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ACADEMIC

DEPT. CODE & CLASS SEMESTER

YEAR

NAME

VERIFIED

S.NO. CONTENT BY REMARKS

(INITIAL)

1. Time Table

2. Students Name List

3 Subject Information Record

4. Syllabus

5. Lesson Plan

6. Test plan for Subject

7. Assignment

8. Test marks Statement

9. Result Analysis / Corrective Action Plan

10. Quality Objective Monitoring Details

11. Int. Assessment question papers with Answer Key

12. Sample Answer Papers

13. Content beyond the Syllabus

14. Tutorial Class Schedule & Content (if any)

15. PPT (sample)Handouts given/used

16. Question Bank

17. University Question Papers (5 years)

18. Personal Log Book

19. Lecture Notes

charge Co-Ordinator

INDIVIDUAL TIME TABLE

Designation :AP Year: 2015-2016

Semester : Odd CLASS TIME TABLE

Academic Year: 2016-2017

Department: MECH w.e.f : 04- 07-2016

Class : II BE MECH A Semester: Odd

9.00 10.40 12.35 3.00

a.m. 9.05 9.50 a.m. 11.00 p.m. 1.20 p.m. 3.15 4.00

to a.m. a.m. to a.m. 11.50 a.m. to p.m. 2.10 p.m. to p.m. p.m.

DAY/ 9.05 11.00 1.20 3.15

to to to to to to to to

TIME a.m a.m. p.m p.m

9.50 10.40 11.50 12.35 p.m. 2.10 3.00p.m. 4.00 4.45

a.m. a.m. a.m. p.m. p.m. p.m.

MONDAY ETD

TUESDAY ETD

LUNCH

BREAK

PRAYER

BREAK

WEDNESDAY ETD

THURSDAY ETD

FRIDAY

No. of

Subject Year / Branch /

S.No. Name of the Subject Periods /

Code Section

Week

1 ME6301 Engineering Thermodynamics II-MECH A 4

Total 4

Sign:

Time Table Coordinator HOD Principal

STUDENTS NAMELIST

BATCH :2015-2016 CLASS: Mechanical B

2 AJITH KUMAR.A 713415114001

3 AJITH KUMAR.T 713415114002

4 ANES.S 713415114003

5 ARAVIND N 713415114004

6 ARAVIND KUMAR.S 713415114005

7 ARUN KUMAR.N 713415114006

8 ARUNKUMAR.T 713415114007

9 BALAMUGESH

KANNAN 713415114008

10 BAVANESH.G 713415114009

11 BHARATHI R 713415114010

12 DARNISH.R 713415114011

13 DHEENA DAYALAN.S 713415114012

14 DHINAKARAN.D 713415114013

15 DINAGAR.D 713415114014

16 DINESH KUMAR.M 713415114015

17 DINESHKUMAR.V 713415114016

18 EBEESH 713415114017

19 ELANGO.P 713415114018

20 ELAVARASAN.G 713415114019

21 ESSAKIKANAGARAJ.S 713415114020

22 GOPALA KRISHNAN 713415114021

23 GOKULAKRISHNAN.P 713415114022

24 GURUPRASATH.J 713415114023

25 HARIHARAN.S(17/04/98) 713415114024

26 HARIHARAN.S(22/07/98) 713415114025

27 HARIHARAN.V 713415114026

28 IVAN PRATHAP 713415114027

29 JAGADEESH.K 713415114028

30 JOJI PHILIPOSE 713415114029

31 KABILAN K 713415114030

32 KANNAN KUMAR.P 713415114031

33 KARTHIK.E 713415114032

34 KATHIRESAN.G 713415114033

35 KAVIYARASAN.K 713415114034

36 MICHEL JAMAXSON.M 713415114035

37 MOHAMED AZHRUDIN 713415114036

38 MOHAMMED JAVED.J 713415114037

39 MOHAMMED

SUPAIYAR.M 713415114038

40 MOHAMMED UMAR

ALI 713415114039

41 MOHANKUMAR.M 713415114040

42 NAVEEN KUMAR.M 713415114042

43 NAVEEN KUMAR.R 713415114043

44 NAVEEN KUMAR.S 713415114044

45 LENZING JOMRANG.T 713415114302

46 MOHAN RAJ.V 713415114303

Prepared By Approved By

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Name

Faculty HOD

SUBJECT INFORMATION RECORD

Year : 2016-2017

Semester : 03

applications)

Prepared By Approved By

Sign

Name

Faculty HOD

ME6301 ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS LTPC

3003

OBJECTIVES:

To familiarize the students to understand the fundamentals of thermodynamics and to perform

thermal analysis on their behavior and performance.

(Use of Standard and approved Steam Table, Mollier Chart, Compressibility Chart and

Psychrometric Chart permitted)

UNIT I BASIC CONCEPTS AND FIRST LAW 9

Basic concepts - concept of continuum, comparison of microscopic and macroscopic approach.

Path and point functions. Intensive and extensive, total and specific quantities. System and their types.

Thermodynamic Equilibrium State, path and process. Quasi-static, reversible and irreversible

processes. Heat and work transfer, definition and comparison, sign convention. Displacement work and

other modes of work .P-V diagram. Zeroth law of thermodynamics concept of temperature and

thermal equilibrium relationship between temperature scales new temperature scales. First law of

thermodynamics application to closed and open systems steady and unsteady flow processes.

UNIT II SECOND LAW AND AVAILABILITY ANALYSIS 9

Heat Reservoir, source and sink. Heat Engine, Refrigerator, Heat pump. Statements of second

law and its corollaries. Carnot cycle Reversed Carnot cycle, Performance. Clausius inequality. Concept

of entropy, T- s diagram, Tds Equations, entropy change for - pure substance, ideal gases - different

processes, principle of increase in entropy. Applications of II Law. High and low grade energy.

Available and non- available energy of a source and finite body. Energy and irreversibility.

Expressions for the energy of a closed system and open systems. Energy balance and entropy

generation. Irreversibility. I and II law Efficiency.

UNIT III PROPERTIES OF PURE SUBSTANCE AND STEAM POWER CYCLE 9

Formation of steam and its thermodynamic properties, p-v, p-T, T- v, T-s, h- s diagrams. p- v-T

surface. Use of Steam Table and Mollier Chart. Determination of dryness fraction. Application of I and

II law for pure substances. Ideal and actual Rankine cycles, Cycle Improvement Methods - Reheat and

Regenerative cycles, Economiser , preheater, Binary and Combined cycles.

UNIT IV IDEAL AND REAL GASES, THERMODYNAMIC RELATIONS 9

Properties of Ideal gas- Ideal and real gas comparison- Equations of state for ideal and real

gases-Reduced properties-.Compressibility factor-.Principle of Corresponding states. -Generalised

Compressibility Chart and its use-. Maxwell relations, Tds Equations, Difference and ratio of heat

capacities, Energy equation, Joule-Thomson Coefficient, Clausius Clapeyron equation, Phase

Change Processes. Simple Calculations.

UNIT V GAS MIXTURES AND PSYCHROMETRY 9

Mole and Mass fraction, Daltons and Amagats Law. Properties of gas mixture Molar

mass, gas constant, density, change in internal energy, enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs function.

Psychrometric properties, Psychrometric charts. Property calculations of air vapour mixtures by

using chart and expressions. Psychrometric process adiabatic saturation, sensible heating and

cooling, humidification, dehumidification, evaporative cooling and adiabatic mixing. Simple

Applications

TOTAL : 45

PERIODS

OUTCOMES:

Upon completion of this course, the students can able to apply the Thermodynamic

Principles to Mechanical Engineering Application.

Apply mathematical fundamentals to study the properties of steam, gas and gas mixtures.

TEXT BOOKS :

1. Nag.P.K., Engineering Thermodynamics, 4thEdition, Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi,

2008.

2. Natarajan E., "Engineering Thermodynamics: Fundamentals and Applications",

Anuragam Publications, 2012.

REFERENCES :

1. Cengel. Y and M.Boles, "Thermodynamics - An Engineering Approach", 7th Edition,

Tata McGraw Hill, 2010.

2. Holman.J.P., "Thermodynamics", 3rd Edition, McGraw-Hill, 1995.

3. Rathakrishnan. E., "Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics", 2nd Edition,

Prentice-Hall of India Pvt. Ltd, 2006

4. Chattopadhyay, P, "Engineering Thermodynamics", Oxford University Press, 2010.

5. Arora C.P, Thermodynamics, Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, 2003.

6. Van Wylen and Sonntag, Classical Thermodynamics, Wiley Eastern, 1987

7. Venkatesh. A, Basic Engineering Thermodynamics, Universities Press (India) Limited,

2007.

8. Kau-Fui Vincent Wong, "Thermodynamics for Engineers", CRC Press, 2010 Indian

Reprint.

9. Prasanna Kumar: Thermodynamics "Engineering Thermodynamics" Pearson Education,

2013

DEPARMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Semester : III Class: II YEAR -MECH-A Sec

Academic Year: 2016-2017- Odd Semester

LESSON PLAN

Method of No. of Book to be

Sl.No. Topic

Instruction Periods referred

UNIT-I BASIC CONCEPTS AND FIRST LAW

1 Basic concepts - concept of continuum Black board 1 T1

comparison of microscopic and macroscopic 1

2 Black board T1

approach. Path and point functions

Intensive and extensive, total and specific quantities. 1

3 Black board T1

System and their types

1

4 Thermodynamic Equilibrium State, path and process. Black board T1& R2

1

5 Quasi-static, reversible and irreversible processes.. Black board T1

Heat and work transfer, definition and comparison, 1

6 Black board T1

sign convention.

Displacement work and other modes of work .P-V PPT & 1

7 T1

diagram Black board

Zeroth law of thermodynamics concept of 1

8 Black board T1

temperature and thermal equilibrium

relationship between temperature scales new PPT &Black 1 T1

9

temperature scales. board

PPT &Black 1 T1

10 First law of thermodynamics

board

application to closed and open systems PPT& Black 1 T1

11

board

Unit I 11

Heat Reservoir, source and sink 1

1 Black board T1

Heat Engine, Refrigerator, Heat pump PPT &Black 1

2 T1

board

Statements of second law and its corollaries. 1

3 Black board T1

Carnot cycle Reversed Carnot cycle, Performance 1

4 Black board T1& R3

Clausius inequality. Concept of entropy, T- s 1

5 Black board T1

diagram, Tds Equations

entropy change for - pure substance PPT &Black 1

6 T1

board

ideal gases - different processes, principle of increase 1

7 Black board T1, T2 & R1

in entropy. Applications of II Law

High and low grade energy. Available and non- 1

8 Black board T1

available energy of a source and finite body

Energy and irreversibility 1

9 Black board T1

Expressions for the energy of a closed system and PPT& Black 1

10 T1

open systems board

Energy balance and entropy generation. 1

11 Black board

Irreversibility. I and II law Efficiency.

Unit II 11

Formation of steam and its thermodynamic 1

1 Black board R1

properties, p-v, p-T, T- v, T-s, h- s diagrams

1

2 p- v-T surface Black board R1

Black 1

3 Use of Steam Table and Mollier Chart R1

board&PPT

Determination of dryness fraction. Application of I 1

4 Black board R1

and II law for pure substances.

Ideal and actual Rankine cycles, Cycle Improvement 1

5 Black board R1

Methods

1

6 Reheat and Regenerative cycles Black board R1

1

7 Economiser, preheater, Binary and Combined cycles. Black board R1

1

8 p- v-T surface Black board R1

Formation of steam and its thermodynamic 1 T1

9 PPT& Videos

properties, p-v, p-T, T- v, T-s, h- s diagrams

PPT& Black 1 T1

10 Tutorial sec-1

board

PPT& Black 1 T1

11 Revision & University QP Discussion

board

Unit III 11

1

1 Properties of Ideal gas- Ideal and real gas comparison Black board R1

Equations of state for ideal and real gases-Reduced 1

2 Black board R1

properties

Compressibility factor-.Principle of Corresponding Black 1

3 R1

states. -Generalised Compressibility Chart and its use board&PPT

1

4 Maxwell relations, Black board R1

Tds Equations Difference and ratio of heat capacities, 1

5 Black board R1

Energy equation

1

6 Joule-Thomson Coefficient Black board R1

1

7 Clausius Clapeyron equation Black board R1

1

8 Phase Change Processes. Simple Calculations. Black board R1

1 T1

9 Properties of Ideal gas- Ideal and real gas comparison Black board

PPT& Black 1 T1

10 Revision & University QP Discussion

board

Unit IV 10

UNIT V GAS MIXTURES AND PSYCHROMETRY

1 Mole and Mass fraction, Daltons and Amagats Law Black board 1 R2

Properties of gas mixture Molar mass, gas constant,

1

2 density, change in internal energy, enthalpy, entropy Black board R1

and Gibbs function

Psychrometric properties, Psychrometric charts 1

3 Black board R1,R2

Property calculations of air vapour mixtures by using 1

4 Black board R1,R2

chart and expressions

Psychrometric process adiabatic saturation,

1

5 sensible heating and cooling, humidification, Black board R1

dehumidification

Evaporative cooling and adiabatic mixing. Simple Black

6 1 R1

Applications board&PPT

7 Tutorial Sec-1 Black board 1 R1

Revision & University QP Discussion PPT& Black

8 1 T1

board

Unit V 09

Total Hours: 46[Lecture] +5[Revision] =51

TEXT BOOKS :

1. Nag.P.K., Engineering Thermodynamics, 4thEdition, Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, 2008.

2. Natarajan E., "Engineering Thermodynamics: Fundamentals and Applications", Anuragam

Publications, 2012.

REFERENCES :

1. Cengel. Y and M.Boles, "Thermodynamics - An Engineering Approach", 7th Edition, Tata

McGraw Hill, 2010.

2. Holman.J.P., "Thermodynamics", 3rd Edition, McGraw-Hill, 1995.

3. Rathakrishnan. E., "Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics", 2nd Edition, Prentice-

Hall of India Pvt. Ltd, 2006

4. Chattopadhyay, P, "Engineering Thermodynamics", Oxford University Press, 2010.

5. Arora C.P, Thermodynamics, Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, 2003.

6. Van Wylen and Sonntag, Classical Thermodynamics, Wiley Eastern, 1987

TEST PLAN FOR SUBJECT

Subject : ME6301 ENGINEERNG THERMODYNAMICS Faculty :

Semester : III Year: II

Actual

S. Planned

Description Conducted Remarks

No. Date/Month

Date / Month

2 Internal Test I 04-08-2016 04-08-2016 Nil

Prepared By Approved By

Sign

Name

Faculty HOD

MARK STATEMENT

MARK OUT OF 100

S. NO. REG. NO. STUDENT NAME

INT -I INT -II MODEL

1 713415114001 AJITH KUMAR.A 32 82 59

3 713415114003 ANES.S 50 78 63

4 713415114004 ARAVIND N 36 50 0

7 713415114007 ARUNKUMAR.T 20 52 38

9 713415114009 BAVANESH.G AB AB AB

10 713415114010 BHARATHI R 56 92 AB

11 713415114011 DARNISH.R 04 20 03

13 713415114013 DHINAKARAN.D 98 92 85

14 713415114014 DINAGAR.D 62 70 63

16 713415114016 DINESHKUMAR.V 34 20 AB

17 713415114017 EBEESH AB AB AB

18 713415114018 ELANGO.P 94 96 74

19 713415114019 ELAVARASAN.G 04 86 31

20 713415114020 ESSAKIKANAGARAJ.S 64 66 65

22 713415114022 GOKULAKRISHNAN.P 52 70 51

23 713415114023 GURUPRASATH.J 32 38 19

24 713415114024 HARIHARAN.S(17/04/98) 24 40 21

25 713415114025 HARIHARAN.S(22/07/98) 16 50 AB

26 713415114026 HARIHARAN.V 66 66 61

28 713415114028 JAGADEESH.K 62 76 58

30 713415114030 KABILAN K 42 72 64

32 713415114032 KARTHIK.E 78 76 68

33 713415114033 KATHIRESAN.G 40 AB 54

34 713415114034 KAVIYARASAN.K 54 72 53

40 713415114040 MOHANKUMAR.M 44 AB 54

47 47 47

Total no. of students

39 46 46

No.of students attended

31 20 41

No.of students passed

Pass percentage 79 56 85

Prepared By Approved By

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Name

Faculty HOD

QUALITY OBJECTIVE MONITORING RECORD

Year :2016-2017

Semester :03

Quality

S.No.

Objective Expecting Obtained Expecting Obtained Expecting Obtained Expecting Obtained

result result result result Result result Result result

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ME6301- ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS

QUESTION BANK

UNIT-I

BASIC CONCEPT & FIRST LAW

PART A (2 marks)

1. Define the term thermal engineering.

Thermal engineering is the science that deals with the energy transfer to practical

applications such as energy transfer power generation, refrigeration, gas compression and its

effect on the properties of working substance.

2. What is meant by thermodynamic system? How do you classify it? (MU Oct99,

Apr2000: BRU Apr96; MSU Apr96)

Thermodynamic system is defined as the any space or matter or group of matter

where the energy transfer or energy conversions are studied.

It may be classified into three types.

(a) Open system

(b) Closed system

(c) Isolated system

When a system has only heat and work transfer, but there is no mass transfer, it is

called as closed system.

Example: Piston and cylinder arrangement.

4. Define a open system, Give an example.

When a system has both mass and energy transfer it is called as open system.

Example: Air Compressor.

6. Define an isolated system

Isolated system is not affected by surroundings. There is no heat, work and mass

transfer take place. In this system total energy remains constant. Example: Entire

Universe

7. Define: Specific heat capacity at constant pressure. (MU Oct99)

It isdefined as the amount of heat energy required to raise or lower the temperature of

unit mass of the substance through one degree when the pressure kept constant. It is denoted

by Cp.

8. Define: Specific heat capacity at constant volume.

it is defined as the amount of heat energy required to raise or lower the temperature of

unit mass of the substance through one degree when volume kept constant.

9. What is meant by surroundings?

Any other matter out side the system boundary is called as surroundings.

10. What is boundary?

System and surroundings are separated by an imaginary line is called boundary.

11. What is meant by thermodynamic property? (MU Apr2001; BRU Nov96;

BNU Nov94)

Thermodynamic property is any characteristic of a substance which is used to

identify the state of the system and can be measured, when the system remains in an

equilibrium state.

12. How do you classify the property?

Thermodynamic property can be classified into two types.

1. Intensive or Intrinsic and

2. Extensive and Extrinsic property.

13. Define Intensive and Extensive properties. (MU Oct96,98; MKU Apr96)

The properties which are independent on the mass of the system is called intensive

properties.

e.g., Pressure, Temperature, Specific Volume etc.,

The properties which are dependent on the mass of the system is called extensive

proprties. e.g., Total energy, Total volume, weight etc.

15. What do you understand by equilibrium of a system?

When a system remains in equilibrium state, it should not undergo any charges to its

own accord.

16. What is meant by thermodynamic equilibrium? (MU Apr98; MSU Apr96)

When a system is in thermodynamic equilibrium, it should satisfy the following

three conditions.

(a) Mechanical Equilibrium :- Pressure remains constant

(b) Thermal equilibrium :- Temperature remains constant

(c) Chemical equilibrium : There is no chemical reaction.

17. State the First law of thermodynamics (MU Apr95)

Ans:First of thermodynamics states that when system undergoes a cyclic process the

net heat transfer is equal to work transfer.

18. Define: PMM of first kind

PMM of first kind delivers work continuously without any input. It violates first

law of thermodynamics, It is impossible to construct an engine working with this

principle.

19. Define the term process (MKU Nov96)

20. Define the term Cycle: (MKU Nov96)

When a system undergoes a series of processes and return to its initial condition, it is

known as cycle.

21. What is meant by open and closed cycle.

In a closed cycle, the same working substance will recirculate again and again.

In a open cycle, the same working substance will be exhausted to the surroundings

after expansion.

22. What is meant by reversible and irreversible process. (MU Apr2001; BNU

Nov94)

A process is said to be reversible, it should trace the same path in the reverse

direction when the process is reversed. It is possible only when the system passes

through a continuous series of equilibrium state.

If a system does not pass through continuous equilibrium state, then the process is said to

be irreversible.

23. What is meant by Point and Path function? (Mu Oct2000; MKU Nov94)

The quantities which is independent on the process or path followed by the system

is known as point functions.Example: Pressure, volume, temperature, etc.,

The quantities which are dependent on the process or path followed by the system is

known as path functions.

Example: Heat transfer, work transfer.

24. What is Quasi Static process? (MU Oct98, Apr2000 & 2001; BNU

Nov95)

The process is said to be quasi static, it should proceed infinitesimally slow and

follows continuous series of equilibrium states. Therefore, the quasi static, it should

proceed infinitesimally slow and follows continuous series of equilibrium states.

Therefore, the quasi static process may be an reversible process.

25. Explain Zeroth Law of thermodynamics? (MU Nov94, Apr2001; BRU

Apr96)

Zeroth law of thermodynamics states that when two systems are separately in thermal

equilibrium with a third system, then they themselves are in thermal equilibrium with each

other.

26. Define the term enthalpy? (MU Oct99)

The Combination of internal energy and flow energy is known as enthalpy of the

system. It may also be defined as the total heat of the substance.

Mathematically, enthalpy (H) = U + pv KJ)

Where, U internal energy

p pressure

v volume

In terms of Cp& T H = mCp (T2-T1)K

Internal energy of a gas is the energy stored in a gas due to its molecular

interactions.

It is also defined as the energy possessed by a gas at a given temperature.

28. What is meant by thermodynamic work?

It is the work done by the system when the energy transferred across the boundary of

the system. It is mainly due to intensive property difference between the system and

surroundings.

29. Define Heat.

Heat is the energy crossing the boundary due to the temperature difference between

the system and surroundings.

Energy can neither be created nor destroyed, but it can be transferred from one form to

another.

32. Define entropy of a pure substance. (MU Oct2000; MKU Nov96; BRU

Nov95)

Entropy is an important thermodynamic property, which increases with addition of

heat and decreases with its removal. Entropy is a function of temperature only. It is an

unavailability of energy during energy transfer.

30.Give the general gas energy equations. (MU Apr95 & 98)

dH = dE + Dw

33. Define an isentropic process. (MU Oct99)

Isentropic process is also called as reversible adiabatic process. It is a process

which follows the law of pVy = C is known as isentropic process. During this process

entropy remains constant and no heat enters or leaves the gas.

34. Explain the throttling process.

When a gas or vapour expands and flows through an aperture of small size,

the process is called as throttling process.

Zero

36. Define free expansion process.

When a gas expands suddenly into a vacuum through a large orifice is known as

free expansion process.

37. Which property is constant during throttling? (MU Oct98, Oct2000)

Enthalpy

38. If in the equation PVn = C, the value of n = then the process is called _______

Constant Volume process

39. The polytropic index (n) is given by ________ (MU Apr95 & 96)

n = log (P2/P1)/ log (V1/V2)

40. Work transfer is equal to heat transfer in case of ________ process.MU

Nov94)

Isothermal process.

41. Write down the characteristic gas equation.

Characteristic gas equation is pV =mRT

pressure V = Volume

R = Characteristic gas

constant T = Temperature.

42. What is meant by steady flow process? (BNU Nov96)

During the process the rate of flow of mass and energy across the boundary

remains constant, is known as steady flow process.

43. What is the difference between steady flow and non flow process?

During the steady flow process the rate of flow of mass and energy across

the boundary remains constant.

In case of non flow across the system and boundary.

PART B

1. one kg of gas expands at CO&11stant pressure from 0.085 m3 to 0.13 Ill).if the initial

temperature of the gas is 22.5 c. find the final. Temperatures, net heat transfer, change in

internal energy, pressure of gas. (16)

2. A certain quantity of gas is head at constant pressure from 35 0 to 185c. Estimate

the

amount of hem transferred, ideal work done, change in internal energy, when the initial

volume of

the gas is 0.6 m3. (16)

3. Explain and derive Isothermal process (16)

4. Explain and derive Isobaric process. (16)

5. 2kg of gas at a pressure of 1.5 bar. Occupies a volume of 2.5 m3. If this gas

compresses

isothermally to 1/3 times the initial volume. Find initial. Final temperature, work done,

heat transfer. (16)

6. one kg of air is compressed polytropically (n=1.3) from 1 bar and 27 deg Celsius to 3

bar. Find I. work transfer , 2.Heat transfer,3. Change in internal energy (16)

7. A paddle wheel fixed to a shaft of an engine revolves in a closed hollow vessel

Containing water. This closed vessel is connected freely on the shaft and restraint

to its turning moment is proved by mass attached to its side. Find the temperature

rise for the following observations.

8. A cylinder contains 0.45 m3 of gas at 1 x 105 N/m2 and 80oC. The gas is compressed to

a volume of 0.13 m3, the final pressure being 5 X 105 N/m2. Determine i) The mass of gas

ii) The value of index n for compression The increase in internal energy of the gas and iv)

The heat received or rejected by the gas during compression. Take = 1.4 R = 294.2 J/kg K

9. A turbine operates under steady flow condition receives steam at the following

statepressure = 1.2Mpa, Temperature =1880C, Enthalpy = 2785 kJ/kg, velocity =

33.3m/sec and elevation = 3m. The steam leaves the turbine at the following state:

pressure = 20Kpa, Enthalpy = 2512 kJ/kg, velocity = 100m/sec and elevation = 0m.

Heat is lost tothe surrounding at the rate of 0.29kJ/sec. If the rate steam flow to the

turbine is 0.42kg/sec what is the power output of the turbine in KW

10.Three grams of nitrogen gas at 6atm and 160c is expanded adiabatically to double its

initial volume, then compressed at constant pressure to its initial volume and then com-

pressed again at constant volume to its initial state. Calculate the net work done on the

gas. Draw P-V diagram for the process. Specific heat ratio of nitrogen is 1.4. 11.One litre

of hydrogen at 273 K is adiabatically compressed to one-half of its initial volume. Find

the change in temperature of the gas, if the ratio of two specific heats for

hydrogen is 1.4

UNlT-2

SECOND LAW

PART A (2 marks)

Kelvin Plank states that it is impossible to construct a heat engine working on

cyclic process, whose only purpose is to convert all the heat energy given to it into an

equal amount of work.

45. State Clausius statement of second law of thermodynamics.

It states that heat can flow from hot body to cold without any external aid but heat

cannot flow from cold body to hot body without any external aid.

46. State Carnots theorem.

No heat engine operating in a cyclic process between two fixed temperature, can be

more efficient than a reversible engine operating between the same temperature limits.

47. What are the Corollaries of Carnot theorem.

(i) In all the reversible engine operating between the two given thermal reservoirs

with fixed temperature, have the same efficiency.

(ii) The efficiency of any reversible heat engine operating between two reservoirs is

independent of the nature of the working fluid and depends only on the

temperature of the reservoirs.

48. Define PMM of second kind.

Perpetual motion machine of second kind draws heat continuously from single reservoir

and converts it into equivalent amount of work. Thus it gives 100% efficiency.

49. What is the difference between a heat pump and a refrigerator?

Heat pump is a device which operating in cyclic process, maintains the temperature of

a hot body at a temperature higher than the temperature of surroundings.

A refrigerator is a device which operating in a cyclic process, maintains the temperature of a

cold body at a temperature lower than the temperature of the surroundings.

50. What is meant by heat engine?

A heat engine is a device which is used to convert the thermal energy into

mechanical energy.

51. Define the term COP?

Co-efficient of performance is defined as the ratio of heat extracted or rejected to

work input.

Heat extracted or rejected

COP = --------------------------------

52. Write the expression for COP of a heat pump and a

refrigerator? COP of heat pump

Heat Supplied T2

COP HP =------------------- = --------

Work input T2-T1

COP of Refrigerator

Heat extrated T1

COP HP =--------------- =--------

Work input T2-T1

53. What is the relation between COPHP and COP

ref? COPHP = COPref +1

54. Why Carnot cycle cannot be realized in practical?

(i) In a Carnot cycle all the four process are reversible but in actual practice there is

no process is reversible.

(ii) There are two processes to be carried out during compression and expansion. For

isothermal process the piston moves very slowly and for adiabatic process the piston

moves as fast as possible. This speed variation during the same stroke of the piston is

not possible.

(iii)It is not possible to avoid friction moving parts completely.

55. Name two alternative methods by which the efficiency of a Carnot cycle can

be increased.

(i) Efficiency can be increased as the higher temperature T2 increases.

(ii) Efficiency can be increased as the lower temperature T1 decreases.

56. Why a heat engine cannot have 100% efficiency?

For all the heat engines there will be a heat loss between system and surroundings.

Therefore we cant convert all the heat input into useful work.

57. When will be the Carnot cycle efficiency is maximum? Carnot cycle efficiency is

maximum when the initial temperature is 0K.

58. What are the processes involved in Carnot cycle.

Carnot cycle consist of

i)Reversible

isothermal

compression ii) isentropic

compression

expansion iv) isentropic expansion

cycle.

T2 T1

n = ---------

T

60. Define: Thermodynamic cycles.

Thermodynamic cycle is defined as the series of processes performed on the

system, so that the system attains to its original state.

61. Define the term compression ratio.

Compression ratio is the ratio between total cylinder volume to clearance volume.

It is denoted by the letter r

62. What is the range of compression ratio for SI and diesel engine?

For petrol of SI engine 6 to

8 For diesel engine 12 to 18.

63. Which cycle is more efficient for the same compression ratio and heat

input, Otto cycle or Diesel cycle?

Otto cycle is more efficient than diesel cycle

65. The efficiency of the diesel cycle approaches the otto cycle efficiency when

the cut off ratio is ______ reduced

66. Which device is used to control the Air fuel ratio in the petrol engine?

Carburettor

67. Which device is used to control the Air fuel ratio in the diesel

engine? Injection nozzle

68. The speed of a four stroke I.C. engine is 1500rpm. What will be the speed of the

cam shaft?

750 rpm.

69. All the four operations in two stroke engine are performed in ________ number

of revolution of crank shaft.

one

PART B

1. Air flows through an adiabatic compressor at 3 kg/s the inlet conditions are 2 bar and 310k

and exit conditions are 20 bar and 560 k. compute the net rate of availability transfer and

irreversibility. (16)

2. Air in a closed vessel of fixed volume of 0.15 m 3, exerts pressure of 12 bar at 250 c ,if

the vessel is cooled so that the pressure falls to 3.5 bar, determine the final temperature, heat

transfer and change of entropy. (16)

3. Explain Carnot engine cycle and its efficiency. (16)

4. Explain the term availability and unavailability. (16)

5. A heat engine operates between a source a 600 c and a sink at 60 c Determine the least

rate of heat rejection per KW net output of the engine. (16)

6. 0.2 kg of air at 1.5 bar and 27 "c is compressed to a pressure of 15 bar according to the

law

pv (l.25) =c. determine work done heat flow to or from the air, increase or decrease in

entropy(16)

7. An Engine-working on Otto cycle has a volume of 0.45 m3 , pressure 1 bar

andtemperature 30o,C at the beginning of compression stroke. At the end of

compression stroke, the pressure is 11 bar and 210 KJ of heat is added at

constant volume. Determine

(i) Pressure, temperature and volumes at salient points in the cycle.' (ii) Efficiency

8. Derive the expression for thermal efficiency of a Carnot cycle with its p-V and Ts

Diagram?

9. A Carnot engine takes heat from an infinite reservoir at 5500C and rejects it to a sink

2750C. Half of the work delivered by the engine is used to run generator and the other

half is used to run heat pump which takes heat at 2750C and rejects it at 4400C. Express

the heat rejected at 4400C by the heat pump as % of heat supplied to the engine at 5500C.

If the operation of the generator is 500W, Find the heat rejected/hour by the heat pump at

4400C?

10. Establish the inequality of Clausius and express Entropy change in irreversible

process

UNIT- 3

PROPERTIES OF PURE SUBSTANCE & STEAM POWER CYCLE PART

A (2 marks)

1. Define latent heat of ice?

Total amount of heat added during conversion of ice 0 C into water of 0C.

2. What is pure substance?

Pure substance is a substance which has a fixed chemical composition throughout its mass

.Example: Water, Nitrogen, Carbon dioxide, and helium. A pure substance does not have to be of

a single chemical element or compound .A mixture of various chemical element or components

is also called as pure substance as long as the mixture is homogeneous.

3. What is saturation temperature and saturation pressure?

At a given pressure, the temperature at which a liquid boils is called saturation temperature. At

the given temperature, the pressure at which the liquid boils is called saturation pressure it is also

called as vapour pressure.

4. Define latent heat of vaporizations.

The amount of heat added during heating of water from boiling point to dry saturated stage is

called as latent heat of vaporization or enthalpy of vaporization of latent heat of steam.

5. Define the terms Boiling point and Melting point .

Boiling point:

It is the temperature at which the liquid starts to change its state from liquid to

vapour. Melting point:

It is the temperature at which the solid starts to change its state from solid to liquid.

7. Define the sensible heat of water.

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of unit mass of water from 0C to the

saturation temperature under a constant pressure. it is denoted by hf .

8. Define the term super heat enthalpy.

The heat supplied to the dry steam at saturation temperature, to convert it into superheatedsteam

at the temperature Tsup is called super heat enthalpy.

9. What is wet and dry steam?

The heat which partially evaporated and having water particles suspension is

Called wet stream.

The steam which fully evaporated state and is not having any water particles is

Called dry steam.

10. State phase rule of pure substances.

The number of independent variable associated with a multicomponents, multiphase system is

given by the phase rule. It is also called as Gibbs phase rule .It is expressed by the equation as

n = C +2

Where,

n = the number of independent variable.

C = the number of components,

= the number of phase present in equilibrium.

11. Define dryness fraction of steam OR What is quality of steam?

It is defined as the ratio of the mass of the total steam actually present to the mass of the

totalsteam.

Dryness fraction = ----------------------

Mass of total mixture

12. Explain the term: Degree of super heat, Degree of sub cooling.

same pressure.

Degree of sub cooling.

It is the amount by which the water is cooled beyond the saturated temperature at the same

pressure.

13. Define triple point and critical point for

pure substance. Triple point:

Triple point is the state at where all the three phases ie solid, liquid and vapour to exist in

equilibrium.

Critical point:

It represents the highest pressure and temperature at which the liquid and vapour phases coexist

in equilibrium. At the critical point the liquid and the vapour phases are distinguishable ie Liquid

directly converted into vapour.

freezing point? When saturation pressure increases, then the saturation temperature is

increasing and the freezing point decreasing.

15 Explain the process of steam generation and show the various stages on T-S diagram.

In the T-S diagram, the region left of the water line, the water exists as liquid. In the right of the

dry steam line, the water exists as a superheated steam. In between water and dry steam line, the

water exists as a wet steam. Therefore, the dryness fraction lines are represented in these regions.

The value of various quantities can be read from the diagram .It can be noted from the figure that

thewater line and steam line are converging with the increase in temperature. At a particular

point , the water directly converted into dry steam without formation of wet steam. The point is

called Critical Point

16. Write the formula for calculating entropy change from saturated water to super

heated steam conditions.

Entropy of super heated steam S sup = Sg + Cps log{Tsup / Ts}

PART B

1. Find the specific volume and enthalpy of steam at 9 bar when the condition of

steam is a) Wet with dryness fraction 0.95 b) dry saturated c) superheated

temperature of 240 (16)

2. Steam initially at 400 Kpa and 0.6 dry is heated in a rigid vessel of 0.1m3 volume. The

final condition is 600 Kpa. Find the amount of heat added and mass of steam. (16)

3. Explain P-V diagram and P-V-T surface. (16)

4. 2 kg of steam initially at 5 bar and 0.6 dry is heated at constant pressure until the

temperature becomes 350 c.find the change in entropy and internal energy. (16) 5.A

steam plant working on a simple rankine cycle operated between the temperature of

260c and 95c .the steam is dry and saturated when it enters the turbine and expanded

isentropic ally. Find rankine efficiency. (16)

6) 2.5 kg of steam is heated at constant pressure of 250 kpa and 100c, until temperature is

250c. Find the amount of heat added and change in entropy. (16)

(Use mollier chart)

UNIT 4

IDEAL AND REAL GASES AND

THERMODYNAMIC RELATION

PART A (2 marks)

1. State Charles law.

Charles law states The volume of a given mass of a gas varies directly as its absolute

temperature, when the pressure remains constant.

VT

2. State Jouless law.

Jouless law states The internal energy of a given quantity of a gas depends only on the

temperature.

3. State Regnaults law.

Regnaults law states that Cp and Cv of a gas always remains

constant.

4. State Avogadros law.

Avogadros law states.Equal volumes of different perfect gases at the same temperature and

pressure, contain equal number of molecules.

5. State Doltons law of partial pressure.

Doltons law of partial pressure states The total pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the

sum of the partial pressure exerted by individual gases if each one of them occupied separately

in the total volume of the mixture at mixture temperature .

P = p1 + p2 + p3 + ... Pk

6. How does the Vander waals equation differ from the ideal gas equation of states?

1. Intermolecular attractive study is made. 2. Shape factor is considered.

These assumptions are not made in ideal gas

equation of state.

8. Distinguish between ideal and real gas.

An ideal gas is one which strictly follows the gas laws under air conditions of temperature and

pressure. In actual practice, there is no real gas which strictly follows the gas laws over the

entire range of temperature and pressure .However hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and air

Behave as a gas under certain temperature and

pressure

9. What are Maxwell relations?

(T/v)s = - (p/s)v

(T/p)s = (v/s)p

(p/T)v = (s/v)t

(v/T)p = - (s/p)t

10 .Define Joule Thomson Co-efficient.

Joule Thomson Co-efficient is defined as the change in temperature with change

in Pressure, keeping the enthalpy remains constant .It is denoted by the

= (T/p) n

11. Define Co efficiency of volume expansion and isothermal

compressibility. Co efficiency of volume expansion:

Co efficiency of volume expansion is defined as the change in volume with change i n

temperature per unit volume keeping the pressure constant It is denoted by

It is defined as the change in volume with change in pressure per unit volume by keeping the

temperature constant .It is denoted by K

K = 1/v (v/p)T.

12. What is compressibility factor?

We know that , the perfect gas equation is pv = RT .But for real gas , a correction factor has to be

introduced in the perfect gas equation to take into account the deviation of real gas from the

perfect gas equation .This factor is known as compressibility factor (Z) and is denoted by

13. Z = pv/RT What is compressibility factor value for an ideal gas at critical point?

1. Intermolecular attractive study is made.

2. Shape factor is considered.

14. What is Joules Thomson coefficient? Why is it zero for an ideal gas?

Joules Thomson coefficient is defined as the change in temperature with change in pressure,

keeping the enthalpy remains constant. It is denoted by

= ( T/p)h = 1/Cp[ T(v/T)p - v]

We know that the equation of state as

Differentiate the above equation of state with respect to T by keeping pressure, p

constant 15. What is ClasiusClapeyron Equation?

ClasiusClapeyron Equation which involves relationship between the saturation pressure,

saturation temperature, the enthalpy of evaporation and the specific volume of the two phases

involved

dp/dT = hfg/Tvfg

17. State the assumption made in kinetic theory of gases?

1. There is no intermolecular force between particles.

2. The volume of the molecules is negligible in comparison with the gases.

18. State Helmholtz function

Helmholtz function is property of a system and is given by subtracting the product of absolute

temperature (T) and entropy (s) from the internal energy u. ie Helmholtz function = u-Ts

.19. State Gibbs function.

Gibbs function is property of a system and is given by

G = u Ts + Pv = h Ts

Where

h Enthalpy

T Temperature

s - Entropy

PART B

.1. Derive Daltons law of partial pressure. Define amagats law of partial volume. (16)

2. Derive vandar Waals equation. (16)

3. Derive Maxwells equation (16)

4. Derive clausius-clapeyron equation. (16)

5. Derive Joule-Thomson coefficient equation. (16)

6. A mixture of gases contains 50%nitrogen,40% oxygen and 10% carbon di oxide by mass.

2kg of mixture is compressed from 200 kpa and 293k to 400 kpapolytropically which

follows the PV(I.25)=C. Determine the work done, heat transferred and change in

entropy.

(Take (cp)n2=1.04 (cp)o2= 0.918 kj / kg k, (cp)co2=O.846 k/k (16)

UNIT 5

PSYCHROMETRY

PART A (2 marks)

1. What is the difference between air conditioning and refrigeration?

Refrigeration is the process of providing and maintaining the temperature in space below

atmospheric temperature. Air conditioning is the process of supplying sufficient volume of clean

air containing a specific amount of water vapour and maintaining the predetermined atmosphere

condition with in a selected enclosure.

2. Define psychrometry.

The science which deals with the study of behaviour of moist air (mixture of dry air and water

vapour is known as phychrometry.

3. Name some psychrometry.

1. Sensible heating.

2. Sensible cooling.

3. Humidifying

4. Dehumidifying.

5. Heating and humidifying

6. Heating and dehumidifying.

7. Cooling humidifying

8. Cooling dehumidifying.

4. Define dry bulb temperature.

The temperature which is measured by an ordinary thermometer is known as dry bulb

temperature .It is generally denoted by td

5. Define wet bulb temperature.

It is the temperature of air measured by a thermometer When its bulb is covered with wet cloth

and exposed to a current rapidly moving air.It is denoted by tw.

6. Define dew point temperature.

The temperature at which the water vapour presents in air begins to condense when

The air is cooled is known as dew point temperature .It is denoted by tdp.

7. Define relative Humidity (RH) and specific humidity.

RH is the ratio of the mass of water vapour (mv) in a certain volume of moist air at Given

temperature to the mass of water vapour in the same volume of saturated air at the Same

temperature.

RH = mv /mvs

Specific humidity () is the ratio of mass of water vapour (mv) to the mass of dry air in

the given volume of mixture.

= mv / ma.

8. Differentiate between absolute and relative humidity.

Absolute humidity is defined as the ratio of the mass of water vapour (mv) in

Certain volume of moist at given temperature to the mass of water vapours at

Atmospheric conditions

RH is the ratio of the mass of water vapour in a certain volume of moist air at a given

Temperature to the mass of water vapour in tha same volume of saturated air at the same

Temperature.

9. Define DTP and degree of saturation.

DTP is the temperature to which moist air to be cooled before it starts condensing. Degree

of saturation is the ratio of specific humidity of moist air to the specific

Humidity of saturated air at temperature.

Specific humidity of moist air = -------------------------------------------

Specific humidity of saturated air

10. What is dew point temperature? How is it related to dry bulb and wet

bulb? Temperature at the saturation condition?

It is the temperature at which the water vapour present in air begins to condense The air is

cooled.For saturated air, the dry bulb, wet bulb and dew point temperature are All same.

11. State Daltons law of partial pressure.

The total pressure exerted by air and water mixture is equal to the barometric

Pressure. Pb = pa + pv

Where

Pb = barometric pressure.

pa = Partial pressure of dry air.

pv = Partial pressure of water vapour.

12. Define Apparatus Dew point of cooling coil.

For dehumidification, the cooling coil is to be kept at a mean temperature which is below

the dew point temperature of the entering .This temperature of the coil is called ADP

temperature.

13. List down psychometric process.

1. Sensible heating process

2. Sensible cooling process.

3 .Humidification process.

4. Dehumidification process.

5. Heating and humidification process.

6. Cooling and Dehumidification process.

7. Adiabatic mixing airstreams process.

8. Evaporative cooling process.

The ratio of the amount of air which does not contact the cooling coil to the Amount

of supply air is called BPF

Amount of air bypassing the coil

BPF = -------------------------------------------

Total amount of air passed.

15.Define the humidification process.

Humidification is defined as the process of adding moisture at constant dry bulb

Temperature

16. State the effects of very high and a very low

bypass factor. Very high by pass factor:

1. It requires lower ADP .Refrigeration plant should be of larger capacity.

2. It requires more air .Larger fan and motor required. It requires less heat transfer area.

3. It requires more chilling water Larger piping required

Very low by pass factor.

1. Higher ADP is to be employed.

2. It requires less air. Fan and motor size reduced

17. What factors affect by pass factor?

1. Pitch of fins.

2. Number of coil tubes.

3. Air velocity over the coil.

4. Direction of air flow.

18 .What are the assumption made while mixing two air streams?

1. Surrounding is small.

2. Process is fully adiabatic.

3. There is no work interaction

4. Change in kinetic and potential energies are negligible.

PART B

I. Dry bulb and wet temperatures of 1 atmospheric air stream are 400 and 30c

respectively. Determine (a)Humidity (b) Relative humidity (c) Specific humidity. (16)

2. Atmospheric air with barometric pressure of 1.013 bar has 38c dry bulb temperature

and 28c wet bulb temperature. Determine (a) Humidity ratio (b) Relative humidity (c) dew point

temperature. (16)

3. Atmospheric air at 760 mm of Hg has 45c DBT and 30c WBT, using

psychometric chart calculate R.H, Humidity ratio, DPT, enthalpy, specific volume

of air. (16)

4.Atmospheric air at 1 bar pressure has 2.50 DBT and 75% RH using psychometric chart,

calculate DBT, enthalpy, vapour pressure. (16)

5. Explain sensible heating process, sensible cooling, and humidification process. (16)

6. An air water vapour mixture at 0.1 Mpa, 300, 80% RH. Has a volume of 50 m3

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