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Play safe!

In this first learning activity of English Dot Works 5, you will learn about
vocabulary related to health problems and safety, reflexive pronouns, giving
advice and describe rules.

Fuente: SENA

Introductory material

Dear learner,

This material will help you study the topics related to learning activity 1.

You will learn about:

1. Vocabulary to express health problems and safety.


2. How to use reflexive pronouns.
3. How to give advice and describe rules.

Lets begin!

1. Vocabulary to express health problems and safety

A. Richard is taking a personality quiz How much do you know about first
aid knowledge? Look at his answers and calculate his score.
How much do you know about first aid knowledge?

Fuente: SENA

1. Your brother has a terrible headache. You

a. Call your mother.


b. Give him an aspirin.
c. Take him to the doctor.

2. Your nose is bleeding. You

a. Ask for help.


b. Wash your nose.
c. Put your head back.

3. Your friend has burned a finger with a hot pot. You

a. Call an ambulance.
b. Put his finger under cold water.
c. Rub some oil on it.

4. You have a black eye. You

a. Take a nap.
b. Put ice on it.
c. Wear sunglasses.

Note:

If most of the answers are (a) it means you need to go deeper on this
subject.
If most of the answers are (b) it means you have basic knowledge about first
aid.
If most of the answers are (c) it means you know how to provide first aid.
Here is a list of health problems that will help you describe aches and pains:

an allergy To get a bruise sick


an earache To lose ones sad
voice
a toothache To break ones terrible
arm
the flu To twist ones well
More health ankle
I have a stomachache To hurt I feel dizzy
conditions
a backache To swell
a burn To faint
a sore throat To suffer from
chicken pox To sneeze
a rash
an injury

Now Richard has some serious symptoms, so he goes to the hospital. The
doctor gave him a prescription to buy some medicine.

Fuente: SENA

When Richard arrives to the drugstore he can see other patients are asking for
medical treatments as well, there is a long line and he has to wait. He is
texting Johana for killing the time.
Fuente de imgenes: SENA

B. Johanas brother almost had a terrible accident at home this morning. Her
uncle Javier forgot to unplug the electrical razor so Cristian was playing with
it, luckily Johana was close and she put the electrical razor out of Cristians
reach. Johanas family decided to make a checklist and identify safety
problems at home in order to avoid accidents. Safety first! The house was
categorized into six areas and possible risks in each of them were
identified.

This is the safety checklist:


Kitchen Living areas
Put matches, lighters, knives, scissors Remove breakable objects such
and dangerous objects away from as, glasses, vases, cups,
children reach. mirrors, etc., or keep them out of
reach.
Use a child-proof locks on the oven and Cover sharp edges on furniture
cupboards doors. and counters.
Tie plastic bags in the middle and keep Protect glass doors with safety
them out of childrens reach. films.
Keep drawers locked. Keep hot drinks out of childrens
reach.
Bathroom Garden or open areas
Keep medicines locked and out of Supervise children all the time
childrens reach. when they play outside.
Store shampoo, cosmetics and soaps Use child-proof locks on car
in a locked cupboard or out of reach. doors.
Put child-proof locks on the toilets and Make children wear a helmet and
bathrooms doors. protective gear when riding a
bike.
Place a non-slip mat in your bathroom. Keep tools out of reach.
Remove all cleaning chemicals and Store poison substances and
cleaning products from the bathroom chemicals out of children reach.
floor.
Keep dryers and electrical razors Remove keys from cars.
unplugged.
Laundry Electricity
Store cleaners, detergents and bleach Install a circuit breaker or an
out of reach. electrical safety switch to
prevent electrocution.
Empty buckets when they are not in Cover outlets which are not in
use. use.
Keep front loading machines closed. Check appliances cords and
keep them in good conditions.

2. How to use reflexive pronouns

An emergency can be avoided if we think about safety. Read the following


article Keeping children safe at home.
Fuente: SENA

Children could have accidents if adults do not guarantee a safe environment at


home. Kids are curious. When they explore to try to know how things work, they
can place themselves in danger. They can hurt themselves, so adults have the
responsibility to keep them safe.

Put sharp objects out of childrens reach. They could cut themselves.
Never let children play with lighters or matches. They can burn themselves.
Lock doors and drawers, kids can hurt themselves.
Store chemicals and cleaning products away from children, they can poison
themselves.
Cover plugs when they are not in use. Children could give themselves an
electrical shock.

We can see in the examples the reflexive pronoun themselves. In these first
examples, reflexive pronouns are used to show that the person doing the action
and the person receiving the action are the same. As you can see, reflexive
pronouns go after the main verb in the sentence:
Pronoun Reflexive pronoun
I Myself
You Yourself
She Herself
He Himself
It Itself
They Themselves
We Ourselves

The following situations clarify the use of reflexive pronouns:

I hit myself with my left hand. He cut himself while cooking.

They are taking pictures of themselves. He is a big boy. He dresses himself.

Fuente de imgenes: SENA

3. How to give advice and describe rules

A. New parents are excited and confused when their child is a baby. But these
feelings disappear as they learn more information and gain experience
caring for children. Read the following e-mail a new mom wrote to her own
mother asking for advice. She is overwhelmed. She is looking for advice
about dealing with her new role. She is also trying to keep her marriage
safe. It is a hard moment in life for many people, but asking your own
parents for advice seem the best solution for new parents.
Fuente de imgenes: SENA

Expressing advice requires the modal verb should. Look at the examples from
the text:

You should hire a babysitter because you need time to get better.
Your husband should help you with the baby.
You should keep a balance among family and your personal needs.

Keep in mind:

Pronoun Affirmative Negative form Interrogative form


form
I I
You You
She She
should + main shouldnt + He Main verb +
He Should
verb main verb complement
It It
They They
We We
Examples:

I should work harder.


They shouldnt drink wine.
Should he quit smoking?

B. Living in a safe house does not mean we will not have any accidents. It is
important to know what we have to and must do.
Modal verb have to express obligation
Pronoun Past form Present form Future form
I have to do not (dont)
have to
You have to do not (dont)
have to
She has to does not
(doesnt) have
to
He did not has to does not will not
had will have
(didnt) (doesnt) have (wont)
to to
have to to have to
It has to does not
(doesnt) have
to
They have to do not (dont)
have to
We have to do not (dont)
have to

In terms of safety parents:

They have to keep their homes safe.


They have to lock doors and drawers.
They have to keep chemicals out of reach.

What about babysitters?

They have to supervise children all the time.


They have to check children wear helmet and protective gear.
They have to hold childrens hands in the street.

The modal verb must is an expression of obligation.


Pronoun Affirmative Negative form Interrogative form
form
I I
You You
She She
Must + main Mustnt + main He Main verb +
He Must
verb verb complement
It It
They They
We We

A mom is explaining to her child about safety:

You mustnt put your fingers in the plug.


You must ask for help when you need something out of your reach.
You mustnt play with knives.

Contextualization

Listen to the conservation between Richard and Johana.

I dont feel Why?


well.
I have a
headache and I
just feel sick in You should go
general. to the doctor.

I know, but I Umm let me


have my final think What
biology test about some
tomorrow. I chicken broth?
have to study. That might make
you feel better.
Thats a great
idea, but I
dont feel well
enough to I will cook
cook. for you.

Thanks Johana.
You are an
excellent friend. Its no
problem.
But my
biology test is You should try
still a to rest and get
problem better.

You have to
organize your
time. How much
I know but I
dont want time would you
need for
to fail.
studying?
Its 2: 00 p.m.
If I feel well, I
you should sleep
would need
until 4: 00 p.m.
three or four
and then study till
hours.
9: 00 p.m.

Im going to the
movies at 3:00
Yeah. I have no p.m. so Ill leave
choice. I should you the chicken
go to bed now. broth on the
stove.
Thanks again.
Once I get up
I will have my
Rest and
chicken soup.
get better.

Fuente de imgenes: SENA

Comprehension

A. Read the conversation again. Select true or false about the statements.

Statements True False

Johana is sick.

Richard has to study for a test.

Richard likes chicken.

Johana is upset.

Richard feels well.

Johana is going to the library.

Johana hates cooking.

Richard has an earache.


Richard is going to study right now.

Johana cares about her friend.

B. Complete the sentences with the words from the box.

rest / should / headache / have to / sick / well

1. I dont feel __________.


2. I have a __________.
3. I feel __________.
4. You __________ go to the doctor.
5. You should try to __________ and get better.
6. You __________ organize your time.

Practice 1

A. Match the word to the image.

1. Backache
2. Headache

3. Sore throat

4. Stomachache

5. Earache
6. Toothache

7. Mosquito bite

8. The flu

Fuente de imgenes: SENA

B. Complete the following words related to health problems.

Example: C o l d

1. C_ _g_.
2. _lack eye.
3. A_c_d_n_.
4. I _ _ u _.
5. _ orethroat.
6. _ever.
7. _ hickenpox.
8. _ leeding.
9. S_ fety.
10. _ urnt.

C. Match the words from the boxes to the formats.

1.

she cannot breathe well / Maria / sore throat

Fuente: SENA
2.

she has high temperature / Rose


/ fever

Fuente: SENA
3.

his ankle is swollen / Peter /


twisted ankle

Fuente: SENA
4.

he has high temperature and he is


sneezing / Carlos / the flu

Fuente: SENA

D. Match the safety tips in the box with the area they belong to. There are two
tips per category.
Use child-proof locks on car doors. / Protect glass doors with safety films. /
Keep dryers and electrical razors unplugged. / Children wear a helmet and
protective gear when riding a bike. / Use a child-proof locks on oven and
cupboards doors. / Remove breakable objects such as, glasses, vases, cups,
mirrors, etc. / Tie plastic bags in the middle and keep them out of childrens
reach. / Keep medicines locked and out of childrens reach.

Safety tips
Garden or open
Kitchen Bathroom Living areas
areas

E. Match the images to the safety tips.

1. Store shampoo, cosmetics and soaps in a locked


cupboard or out of reach.

2. Put matches, lighters, knives, scissors and dangerous


objects away from children reach.
3. Cover sharp edges on furniture and counters.

4. Store poison substances and chemicals out of


children reach.

Fuente de imgenes: SENA

F. Match the sentences in column A with the correct half in column B.

Column A Column B
I have a rash.
1. Go to an otorhinolaryngologist.

I have a broken leg.


2. Put some ice on it.

Her lip is swollen.


3. Call an ambulance.

He doesnt see very well. 4. Make an appointment with the


optometrist.
He has an earache.
5. Put some cream on it.

G. Complete the sentences using the correct reflexive pronoun.

1. You can cut ________.


2. He hurt ________.
3. She burned ________.
4. They are enjoying ________.
5. I did it by ________.
6. We are making money for ________.

Practice 2

A. Organize the sentences and match them with the correct picture.

1.

swollen / face is / go to / Your / you / dentist. /


the/ should

_________________________

2.

eat / should / anymore! / You / not

_________________________

3.

hurts! / lift / Your / You / that! / back /


shouldnt

_________________________
4.

s
should / You / go to / that ear. / the / to /
check / doctor
_________________________

5.

Martha, / take an / aspirin / you / headache. /


should / for that

_________________________

Fuente de imgenes: SENA

B. Complete these conversations using should or shouldnt.

Example:

A: Hi Sara! You look awful. Is everything all right?


B: Not really. I have a terrible headache!
A: Oh no! You should take an aspirin.

1.

A: Whats the problem Daniel?


B: I twisted my ankle!
A: Really? You _________ put some ice on it.

2.

A: What are you doing?


B: I burned my hand. I will put it under water.
A: No, you _________ do that. You _________ cover it with a cold cloth to
avoid blisters.
3.

A: Whats up Carlos? Whats wrong with your arm?


B: I was bitten by a mosquito this morning. I cant stop scratching myself!
A: Carlos, you _________ scratch a mosquito bite. It will get swollen! You
_________ go to the doctor instead.

4.

A: Hi Claudia!
B: Hello, Andres.
A: Oh! Whats wrong with your voice?
B: I have had a sore throat for a week now!
A: You _________ try some hot water, lemon and honey to soothe it.

5.

A: Achoo!
B: Bless you! Are you sick?
A: Yeah. I have had a cold for a couple of days, and I think its turning into
the flu! Im taking pills, but they dont seem to work.
B: You _________ take pills when you have a cold. They simply dont work.
You_________ drink lots of water and get plenty of rest. Thats the best
remedy.

C. Complete the correct form of have to into the gaps.

have to / has to / dont have to / doesnt have to / had to / will have to

Example: A nurse has to help sick people.

1. What!!! Today is the first of August!!! I ________pay the phone bill.


2. My father ________wear a uniform to school when he was a boy.
3. I havent finished the report yet. I ________work long hours today.
4. My sister ________pay rent. She still lives with my parents!
5. I ________study today. I am on vacation!

D. Complete the gaps using one of the following options: should, must,
mustnt, have to or dont have to.

Example: She doesn't have to go to bed until 8 o'clock.

1. I'm sorry madam, but you ________ smoke in here.


2. The train goes at 8:00 a.m., so we ________ leave home at 7:45 a.m.
3. Today's a holiday, so I ________ go to work.
4. You ________ watch the film.
5. Liz started school today. She ________ wear a uniform: a blue skirt and
jumper.
6. You ________ use your mobile phone when the plane is landing.
7. Harry's on holiday, so he ________ get up early.
8. We ________ take a bus to the airport. Im tired of walking.
9. If you have a headache, you ________ rest in a dark room.
10. Children ________ obey their parents.

E. Complete the gaps using one of the following options: should or must.

Example: I feel sick. You should see a doctor.

1. Her job is very demanding and stressful. She ________ ask for
vacations.
2. If you want to lose weight, you ________ eat more vegetables.
3. We ________ pay the credit card bill today.
4. Anne has poor eyesight. She ________ wear glasses.
5. My refrigerator is empty. I ________ go to the supermarket.

F. Organize the words to make sentences.

Example: well / I / feel / dont

I dont feel well

1. rest / stay / You / home / at / need / to / and


__________________________________

2. throat / has / sore / She / a


__________________________________

3. headache / has / terrible / he / a


__________________________________

4. killing / me / backache / This / is


__________________________________

5. twisted / ankle / My / is
__________________________________
Pronunciation practice

Note: This practice must be completed using the multimedia version of the study
material. There you will find the corresponding sound files.

A. Look at the transcription of the following words. Write the words.

Note: The symbol represents the stressed syllable. If the word


has three or more syllables, a secondary stress can also appear.

For example:

careful complicated
kerfl kmplket d

Transcription Word Transcription Word


tknpks wilter
bkek prskrpn
lt r nvz
rselvz hir
swoln bkt

Now, go to the multimedia, listen to the words and check how they sound. Then,
practice pronouncing them.

tknpks wilter
Chicken pox Wheelchair
bkek prskrpn
Backache Prescription
lt r nvz
Lighter Knives
rselvz hir
Ourselves Hire
swoln bkt
Swollen Bucket

B. Go to the multimedia and click on each of the following words to listen to


them. Then, select the word with the different stress pattern.

Move Go Travel See

Itself Headache Bleeding Razor

Allergy Injury Mosquito Stomachache

Reflexive Safety Prescription Decision

Themselves Injury Machine Pronoun

Sneeze Sharp Dryer Cane

Helmet Himself Loading Toothache

C. Go to the multimedia and listen to the following sentences. Select the word
that has been pronounced with a weak form.

Note: There can be more than one weak form in a sentence.

You shouldnt take pills when you have a cold.


Johana has a terrible headache.
Remember to put sharp objects out of childrens reach.
You must not put your fingers in the plug.
I have a headache and I just feel sick in general.
Marta, you should take an aspirin for that headache.
Whats wrong with your voice?
You should try to rest and get better.
She has a high temperature.
I have a broken leg.
Be careful. You can cut yourself.
We are making money for ourselves.
You should not eat anymore!
Your face is swollen. You should go to the dentist.
Now, listen and repeat. Try to imitate the natural rhythm of English by
weakening the highlighted words in each sentence. Remember, practice makes
perfect.

You shouldnt take pills when you have a cold.


Johana has a terrible headache.
Remember to put sharp objects out of childrens reach.
You must not put your fingers in the plug.
I have a headache and I just feel sick in general.
Marta, you should take an aspirin for that headache.
Whats wrong with your voice?
You should try to rest and get better.
She has a high temperature.
I have a broken leg.
Be careful. You can cut yourself.
We are making money for ourselves.
You should not eat anymore!
Your face is swollen. You should go to the dentist.

Document control

Name Position Dependence Date

Theme expert Direccin de


Johana Mndez Asesora English Dot Formacin October
Author
Sarmiento Works - Programa Profesional. 2014
de bilingismo Direccin General

Centro
Rachman Copy editor Lnea November
Adaptation Agroindustrial.
Bustillo Martnez de produccin 2014
Regional Quindo