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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 1 of 3

Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise A, Question 1

Question:

Integrate the following with respect to x:

5 2
(a) 3 sec2 x + x
+
x2

(b) 5ex 4 sin x + 2x3

(c) 2 ( sin x cos x + x )


2
(d) 3 sec x tan x x

2
(e) 5ex + 4 cos x
x2

1
(f) 2x
+ 2 cosec2 x

1 1 1
(g) x
+ +
x2 x3

(h) ex + sin x + cos x

(i) 2 cosec x cot x sec2 x


1
(j) ex + x
cosec2 x

Solution:

5 2
(a) 3 sec2 x + x + 2 dx
x
5
= 3 sec2 x + x + 2x 2 dx

2
= 3 tan x + 5 ln | x | x + C

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 2 of 3

(b) ( 5ex 4 sin x + 2x3 ) dx


2x4
= 5ex + 4 cos x + 4 + C

x4
= 5ex + 4 cos x + 2 + C

(c) 2 ( sin x cos x + x ) dx


= ( 2 sin x 2 cos x + 2x ) dx
= 2 cos x 2 sin x + x2 + C

2
(d) 3 sec x tan x x dx

= 3 sec x 2 ln | x | + C

2
(e) 5ex + 4 cos x 2 dx
x
= ( 5ex + 4 cos x 2x 2 ) dx
2
= 5ex + 4 sin x + x + C

1 2 x dx
(f) + 2 cosec
2x
1 1
= + 2 cosec2 x dx
2 x
1
= 2 ln | x | 2 cot x + C

1 1 1
(g) + + dx
x x2 x3
1
= + x 2 + x 3 dx
x
x1 x2
= ln | x | + 1 + 2 + C

1 1
= ln | x | x + C
2x2

(h) ( ex + sin x + cos x ) dx


= ex cos x + sin x + C

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 3 of 3

(i) ( 2 cosec x cot x sec2 x ) dx


= 2 cosec x tan x + C

x 1
(j) e + x cosec2 x dx

= ex + ln | x | + cot x + C
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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 1 of 3

Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise A, Question 2

Question:

Find the following integrals:

1 1
(a) + 2 dx
cos x
2 x

sin x x dx
(b) + 2e
cos2 x

1 + cos x 1+x
(c) + dx
sin2 x x2

1 1
(d) + dx
sin2 x x

(e) sin x ( 1 + sec2 x ) dx

(f) cos x ( 1 + cosec2 x ) dx

(g) cosec2 x ( 1 + tan2 x ) dx

(h) sec2 x ( 1 cot2 x ) dx

(i) sec2 x ( 1 + ex cos2 x ) dx

1 + sin x 2 x sec x dx
(j) + cos
cos2 x

Solution:

1 1
(a) + dx
cos2 x x2
= ( sec2 x + x 2 ) dx
1
= tan x x + C

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 2 of 3

sin x x dx
(b) + 2e
cos2 x
= ( tan x sec x + 2ex ) dx
= sec x + 2ex + C

1 + cos x 1+x
(c) + dx
sin x
2 x2
= ( cosec2 x + cot x cosec x + x 2 + x 1 ) dx
1
= cot x cosec x x + ln | x | + C

1 1
(d) + x dx
sin2 x
1
= cosec2 x + x dx

= cot x + ln | x | + C

(e) sin x ( 1 + sec2 x ) dx


= ( sin x + sin x sec2 x ) dx
= ( sin x + tan x sec x ) dx
= cos x + sec x + C

(f) cos x ( 1 + cosec2 x ) dx


= ( cos x + cos x cosec2 x ) dx
= ( cos x + cot x cosec x ) dx
= sin x cosec x + C

(g) cosec2 x ( 1 + tan2 x ) dx


= ( cosec2 x + cosec2 x tan2 x ) dx
= ( cosec2 x + sec2 x ) dx
= cot x + tan x + C

(h) sec2 x ( 1 cot2 x ) dx


= ( sec2 x sec2 x cot2 x ) dx
= ( sec2 x cosec2 x ) dx
= tan x + cot x + C

(i) sec2 x ( 1 + ex cos2 x ) dx


= ( sec2 x + ex cos2 x sec2 x ) dx
= ( sec2 x + ex ) dx

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 3 of 3

= tan x + ex + C

1 + sin x
(j) + cos2 x sec x dx
cos x2
= ( sec2 x + tan x sec x + cos x ) dx
= tan x + sec x + sin x + C
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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 1 of 2

Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise B, Question 1

Question:

Integrate the following:

(a) sin ( 2x + 1 )

(b) 3e2x

(c) 4ex + 5

(d) cos ( 1 2x )

(e) cosec2 3x

(f) sec 4x tan 4x

1
(g) 3 sin x + 1
2

(h) sec2 ( 2 x )

(i) cosec 2x cot 2x

(j) cos 3x sin 3x


Solution:

1
(a) sin 2x + 1 dx = 2 cos 2x + 1 + C

3 2x
(b) 3e2xdx = 2e + C

(c) 4ex + 5dx = 4ex + 5 + C

1
(d) cos 1 2x dx = 2 sin 1 2x + C

OR Let y = sin ( 1 2x )

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 2 of 2

dy
then = cos 1 2x 2 (by chain rule)
dx
1
cos 1 2x dx = 2 sin 1 2x + C

1
(e) cosec2 3x dx = 3 cot 3x + C

1
(f) sec 4x tan 4x dx = 4 sec 4x + C

1 1
(g) 3 sin x + 1 dx = 6 cos x+1 + C
2 2

(h) sec2 ( 2 x ) dx = tan ( 2 x ) + C


OR Let y = tan ( 2 x )
dy
then = sec2 2x 1 (by chain rule)
dx
sec2 ( 2 x ) dx = tan ( 2 x ) + C

1
(i) cosec 2x cot 2x dx = 2 cosec 2x + C

(j) ( cos 3x sin 3x ) dx


1 1
= 3 sin 3x + 3 cos 3x + C
1
= sin 3x + cos 3x + C
3

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 1 of 2

Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise B, Question 2

Question:

Find the following integrals:

2x 1
(a) e 2 sin 2x 1 dx

(b) ( ex + 1 ) 2 dx

(c) sec2 2x ( 1 + sin 2x ) dx

1
3 2 cos ( 2 x )
(d) dx
1
sin2 ( x )
2

(e) [ e3 x + sin ( 3 x ) + cos ( 3 x ) ] dx


Solution:

2x 1 1 1
(a) e 2 sin 2x 1 dx = 2 e2x + 4 cos 2x 1 + C

(b) ( ex + 1 ) 2 dx
= ( e2x + 2ex + 1 ) dx
1 2x
= 2e + 2ex + x + C

(c) sec2 2x ( 1 + sin 2x ) dx


= ( sec2 2x + sec2 2x sin 2x ) dx
= ( sec2 2x + sec 2x tan 2x ) dx
1 1
= 2 tan 2x + 2 sec 2x + C

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 2 of 2

1
3 2 cos ( 2 x )
(d) 1
dx
2
sin ( x )
2

1 1 1
= 3 cosec2 2 x 2 cosec 2 x cot 2 x dx

1 1
= 6 cot x + 4 cosec x + C
2 2

(e) [ e3 x + sin ( 3 x ) + cos ( 3 x ) ] dx


= e3 x + cos ( 3 x ) sin ( 3 x ) + C
Note: extra minus signs from x terms and chain rule.
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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 1 of 3

Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise B, Question 3

Question:

Integrate the following:


1
(a) 2x + 1

1
(b)
( 2x + 1 ) 2

(c) ( 2x + 1 ) 2
3
(d) 4x 1

3
(e) 1 4x

3
(f)
( 1 4x ) 2

(g) ( 3x + 2 ) 5

3
(h)
( 1 2x ) 3

6
(i)
( 3 2x ) 4

5
(j) 3 2x

Solution:
1 1
(a) 2x + 1 dx = 2 ln | 2x + 1 | + C

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 2 of 3

1
(b) dx
( 2x + 1 ) 2
= ( 2x + 1 ) 2 dx
( 2x + 1 ) 1 1
= 1 2 + C
1
= 2 ( 2x + 1 ) + C

(c) ( 2x + 1 ) 2 dx
( 2x + 1 ) 3 1
= 3 2 + C

( 2x + 1 ) 3
= 6 + C

3 3
(d) 4x 1 dx = 4 ln | 4x 1 | + C

3
(e) 1 4x dx
3
= 4x 1 dx
3
= 4 ln | 4x 1 | + C
OR Let y = ln | 1 4x |
dy 1
then = 4 (by chain rule)
dx 1 4x
3 3
1 4x dx = 4 ln | 1 4x | + C
Note: ln | 1 4x | = ln | 4x 1 | because of | | sign.

3
(f) dx
( 1 4x ) 2
= 3 ( 1 4x ) 2 dx
3 ( 1 4x ) 1
= 4 1

3
= 4 ( 1 4x ) + C

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 3 of 3

5 dx ( 3x + 2 ) 6
(g) ( 3x + 2 ) = 18 + C

3 3 ( 1 2x ) 2 3
(h) 3
dx = 2 2 +C= + C
( 1 2x ) 4 ( 1 2x ) 2

OR Let y = ( 1 2x ) 2
dy
then = 2 ( 1 2x ) 3 2 (by chain rule)
dx
3 3
3
dx = 4 ( 1 2x ) 2 + C
( 1 2x )

6 6 ( 3 2x ) 3 1
(i) 4
dx = 2 3 + C= + C
( 3 2x ) ( 3 2x ) 3

OR Let y = ( 3 2x ) 3
dy
then = 3 ( 3 2x ) 4 2
dx
6 1
4
dx = + C
( 3 2x ) ( 3 2x ) 3

5 5
(j) ( 3 2x ) dx = 2 ln | 3 2x | + C
OR Let y = ln | 3 2x |
dy 1
then = 2 (by chain rule)
dx 3 2x
5 5
3 2x dx = 2 ln | 3 2x | + C

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 1 of 2

Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise B, Question 4

Question:

Find the following integrals

4
(a) 3 sin 2x + 1 + 2x + 1 dx

(b) [ e5x + ( 1 x ) 5 ] dx

1 1 1
(c) + + dx
sin2 2x 1 + 2x ( 1 + 2x ) 2

1
(d) ( 3x + 2 ) 2 + dx
( 3x + 2 ) 2

Solution:

4
(a) 3 sin 2x + 1 + 2x + 1 dx

3 4
= cos 2x + 1 + 2 ln | 2x + 1 | + C
2
3
= cos 2x + 1 + 2 ln | 2x + 1 | + C
2

(b) [ e5x + ( 1 x ) 5 ] dx
= e5x dx + ( 1 x ) 5 dx
1 5x 1
= 5e 6 (1x) 6+C (from and )

OR Let y = ( 1 x ) 6
dy
then =6(1x) 5 1 (by chain rule)
dx
1
( 1 x ) 5dx = 6 (1x) 6+ C

1 1 1
(c) + 1 + 2x + dx
sin2 2x ( 1 + 2x ) 2

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 2 of 2

1
= cosec2 2x + 1 + 2x + ( 1 + 2x ) 2 dx

1 1 ( 1 + 2x ) 1 1
= 2 cot 2x + 2 ln | 1 + 2x | + 1 2 + C
1 1 1
= 2 cot 2x + 2 ln | 1 + 2x | 2 ( 1 + 2x ) + C

1
(d) ( 3x + 2 ) 2 + dx
( 3x + 2 ) 2
= [ ( 3x + 2 ) 2 + ( 3x + 2 ) 2 ] dx
( 3x + 2 ) 3 ( 3x + 2 ) 1
= 9 3 + C

( 3x + 2 ) 3 1
= 9 3 ( 3x + 2 ) + C

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 1 of 3

Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise C, Question 1

Question:

Integrate the following:

(a) cot2 x

(b) cos2 x

(c) sin 2x cos 2x

(d) ( 1 + sin x ) 2

(e) tan2 3x

(f) ( cot x cosec x ) 2

(g) ( sin x + cos x ) 2

(h) sin2 x cos2 x

1
(i)
sin2 x cos2 x

(j) ( cos 2x 1 ) 2
Solution:

(a) cot2 x dx = ( cosec2 x 1 ) dx


= cot x x + C
1
(b) cos2 x dx = 1 + cos 2x dx
2
1 1
= 2x + 4 sin 2x + C

1
(c) sin 2x cos 2x dx = 2 sin 4x dx

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 2 of 3

1
= 8 cos 4x + C

(d) ( 1 + sin x ) 2 dx = ( 1 + 2 sin x + sin2 x ) dx


But cos 2x = 1 2 sin2 x
1 1
sin2 x = 2 2 cos 2x
3 1
( 1 + sin x ) 2 dx = + 2 sin x cos 2x dx
2 2
3 1
= 2x 2 cos x 4 sin 2x + C

(e) tan2 3x dx = ( sec2 3x 1 ) dx


1
= 3 tan 3x x + C

(f) ( cot x cosec x ) 2 dx = ( cot2 x 2 cot x cosec x + cosec2 x ) dx


= ( 2 cosec2 x 1 2 cot x cosec x ) dx
= 2 cot x x + 2 cosec x + C

(g) ( sin x + cos x ) 2 dx = ( sin2 x + 2 sin x cos x + cos2 x ) dx


= ( 1 + sin 2x ) dx
1
=x 2 cos 2x + C

1 2
(h) sin2 x cos2 x dx = sin 2x dx
2
1
= 4 sin2 2x dx
1 1 1
= cos 4x dx
4 2 2
1 1
= cos 4x dx
8 8
1 1
= 8x 32 sin 4x + C

1 1
(i) = = 4 cosec2 2x
sin2 x cos2 x 1
( sin 2x ) 2
2

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 3 of 3

1
dx = 4 cosec2 2x dx
sin2 x cos2 x
= 2 cot 2x + C

(j) ( cos 2x 1 ) 2 dx = ( cos2 2x 2 cos 2x + 1 ) dx


1 1
= cos 4x + 2 cos 2x + 1 dx
2 2
1 3
= cos 4x + 2 cos 2x dx
2 2
1 3
= 8 sin 4x + 2x sin 2x + C

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 1 of 3

Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise C, Question 2

Question:

Find the following integrals:

1 sin x
(a) dx
cos2 x

1 + cos x
(b) dx
sin2 x

cos 2x
(c) dx
cos2 x

cos2 x
(d) dx
sin2 x

( 1 + cos x ) 2
(e) dx
sin2 x

( 1 + sin x ) 2
(f) dx
cos2 x

(g) ( cot x tan x ) 2dx

(h) ( cos x sin x ) 2dx

(i) ( cos x sec x ) 2dx

cos 2x
(j) dx
1 cos2 2x

Solution:

1 sin x
(a) dx = sec2 x tan x sec x dx
cos2 x
= tan x sec x + C

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 2 of 3

1 + cos x
(b) dx = cosec2 x + cot x cosec x dx
sin2 x
= cot x cosec x + C

cos 2x 2 cos2 x 1
(c) dx = dx
cos2 x cos2 x

= ( 2 sec2 x ) dx
= 2x tan x + C

cos2 x
(d) dx = cot2 x dx
sin2 x

= ( cosec2 x 1 ) dx
= cot x x + C

( 1 + cos x ) 2 1 + 2 cos x + cos2 x


(e) I = dx = dx
sin2 x sin2 x

= ( cosec2 x + 2 cot x cosec x + cot2 x ) dx


But cosec2 x = 1 + cot2 x cot2 x = cosec2 x 1
I = ( 2 cosec2 x 1 + 2 cot x cosec x ) dx
= 2 cot x x 2 cosec x + C

( 1 + sin x ) 2 1 + 2 sin x + sin2 x


(f) I = dx = dx
cos2 x cos2 x

= ( sec2 x + 2 tan x sec x + tan2 x ) dx


But sec2 x = 1 + tan2 x tan2 x = sec2 x 1
I = ( 2 sec2 x 1 + 2 tan x sec x ) dx
= 2 tan x x + 2 sec x + C

(g) ( cot x tan x ) 2dx = ( cot2 x 2 cot x tan x + tan2 x ) dx


= ( cosec2 x 1 2 + sec2 x 1 ) dx
= ( cosec2 x 4 + sec2 x ) dx
= cot x 4x + tan x + C

(h) ( cos x sin x ) 2dx = ( cos2 x 2 cos x sin x + sin2 x ) dx


= ( 1 sin 2x ) dx
1
=x+ 2 cos 2x + C

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 3 of 3

(i) ( cos x sec x ) 2dx = ( cos2 x 2 cos x sec x + sec2 x ) dx


1 1
= cos 2x + 2 + sec2 x dx
2 2
1 3 2 x dx
= cos 2x + sec
2 2
1 3
= 4 sin 2x 2x + tan x + C

cos 2x cos 2x
(j) dx = dx
1 cos2 2x sin2 2x
= cot 2x cosec 2x dx
1
= 2 cosec 2x + C

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 1 of 2

Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise C, Question 3

Question:

Find the following integrals:

(a) cos 2x cos x dx

(b) 2 sin 5x cos 3x dx

(c) 2 sin 3x cos 5x dx

(d) 2 sin 2x sin 5x dx

(e) 4 cos 3x cos 7x dx

(f) 2 cos 4x cos 4x dx

(g) 2 cos 4x sin 4x dx

(h) 2 sin 4x sin 4x dx


Solution:
3x + x 3x x
(a) cos 3x + cos x = 2 cos 2 cos 2 = 2 cos 2x cos x
1
cos 2x cos x dx = cos 3x + cos x dx
2
1 1
= sin 3x + sin x + C
2 3
1 1
= 6 sin 3x + 2 sin x + C

(b) sin 8x + sin 2x = 2 sin 5x cos 3x


2 sin 5x cos 3x dx = ( sin 8x + sin 2x ) dx
1 1
= 8 cos 8x 2 cos 2x + C

(c) sin 8x sin 2x = 2 sin 3x cos 5x


2 sin 3x cos 5x dx = ( sin 8x sin 2x ) dx

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 2 of 2

1 1
= 8 cos 8x + 2 cos 2x + C

(d) cos 7x cos 3x = 2 sin 5x sin 2x


2 sin 2x sin 5x dx = ( cos 3x cos 7x ) dx
1 1
= 3 sin 3x 7 sin 7x + C

(e) cos 10x + cos 4x = 2 cos 7x cos 3x


4 cos 3x cos 7x dx = 2 ( cos 10x + cos 4x ) dx
1 1
=2 sin 10x + sin 4x + C
10 4
1 1
= 5 sin 10x + 2 sin 4x + C

(f) cos 8x + cos 0x = 2 cos 4x cos 4x


i.e. cos 8x + 1 = 2 cos 4x cos 4x
2 cos 4x cos 4x dx = ( 1 + cos 8x ) dx
1
=x+ 8 sin 8x + C

(g) sin 8x + sin 0x = 2 sin 4x cos 4x


2 cos 4x sin 4x dx = sin 8x dx
1
= 8 cos 8x + C

(h) cos 8x cos 0x = 2 sin 4x sin 4x


i.e. cos 8x 1 = 2 sin 4x sin 4x
2 sin 4x sin 4x dx = ( 1 cos 8x ) dx
1
=x 8 sin 8x + C

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 1 of 5

Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise D, Question 1

Question:

Use partial fractions to integrate the following:


3x + 5
(a) (x+1) (x+2)

3x 1
(b) ( 2x + 1 ) ( x 2 )

2x 6
(c) (x+3) (x1)

3
(d) (2+x) (1x)

4
(e) ( 2x + 1 ) ( 1 2x )

3(x+1)
(f)
9x2 1

3 5x
(g) ( 1 x ) ( 2 3x )

x2 3
(h)
(2+x) (1+x) 2

5 + 3x
(i)
(x+2) (x+1) 2

17 5x
(j)
( 3 + 2x ) ( 2 x ) 2

Solution:
3x + 5 A B
(a) (x+1) (x+2) x+1 + x+2

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 2 of 5

3x + 5 A ( x + 2 ) + B ( x + 1 )
x= 1 2=A
x= 2 1= B B=1
3x + 5 2 1
dx = + x + 2 dx
(x+1) (x+2) x+1
= 2 ln | x + 1 | + ln | x + 2 | + C
= ln [ | x + 1 | 2 ] + ln | x + 2 | + C
= ln | ( x + 1 ) 2 ( x + 2 ) | + C
3x 1 A B
(b) ( 2x + 1 ) ( x 2 ) 2x + 1 + x2

3x 1 A ( x 2 ) + B ( 2x + 1 )
x=2 5 = 5B B=1
1 5 5
x= 2 2 = 2A A=1
3x 1 1 1
dx = + x 2 dx
( 2x + 1 ) ( x 2 ) 2x + 1
1
= 2 ln | 2x + 1 | + ln | x 2 | + C
= ln | ( x 2 ) \ 2x + 1 | + C
2x 6 A B
(c) (x+3) (x1) x+3 + x1

2x 6 A ( x 1 ) + B ( x + 3 )
x=1 4 = 4B B= 1
x= 3 12 = 4A A=3
2x 6 3 1
dx = dx
(x+3) (x1) x + 3 x 1
= 3 ln | x + 3 | ln | x 1 | + C
3
(x+3)
= ln + C
x1

3 A B
(d) (2+x) (1x) (2+x) + 1x

3A(1x) +B(2+x)
x=1 3 = 3B B=1
x= 2 3 = 3A A=1

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 3 of 5

3 1 1
dx = + dx.
(2+x) (1x) 2 + x 1 x
= ln | 2 + x | ln | 1 x | + C
2+x
= ln + C
1x

4 A B
(e) ( 2x + 1 ) ( 1 2x ) 2x + 1 + 1 2x

4 A ( 1 2x ) + B ( 2x + 1 )
1
x= 2 4 = 2B B=2
1
x= 2 4 = 2A A=2
4 2 2
dx = + dx
( 2x + 1 ) ( 1 2x ) 2x + 1 1 2x
= ln | 2x + 1 | ln | 1 2x | + C
2x + 1
= ln + C
1 2x

3(x+1) 3(x+1) A B
(f) ( 3x 1 ) ( 3x + 1 ) 3x 1 + 3x + 1
9x2 1
3x + 3 A ( 3x + 1 ) + B ( 3x 1 )
1
x= 3 2 = 2B B= 1
1
x= 3 4 = 2A A=2
3(x+1) 2 1
dx = dx
9x2 1 3x 1 3x + 1
2 1
= 3 ln | 3x 1 | 3 ln | 3x + 1 | + C
2
1 ( 3x 1 )
= 3 ln + C
3x + 1

3 5x A B
(g) ( 1 x ) ( 2 3x ) 1x + 2 3x

3 5x A ( 2 3x ) + B ( 1 x )
2 1 1
x= 3 3 = 3B B= 1

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 4 of 5

x=1 2= A A=2
3 5x 2 1
dx = dx
( 1 x ) ( 2 3x ) 1 x 2 3x
1
= 2 ln | 1 x | + 3 ln | 2 3x | + C
1
( 2 3x ) 3
= ln 2 + C
(1x)

x2 3 A B C
(h) 2 2+x + 1+x +
(2+x) (1+x) (1+x) 2

x2 3 A ( 1 + x ) 2 + B ( 2 + x ) ( 1 + x ) + C ( 2 + x )
x= 1 2=C C= 2
x= 2 1 = 1A A=1
Coefficient of x2 1=A+B B=0
x2 3 1 2
2 dx = dx
(2+x) (1+x) 2+x (1+x) 2
(1+x) 1
= ln | 2 + x | 2 1 + C
2
= ln | 2 + x | + 1+x + C

5 + 3x A B C
(i) x+2 + x+1 +
(x+2) (x+1) 2 (x+1) 2
5 + 3x A ( x + 1 ) 2 + B ( x + 2 ) ( x + 1 ) + C ( x + 2 )
x= 1 2=C C=2
x= 2 1=A A= 1
Coefficient of x2 0=A+B B=1
5 + 3x 1 1 2
dx = x+2 + x+1 + dx
(x+2) (x+1) 2 (x+1) 2
2
= ln | x + 2 | + ln | x + 1 | x+1 + C
x+1 2
= ln x+1 + C
x+2

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 5 of 5

17 5x A B C
(j) 3 + 2x + 2x +
( 3 + 2x ) ( 2 x ) 2 (2x) 2
17 5x A ( 2 x ) 2 + B ( 3 + 2x ) ( 2 x ) + C ( 3 + 2x )
x=2 7 = 7C C=1
3 49 49
x= 2 2 = 4 A A=2

Coefficient of x2 0 = A 2B B=1
17 5x 2 1 1
dx = + 2x + dx
( 3 + 2x ) ( 2 x ) 2 3 + 2x (2x) 2
2 1
= 2 ln | 3 + 2x | ln | 2 x | + 2x + C
3 + 2x 1
= ln + 2x + C
2x

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 1 of 3

Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise D, Question 2

Question:

Find the following integrals:

2 ( x2 + 3x 1 )
(a) ( x + 1 ) ( 2x 1 ) dx

x3 + 2x2 + 2
(b) x ( x + 1 ) dx

x2
(c) dx
x2 4

x2 + x + 2
(d) dx
3 2x x2

6 + 3x x2
(e) dx
x3 + 2x2

Solution:

2 ( x2 + 3x 1 ) A B
(a) ( x + 1 ) ( 2x 1 ) 1+ x+1 + 2x 1

2x2 + 6x 2 ( x + 1 ) ( 2x 1 ) + A ( 2x 1 ) + B ( x + 1 )
x= 1 6 = 3A A=2
1 3 3
x= 2 2 = 2B B=1
2 ( x2 + 3x 1 ) 2 1
dx = 1 + x + 1 + 2x 1 dx
( x + 1 ) ( 2x 1 )
1
= x + 2 ln | x + 1 | + 2 ln | 2x 1 | + C

= x + ln | ( x + 1 ) 2\ 2x 1 | + C

x3 + 2x2 + 2
(b) x(x+1)

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 2 of 3

x3 + 2x2 + 2 2x
x(x+1) x+1+ x(x+1)

A B
x+1+ x + x+1

x3 + 2x2 + 2 ( x + 1 ) x ( x + 1 ) + A ( x + 1 ) + Bx
x=0 2=A A=2
x= 1 3= B B= 3
x3 + 2x2 + 2 2 3
x ( x + 1 ) dx = x + 1 + x x + 1 dx

x2
= 2 + x + 2 ln | x | 3 ln | x + 1 | + C

x2 x 2

= + x + ln + C
2 (x+1) 3

x2 A B
(c) 1+ +
x2 4 x2 x+2

x2 ( x 2 ) ( x + 2 ) + A ( x + 2 ) + B ( x 2 )
x=2 4 = 4A A=1
x= 2 4 = 4B B= 1
x2 1 1
dx = 1 + x 2 x + 2 dx
x2 4
= x + ln | x 2 | ln | x + 2 | + C
x2
= x + ln + C
x+2

x2 + x + 2 x2 + x + 2 A B
(d) 1+ +
3 2x x2 (3+x) (1x) 3+x 1x

x2 + x + 2 1 ( 3 + x ) ( 1 x ) + A ( 1 x ) + B ( 3 + x )
x=1 4 = 4B B=1
x= 3 8 = 4A A=2
x2 + x + 2 2 1
dx = 1 + 3+x + 1x dx
3 2x x2
= x + 2 ln | 3 + x | ln | 1 x | + C
2
(3+x)
= x + ln + C
1x

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 3 of 3

6 + 3x x2 6 + 3x x2 A B C
(e) + +
x3 + 2x2 x2 (x+2) x x2 x+2

6 + 3x x2 Ax ( x + 2 ) + B ( x + 2 ) + Cx2
x=0 6 = 2B B=3
x= 2 4 = 4C C= 1
Coefficient of x2 1=A+C A=0
6 + 3x x2 3 1
dx = x + 2 dx
x3 + 2x2 x2
3
= x ln | x + 2 | + C

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 1 of 3

Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise E, Question 1

Question:

Integrate the following functions:

x
(a)
x2 +4

e2x
(b)
e2x + 1

x
(c)
( x2 + 4 ) 3

e2x
(d)
( e2x + 1 ) 3

cos 2x
(e) 3 + sin 2x

sin 2x
(f)
( 3 + cos 2x ) 3

2
(g) xex

(h) cos 2x ( 1 + sin 2x ) 4

(i) sec2 x tan2 x

(j) sec2 x ( 1 + tan2 x )


Solution:

(a) y = ln | x2 + 4 |
dy 1
dx = 2x (chain rule)
x2 + 4

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 2 of 3

x 1
dx = 2 ln | x2 + 4 | + C
x2 +4

(b) y = ln | e2x + 1 |
dy 1
dx = e2x 2 (chain rule)
e2x +1
e2x 1
dx = ln | e2x + 1 | + C
e2x + 1 2

(c) y = ( x2 + 4 ) 2
dy
dx = 2 ( x2 + 4 ) 3 2x (chain rule)
x 1
dx = 4 ( x2 + 4 ) 2 + C
( x2 +4) 3

1
or + C
4 ( x2 + 4 ) 2

(d) y = ( e2x + 1 ) 2
dy
dx = 2 ( e2x + 1 ) 3 e2x 2 (chain rule)
e2x 1
3 dx = ( e2x + 1 ) 2 + C
( e2x + 1 ) 4

1
or + C
4 ( e2x + 1 ) 2

(e) y = ln | 3 + sin 2x |
dy 1
dx = 3 + sin 2x cos 2x 2 (chain rule)
cos 2x 1
3 + sin 2x dx = 2 ln | 3 + sin 2x | + C

(f) y = ( 3 + cos 2x ) 2
dy
= 2 ( 3 + cos 2x ) 3 sin 2x 2 (chain rule)
dx
sin 2x 1
3
dx = 4 ( 3 + cos 2x ) 2 + C
( 3 + cos 2x )
1
or + C
4 ( 3 + cos 2x ) 2

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 3 of 3

2
(g) y = ex
dy 2
dx = ex 2x (chain rule)
2 1 x2
xex dx = 2e + C

(h) y = ( 1 + sin 2x ) 5
dy
dx = 5 ( 1 + sin 2x ) 4 cos 2x 2 (chain rule)
1
cos 2x ( 1 + sin 2x ) 4 dx = 10 ( 1 + sin 2x ) 5 + C

(i) y = tan3 x
dy
dx = 3 tan2 x sec2 x (chain rule)
1
sec2 x tan2 x dx = 3
3 tan x + C

(j) sec2 x ( 1 + tan2 x ) = sec2 x + sec2 x tan2 x


sec2 x ( 1 + tan2 x ) dx = ( sec2 x + sec2 x tan2 x ) dx
1
= tan x + 3 tan3 x + C

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 1 of 3

Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise E, Question 2

Question:

Find the following integrals:

(a) ( x + 1 ) ( x2 + 2x + 3 ) 4 dx

(b) cosec2 2x cot 2x dx

(c) sin5 3x cos 3x dx

(d) cos x esin x dx

e2x
(e) dx
e2x + 3

3
(f) x ( x2 +1) 2 dx

(g) ( 2x + 1 ) \ x2 + x + 5 dx

2x + 1
(h) dx
\ x2 + x + 5

sin x cos x
(i) \ cos 2x + 3
dx

sin x cos x
(j) cos 2x + 3
dx

Solution:

(a) y = ( x2 + 2x + 3 ) 5
dy
= 5 ( x2 + 2x + 3 ) 4 2x + 2
dx
= 5 ( x2 + 2x + 3 ) 4 2 ( x + 1 )
1
x+1 ( x2 + 2x + 3 ) 4 dx = 10 ( x2 + 2x + 3 ) 5 + C

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 2 of 3

(b) y = cot2 2x
dy
= 2 cot 2x cosec2 2x 2
dx
= 4 cosec2 2x cot 2x
1
cosec2 2x cot 2x dx = 4 cot2 2x + C

(c) y = sin6 3x
dy
dx = 6 sin5 3x cos 3x 3
1
sin5 3x cos 3x dx = 18 sin6 3x + C

(d) y = esin x
dy
dx = esin x cos x

cos x esin x dx = esin x + C

(e) y = ln | e2x + 3 |
dy 1
dx = e2x 2
e2x +3
e2x 1
dx = ln | e2x + 3 | + C
e2x + 3 2

5
(f) y = ( x2 +1) 2

dy 5 3 3
dx = 2 ( x2 +1) 2 2x = 5x ( x2 +1) 2

3 1 5
x( x2 +1) 2 dx = 5 ( x2 +1) 2 + C

3
(g) y = ( x2 +x+5) 2
1
dy 3
= ( x2 + x + 5 ) 2 2x + 1
dx 2
3
2
2x + 1 \ x2 + x + 5 dx = 3 ( x2 + x + 5 ) 2 + C

1
(h) y = ( x2 +x+5) 2

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 3 of 3

1
dy 1
= ( x2 + x + 5 ) 2 2x + 1
dx 2
1 ( 2x + 1 )
= 2 \ x2 + x + 5
1
2x + 1
dx = 2 ( x2 +x+5) 2 + C
\ x2 + x + 5

1
(i) y = ( cos 2x + 3 ) 2
1
dy 1
= ( cos 2x + 3 ) 2 sin 2x 2
dx 2
sin 2x
= \ cos 2x + 3
2 sin x cos x
= \ cos 2x + 3
sin x cos x 1 1
\ cos 2x + 3 dx = 2 ( cos 2x + 3 ) 2 + C

(j) y = ln | cos 2x + 3 |
dy 1
= sin 2x 2
dx cos 2x + 3
2 sin 2x
= cos 2x + 3
4 sin x cos x
= cos 2x + 3
sin x cos x 1
cos 2x + 3 dx = 4 ln | cos 2x + 3 | + C

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 1 of 3

Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise F, Question 1

Question:

Use the given substitution to find the following integrals:

(a) x\ 1 + x dx; u = 1 + x
x
(b) \1+x
dx; u = 1 + x

1 + sin x
(c) cos x
dx; u = sin x

(d) x ( 3 + 2x ) 5 dx; u = 3 + 2x

(e) sin3 x dx; u = cos x


Solution:

(a) u = 1 + x du = dx and x = u 1
1 1
x(1+x) 2 dx = ( u 1 ) u 2 du
3 1
= (u 2 u 2 ) du
2 5 2 3
= 5u
2 3u
2 + C
2 5 2 3
= 5 (1+x) 2 3 (1+x) 2 + C
3
2
OR = (1+x) 2 3 1+x 5 + C
15
3
2
= (1+x) 2 3x 2 + C
15

(b) u = 1 + x du = dx and x = u 1

x u1
\1+x dx = du
1
u 2

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 2 of 3

1 1
= (u 2 u 2 ) du
2 3 1
= 3u
2 2u 2 + C
2 3 1
= 3 (1+x) 2 2(1+x) 2 + C
1
2
OR = (1+x) 2 1+x3 + C
3
1
2
= (1+x) 2 x2 + C
3

du du
(c) u = sin x dx = cos x dx = cos x
1 + sin x 1 + u du
cos x dx = cos x cos x

1+u
= du
1 sin2 x
1+u
= du
1 u2
(1+u)
= (1u) (1+u) du
1
= 1u du
= ln | 1 u | + C
= ln | 1 sin x | + C
u3
(d) u = 3 + 2x du = 2 dx and x = 2
u 3 5 du
x ( 3 + 2x ) 5 dx = 2 u 2
6 3u5
u
= 4 du
4
u7 3u6
= 28 24 + C

u7 u6
= 28 8 + C

( 3 + 2x ) 7 ( 3 + 2x ) 6
= 28 8 + C

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 3 of 3

(e) u = cos x du = sin x dx


sin3 x dx = ( 1 u2 ) du
= ( u2 1 ) du
u3
= 3 u+ C

cos3 x
= 3 cos x + C
cos x
OR = cos2 x 3 + C
3

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 1 of 3

Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise F, Question 2

Question:

Use the given substitution to find the following integrals:

(a) x\ 2 + x dx; u2 = 2 + x
2
(b) x(x4)
dx; u = x

(c) sec2 x tan x\ 1 + tan x dx; u2 = 1 + tan x

\ x2 + 4
(d) x dx; u2 = x2 + 4

(e) sec4 x dx; u = tan x


Solution:

(a) u2 = 2 + x 2u du = dx and x = u2 2
x\ 2 + x dx = ( u2 2 ) u 2u du
= ( 2u4 4u2 ) du
2u5 4u3
= 5 3 + C

2 5 4 3
= 5 (2+x) 2 3 (2+x) 2 + C

1 du 1 1 dx
(b) u = x 2 dx = 2x
2 x = 2 du

and x 4 = u2 4
2 2 4
I= x(x4) dx = 2 du = du
u2 4 u2 4
4 A B
= u2 + u+2
u2 4
4=A(u+2) +B(u2)
u=2 4 = 4A A=1

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 2 of 3

u= 2 4 = 4B B= 1
1 1
I= du
u 2 u + 2
= ln | u 2 | ln | u + 2 | + C
x2
= ln + C
x+2

(c) u2 = 1 + tan x 2u du = sec2 x dx


sec2 x tan x\ 1 + tan x dx
= ( u2 1 ) u 2u du
= ( 2u4 2u2 ) du
2u5 2u3
= 5 3 + C

2 5 2 3
= 5 ( 1 + tan x ) 2 3 ( 1 + tan x ) 2 + C

udu
(d) u2 = x2 + 4 2u du = 2x dx x = dx
\ x2 + 4 u udu
x dx = x x

u2
= du
x2

u2
= du
u2 4

4 4 A B
= (1+ ) du but +
u2 4 u2 4 u+2 u+2

4 A(u+2) +B(u2)
u=2: 4 = 4A , A = 1
u = 2 : 4 = 4B , B = 1

1 1
= 1 + u 2 u + 2 du

= u + ln | u 2 | ln | u + 2 | + C
2
\x +42
=\ x2 + 4 + ln + C
\ x2 + 4 + 2

(e) u = tan x du = sec2 x dx

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 3 of 3

sec4 x dx = sec2 x sec2 x dx


= ( 1 + u2 ) du
u3
=u+ 3 + C

tan3 x
= tan x + 3 + C

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 1 of 4

Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise F, Question 3

Question:

Evaluate the following:

(a) 05x\ x + 4 dx


(b) 0 3 sec x tan x\ sec x + 2 dx

1
(c) 25 1+\x1
dx; use u2 = x 1

sin 2
(d) 0 2
1 + cos
d; let u = 1 + cos

(e) 01x ( 2 + x ) 3 dx

1
(f) 14 x ( 4x 1 )
dx; let u= x

Solution:

(a) u2 = x + 4 2u du = dx and x = u2 4
Also u = 3 when x = 5
and u = 2 when x = 0.
05x\ x + 4 dx = 23 ( u2 4 ) u 2u du
= 23 ( 2u4 8u2 ) du
2 5 8 3 3
= u 3u 2
5
2 8 64 64
= 243 27
5 3 5 3
= 25.2 8.53
= 33.73
= 33.7 (3 s.f.)

(b) u2 = sec x + 2 2u du = sec x tan x dx

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 2 of 4


Also u = 2 when x = 3
and u = 3 when x = 0.

0 3 sec x tan x\ sec x + 2 dx = 32u 2u du
= 322u2 du
2 3 2
= u
3 3
16 2
= 33
3 3
16
= 3 23

(c) u2 = x 1 2u du = dx
Also u = 2 when x = 5
and u = 1 when x = 2.
1 1
25 1 + \ x 1 dx = 12 1+u 2u du
2u
= 12 u + 1 du

2
= 12 2 u + 1 du

= [ 2u 2 ln | u + 1 | ] 12
= ( 4 2 ln 3 ) ( 2 2 ln 2 )
2
= 2 + 2 ln 3

(d) u = 1 + cos du = sin d or du = sin d



Also u = 1 when = 2
and u = 2 when = 0.
sin 2 2 sin cos 2(u1)
I = 0 2 1 + cos d = 0 2
1 + cos d = 21 u du
Use to reverse limits:
2u 2
I = 12 u du

2
= 12 2 u du

= [ 2u 2 ln | u | ] 12

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 3 of 4

= ( 4 2 ln 2 ) ( 2 2 ln 1 )
= 2 2 ln 2

(e) u = 2 + x du = dx and x = u 2
Also u = 3 when x = 1
and u = 2 when x = 0.
01x ( 2 + x ) 3 dx = 23 ( u 2 ) u3 du
= 23 ( u4 2u3 ) du
5
u 2 4 3
= 4u 2
5
243 81 32 16
= 2
5 5 2
211
= 5 32.5
= 42.2 32.5
= 9.7
1 1 1 dx
(f) u = x 2 du = 2x
2 dx x = 2 du

and 4x 1 = 4u2 1
Also u = 2 when x = 4
and u = 1 when x = 1.
1 1
I = 14 x ( 4x 1 ) dx = 12 2 du
4u2 1
2 A B
= 2u 1 + 2u + 1
4u2 1
2 = A ( 2u + 1 ) + B ( 2u 1 )
1
u= 2 2 = 2A A=1
1
u= 2 2 = 2B B= 1
1 1
I = 12 du
2u 1 2u + 1
1 1 2
= ln | 2u 1 | ln | 2u + 1 |
2 2 1
1 2u 1 2
= ln
2 2u + 1 1

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 4 of 4

1 3 1 1
= ln ln
2 5 2 3
1 9
= 2 ln 5

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 1 of 2

Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise G, Question 1

Question:

Find the following integrals:

(a) x sin x dx

(b) xex dx

(c) x sec2 x dx

(d) x sec x tan x dx

x
(e) dx
sin2 x

Solution:
du
(a) u = x dx =1
dv
dx = sin x v = cos x
x sin x dx = x cos x cos x 1 dx
= x cos x + cos x dx
= x cos x + sin x + C
du
(b) u = x dx =1
dv
dx = ex v = ex

xex dx = xex ex 1 dx
= xex ex + C
du
(c) u = x dx =1
dv
dx = sec2 x v = tan x

x sec2 x dx = x tan x tan x 1 dx

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 2 of 2

= x tan x ln | sec x | + C
du
(d) u = x dx =1
dv
dx = sec x tan x v = sec x
x sec x tan x dx = x sec x sec x 1 dx
= x sec x ln | sec x + tan x | + C
du
(e) u = x dx =1
dv
dx = cosec2 x v = cot x
x
dx = x cosec2 x dx
sin2 x
= x cot x cot x 1 dx
= x cot x + cot x dx
= x cot x + ln | sin x | + C
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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise G, Question 2

Question:

Find the following integrals:

(a) x2 ln x dx

(b) 3 ln x dx

ln x
(c) dx
x3

(d) ( ln x ) 2 dx

(e) ( x2 + 1 ) ln x dx
Solution:
du 1
(a) u = ln x dx = x

dv x3
dx = x2 v= 3

x3 x3 1
x2 ln x dx = 3 ln x 3 x dx

x3 x2
= 3 ln x 3 dx

x3 x3
= 3 ln x 9 + C

du 1
(b) u = ln x dx = x
dv
dx =3 v = 3x
1
3 ln x dx = 3x ln x 3x x dx
= 3x ln x 3 dx
= 3x ln x 3x + C

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 2 of 3

du 1
(c) u = ln x dx = x

dv x2
dx = x3 v= 2

ln x 1 1 1
dx = ln x x dx
x3 2x 2 2x2
ln x 1 3
= + 2x dx
2x2
ln x x2
= + 2 ( 2) + C
2x2
ln x 1
= + C
2x2 4x2

du 1
(d) u = ( ln x ) 2 dx = 2 ln x x
dv
dx =1 v=x
1
I = ( ln x ) 2 dx = x ( ln x ) 2 x 2 ln x x dx

= x ( ln x ) 2 2 ln x dx
Let J = 2 ln x dx
du 1
u = ln x dx = x
dv
dx =2 v = 2x
1
J = 2x ln x 2x x dx = 2x ln x 2x + C

I = x ( ln x ) 2 2x ln x + 2x + C

du 1
(e) u = ln x dx = x

dv x3
dx = x2 +1 v= 3 +x
3 3
2 x x 1
x +1 ln x dx = ln x +x + x x dx
3 3
3 2
x x
= + x ln x + 1 dx
3 3

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 3 of 3

3 x3
x
= + x ln x 9 x + C
3

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise G, Question 3

Question:

Find the following integrals:

(a) x2e x dx

(b) x2 cos x dx

(c) 12x2 ( 3 + 2x ) 5 dx

(d) 2x2 sin 2x dx

(e) x22 sec2 x tan x dx


Solution:
du
(a) u = x2 dx = 2x
dv
dx =ex v= ex

I = x2e x dx = x2e x e x 2x dx
= x2e x + 2xe x dx
Let J = 2xe x dx
du
u = 2x dx =2
dv
dx =ex v= ex

J = e x 2x ( e x ) 2 dx
= 2xe x + 2e x dx
= 2xe x 2e x + C
I = x2e x 2xe x 2e x + C

du
(b) u = x2 dx = 2x
dv
dx = cos x v = sin x

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 2 of 3

I = x2 cos x dx = x2 sin x 2x sin x dx


Let J = 2x sin x dx
du
u = 2x dx =2
dv
dx = sin x v = cos x
J = 2x cos x ( cos x ) 2 dx
= 2x cos x + 2 cos x dx
= 2x cos x + 2 sin x + C
I = x2 sin x + 2x cos x 2 sin x + C

du
(c) u = 12x2 dx = 24x
dv ( 3 + 2x ) 6
dx = ( 3 + 2x ) 5 v= 12

( 3 + 2x ) 6 ( 3 + 2x ) 6
I= 12x2 ( 3 + 2x ) 5 dx = 12x2 12 24x 12 dx

= x2 ( 3 + 2x ) 6 2x ( 3 + 2x ) 6 dx
Let J = 2x ( 3 + 2x ) 6 dx
du
u = 2x dx =2
( 3 + 2x ) 7 dv
v= 14 dx = ( 3 + 2x ) 6

( 3 + 2x ) 7 ( 3 + 2x ) 7
J = 2x 14 14 2 dx

( 3 + 2x ) 7 ( 3 + 2x ) 7
=x 7 7 dx

( 3 + 2x ) 7 ( 3 + 2x ) 8
=x 7 7 16 + C

( 3 + 2x ) 7 ( 3 + 2x ) 8
I = x2 ( 3 + 2x ) 6 x 7 + 112 + C

du
(d) u = 2x2 dx = 4x
dv 1
dx = sin 2x v= 2 cos 2x

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 3 of 3

2x2 1
I= 2x2 sin 2x dx = cos 2x 2 cos 2x 4x dx
2
= x2 cos 2x + 2x cos 2x dx
Let J = 2x cos 2x dx
du
u=x dx =1
dv
dx = 2 cos 2x v = sin 2x
J = x sin 2x sin 2x dx
1
= x sin 2x + 2 cos 2x + C
1
I = x2 cos 2x + x sin 2x + 2 cos 2x + C

du
(e) u = x2 dx = 2x
dv
dx = 2 sec x sec x tan x v = sec2 x

I = x2 2 sec2 x tan x dx = x2 sec2 x 2x sec2 x dx


Let J = 2x sec2 x dx
du
u = 2x dx =2
dv
dx = sec2 x v = tan x
J = 2x tan x 2 tan x dx
= 2x tan x 2 ln | sec x | + C
I = x2 sec2 x 2x tan x + 2 ln | sec x | + C
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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise G, Question 4

Question:

Evaluate the following:

(a) 0ln 2xe2x dx


(b) 0 2 x sin x dx


(c) 0 2 x cos x dx

ln x
(d) 12 dx
x2

(e) 014x ( 1 + x ) 3 dx

1
(f) 0x cos x dx
4


(g) 0 3 sin x ln | sec x | dx

Solution:
du
(a) u = x dx =1
dv 1 2x
dx = e2x v= 2e

1 2x ln 2 ln 2 1 e2x dx
0ln 2xe2x dx = e x
2 0 0 2

1 2 ln 2 1 2x ln 2
= e ln 2 0 e
2 4 0
4 1 2 ln 2 1 0
= ln 2 e e
2 4 4
4 1
= 2 ln 2 4 + 4

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 2 of 4

3
= 2 ln 2 4

du
(b) u = x dx =1
dv
dx = sin x v = cos x


0 2 x sin x dx = [ x cos x ] 0 2 0 2 cos x dx



= 2 cos 2 0 + 0 2 cos x dx


= 0 + [ sin x ] 0 2


= sin 2 sin 0

=1
du
(c) u = x dx =1
dv
dx = cos x v = sin x

0 2 x cos x dx = [ x sin x ] 0 2 0 2 sin x dx


= sin 2 0 [ cos x ] 0 2
2

= + cos 2 cos 0
2

= 2 1

du 1
(d) u = ln x dx = x
dv
dx =x2 v= x1
ln x ln x 2 2 1
12 dx = x x1 dx
x2 1 1 x
ln 2 ln 1 1
= 2 1 + 12 2 dx
x
1
= 2 ln 2 + [ x 1 ] 12

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 3 of 4

1 1 1
= ln 2 + 2 1
2
1
= 1 ln 2
2

du
(e) u = x dx =1
dv
dx =4(1+x) 3 v= (1+x) 4

014x ( 1 + x ) 3 dx = [ x ( 1 + x ) 4 ] 01 01 ( 1 + x ) 4 dx
5
(1+x) 1
= 1 24 0
5 0
5
2 1
= 16
5 5
31
= 16 5
= 16 6.2
= 9.8
du
(f) u = x dx =1
dv 1 1
= cos x v = 4 sin x
dx 4 4
1 x 1
0x cos 4x dx = 4x sin 4 0 04 sin x dx
4
1
= 4 sin 4 0 + 16 cos 4 x
0
4
= 2 + 16 cos 4 16 cos 0

4 16
= 2 + 2 16
4 2 16 2
OR = 2 + 2 16
= 2 2 + 8 2 16
du
(g) u = ln | sec x | dx = tan x
dv
dx = sin x v = cos x

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 4 of 4



0 3 sin x ln | sec x | dx = cos x ln | sec x | ] 0 3 + 0

3 cos x tan x dx

= cos 3 ln sec 3 cos 0 ln sec 0 + 0

3 sin x dx

1
= ln 2 + 0 + cos x ] 0 3
2
1 1
= ln 2 + 2 1
2
1
= 1 ln 2
2

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 1 of 3

Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise H, Question 1

Question:

Use the trapezium rule with n strips to estimate the following:

(a) 03ln ( 1 + x2 ) dx ; n = 6


(b) 0 3 \ ( 1 + tan x ) dx; n = 4

1
(c) 02 dx; n = 4
\ ( ex + 1 )

(d) 11cosec2 ( x2 + 1 ) dx ; n = 4

(e) 0.11.1\ cot x dx; n = 5

Solution:

x 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3


(a)
ln ( 1 + x2 ) 0 0.223 0.693 1.179 1.609 1.981 2.303

I = 03ln ( 1 + x2 ) dx
1
I 0.5 0 + 2.303 + 2
2

0.223 + 0.693 + 1.179 + 1.609 + 1.981

1
= 13.673
4
= 3.41825
= 3.42 (3 s.f.)
2 3
x 0
(b) 12 12 12 3
\ 1 + tan x 1 1.126 1.256 1.414 1.653


I = 0 3 \ 1 + tan x dx

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 2 of 3

1
I 1 + 1.653 + 2 1.126 + 1.256 + 1.414
2 12

= 10.245
24
= 1.3410...
= 1.34 (3 s.f.)

x 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
(c) 1
0.707 0.614 0.519 0.427 0.345
\ ex +1

1
I = 02 dx
\ ex + 1

~
1
I 0.5 0.707 + 0.345 + 2 0.614 + 0.519 + 0.427
2
1
= 4.172
4
= 1.043
= 1.04 (3 s.f.)

x 1 0.5 0 0.5 1
(d)
cosec2 ( x2 + 1 ) 1.209 1.110 1.412 1.110 1.209

I = 11cosec2 ( x2 + 1 ) dx
~
1
I 0.5 1.209 2 + 2 1.110 + 1.412 + 1.110
2
1
= 9.682
4
= 2.42 (3 s.f.)

x 0.1 0.3 0.5 0.7 0.9 1.1


(e) \ cot x 3.157 1.798 1.353 1.090 0.891 0.713

I = 0.11.1\ cot x dx
~
1
I 0.2 3.157 + 0.713 + 2 1.798 + 1.353 + 1.090 + 0.891
2


1
= 14.134
10

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 3 of 3

= 1.41 (3 s.f.)
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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 1 of 2

Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise H, Question 2

Question:

(a) Find the exact value of I = 14x ln x dx.

(b) Find approximate values for I using the trapezium rule with
(i) 3 strips
(ii) 6 strips

(c) Compare the percentage error for these two approximations.


Solution:

(a) I = 14x ln x dx
du 1
u = ln x dx = x
dv 1 2
dx =x v= 2x

1 2 4 4 1 x2 1 dx
I= x ln x
2 1 1 2 x
2
x 4
= 8 ln 4
4 1
1
= 8 ln 4 4 4

15
= 8 ln 4 4

(b) (i)

x 12 3 4
x ln x 0 1.386 3.296 5.545

1
I 1 5.545 + 2 1.386 + 3.296
2
1
= 14.909 = 7.4545 = 7.45 (3 s.f.)
2
(ii)

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 2 of 2

x 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4


x ln x 0 0.608 1.386 2.291 3.296 4.385 5.545

1
I 0.5 5.545 + 2 0.608 + 1.386 + 2.291 + 3.296 + 4.385
2
1
= 29.477 = 7.36925 = 7.37 (3 s.f.)
4

[ 7.4545 ( 8 ln 4 3.75 ) ] 100


(c) % error using 3 strips: 8 ln 4 3.75 = 1.6 % 1 d.p.
[ 7.376925 ( 8 ln 4 3.75 ) ] 100
% error using 6 strips: 8 ln 4 3.75 = 0.4 % 1 d.p.

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise H, Question 3

Question:

(a) Find an approximate value for I = 01ex tan x dx using


(i) 2 strips
(ii) 4 strips
(ii) 8 strips.

(b) Suggest a possible value for I.


Solution:

(a) (i)

x 0 0.5 1
ex tan x 0 0.901 4.233

~
1 1
I 0.5 0 + 4.233 + 2 0.901 = 4 6.035 = 1.509
2
(ii)

x 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1


ex tan x 0 0.328 0.901 1.972 4.233

~
1
I 0.25 4.233 + 2 0.328 + 0.901 + 1.972
2
1
= 10.635 = 1.329
8
(iii)

x 0 0.125 0.25 0.375 0.5 0.625 0.75 0.875 1


ex tan x 0 0.142 0.328 0.573 0.901 1.348 1.972 2.872 4.233

1 1
~
I 4.233 + 2
2 8


0.142 + 0.328 + 0.573 + 0.901 + 1.348 + 1.972 + 2.872

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 2 of 2

1
= 20.505 = 1.282
16

1
(b) Halving h reduces differences by about 3 :

So an answer in the range 1.25 1.27 seems likely.


(Note: Calculator gives 1.265)
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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise H, Question 4

Question:

(a) Find the exact value of I = 02x\ ( 2 x ) dx.

(b) Find an approximate value for I using the trapezium rule with
(i) 4 and
(ii) 6 strips.

(c) Compare the percentage error for these two approximations.


Solution:

(a) u2 = 2 x 2u du = dx and x = 2 u2
Also u = 0 when x = 2
and u = 2 when x = 0.
I = 20 ( 2 u2 ) u ( 2u ) du
= 0 2 ( 2 u2 ) 2u2 du
= 0 2 ( 4u2 2u4 ) du
3 2u5 2
4u
= 5
3 0
422 242
= 0
3 5
16 2
= 15

(b) (i)

x 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
x\ 2 x 0 0.612 1 1.061 0

~
1
I 0.5 0 + 2 0.612 + 1 + 1.061
2
1
= 5.346 = 1.3365 = 1.34 (2 d.p.)
4
(ii)

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 2 of 2

1 2 4 5
x 0 1 2
3 3 3 3
x\ 2 x 0 0.430 0.770 1 1.089 0.962 0

~
1 1
I 0 + 2 0.430 + 0.770 + 1 + 1.089 + 0.962
2 3
1
= 8.502 = 1.417 = 1.42 (2 d.p.)
6

16
2 1.3365
15
(c) (i) % error with 4 strips = 16
100 = 11.4 %
2
15

16 2
1.417
15
(ii) % error with 6 strips = 16
100 = 6.1 %
2
15

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 1 of 4

Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise I, Question 1

Question:

The region R is bounded by the curve with equation y = f ( x ) , the x-axis and
the lines x = a and x = b. In each of the following cases find the exact value of:
(i) the area of R,
(ii) the volume of the solid of revolution formed by rotating R through 2
radians about the x-axis.

2
(a) f x = 1 + x ; a = 0, b = 1


(b) f ( x ) = sec x ; a = 0, b = 3

(c) f ( x ) = ln x ; a = 1, b = 2

(d) f ( x ) = sec x tan x ; a = 0, b = 4

(e) f ( x ) = x\ 4 x2 ; a = 0, b = 2
Solution:

2
(a) (i) Area = 01 dx = 2 ln | 1 + x | ] 01 = 2 ln 2 2 ln 1
1+x

Area = 2 ln 2
2 2
(ii) Volume = 01 dx
1+x
4
= 01 dx
(1+x) 2
1
(1+x) 1
= 4
1 0
4 1
= 1+x
0

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 2 of 4

4 4
= 2 1

= 2

(b) (i) Area = 0 3 sec x dx


= ln | sec x + tan x | ] 0 3

= [ ln ( 2 + 3 ) ] [ ln ( 1 ) ]
Area = ln ( 2 + 3 )

(ii) Volume = 0 3 sec2 x dx


= tan x ] 0 3

=[ ( 3) (0) ]
= 3

(c) (i) Area = 12ln x dx


du 1
u = ln x dx = x
dv
dx =1 v=x
1
Area = x ln x ] 12 12x x dx

= ( 2 ln 2 ) ( 0 ) [ x ] 12
= 2 ln 2 1
(ii) Volume = 12 ( ln x ) 2 dx

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du 1
u = ( ln x ) 2 dx = 2 ln x x
dv
dx =1 v=x

2 2 2 1
V= x ( ln x ) ] 1 2 1 x ln x x dx


= { [ 2 ( ln 2 ) 2 ] ( 0 ) { 2 12ln x dx
But 12ln x dx = 2 ln 2 1 from (i)
V = 2 ( ln 2 ) 2 2 ( 2 ln 2 1 )


(d) (i) Area = 0 4 sec x tan x dx


= sec x ] 0 4

= ( 2) (1)
Area = 2 1

(ii) Volume = 0 4 sec2 x tan2 x dx
3
tan x
= 4
3 0

3
1
= 0
3

= 3

(e) (i) Area = 02x\ 4 x2 dx

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 4 of 4

3
Let y = ( 4 x2 ) 2
1 1
dy 3
= (4 x2 ) 2 2x = 3x ( 4 x2 ) 2
dx 2
3
1 2 1
Area = 3 ( 4 x2 ) 2 = 0 3 23 =
0
8
3

(ii) Volume = 02x2 ( 4 x2 ) dx


= 02 ( 4x2 x4 ) dx
4 3 x5 2
= x 5
3 0
32 32
= 5 0
3
64
= 15

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 1 of 3

Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise I, Question 2

Question:

Find the exact area between the curve y = f ( x ) , the x-axis and the lines x = a
and x = b where:

4x + 3
(a) f x = ; a = 1, b = 2
( x + 2 ) ( 2x 1 )

x
(b) f x = ; a = 0, b = 2
(x+1) 2


(c) f ( x ) = x sin x ; a = 0, b = 2


(d) f ( x ) = cos x\ 2 sin x + 1 ; a = 0, b = 6

(e) f ( x ) = xe x ; a = 0, b = ln 2
Solution:
4x + 3 A B
(a) ( x + 2 ) ( 2x 1 ) x+2 + 2x 1

4x + 3 A ( 2x 1 ) + B ( x + 2 )
1 5
x= 2 5= 2B B=2
x= 2 5 = 5A A=1
4x + 3
area = 12 ( x + 2 ) ( 2x 1 ) dx
1 2
= 12 + 2x 1 dx
x+2
= [ ln | x + 2 | + ln | 2x 1 | ] 12
= ( ln 4 + ln 3 ) ( ln 3 + ln 1 )
= ln 4 or 2 ln 2

x A B
(b) + x+1
(x+1) 2 (x+1) 2

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 2 of 3

xA+B(x+1)
Compare coefficient of x: 1=B B=1
Compare constants: 0=A+B A= 1
x
area = 02 dx
(x+1) 2
1 1
= 02 dx
x+1 (x+1) 2
1
= ln | x + 1 | + x + 1 02

1
= ln 3 + 3 ln 1 + 1

2
= ln 3 3


(c) Area = 0 2 x sin x dx
du
u=x dx =1
dv
dx = sin x v = cos x


area = x cos x ] 0 2 0 2 cos x dx



= 2 cos 2 0 + 0 2 cos x dx



=0+ sin x ] 0 2


= sin 2 0

=1

(d) Area = 0 6 cos x\ 2 sin x + 1 dx
3
Let y = ( 2 sin x + 1 ) 2

dy 3 1 1
dx = 2 ( 2 sin x + 1 ) 2 2 cos x = 3 cos x ( 2 sin x + 1 ) 2

3
1
area = ( 2 sin x + 1 ) 2 6
3 0

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 3 of 3

3 3
1 1
= 2 2 1 2
3 3
22 1
= 3 3
221
= 3

(e) Area = 0ln 2xe x dx


du
u=x dx =1
dv
dx =ex v= ex

area = [ xe x ] 0ln 2 0ln 2 ( e x ) dx


= ( ln 2 e ln 2 ) ( 0 ) + 0ln 2 e x dx
1
= ln 2 + e x ] 0ln 2
2
1
= ln 2 + e ln 2 e0
2
1 1
= 2 ln 2 2 +1
1
= 1 ln 2
2

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise I, Question 3

Question:

The region R is bounded by the curve C, the x-axis and the lines x = 8 and x = + 8.
The parametric equations for C are x = t3 and y = t2. Find:

(a) the area of R,

(b) the volume of the solid of revolution formed when R is rotated through 2 radians
about the x-axis.
Solution:

(a) Area = x = 8x = 8y dx
x = t3 dx = 3t2 dt
Also t = 2 when x = 8
and t = 2 when x = 8.
area = 22t2 3t2 dt
= 223t4 dt
5
3t 2
=
5 2

96 96
= 5
5
192
= 5

(b) V = x = 8x = 8y2 dx
= 22t4 3t2 dt
= 223t6 dt
7
3t 2
=
7 2
3 128 3 128
=
7 7
768
= 7

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise I, Question 4

Question:

The curve C has parametric equations x = sin t, y = sin 2t, 0 t 2
.

(a) Find the area of the region bounded by C and the x-axis.
If this region is revolved through 2 radians about the x-axis,

(b) find the volume of the solid formed.


Solution:

(a) Area = t = 0 2 y dx
t=

x = sin t dx = cos t dt

area = 0 2 sin 2t cos t dt

= 0 2 2 cos2 t sin t dt

2
= 3 cos3 t 0 2

2
= 0 3

2
= 3


(b) V = t = 0 t= 2 y2 dx

= 0 2 sin2 2t cos t dt

= 0 2 4 cos3 t sin t sin t dt
du
u = sin t dt = cos t
dv
dt = 4 cos3 t sin t v = cos4 t

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V= sin t cos4 t ] 0 2 0 2 cos5 t dt



=0 2 cos5 t dt

= 0 2 ( cos2 t ) 2 cos t dt Let y = sin t dy = cos t dt
= 01 ( 1 y2 ) 2 dy
= 01 ( 1 2y2 + y4 ) dy
5
2 y 1
= y 3 y3 + 5
0
2 1
= 1 3 + 5 0

8
= 15

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise J, Question 1

Question:

Find general solutions of the following differential equations. Leave your


answer in the form y = f ( x ) .

dy
(a) = 1+y 1 2x
dx

dy
(b) dx
= y tan x

dy
(c) cos2 x dx
= y2 sin2 x

dy
(d) dx
= 2ex y

dy
(e) x2 dx
= y + xy

Solution:
dy
(a) = 1+y 1 2x
dx
1
dy = 1 2x dx
1+y
ln | 1 + y | = x x2 + C
2
1+y=e(xx + C)
2
1 + y = A ex x , ( A = eC )
2
y = A ex x 1
dy
(b) dx = y tan x
1
y dy = tan x dx
ln | y | = ln | sec x | + C

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ln | y | = ln | k sec x | , ( C = ln k )
y = k sec x

dy
(c) cos2 x dx = y2 sin2 x

1 sin2 x
dy = dx
y2 cos2 x

1
dy = tan2 x dx = sec2 x 1 dx
y 2
1
y = tan x x + C
1
y= tan x x + C

dy
(d) dx = 2ex y = 2exe y
1
dy = 2ex dx
ey
i.e. ey dy = 2ex dx
ey = 2ex + C
y = ln ( 2ex + C)

dy
(e) x2 = y + xy = y 1+x
dx
1 1
y dy = x2+ x dx

ln | y | = x 1 + ln | x | + C
1
ln | y | ln | x | =C x

y 1
ln =C
x x
y 1
x = eC x

1
y C
= Ae x , e =A
x
1
y = Axe x

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise J, Question 2

Question:

Find a general solution of the following differential equations. (You do not need
to write the answers in the form y = f ( x ) .)
dy
(a) dx
= tan y tan x

dy x cos y
(b) sin y cos x dx
= cos x

dy 2
(c) 1 + x2 = x 1 y
dx

dy
(d) cos y sin 2x dx
= cot x cosec y

dy
(e) ex + y =x 2 + ey
dx

Solution:
dy
(a) dx = tan y tan x
1
tan y dy = tan x dx
cot y dy = tan x dx
ln | sin y | = ln | sec x | + C = ln | k sec x | ( ln k = C )
sin y = k sec x

dy x cos y
(b) sin y cos x dx = cos x
sin y x
cos y dy = dx
cos2 x
tan y dy = x sec2 x dx
ln | sec y | = x sec2 x dx

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du
u=x dx =1
dv
dx = sec2 x v = tan x
ln | sec y | = x tan x tan x dx
ln | sec y | = x tan x ln | sec x | + C

dy 2
(c) 1 + x2 = x 1 y
dx
1 x
2
dy = dx
1y 1 + x2
1 A B
1y + 1+y
1 y2
1A(1+y) +B(1y)
1
y=1 1 = 2A A= 2
1
y= 1 1 = 2B B= 2
1 1
( 2 ) (
2
)

x
1y + 1+y dy = dx
1 + x2

1 1 1
2 ln | 1 + y | 2 ln | 1 y | = 2 ln | 1 + x2 | + C
f (x)
(using f(x) dx = ln | f ( x ) | + C)
1+y
ln = ln | 1 + x2 | + 2C
1y
1+y
=k 1 + x2 ln k = 2C
1y

dy
(d) cos y sin 2x dx = cot x cosec y
cos y cot x
cosec y dy = sin 2x dx
cos x
sin y cos y dy = sin x 2 sin x cos x dx

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1 1
2 sin 2y dy = 2 cosec2 x dx
1 1
4 cos 2y = 2 cot x + C
or cos 2y = 2 cot x + k
dy
(e) ex + y =x 2 + ey
dx
dy
exey =x 2 + ey
dx
ey
dy = xe x dx
2 + ey
du
u=x dx =1
dv
dx =ex v= ex

ln | 2 + ey | = xe x + e x dx
ln | 2 + ey | = xe x e x + C
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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise J, Question 3

Question:

Find general solutions of the following differential equations:


dy
(a) dx
= yex

dy
(b) dx
= xey

dy
(c) dx
= y cos x

dy
(d) dx
= x cos y

dy
(e) = 1 + cos 2x cos y
dx

dy
(f) = 1 + cos 2y cos x
dx

Solution:
dy
(a) dx = yex
1
y dy = ex dx

ln | y | = ex + C

dy
(b) dx = xey
1
dy = x dx
ey
e y dy = x dx
1 2
ey= 2x + C

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dy
(c) dx = y cos x
1
y dy = cos x dx
ln | y | = sin x + C
or y = Aesin x
dy
(d) dx = x cos y
1
cos y dy = x dx
sec y dy = x dx
x2
ln | sec y + tan y | = 2 + C

dy
(e) = 1 + cos 2x cos y
dx
1
dy = 1 + cos 2x dx
cos y
sec y dy = ( 1 + cos 2x ) dx
1
ln | sec y + tan y | =x+ 2 sin 2x + C

dy
(f) = 1 + cos 2y cos x
dx
1
1 + cos 2y dy = cos x dx
1
dy = cos x dx
2 cos2 y
1
2 sec2 y dy = cos x dx
1
2 tan y = sin x + C

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise J, Question 4

Question:

Find particular solutions of the following differential equations using the given
boundary conditions.
dy
(a) dx
= sin x cos2 x; y = 0, x = 3

dy
(b) dx
= sec2 x sec2 y; y = 0, x = 4

dy
(c) dx
= 2 cos2 y cos2 x; y = 4
,x=0

dy
(d) 1 x2 = xy + y ; x = 0.5, y = 6
dx

dy 2 ; x = 5, y = 1
(e) 2 1+x = 1 y
dx 2

Solution:
dy
(a) dx = sin x cos2 x

dy = sin x cos2 x dx
cos3 x
y= 3 + C

1
( )
8 1
y = 0, x = 3 0= 3 + C C= 24

1 1
y= 24 3 cos3 x

dy
(b) dx = sec2 x sec2 y

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1
dy = sec2 x dx
sec2 y
cos2 y dy = sec2 x dx
1 1
+ cos 2y dy = sec2 x dx
2 2
1 1
2y + 4 sin 2y = tan x + C
or sin 2y + 2y = 4 tan x + k

y = 0, x = 4 0=4+ k k= 4
sin 2y + 2y = 4 tan x 4

dy
(c) dx = 2 cos2 y cos2 x
1
dy = 2 cos2 x dx
cos2 y
sec2 y dy = ( 1 + cos 2x ) dx
1
tan y = x + 2 sin 2x + C

x = 0, y= 4 1=0+ C
1
tan y = x + 2 sin 2x + 1

dy
(d) 1 x2 = xy + y
dx
dy
1 x2 = x+1 y
dx
1 1+x
y dy = dx
1 x2
1 1+x
y dy = (1x) (1+x) dx
1 1
y dy = 1x dx
ln | y | = ln | 1 x | + C
1
x = 0.5, y=6 ln 6 = ln 2 + C C = ln 3
ln | y | = ln 3 ln | 1 x |

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3
or y = 1x

dy
(e) 2 1+x = 1 y2
dx

2 1
2
dy = 1+x dx
1y
2 A B
1y + 1+y
1 y2
2A(1+y) +B(1y)
y=1 2 = 2A A=1
y= 1 2 = 2B B=1
1 1 1
+ dy = 1 + x dx
1+y 1y

ln | 1 + y | ln | 1 y | = ln | 1 + x | + C
1+y
ln = ln | k ( 1 + x ) | C = ln k
1y
1+y
=k 1+x
1y
3
1 2 1
x = 5, y = 2 1
= 6k k= 2
2

1+y 1+x
1y = 2

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise K, Question 1

Question:

The size of a certain population at time t is given by P. The rate of increase of P


dP
is given by dt
= 2P. Given that at time t = 0, the population was 3, find the
population at time t = 2.
Solution:
dP
dt = 2P
1
P dP = 2 dt
ln | P | = 2t + C
P = Ae2t
t = 0, P = 3 3 = Ae0 A=3
P = 3e2t
When t = 2, P = 3e4 = 164
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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise K, Question 2

Question:

The number of particles at time t of a certain radioactive substance is N. The


dN N
substance is decaying in such a way that dt
= 3
.
Given that at time t = 0 the number of particles is N0, find the time when the
1
number of particles remaining is 2 N0.

Solution:
dN N
dt = 3
1 1
N dN = 3 dt
1
ln | N | = 3t + C
1
N = Ae 3
t

t = 0, N = N0 N0 = Ae0 A = N0
1
N = N0 e 3
t

1 1 1
N= N0 =e 3
t
2 2
1
ln 2 = 3t

t = 3 ln 2 or 2.08
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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise K, Question 3

Question:

The mass M at time t of the leaves of a certain plant varies according to the
dM
differential equation dt
= M M2.

(a) Given that at time t = 0, M = 0.5, find an expression for M in terms of t.

(b) Find a value for M when t = ln 2.

(c) Explain what happens to the value of M as t increases.


Solution:
dM
dt = M M2

1 1 A B
M(1M)
dM = 1 dt but M(1M)
M
+ 1M

1 A ( 1 M ) + BM
M=0: 1 = 1A , A = 1
M=1: 1 = 1B , B = 1

1 1
+ dM = 1 dt
M 1 M
ln | M | ln | 1 M | =t+ C
M
ln =t+ C
1 M
M
1M = Aet

0.5
(a) t = 0, M = 0.5 0.5 = Ae0 A=1
et
M= et etM M=
1 + et

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eln 2 2 2
(b) t = ln 2 M= = =
1+ eln 2 1+2 3

1 1
(c) t M= 1 =1
et+1

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise K, Question 4

Question:

The volume of liquid Vcm3 at time t seconds satisfies


dV
15 dt
= 2V 450.
Given that initially the volume is 300 cm3, find to the nearest cm3 the volume
after 15 seconds.
Solution:
dV
15 dt = 2V 450
1 1
2V 450 dV = 15 dt
1 1
2 ln | 2V 450 | = 15 t + C
2
2V 450 = Ae 15 t

t = 0, V = 300 150 = Ae0 A = 150


2
2V = 150e 15 t + 450
t = 15 2V = 150e 2 + 450
150 2
V= e +3
2
V = 75 ( 3 + e 2 ) = 235
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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise K, Question 5

Question:

dx 1
The thickness of ice x mm on a pond is increasing and dt
= , where t is
20x2
measured in hours. Find how long it takes the thickness of ice to increase from 1
mm to 2 mm.
Solution:

dx 1
dt =
20x2
1
x2 dx = 20 dt
1 3 t
3x = 20 + C
1
t = 0, x = 1 3 =C
20 ( x3 1 )
3 =t
20
x=2 t= 81
3
140 2
t= 3 or 46 3

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise K, Question 6

Question:
dh
The depth h metres of fluid in a tank at time t minutes satisfies dt
= k h,
where k is a positive constant. Find, in terms of k, how long it takes the depth to
decrease from 9 m to 4 m.
Solution:
dh
dt = kh

1
dh = k dt
1
h 2
1
h 2 dh = k dt
1
2h 2 = kt + C
t = 0, h = 9 2 3 = 0 + C C=6
1
2h 2 6 = kt
62h
or t = k
622 2
h=4 t= k = k

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise K, Question 7

Question:
dr
The rate of increase of the radius r kilometres of an oil slick is given by dt
=
k
, where k is a positive constant. When the slick was first observed the radius
r2
was 3 km. Two days later it was 5 km. Find, to the nearest day when the radius
will be 6.
Solution:

dr k
dt =
r2
r2 dr = k dt
1 3
3r = kt + C
27
t = 0, r = 3 3 =C C=9
1 3
kt = 3r 9
125 1
t = 2, r = 5 2k = 3 9 k = 16 3
49 1 3
3 t = 3r 9
r3 27
or t = 49

63 27
r=6 t= 49 = 3.85... = 4 days

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise L, Question 1

Question:
3
48
It is given that y = x 2 + x
, x > 0.

dy
(a) Find the value of x and the value of y when dx
= 0.

(b) Show that the value of y which you found is a minimum.


3
48
The finite region R is bounded by the curve with equation y=x 2 + x
, the lines
x = 1, x = 4 and the x-axis.

(c) Find, by integration, the area of R giving your answer in the form p + q ln r,
where the numbers p, q and r are to be found.

Solution:
3 dy 3 1
(a) y = x 2 + 48x 1 dx = 2x
2 48x 2
dy 3 1 48
dx =0 2x
2 =
x2
5 2
x 2 = 3 48 = 32

x = 4, y = 23 + 12 = 20
x = 4 , y = 20

d2y 3 1
(b) = 4x
2 + 96x 3 > 0 for all x > 0
dx2

20 is a minimum value of y

3
48
(c) Area = 14 x 2 + dx
x

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5
2 4
= x 2 + 48 ln | x |
5 1
2 2
= 32 + 48 ln 4 +0
5 5
62
= 5 + 48 ln 4

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise L, Question 2

Question:

The curve C has two arcs, as shown, and the equations


x = 3t2, y = 2t3,
where t is a parameter.

(a) Find an equation of the tangent to C at the point P where t = 2.


The tangent meets the curve again at the point Q.

(b) Show that the coordinates of Q are ( 3 , 2 ) .


The shaded region R is bounded by the arcs OP and OQ of the curve C, and the line PQ, as shown.

(c) Find the area of R.

Solution:

dy
( )
dy dt 6t2
(a) dx = dx
= 6t =t
( )
dt

P is (12, 16)
tangent is y 16 = 2 ( x 12 ) or y = 2x 8

(b) Substitute x = 3t2, y = 2t3 into the equation for the tangent
2t3 = 6t2 8
t3 3t2 + 4 = 0
(t2) 2(t+1) =0
t = 1 at Q ( 3 , 2 )

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(c)

Area of R = A1 T1 + A2 + T2
A1 + A2 = y dx = t = 1t = 22t3 6t dt = 1212t4 dt
12 5 2= 12 32 12
= t 5 = 79.2
5 1 5
1
T1 = 2 16 8 = 64
1
T2 = 2 12=1
area of R = 79.2 64 + 1 = 16.2
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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise L, Question 3

Question:

1
(a) Show that ( 1 + sin 2x ) 2 3 + 4 sin 2x cos 4x .
2

(b) The finite region bounded by the curve with equation y = 1 + sin 2x, the x-axis, the y-

axis and the line with equation x = 2
is rotated through 2 about the x-axis.
Using calculus, calculate the volume of the solid generated, giving your answer in terms
of .

Solution:

(a) ( 1 + sin 2x ) 2 = 1 + 2 sin 2x + sin2 2x


1
= 1 + 2 sin 2x + 1 cos 4x
2
3 1
= 2 + 2 sin 2x 2 cos 4x
1
= 3 + 4 sin 2x cos 4x
2


(b) V = y2 dx = 0 2 ( 1 + sin 2x ) 2 dx


= 0 2 3 + 4 sin 2x cos 4x dx
2
1
= 3x 2 cos 2x 4 sin 4x 0 2
2
3 1
= 2 cos 4 sin 2 020
2 2
3
= +2+2
2 2

= 3 + 8
4

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise L, Question 4

Question:

This graph shows part of the curve with equation y = f ( x ) where


1
f x e0.5x + x , x > 0.

The curve has a stationary point at x = .

(a) Find f ( x ) .

(b) Hence calculate f ( 1.05 ) and f ( 1.10 ) and deduce that


1.05 < < 1.10.

(c) Find f ( x ) dx .
The shaded region R is bounded by the curve, the x-axis and the lines x = 2 and
x = 4.

(d) Find, to 2 decimal places, the area of R.

Solution:

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1 1 1
(a) f x = 2e 2x 2
x

(b) f ( 1.05 ) = 0.061... < 0


f ( 1.10 ) = + 0.040... > 0
Change of sign root in interval (1.05, 1.10)

0.5x 1
(c) e + x dx = 2e0.5x + ln | x | + C

(d) Area = 24y dx


= [ 2e0.5x + ln | x | ] 24
= ( 2e2 + ln 4 ) ( 2e1 + ln 2 )
= 2e2 2e1 + ln 2
= 10.03 (2 d.p.)
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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise L, Question 5

Question:

(a) Find xe x dx.



(b) Given that y = 4
at x = 0, solve the differential equation
dy x
ex dx
= sin 2y

Solution:

(a) I = xe x dx
du
u=x dx =1
dv
dx =ex v= ex

I = xe x ( e x ) dx
i.e. I = xe x e x + C
dy x
(b) ex dx = sin 2y

sin 2y dy = xe x dx
1
2 cos 2y = xe x e x + C

x = 0, y = 4 0=01+ C C=1
1
2 cos 2y = xe x + e x 1

or cos 2y = 2 ( xe x + e x 1 )
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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise L, Question 6

Question:

The diagram shows the finite shaded region bounded by the curve with equation
y = x2 + 3, the lines x = 1, x = 0 and the x-axis. This region is rotated through 360
about the x-axis.
Find the volume generated.

Solution:

V = 01y2 dx = 01 ( x2 + 3 ) 2 dx
= 01 ( x4 + 6x2 + 9 ) dx
1 5
= x + 2x3 + 9x 01
5
1
= +2+9 0
5
56
= 5

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise L, Question 7

Question:
1
(a) Find x(x+1)
dx

(b) Using the substitution u = ex and the answer to a, or otherwise, find


1
dx.
1 + ex

(c) Use integration by parts to find x2 sin x dx.

Solution:
1 1 1
(a) x(x+1) = x x+1
1 1 1
dx = dx
x(x+1) x x + 1
= ln | x | ln | x + 1 | + C
x
= ln + C
x+1

1
(b) I = dx u = ex du = ex dx
1+ ex
x
1 1 u e
I= du = ln + C or ln
(1+u) u 1 + u 1+e
x

+ C

(c) I = x2 sin x dx
du
u = x2 dx = 2x
dv
dx = sin x v = cos x

I = x2 cos x ( cos x ) 2x dx
= x2 cos x + 2x cos x dx

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 2 of 2

Let J = 2x cos x dx
du
u = 2x dx =2
dv
dx = cos x v = sin x
J = 2x sin x 2 sin x dx
= 2x sin x + 2 cos x + C
I = x2 cos x + 2x sin x + 2 cos x + k
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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise L, Question 8

Question:

(a) Find x sin 2x dx.


dy
(b) Given that y = 0 at x = 4
, solve the differential equation dx
= x sin 2x cos2 y.

Solution:

(a) I = x sin 2x dx
du
u=x dx =1
dv 1
dx = sin 2x v= 2 cos 2x
1 1
I= 2 x cos 2x 2 cos 2x dx
1 1
= 2 x cos 2x + 4 sin 2x + C

dy
(b) dx = x sin 2x cos2 y

sec2 y dy = x sin 2x dx
1 1
tan y = 2 x cos 2x + 4 sin 2x + C
1 1
y = 0, x = 4 0=0+ 4 + C C= 4
1 1 1
tan y = 2 x cos 2x + 4 sin 2x 4

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise L, Question 9

Question:

(a) Find x cos 2x dx.


1
(b) This diagram shows part of the curve with equation y = 2x 2 sin x. The
shaded region in the diagram is bounded by the curve, the x-axis and the line

with equation x = 2
. This shaded region is rotated through 2 radians about the
x-axis to form a solid of revolution. Using calculus, calculate the volume of the
solid of revolution formed, giving your answer in terms of .

Solution:

(a) I = x cos 2x dx
du
u=x dx =1

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 2 of 2

dv 1
dx = cos 2x v= 2 sin 2x
x 1
I= 2 sin 2x 2 sin 2x dx
x 1
= 2 sin 2x + 4 cos 2x + C


(b) V = 0 2 y2 dx = 0 2 4x sin2 x dx
cos 2A = 1 2 sin2 A 2 sin2 x = 1 cos 2x


V = 0 2 2x 1 cos 2x dx


= 0 2x dx 2 0 2 x cos 2x dx
2


x 1
= [ x2 ] 0 2 2 sin 2x + cos 2x 0 2
2 4
3 1 1
= 2 sin + cos 0+ 4
4 4 4
3
= 4 +

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise L, Question 10

Question:

A curve has equation y = f ( x ) and passes through the point with coordinates
1
( 0 , 1 ) . Given that f x = 2 e2x 6x ,

(a) use integration to obtain an expression for f(x),

(b) show that there is a root of the equation f ( x ) = 0 , such that


1.41 < < 1.43.
Solution:

1
(a) f x = 2 e2x 6x

1
f x = 4 e2x 3x2 + C

1 5
f 0 = 1 1= 0+ C C=
4 4

1 5
f x = 4 e2x 3x2 4

(b) f ( 1.41 ) = 0.07... < 0


f ( 1.43 ) = + 0.15... > 0
Change of sign root in interval (1.41, 1.43).
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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise L, Question 11

Question:
1
2
f x = 16x 2 , x > 0.
x

(a) Solve the equation f ( x ) = 0 .

(b) Find f ( x ) dx .

(c) Evaluate 14f ( x ) dx , giving your answer in the form p + q ln r, where p, q


and r are rational numbers.

Solution:
1
2
(a) f x =0 16x 2 =
x
3
16x 2 =2
3 1
x 2 = 8

3 1 2 1
x= \ 8 = 4

3
1
2 16x 2
(b) 16x 2 dx = 2 ln | x | + C
x 3
2
32 3
= 3 x
2 2 ln | x | + C

3
(c) 1 4f x

dx =
32
x 2 2 ln | x |
4
3 1
32 32
= 23 2 ln 4 0
3 3

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 2 of 2

224
= 3 2 ln 4

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise L, Question 12

Question:

Shown is part of a curve C with equation y = x2 + 3. The shaded region is


bounded by C, the x-axis and the lines with equations x = 1 and x = 3. The
shaded region is rotated through 360 about the x-axis.
Using calculus, calculate the volume of the solid generated. Give your answer as
an exact multiple of .

Solution:

V = 13y2 dx = 13 ( x2 + 3 ) 2 dx
= 13 ( x4 + 6x2 + 9 ) dx
1 5
= x + 2x3 + 9x 13
5
243 1
= + 54 + 27 +2+9
5 5
242
= + 81 11
5

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 2 of 2

= 118.4
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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise L, Question 13

Question:

(a) Find x ( x2 + 3 ) 5 dx

1 2
(b) Show that 1e 2
ln x dx = 1 e
x

1 1 4p 2
(c) Given that p > 1, show that 1p ( x + 1 ) ( 2x 1 )
dx = 3
ln p+1

Solution:

(a) Let y = ( x2 + 3 ) 6
dy
dx = 6 ( x2 + 3 ) 5 2x
1
x ( x2 + 3 ) 5 dx = 12 ( x2 + 3 ) 6 + C

1
(b) I = 1e ln x dx
x2
du 1
u = ln x dx = x
dv 1 1
dx = v= x
x2
1 e e 1 dx
I= x ln x
1 1 x2
1 1 e
= e 0 + x
1
1 1
= + e 1
e
2
=1 e

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1 A B
(c) ( x + 1 ) ( 2x 1 ) x+1 + 2x 1

1 A ( 2x 1 ) + B ( x + 1 )
1 3 2
x= 2 1= 2B B= 3
1
x= 1 1 = 3A A= 3
2 1

1 3 3
1 p dx = p
( x + 1 ) ( 2x 1 ) 1 2x 1 + x + 1 dx

1 1 p
= ln | 2x 1 | 3 ln | x + 1 |
3 1
1 2x 1 p
= ln
3 x+1 1
1 2p 1 1 1
= ln ln
3 p+1 3 2
1 4p 2
= ln
3 p+1

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise L, Question 14

Question:
2
5x 8x + 1 A B C
f x x + x1 +
2x ( x 1 ) 2
(x1) 2

(a) Find the values of the constants A, B and C.

(b) Hence find f ( x ) dx .

32 5
(c) Hence show that 49f x dx = ln
3 24

Solution:
2
5x 8x + 1 A B C
(a) f x x + x1 +
2x ( x 1 ) 2
(x1) 2

5x2 8x + 1 2A ( x 1 ) 2 + 2Bx ( x 1 ) + 2Cx


1
x=0 1 = 2A A= 2

x=1 2 = 2C C= 1
Coefficients of x2: 5 = 2A + 2B B=2

1
2 2
1
(b) f x dx = x + x1 dx
(x1) 2

1 1
= 2 ln | x | + 2 ln | x 1 | + x1 + C

1 1 9
(c) 49f x dx = 2 ln | x | + 2 ln | x 1 | +
x1 4
1
= ln | x ( x 1 ) 2 | + x 1 49

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 2 of 2

1 1
= ln 3 64 + 8 ln 29 + 3

3 64 1 1
= ln +
29 8 3
32 5
= ln 3 24

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise L, Question 15

Question:

The curve shown has parametric equations


x = 5 cos , y = 4 sin , 0 < 2.


(a) Find the gradient of the curve at the point P at which = 4
.

(b) Find an equation of the tangent to the curve at the point P.

(c) Find the coordinates of the point R where this tangent meets the x-axis.
The shaded region is bounded by the tangent PR, the curve and the x-axis.

(d) Find the area of the shaded region, leaving your answer in terms of .

Solution:
dy dy d 4 cos
(a) dx = d dx = 5 sin
4
gradient of tangent at P = 5

5 4
(b) P = ,
2 2
equation of tangent is

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4 4 5 4 5
y 2 = x 2 or y22= x 2
5 5

52 52
(c) At R, y = 0 x= 2 + 2 =52
R is ( 5 2 , 0 )

(d)

1 5 4 1 5 4
A1 + A2 = 52 2 2 = 2 2 =5
2 2

04 sin
A1 = y dx = 5 sin d
4


= 10 0 4 1 cos 2 d


= [ 10 5 sin 2 ] 0 4

5
= 2 5
5
A2 = 5 A1 = 5 5 = 10 2.5
2

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise L, Question 16

Question:

(a) Obtain the general solution of the differential equation


dy
dx
= xy2, y > 0.

(b) Given also that y = 1 at x = 1, show that


2
y= , 3<x< 3
3 x2
is a particular solution of the differential equation.
2
The curve C has equation y = , x 3, x 3
3 x2

(c) Write down the gradient of C at the point (1, 1).

(d) Deduce that the line which is a tangent to C at the point (1, 1) has equation
y = x.

(e) Find the coordinates of the point where the line y = x again meets the curve
C.

Solution:
dy
(a) dx = xy2
1
dy = x dx
y2
1 x2
y = 2 + C

2
or y = k = 2C
x2 + k

2
(b) y = 1, x = 1 1= 1+ k k= 3

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2
y=
3 x2
for x2 3 and y > 0, i.e. 3 < x < 3
dy
(c) When x = 1, y = 1 dx is 1

(d) Equation of tangent is y 1 = 1 ( x 1 ) , i.e. y = x.

2
(e) x = x3 + 3x = 2 or x3 3x + 2 = 0
3 x2
(x1) 2(x+2) =0
y = x meets curve at ( 2 , 2 ) .
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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise L, Question 17

Question:

The diagram shows the curve C with parametric equations


1
x = a sin2 t, y = a cos t, 0 t 2
,

where a is a positive constant. The point P lies on C and has coordinates

3 1
a , a .
4 2

dy
(a) Find dx
, giving your answer in terms of t.

(b) Find an equation of the tangent to C at P.

(c) Show that a cartesian equation of C is y2 = a2 ax.


The shaded region is bounded by C, the tangent at P and the x-axis. This shaded
region is rotated through 2 radians about the x-axis to form a solid of

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 2 of 2

revolution.

(d) Use calculus to calculate the volume of the solid revolution formed, giving
your answer in the form ka3, where k is an exact fraction.
Solution:
dy dy dt a sin t 1
(a) dx = dt dx = 2a sin t cos t = 2 sec t

3 1 1
(b) P is a , a , so cos t =
4 2 2

1
M= = 1
1
2
2
1 3
tangent is y 2a = 1 x 4a

5
or y= x+ 4a

x y2
(c) sin2 t + cos2 t =1 + =1
a a2

or y2 = a2 ax

(d) volume = cone 3 ay2 dx


4
a

1 1 2 5 3 a3
cone = 3 a a a =
2 4 4 24

ay2 dx 2 a
3 = a x 2 x2 3 a
4
a 4
a
3 a3
3 a 3 3 9 3
= a 2 a 32 a = 32
4
3 a3 a3
a
Volume = 32 = 96
24

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise L, Question 18

Question:

(a) Using the substitution u = 1 + 2x, or otherwise, find


4x 1
2
dx, x > 2
,
( 1 + 2x )


(b) Given that y = 4
when x = 0, solve the differential equation
dy x
( 1 + 2x ) 2 dx
=
sin2 y

Solution:

4x
(a) I = dx
( 1 + 2x ) 2
u = 1 + 2x
du
2 = dx and 4x = 2 ( u 1 )
2(u1) du
I= 2
u2
1
= u 2 du
u
1
= ln | u | + u + C
1
= ln | 1 + 2x | + 1 + 2x + C

dy x
(b) ( 1 + 2x ) 2 dx =
sin2 y
x
sin2 y dy = dx
( 1 + 2x ) 2
4x
4 sin2 y dy = dx
( 1 + 2x ) 2
( 2 2 cos 2y ) dy = I

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 2 of 2

1
2y sin 2y = ln | 1 + 2x | + 1 + 2x + C

x = 0, y = 4 2 1 = ln 1 + 1 + C

C= 2 2
1
2y sin 2y = ln | 1 + 2x | + 1 + 2x + 2 2

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise L, Question 19

Question:
1 1
The diagram shows the curve with equation y = xe2x, 2
x 2
.
1
The finite region R1 bounded by the curve, the x-axis and the line x = 2
has
area A1.
1
The finite region R2 bounded by the curve, the x-axis and the line x = 2
has area
A2.

(a) Find the exact values of A1 and A2 by integration.

(b) Show that A1: A2 = ( e 2 ) : e.

Solution:

(a) xe2x dx
du
u=x dx =1

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 2 of 2

dv 1 2x
dx = e2x v= 2e
1 2x 1 2x 1 2x 1 2x
xe2x dx = 2 xe 2 e dx = 2 xe 4e + C
1 2x 1 2x
10
A1 = xe 4e
2 2

1 1 1
= 0 4 4e 1 4e 1

1
= 1 2e 1
4
1
1 2x 1 2x
A2 = xe 4e
2
2 0
1 1 1 1 1
= e 4e 0 4
4
1
= 4

1
( 1 2e 1 )
A1 4 e2
(b) A2 = 1
= 1 2e 1 = e
4

A1: A2 = ( e 2 ) : e

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise L, Question 20

Question:

Find x2e x dx.


dy
Given that y = 0 at x = 0, solve the differential equation dx
= x2e3y x.

Solution:

I = x2e x dx
du
u = x2 dx = 2x
dv
dx =ex v= ex

I = x2e x ( e x ) 2x dx
= x2e x + 2x e x dx
J = 2xe x dx
du
u = 2x dx =2
dv
dx =ex v= ex

J = 2xe x ( e x ) 2 dx
= 2xe x 2e x + k
I = x2e x 2xe x 2e x + C

dy
dx = x2e3y x = x2e x e3y

e 3y dy = x2e x dx
1 3y
3e = x2e x 2xe x 2e x + C
1 5
x = 0, y = 0 3 = 2+ C C= 3
1 3y 5
3e = x2e x + 2xe x + 2e x 3

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise L, Question 21

Question:

The curve with equation y = e3x + 1 meets the line y = 8 at the point (h, 8).

(a) Find h, giving your answer in terms of natural logarithms.

(b) Show that the area of the finite region enclosed by the curve with
1
equation y = e3x + 1, the x-axis, the y-axis and the line x = h is 2 + 3
ln 7.

Solution:

(a) 8 = e3x + 1 7 = e3x


1 1
x= 3 ln 7, i.e. h = 3 ln 7

(b)

1
Area = 0 3 ln7y dx
1

= 0 3 ln7 e3x + 1 dx

1
1 3x ln 7
= e +x 0 3
3

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 2 of 2

1 ln 7 1 1
= e + ln 7 +0
3 3 3
1 1
= 7 + ln 7 3
3
1
= 6 + ln 7
3
1
=2+ 3 ln 7

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise L, Question 22

Question:

(a) Given that


x2 B C
A+ + ,
x2 1 x1 x+1

find the values of the constants A, B and C.

(b) Given that x = 2 at t = 1, solve the differential equation


dx 2
dt
=2 , x > 1.
x2

You need not simplify your final answer.


Solution:

x2 B C
(a) A+ +
x2 1 x1 x+1

x2 A ( x 1 ) ( x + 1 ) + B ( x + 1 ) + C(x1)
1
x=1 1 = 2B B= 2
1
x= 1 1 = 2C C= 2.

Coefficients of x2: 1=A A=1

dx ( x2 1 )
(b) =2
dt x2

x2
dx = 2 dt
x2 1

1 1
( ) ( )
2 2
1+ x1 x+1 dx = 2t

1 x1
x+ ln = 2t + C
2 x+1

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 2 of 2

1 1 1 1
x = 2, t = 1 2+ 2 ln 3 =2+ C C= 2 ln 3
1 x1 1 1
x+ ln = 2t + ln
2 x+1 2 3

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise L, Question 23

Question:

The curve C is given by the equations


x = 2t, y = t2,
where t is a parameter.

(a) Find an equation of the normal to C at the point P on C where t = 3.


The normal meets the y-axis at the point B. The finite region R is bounded by the
part of the curve C between the origin O and P, and the lines OB and OP.

(b) Show the region R, together with its boundaries, in a sketch.


The region R is rotated through 2 about the y-axis to form a solid S.

(c) Using integration, and explaining each step in your method, find the volume
of S, giving your answer in terms of .

Solution:
dy dy dt 2t
(a) dx = dt dx = 2 = t.
1
at P (6, 9) gradient of normal is 3
1 1
equation of normal is y 9 = x6 or y= 3x + 11
3

x2
(b) x = 2t, y = t2 y= 4

B is (0, 11)

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 2 of 2

(c) volume = cone + 09x2 dy


1
cone = 3 62 2 = 24

09x2 dy = t = 0t = 34t2 2t dt = 038t3 dt


= [ 2t4 ] 03 = 2 81 = 162
Volume of S = 186
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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise L, Question 24

Question:

Shown is part of the curve with equation y = e2x e x. The shaded region R is
bounded by the curve, the x-axis and the line with equation x = 1.
Use calculus to find the area of R, giving your answer in terms of e.

Solution:

Area = 01 ( e2x e x ) dx
1 2x
= e + e x 01
2
1 2 1
= e +e1 +1
2 2
1 2 2
= e + e 3
2

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise L, Question 25

Question:
dy
(a) Given that 2y = x sin x cos x, show that dx
= sin2 x.

(b) Hence find sin2 x dx.

(c) Hence, using integration by parts, find x sin2 x dx.


Solution:

(a) 2y = x sin x cos x


dy
2 =1 cos2 x + sin x sin x = 1 cos2 x + sin2 x
dx
dy
dx = sin2 x (using sin2 x = 1 cos2 x)

(b) sin2 x dx = y + C1
x 1
= 2 2 sin x cos x + C1

(c) x sin2 x dx
du
u=x dx =1
dv
= sin2 x v = b
dx
x2 1 x 1
x sin2 x dx = 2 x sin x cos x sin x cos x dx
2 2 2
x2 1 x2 1
= 2 2 x sin x cos x 4 + 4 sin 2x dx

x2 1 1
= 4 2 x sin x cos x 8 cos 2x + C2

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 1 of 2

Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise L, Question 26

Question:

The rate, in cm3 s 1, at which oil is leaking from an engine sump at any time
t seconds is proportional to the volume of oil, V cm3, in the sump at that instant.
At time t = 0, V = A.
(a) By forming and integrating a differential equation, show that
V = Ae kt
where k is a positive constant.

(b) Sketch a graph to show the relation between V and t.


1
Given further that V = 2
A at t = T,

(c) show that kT = ln 2.


Solution:
dv
(a) dt = k V
1
V dV = k dt
ln | V | = kt + C
V = A1e kt
t = 0, V = A V = Ae kt ( A1 = A )

(b)

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 2 of 2

1 1
(c) t = T, V = 2A 2A = Ae kT
ln 2 = kT
kT = ln 2
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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise L, Question 27

Question:

This graph shows part of the curve C with parametric equations


1 3
x = ( t + 1 ) 2, y = 2
t + 3, t 1.
P is the point on the curve where t = 2. The line S is the normal to C at P.

(a) Find an equation of S.


The shaded region R is bounded by C, S, the x-axis and the line with equation
x = 1.

(b) Using integration and showing all your working, find the area of R.

Solution:

3 2
t
dy dy dt 2 3t2
(a) dx = dt dx = 2(t+1) = 4(t+1)

43
At P (9, 7) gradient of normal is = 1
3 22
equation of line S is y7= 1(x9)

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 2 of 2

i.e. y = x + 16 or y + x = 16

(b) Area = x = 1x = 9y dx + area of triangle shown below

1 3
x = 1x = 9y dx = t = 0t = 2 t + 3 2 t+1 dt
2
= 02 ( t4 + t3 + 6t + 6 ) dt
1 5 1 4 6t2
= t + 4 t + 2 + 6t 02
5
32 16
= + +34+62 0
5 4
= 34.4
1
Area = 34.4 + 2 72 = 58.9

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise L, Question 28

Question:

Shown is part of the curve C with parametric equations


x = t2, y = sin 2t, t 0.
The point A is an intersection of C with the x-axis.

(a) Find, in terms of , the x-coordinate of A.


dy
(b) Find dx
in terms of t, t > 0.

(c) Show that an equation of the tangent to C at A is 4x + 2y = 2.


The shaded region is bounded by C and the x-axis.

(d) Use calculus to find, in terms of , the area of the shaded region.

Solution:

(a) At A, y = 0 sin 2t = 0 2t = 0 or t= 2
2
2
A is , 0 or , 0
2 4

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 2 of 2

dy 2 cos 2t cos 2t
(b) dx = 2t = t

cos 1 2
(c) Gradient of tangent at A is = =

( ) ( )
2 2
2
2
equation of tangent is y0= x 4

22
y = 2x + 4

or 2y + 4x = 2

(d) Area = y dx = t = 0t = 2 sin 2t 2t dt
du
u=t dt =1
dv
dt = 2 sin 2t v = cos 2t


Area = [ t cos 2t ] 0 2 0 2 cos 2t dt


1
= + 2 0 + sin 2t 0 2 =
2 2

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise L, Question 29

Question:

Showing your method clearly in each case, find

(a) sin2 x cos x dx,

(b) x ln x dx.
Using the substitution t2 = x + 1, where x > 1, t > 0,
x
(c) Find \x+1
dx.

x
(d) Hence evaluate 03 \x+1
dx.

Solution:
dy
(a) Let y = sin3 x dx = 3 sin2 x cos x
1
sin2 x cos x dx = 3 sin3 x + C

(b) x ln x dx
du 1
u = ln x dx = x
dv 1 2
dx =x v= 2x
1 2 1 2 1
x ln x dx = 2 x ln x 2x x dx
1 2 x2
= 2 x ln x 4 + C

(c) t2 = x + 1 2t dt = dx
x
I= \ x + 1 dx

t2 1
= t 2t dt

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 2 of 2

= ( 2t2 2 ) dt
2 3
= 3t 2t + C
2 3
= 3 (x+1) 2 2\ x + 1 + C
2
= 3\ x+1 x2 + C

x 2 3
(d) 03 \ x + 1 dx = x2 \x+1
3 0
2 4 8
= 2 3 = 3
3

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise L, Question 30

Question:

(a) Using the substitution u = 1 + 2x2, find x ( 1 + 2x2 ) 5 dx.



(b) Given that y = 8
at x = 0, solve the differential equation
dy
dx
= x ( 1 + 2x2 ) 5 cos2 2y.

Solution:
du
(a) u = 1 + 2x2 du = 4x dx x dx = 4

u5 u6 ( 1 + 2x2 ) 6
So x ( 1 + 2x2 ) 5 dx = 4 du = 24 + C1 = 24 + C1

dy
(b) dx = x ( 1 + 2x2 ) 5 cos2 2y

sec2 2y dy = x ( 1 + 2x2 ) 5 dx
1 ( 1 + 2x2 ) 6
2 tan 2y = 24 + C2
1 1 11
y= 8 ,x=0 2 = 24 + C2 C2 = 24

( 1 + 2x2 ) 6 11
tan 2y = 12 + 12

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise L, Question 31

Question:

Find x2 ln 2x dx.

Solution:

I = x2 ln 2x dx
du 1
u = ln 2x dx = x

dv x3
dx = x2 v= 3

x3 x3 1
I= 3 ln 2x 3 x dx

x3 x2
= 3 ln 2x 3 dx

x3 x3
= 3 ln 2x 9 + C

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise L, Question 32

Question:

Obtain the solution of


dy
x x+2 = y , y > 0, x > 0,
dx
for which y = 2 at x = 2, giving your answer in the form y2 = f ( x ) .

Solution:

dy
x x+2 =y
dx
1 1
y dy = x(x+2) dx
1 A B
x(x+2) x + x+2

1 A ( x + 2 ) + Bx
1
x=0 1 = 2A A= 2
1
x= 2 1 = 2B B= 2

1 1
( 2 ) (
2
)

So ln y = x x+2 dx

1 1
= 2 ln | x | 2 ln | x + 2 | + C
kx 1
y=\ C = 2 ln k
x+2
2k
x = 2, y = 2 2=\ 4 42=k
8x 8x
y=\ x+2 or y2 = x+2

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 2 of 2

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise L, Question 33

Question:

(a) Use integration by parts to show that


1 1
0 4 x sec2 x dx = 4
2
ln 2.
1
The finite region R, bounded by the curve with equation y = x 2 sec x, the line

x= 4
and the x-axis is shown. The region R is rotated through 2 radians about
the x-axis.

(b) Find the volume of the solid of revolution generated.


1
(c) Find the gradient of the curve with equation y = x 2 sec x at the point where

x= 4
.

Solution:

(a) I = 0 4 x sec2 x dx

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 2 of 2

du
u=x dx =1
dv
dx = sec2 x v = tan x

I = [ x tan x ] 0 4 0 4 tan x dx


= 0 [ ln | sec x | ] 0 4
4

= ln 2 ln 1
4
1
= 4 2 ln 2


(b) V = 0 2
4 y dx = 0 4 x sec2 x dx
2
Using (a) V= 4 2 ln 2 = 1.38 (3 s.f.)

dy 1 1 1
(c) dx = 2x
2 sec x + x 2 sec x tan x
dy 1 2 2
At x = 4 dx = 2 2+ 2 21=\ +\ 2 = 2.05 (3
s.f.)
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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Integration
Exercise L, Question 34

Question:

Part of the design of a stained glass window is shown. The two loops enclose an
area of blue glass. The remaining area within the rectangle ABCD is red glass.
The loops are described by the curve with parametric equations
x = 3 cos t, y = 9 sin 2t, 0 t < 2.

(a) Find the cartesian equation of the curve in the form y2 = f ( x ) .

(b) Show that the shaded area enclosed by the curve and the x-axis, is given by

0 2 A sin 2t sin t dt, stating the value of the constant A.

(c) Find the value of this integral.


The sides of the rectangle ABCD are the tangents to the curve that are parallel to
the coordinate axes. Given that 1 unit on each axis represents 1 cm,

(d) find the total area of the red glass.

Solution:

(a) x = 3 cos t
y = 9 sin 2t y = 18 cos t sin t
y = 6x sin t

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x y
cos t = 3, sin t = 6x

x2 y2
cos2 t + sin2 t =1 + =1
9 36x2

i.e. 4x4 + y2 = 36x2


or y2 = 4x2 ( 9 x2 )

(b)

Area = y dx
t = 09 sin 2t
= t= 3 sin t dt
2

= 27 0 2 sin 2t sin t dt


(c) 27 0 2 sin 2t sin t dt = 54 0 2 sin2 t cos t dt
3
54 sin t
= 2
3 0
= ( 18 1 ) ( 0 )
= 18

(d) Area of blue glass is 18 4 = 72

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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 3 of 3

Area of rectangle = 108


Area of red glass = 108 72 = 36 cm2
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