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Formulaire de trigonomtrie circulaire

B b
cotan(x) Kb

sin(x) M bH cos(x) = abscisse de M


b b
tan(x) sin(x) = ordonne de M
x
b b1 tan(x) = AH
cos(x) A
cotan(x) = BK

eix = zM

sin(x) cos(x) 1
Pour x
/ + Z, tan(x) = et pour x
/ Z, cotan(x) = . Enfin pour x
/ Z, cotan(x) = .
2 cos(x) sin(x) 2 tan(x)
Valeurs usuelles.
x en
0 30 45 60 90

x en rd 0
6 4 3 2

1 1 2 3
sin(x) 0 = 1
2 2 2 2

3 1 2 1
cos(x) 1 = 0
2 2 2 2
1
tan(x) 0 1 3
3
1
cotan(x) 3 1 0
3

x R, cos2 x + sin2 x = 1
1
/ + Z, 1 + tan2 x =
x .
2 cos2 x
1
/ Z, 1 + cotan2 x =
x .
sin2 x

addition dun tour addition dun demi-tour angle oppos angle supplmentaire
cos(x + 2) = cos x cos(x + ) = cos x cos(x) = cos x cos( x) = cos x
sin(x + 2) = sin x sin(x + ) = sin x sin(x) = sin x sin( x) = sin x
tan(x + 2) = tan x tan(x + ) = tan x tan(x) = tan x tan( x) = tan x
cotan(x + 2) = cotan x cotan(x + ) = cotan x cotan(x) = cotan x cotan( x) = cotan x
angle complmentaire quart de tour direct quart de tour indirect

cos( x) = sin x cos(x + ) = sin x cos(x ) = sin x
2 2 2

sin( x) = cos x sin(x + ) = cos x sin(x ) = cos x
2 2 2

tan( x) = cotan x tan(x + ) = cotan x tan(x ) = cotan x
2 2 2

cotan( x) = tan x cotan(x + ) = tan x cotan(x ) = tan x
2 2 2

c Jean-Louis Rouget, 2008. Tous droits rservs.


1 http ://www.maths-france.fr
Formules daddition Formules de duplication
cos(a + b) = cos a cos b sin a sin b cos(2a) = cos2 a sin2 a
cos(a b) = cos a cos b + sin a sin b = 2 cos2 a 1
sin(a + b) = sin a cos b + sin b cos a = 1 2 sin2 a
sin(a b) = sin a cos b sin b cos a sin(2a) = 2 sin a cos a

tan a + tan b 2 tan a


tan(a + b) = tan(2a) =
1 tan a tan b 1 tan2 a
tan a tan b
tan(a b) =
1 + tan a tan b

Formules de linarisation
1 1 + cos(2a)
cos a cos b = (cos(a b) + cos(a + b)) cos2 a =
2 2
1 1 cos(2a)
sin a sin b = (cos(a b) cos(a + b)) sin2 a =
2 2
1
sin a cos b = (sin(a + b) + sin(a b))
2

Formules de factorisation cos x, sin x et tan x Divers


en fonction de t=tan(x/2)
p+q pq 1 t2 x
cos p + cos q = 2 cos cos cos x = 1 + cos x = 2 cos2
2 2 1 + t2 2
p+q pq 2t x
cos p cos q = 2 sin sin sin x = 1 cos x = 2 sin2
2 2 1 + t2 2
p+q pq 2t
sin p + sin q = 2 sin cos tan x = cos(3x) = 4 cos3 x 3 cos x
2 2 1 t2
pq p+q
sin p sin q = 2 sin cos sin(3x) = 3 sin x 4 sin3 x
2 2

Rsolution dquations
cos x = cos a sin x = sin a tan x = tan a
k Z/ x = a + 2k k Z/ x = a + 2k k Z/ x = a + k
ou ou
k Z/ x = a + 2k k Z/ x = a + 2k

Exponentielle complexe
ix
x R, e = cos x + i sin x.
Valeurs usuelles

1 3 i/4
e0 = 1, ei/2 = i, ei = 1, ei/2 = i, e2i/3 = j = + i , 2e = 1 + i.
2 2

Proprits algbriques
x R, |eix | = 1.
eix 1
(x, y) R2 , eix eiy = ei(x+y) , iy
= ei(xy) , = eix = eix
e eix
Formules dEuler
eix + eix
x R, cos x = et eix + eix = 2 cos x.
2
eix eix
x R, sin x = et eix eix = 2i sin x.
2i
Formule de Moivre
x R, n Z, (eix )n = einx .

c Jean-Louis Rouget, 2008. Tous droits rservs.


2 http ://www.maths-france.fr