable battery. Despite having a very low
energy-to-weight ratio and a low energy-to-volume ratio, their ability to supply high surge
currents means that the cells maintain a relatively large power-to-weight ratio. These features,
along with their low cost, make them attractive for use in motor vehicles to provide the high
current required by automobile starter motors.

Lead-acid batteries sales accounts for 40-45% of the value from batteries sold worldwide (1999,
not including China and Russia), a manufacturing market value of about US$15 billion.

lead-acid battery was the first battery that could be recharged by passing a reverse current
through it. Plant's first model consisted of two lead sheets separated by rubber strips and rolled
into a spiral. His batteries were first used to power the lights in train carriages while stopped at a
station. In 1881, Camille Alphonse Faure invented an improved version that consisted of a lead
grid lattice into which a lead oxide paste was pressed, forming a plate. This design was easier to
mass-produce.

The lead-acid battery is still used today in automobiles and other applications in which greater
weight is acceptable. In the 1970s the valve-regulated lead acid battery (often called "sealed")
was developed; it used a gel electrolyte instead of a liquid, allowing the battery to be used in
different positions without leakage. Most of the world's leadacid batteries are automobile
starting, lighting and ignition (SLI) batteries, with an estimated 320 million units shipped in
1999. In 1992 about 3 million tons of lead was used in the manufacture of batteries.

Wet cell stand-by (stationary) batteries designed for deep discharge are commonly used in large
backup power supplies for telephone and computer centers, grid energy storage, and off-grid
household electric power systems. Leadacid batteries are used in emergency lighting and to
power sump pumps in case of power failure.

Large leadacid batteries are also used to power the electric motors in diesel-electric
(conventional)submarines and are used on nuclear submarines as well. Valve-regulated lead acid

33
batteries cannot spill their electrolyte. They are used in back-up power supplies for alarm and
smaller computer systems (particularly in uninterruptible power supplies ("UPS")) and
for electric scooters, electric wheelchairs, electrified bicycles, marine applications, battery
electric vehicles or micro hybrid vehicles, and motorcycles.

Leadacid batteries were used to supply the filament (heater) voltage, with 2 V common in
early vacuum tube (valve) radio receivers.

(F.12)

(S.6)
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3.6) BAR DISPLAY DRIVER IC(LM3914)

LM3914 is a monolithic integrated circuit that senses another voltage levels and drives 10 LEDs
providing a linear analog display.A single pin changes a display from single dot to a bar
graph.Current drive to the LEDs is regulated and programmable, eliminating the need for
resistors. This feature is one that allows operation of the whole s ystem from less than
3V.Drives LEDs, LCDs or vacuum fluorescents.Operates with single supply of 3V-35V.
Output current programmable from 2 mA to 30 mA. Input withstands 35V without damage or
false outputs.. The linear scaling of the output thresholds makes the device usable, for example,
as a voltmeter. Internally, each device contains ten comparators and a resistor scaling network, as
well as a 1.2 volt reference source. As the input voltage increases, each comparator turns on. The
device can be configured for either a bar-graph mode, where all lower-output terminals switch
on, or "dot" mode in which only one output goes on. The device is packaged in an 18 pin dual in-
line packageor in a surface mount leadless chip carrier.

(F.13)

35
All the devices in this group operate with a range of voltages between 3V-35V, can
drive LED and VFD displays. They can provide a regulated output current between 2mA-30mA
to directly drive displays.

Internally, each device contains ten comparators and a resistor scaling network, as well as a 1.2
volt reference source. As the input voltage increases, each comparator turns on. The device can
be configured for either a bar-graph mode, where all lower-output terminals switch on, or "dot"
mode in which only one output goes on. [1] The device is packaged in an 18 pin dual in-line
packageor in a surface mount leadless chip carrier. A single pin changes the display from a same
time, so controller functions including "staging" control moving dot to a bar graph. Current drive
to the LEDs is can be performed. The LM3914 can also act as a program- regulated and
programmable, eliminating the need for resis- mer, or sequencer. Driver tors. This feature is one
that allows operation of the whole The LM3914 is rated for operation from 0C to +70C. The
system from less than 3V. LM3914N-1 is available in an 18-lead molded (N) package. The
circuit contains its own adjustable reference and accu- The following typical application
illustrates adjusting of the rate 10-step voltage divider. The low-bias-current input reference to a
desired value, and proper grounding for ac- buffer accepts signals down to ground, or V-, yet
needs no curate operation, and avoiding oscillations. protection against inputs of 35V above or
below ground. Thebuffer drives 10 individual comparators referenced to theprecision divider.
Indication non-linearity can thus be held Features typically to 1/2%, even over a wide
temperature range. n Drives LEDs, LCDs or vacuum fluorescents Versatility was designed into
the LM3914 so that controller, n Bar or dot display mode externally selectable by user visual
alarm, and expanded scale functions are easily added n Expandable to displays of 100 steps on to
the display system. The circuit can drive LEDs of many n Internal voltage reference from 1.2V
to 12V colors, or low-current incandescent lamps. Many LM3914s n Operates with single supply
of less than 3V can be "chained" to form displays of 20 to over 100 seg- n Inputs operate down
to ground ments. Both ends of the voltage divider are externally avail- n Output current
programmable from 2 mA to 30 mA able so that 2 drivers can be made into a zero-center meter.
No multiplex switching or interaction between outputs The LM3914 is very easy to apply as an
analog meter circuit. n Input withstands 35V without damage or false outputs A 1.2V full-scale
meter requires only 1 resistor and a single3V to 15V supply in addition to the 10 display LEDs.

36
LM3914 features

Drives LEDs, LCDs or vacuum fluorescents


Expandable to displays of 100 steps
Internal voltage reference from 1.2V to 12V
Operates with single supply of less than 3V
Output current programmable from 2 mA to 30 mA
Input withstands 35V without damage or false outputs
LED driver outputs are current regulated, open-collectors
The internal 10-step divider is floating and can be referenced to a wide range of voltages.

(F.14)

(F.15)

37
3.7) TRANSISTOR

WSSA transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic signals and
electrical power. It is composed of semiconductor material with at least three terminals for
connection to an external Circuit.

Transistor is working as a switch.

(F.16)

TRANSISTOR AS A SWITCH

If the circuit uses the Bipolar Transistor as a Switch, then the biasing of the transistor,
either NPN or PNP is arranged to operate the transistor at both sides of the " I-V "
characteristics .

Transistor Switch Operating Regions

(F.17) (S.7)

38
1.Cut-off Transistor

2.Saturation Region

Transistors are commonly used as electronic switches, both for high-power applications such
as switched-mode power supplies and for low-power applications such as logic gates.

In a grounded-emitter transistor circuit, such as the light-switch circuit shown, as the base
voltage rises, the emitter and collector currents rise exponentially. The collector voltage drops
because of reduced resistance from collector to emitter. If the voltage difference between the
collector and emitter were zero (or near zero), the collector current would be limited only by the
load resistance (light bulb) and the supply voltage. This is called saturation because current is
flowing from collector to emitter freely. When saturated the switch is said to be on.

Providing sufficient base drive current is a key problem in the use of bipolar transistors as
switches. The transistor provides current gain, allowing a relatively large current in the collector
to be switched by a much smaller current into the base terminal. The ratio of these currents varies
depending on the type of transistor, and even for a particular type, varies depending on the
collector current. In the example light-switch circuit shown, the resistor is chosen to provide
enough base current to ensure the transistor will be saturated.

In any switching circuit, values of input voltage would be chosen such that the output is either
completely off,[30] or completely on. The transistor is acting as a switch, and this type of
operation is common in digital circuits where only "on" and "off" values are relevant. Because
the controlled (output) power can be higher than the controlling (input) power, a transistor
can amplify a signal. Today, some transistors are packaged individually, but many more are
found embedded in integrated circuits.

The transistor is the fundamental building block of modern electronic devices, and is ubiquitous
in modern electronic systems. Following its development in the early 1950s, the transistor
revolutionized the field of electronics, and paved the way for smaller and
cheaper radios, calculators, and computers, among other things.

The transistor is the key active component in practically all modern electronics. Many consider it
to be one of the greatest inventions of the 20th century. Its importance in today's society rests on

39
its ability to be mass-produced using a highly automated process (semiconductor device
fabrication) that achieves astonishingly low per-transistor costs.

Although several companies each produce over a billion individually packaged (known
as discrete) transistors every year, the vast majority of transistors now are produced in integrated
circuits along with diodes, resistors, capacitors and otherelectronic components, to produce
complete electronic circuits. A logic gate consists of up to about twenty transistors whereas an
advanced microprocessor, as of 2009, can use as many as 3 billion transistors .

The transistor's low cost, flexibility, and reliability have made it a ubiquitous device.
Transistorized mechatronic circuits have replaced electromechanical devices in controlling
appliances and machinery. It is often easier and cheaper to use a standard microcontroller and
write a computer program to carry out a control function than to design an equivalent mechanical
control function.

(G.3)

40
3.8) CAPACITOR

Introduction to Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitors

[1] How Capacitors Work

Figure shown below gives the basic concepts of how capacitors function.
A dielectric material is layered between two metal electrodes, and an electrical charge
proportional to the voltage is stored in the capacitor when a voltage is applied across the
electrodes.
Figure

(S.8)

"C" is the capacitance of the capacitor. The capacitance is calculated using the equation shown
below as a function of the surface area of the electrodes (S), the distance between the electrodes
(t), and the dielectric constant of the dielectric () .

In the formula above, 0 represents the permittivity of free space (8.85 x 10-12F/m)
A larger capacitance can be obtained by either increasing the dielectric constant, increasing the
electrode surface area (S), or by decreasing the distance between the electrodes(t). The dielectric
constant of an aluminium oxide layer averages between 7 and 8.

41
Electrolytic capacitors take advantage of the ability of some metal oxides to act as an excellent
insulator (at low voltages) and also form a dielectric material with a very high dielectric
constant 'K'. Most common electrolytic capacitors use aluminium oxide as the dielectric, but
special-purpose and low leakage types generally use tantalum oxide. The main shortcoming of
electrolytic capacitors is that the insulating and dielectric properties of the metallic oxides are
polarity sensitive -- so most electrolytic capacitors must be connected into circuit so that
voltage is always applied to them with the correct polarity (which is marked on their body).
The only exception is 'non polarised' or bipolar (BP) electrolytic, which are effectively two
electrolytics in series back-to-back. Because the oxide dielectric layer in electrolytic capacitors
is extremely thin, these capacitors are more prone to breakdown at higher voltages. So all
electrolytics are clearly marked in terms of their safe maximum operating voltage.In most cases
electrolytics also have their capacitance value shown directly on the case as well.
The three most common types of aluminium electrolytic in current use are the axial-lead or RT
type, the radial-lead or RB type (for vertical mounting on PC boards) and the chassis-mounting
or RG type. There's also a variation on the RB type called the RP, with a third lead for
orientation and added support.
The most common type of tantalum electrolytic in current use is the solid or TAG tantalum
type, where the tantalum oxide dielectric is formed on the surface of a solid block of sintered
tantalum granules. These capacitors provide low leakage and very high capacitance in a very
small volume, but are limited to quite low voltages -- typically less than 33.

(F.18) (F.19)

42
3.9) PCB (PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD)
Printed circuit board, or PCB, is used to mechanically support and electrically connect using
conductive pathways, tracks or signal traces etched from copper sheet laminated onto a non-
conductive substrate. When the board has only copper tracks and features, and no circuit
elements such as capacitors, resistors or active devices have been manufactured into the actual
substrate of the board, it is more correctly referred to as printed wiring board (PWB) or etched
wiring board. Use of the term PWB or printed wiring board although more accurate and distinct
from what would be known as a true printed circuit board, has generally fallen by the wayside
for many people as the distinction between circuit and wiring has become blurred. Today printed
wiring (circuit) boards are used in virtually all but the simplest commercially produced electronic
devices, and allow fully automated assembly processes that were not possible or practical in
earlier era tag type circuit assembly processes.

A PCB populated with electronic components is called a printed circuit assembly (PCA), printed
circuit board assembly or PCB Assembly(PCBA). In informal use the term PCB is used both
for bare and assembled boards, the context clarifying the meaning.

Alternatives to PCBs include wire wrap and point-to-point construction. PCBs must initially be
designed and laid out, but become cheaper, faster to make, and potentially more reliable for high-
volume production since production and soldering of PCBs can be automated. Much of the
electronics industrys PCB design, assembly, and quality control needs are set by standards.

(F.20)

43
Single-sided PCB means that wiring is available only on one side of the insulating
substrate.Different types of boards are mostly used in case of simple circuitry and where the
manufacturing costs are to be kept at a minimum. Nevertheless, they represent a large volume of
printed boards currently produced for professional and non-professional grades. The single-sided
boards are manufactured mostly by the print and etch method or by the diecut technique by
using a die that carries an image of the wiring pattern; and the die is either photoengraved or
machine-engraved. Normally, components are used to jump over conductor tracks, but if this is
not possible, jumper wires are used. The number of jumper wires on a board cannot be accepted
beyond a small number because of economic reasons, resulting in the requirement for double-
sided boards. These single sided printed circuit boards are widely used in various electronics
applications. Being single sided circuit board, it connect various electronic components
electrically. We can provide customization to our range of single sided printed circuit boards.

(F.21)

44
3.10) REGULATED IC 7805

7805 is a family of self-contained fixed linear voltage regulator integrated circuits. The 7805
family is commonly used in electronic circuits requiring a regulated power supply due to their
ease-of-use and low cost. For ICs within the family, the xx is replaced with two digits, indicating
the output voltage (for example, the 7805 has a 5 volt output, while the 7812 produces 12 volts).
The 7805 line are positive voltage regulators: they produce a voltage that is positive relative to a
common ground. There is a related line of 7905 devices which are complementary negative
voltage regulators. 78xx and 79xx ICs can be used in combination to provide positive and
negative supply voltages in the same circuit.

78xx ICs have three terminals and are commonly found in the TO220 form factor, although
smaller surface-mount and larger TO3 packages are available. These devices support an input
voltage anywhere from a couple of volts over the intended output voltage, up to a maximum of
35 to 40 volts depending on the make, and typically provide 1 or 1.5 amperes of current (though
smaller or larger packages may have a lower or higher current rating).

(F.22) (S.9)

The LM78XX series of three terminal regulators is available with several fixed output
voltages making them useful in a wide range of applications. One of these is local on card
regulation, eliminating the distribution problems associated with single point regulation.
The voltages available allow these regulators to be used in logic systems, instrumentation,
HiFi, and other solid state electronic equipment. Al- though designed primarily as fixed

45
voltage regulators these devices can be used with external components to obtain ad- justable
voltages and currents.
The LM78XX series is available in an aluminum TO-3 pack- age which will allow over 1.0A
load current if adequate heat sinking is provided. Current limiting is included to limit the
peak output current to a safe value. Safe area protection for the output transistor is provided
to limit internal power dissipation. If internal power dissipation becomes too high for the heat
sinking provided, the thermal shutdown circuit takes over preventing the IC from overheating.
Considerable effort was expanded to make the LM78XX series of regulators easy to use and
minimize the number of external components. It is not necessary to bypass the out-put,
although this does improve transient response. Input by- passing is needed only if the regulator
is located far from the filter capacitor of the power supply.
For output voltage other than 5V, 12V and 15V the LM117 series provides an output
voltage range from 1.2V to 57V.

Features
Output current in excess of 1A
Internal thermal overload protection
No external components required
Output transistor safe area protection
Internal short circuit current limit
Available in the aluminum TO-3 package.

Voltage Range

LM7805C 5V

46
3.11) SOLAR PANEL

A solar panel (also solar module, photovoltaic module or photovoltaic panel) is a packaged,
connected assembly of photovoltaic cells. The solar panel can be used as a component of a larger
photovoltaic system to generate and supply electricity in commercial and residential applications.
Each panel is rated by its DC output power under standard test conditions, and typically ranges
from 100 to 320 watts. The efficiency of a panel determines the area of a panel given the same
rated output - an 8% efficient 230 watt panel will have twice the area of a 16% efficient 230 watt
panel. Because a single solar panel can produce only a limited amount of power, most
installations contain multiple panels. A photovoltaic system typically includes an array of solar
panels, an inverter, and sometimes a battery and orsolar tracker and interconnection wiring.

Solar panels use light energy (photons) from the sun to generate electricity through
the photovoltaic effect. The majority of modules use wafer-basedcrystalline silicon cells or thin-
film cells based on cadmium telluride or silicon. The structural (load carrying) member of a
module can either be the top layer or the back layer. Cells must also be protected from
mechanical damage and moisture. Most solar panels are rigid, but semi-flexible ones are
available, based on thin-film cells. These early solar panels were first used in space in 1958.

Electrical connections are made in series to achieve a desired output voltage and/or in parallel to
provide a desired current capability. The conducting wires that take the current off the panels
may contain silver, copper or other non-magnetic conductive transition metals. The cells must be
connected electrically to one another and to the rest of the system. Externally, popular terrestrial
usage photovoltaic panels use MC3 (older) or MC4 connectors to facilitate easy weatherproof
connections to the rest of the system.

Bypass diodes may be incorporated or used externally, in case of partial panel shading, to
maximize the output of panel sections still illuminated. The p-n junctions of mono-crystalline
silicon cells may have adequate reverse voltage characteristics to prevent damaging panel section
reverse current. Reverse currents could lead to overheating of shaded cells. Solar cells become
less efficient at higher temperatures and installers try to provide good ventilation behind solar
panels.

47
Some recent solar panel designs include concentrators in which light is focused by lenses or
mirrors onto an array of smaller cells. This enables the use of cells with a high cost per unit area
(such as gallium arsenide) in a cost-effective way. Depending on construction, photovoltaic
panels can produce electricity from a range of frequencies of light, but usually cannot cover the
entire solar range (specifically, ultraviolet, infrared and low or diffused light). Hence much of the
incident sunlight energy is wasted by solar panels, and they can give far higher efficiencies if
illuminated with monochromatic light. Therefore, another design concept is to split the light into
different wavelength ranges and direct the beams onto different cells tuned to those ranges. This
has been projected to be capable of raising efficiency by 50%.

Depending on construction, photovoltaic panels can produce electricity from a range of


frequencies of light, but usually cannot cover the entire solar range (specifically, ultraviolet
infrared and low or diffused light). Hence much of the incident sunlight energy is wasted by
solar panels, and they can give far higher efficiencies if illuminated with monochromatic light.
Therefore, another design concept is to split the light into different wavelength ranges nd direct
the beams onto different cells tuned to those ranges.This has been projected to be capable of
raising efficiency by 50%.

Currently the best achieved sunlight conversion rate (solar panel efficiency) is around 20.1% in
new commercial products typically lower than the efficiencies of their cells in isolation. The
most efficient mass-produced solar panels have energy density values of up to 16.22 W/ft2
(175 W/m2).

Assemblies of photovoltaic cells are used to make solar modules which generate electrical power
from sunlight. Multiple cells in an integrated group, all oriented in one plane, constitute a solar
photovoltaic panel or "solar photovoltaic module," as distinguished from a "solar thermal
module" or "solar hot water panel." The electrical energy generated from solar modules, referred
to as solar power, is an example of solar energy. A group of connected solar modules (such as
prior to installation on a pole-mounted tracker system) is called an "array."

48
A solar cell (also called a photovoltaic cell) is an electrical device that converts the energy of
light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect. It is a form of photoelectric cell (in that
its electrical characteristicse.g. current, voltage, or resistancevary when light is incident
upon it) which, when exposed to light, can generate and support an electric current without being
attached to any external voltage source.

(F.23)

(F.24)

49
CHAPTER 4 PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS
(T.1) Performance Analysis of LED v/s Traditional Sodium Lights

ITEM 3 Km Street 5 Km Street


LED Lamp Sodium Lamp LED Lamp Sodium Lamp
Light Power 60W 250W 60W 250W
Power Consumption 60W 296W 60W 296W
Working Voltage 90-260V 2205% 90-260V 2205%
Power Factor 0.85 0.7 0.85 0.7
Color Temperature 4000-6000K 1300-1700K 4000-6000K 1300-1700K
Color Rendering Index 0.8 0.15 0.8 0.15
Light Beam Angle 150 360 150 360
Lamp Efficiency 90% 60% 90% 60%
Lamp Efficiency 88% 40% 88% 40%
Retaining(in 1 Year)
Luminance 85lm/W 54lm/W 85lm/W 54lm/W
Lifetime 50000hrs 8000hrs 50000hrs 8000hrs
Power Adjustments 0-60W No 0-60W No
(optional) (optional)
Light Replacement 0 5 0 5
Times
Lamp Unit Numbers 502 502 1002 1002
Total Ampere 161 844 321 1926
Matching Transformer 50KVA 265KVA 90KVA 530KVA
Power
Total Power 12,10,000 59,70,000 24,10,000 1,19,00,000
Consumption(in KWh)
Energy Saving Rate 79.7% 0 79.7% 0
Reduce CO 4950 0 9870 0
Reduce SO 16.2 0 32.3 0
Reduce NO & NO 14.1 0 28.1 0

50
4.2) Performance Analysis of High Power LED

High Power LED Street Light is a kind of innovative and energy-saving lighting product that
utilizes high power leds as lighting source. And they can also be powered with the optional solar
panel kit. The LED color spectrum contains no ultraviolet light, infrared rays, heat or radiation
produced. Anern series LED Street Lights are sort of "green, environment-friendly, energy-
saving".
Herewith, wed like to make a detail analysis and comparison between Anern led street
light and traditional sodium street light socially and economically.

(F.25)

51
(4.3) COMPARISON between led street lamp and sodium lamp in
performance

Items High Pressure Sodium ANERN LED Street Light


Photometric Performance Bad Excellent
Radiator Performance Bad Excellent
Electric Performance Electric Shock Easy( High Voltage) Safe (Low Voltage)
Working Life Short (5,000h) Quite Long (50,000h)
Working Voltage Range Narrow (7%) Wide (20%)
Power Consumption Quite High Quite Low
Startup Speed Quite Slow( Over 10minutes) Rapid (2s)
Strobe Yes( Alternating Current Drive) No( Direct Current Drive)

Optical Efficiency Low High

Quite Low ( Yellow Or Amber ,Ideal Color Temperature (


Color Temperature
Uncomfortable Comfortable)
Bad Glare strong Glare (Dazzle) No Harmful Glare
Light Pollution Strong No
Heating Serious (>300) Cold Light (<60)
Lampshade Turn Dark Easy ( Absorb Dust) No ( Static Proof)
Lamp Aging Turn Yellow In A Short Time No
Good (No Filament Nor
Shockproof Performance Bad(Fragile )
Glass)
Environment Pollution Contains Lead Element Etc. No
Maintenance Cost High Quite Low
Product Cubage Big Small (Slim Appearance)
Product Weight Heavy Light

Cost-Effective Low High

Integrated Performance Bad Excellent

(T.2)

52
4.4) LED Street Light FEATURES:

Revolutionary Photometric Design- The world's first dedicated optical system


(rectangular beam focusing lens). Reasonable control of the light distribution, spot
rectangular bean pattern, and ensure an ideal uniformity of brightness on the road
surface;
Unique Integrated Lens and Lampshade Design- Array Lens play a protective and
spot light role, avoid wasteful duplication of light and reduce the loss of light, also reduce
the weight of the product and enable simplified structure;
Creative Design of the Radiator and Lampholder Integration- Fully protect LED life
and heat dissipation requirements, satisfied with the structure and design of LED Lights
fundamentally, with the most distinctive features of LED Lights(see attached picture);
Standard E40, 360-degree Rotation Lamp Holder- It can still rotate after full
tightening the lamp holder arbitrarily, adjust to ensure the best direction face to the
ground;
Direct Replacement Light Source Design- Direct replace the existing high-pressure
mercury lamp, high pressure sodium lamp, metal halide lamps, no need to change the
original lamp shell;
Intelligent Current Control- Intelligent current control, whatever any deviant situation,
it is able to achieve the precision constant current, ensure the LED can work under the
secure current;
No Adverse Glare- Eliminate the glare caused by the adverse ordinary lights glare and
visual fatigue sight interference, improve driving safety, reduce the incidence of traffic
accidents, fully embodies the spirit of "People-oriented Technology" in this product;

53
No Light Pollution- Light Distribution designed for road lighting, in addition to
illuminate the path and will not illuminate the road outside the region. Eliminate the
interference signal by the residents of the light into the rest room;
No High-voltage, No Dust Adsorption- Eliminate the high-voltage adsorb the dust
cause the lampshade become dark, reduce the brightness, which is a problem for its
working.

No High-temperature, No Aging Yellow Lampshade- Eliminate baking the traditional


lampshade which cause aging yellow, shortened life expectancy and decrease the
brightness;
Wide Working Voltage The brightness and working life will be reduced if the working
voltage change more than 7% for the traditional streetlight, but it will not influence our
LED Streetlight at all;
Start Without Delay- Reach the normal brightness and do not have to wait when switch
on, eliminate a long process of starting of the traditional street lights;
No Strobe- Eliminate the visual fatigue which caused by the strobe lights of the
traditional street lamps;
Impact Resistance, Shock-proof, Without Ultraviolet (UV) and Infrared (IR)
Radiation- No filament and glass frames, avoid break of the traditional lamp, without
harm to the human body;
High Color Index, Nice Coloration- To show the true colors and more brighter;
Multiple Color Temperature Options- Color temperature to meet the needs of different
occasions, eliminated the low color temperature of the sodium lamp which cause the
hypnotic mood and high color temperature of the mercury lamp which cause the
depressed mood, observers will feel more comfortable;
Tremendous Energy Saving- Used the ultra high power, high brightness LED light
source, together with the high power efficiency power supply, which can save energy
50%-80% than the conventional sodium and mercury lamps;
Long Life, Up To 50,000 Hours- (Working for 10 hours a day, can be used for more
than 13 years), is 5-10 times working life than a traditional sodium or mercury lamp;

54
Green and Environmental Protection- no lead, no mercury, no environmental
pollution;

Universal Input Voltage- 100-240VAC full voltage range constant, constant-current


PWM technology, high efficiency, low-heat, high-precision constant current;

No Pollution to Power Network- Power factor0.9 , THD20%, EMI apply with the
global universal index, reduce the power loss and transmission lines to avoid
contamination of the network of high frequency interference;
Work Under Low-voltage and Low-Heat, Safe and Reliable- LED junction
temperature can be control LED under an ideal temperature (TJ<70 Ta=25 C ambient
temperature);
Perfect Combination With Solar Energy- Fully exert the advantage of the LED work
under low voltage and environmental work, according to the local solar energy resources,
electricity and solar power can also be combined. To achieve the best cost performance
and high reliability customers.

55
CHAPTER 5 COST ANALYSIS

(F.26)

56
(F.27)

(F.28)

57
CHAPTER 6APPLICATIONS

In this project we are using it as an application purpose as street lights which can save lots of
power.
This technique can be very well used in a room too.
This technique is very well used in cricket stadiums for preventing the players from sudden
flash of light which can lead to blindness.
This technique can be very well utilized in Street Lights to save lots of energy as it is using
Solar energy to function, so there is no need for external energy.
This is an automatic way to control the intensity according to the light in any particular area.
This technique can be used in Hospitals and home to save lots of energy.
This technique can be also used in large industries where there is a huge need of electricity.

58
CHAPTER 7FUTURE SCOPE

If used with high intensity LED lights, it will saves a lot of power and energy.
It can be used in Stadiums, Auditoriums, Street Lights, Hospitals,Villages etc. where there is
a huge requirement of light everytime
As its a Fully automatic operating device,there will be no human error too and it will be
very helpful in the coming days.

59
ADVANTAGES:-

Saves lot of energy


Dynamic light control
Switch ON lights without notice
Maintains light intensity in the area
Economical
Low power consumption
Long working life
Better visual quality
Low maintenance cost
40000-90000 hours lamp life
Excellent photometric performance
Works on low voltage
Rapid startup speed
High optical efficiency
No light pollution
Less heating of the elements
Light weight
Highly cost effective
Excellent performance

DISADVANTAGES:-

Initial cost is high

Works on dc supply only

60
.

CONCLUSION

The conclusion is that the change in light intensity changes the sample voltage
which bring change in output and thus change in light i.e. number of LEDs
working hence the name Road light management and light intensity synchronous
control system using LDR.

61
REFERENCES

John M. Anderson. First Electric Street Lamps IEEE Power Engineering Review, pp.
39-40, Mar. 2000.

Unknown Author. History of Street Lighting. Internet:


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Street_light, Jan. 02, 2008 [Apr. 01, 2008].

Illuminating Engineering Society of North America IESNA RP-8-00 American


National Standard Practice for Roadway Lighting, 2005

Rob McMonagle. The Environmental Attributes of Solar PV in the Canadian Context.


Internet: http://www.cansia.ca/downloads/report2006/C21.pdf [Apr 06, 2008] , The
Canadian Solar Industries Association, Jul 2006

Joel Arnold. When the Lights go Out: LED Failure Modes and Mechanisms, Internet:
http://www.emsnow.com/cnt/files/White Papers/DFRLEDFailures.pdf , Jun 2007 [Apr
16, 2008]

Li, L., Chu, X., Wu, Y. and Wu, Q. (2009), The development of road lighting intelligent
control system based on wireless network control, International Conference on
Electronic Computer Technology, Macau, 20-22 February, pp. 353-7.

Liu, H.,Wang, Y., Zhang, X., Xu, D. and Guo, L. (2007), Dimmable electronic ballast
for 250W HPS lamp in street lighting with analog dimming interface circuit, 22nd IEEE
Applied Power Electronics Conference (APEC 2007 ), Anaheim, CA, 25 February-1
March, pp. 259-62.

62