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MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS Instructions: Each question is followed by four options A, B, © and for each question. ‘The Respiratory Process in Energy Production 1 Which process does not require ergy rom espiaion? BR Mote cl division 3 Absortonf case no thew €_ifusion of oxygen fom thealvot into the blood _ Synthesis of proteins for growth and use ep 2 Diagram 1 shows the apparatus used to investigate respiration. coloured ol op thexmometor ‘edted scale smal animals ve mesh potassium fryers (foabsor ‘carbon cows) Diagram 1 What can be measured using the apparatus in Diagram 1? A. Oxygen used B Oxygen released Carbon dioxide released D_ Heat energy released 3 The following equation represents a process which 87 occurs in the muscle cells of an athlete during vigorous exercise. [Glucose + X+ energy What is X? A Ethanol B Water © Carbon dioxide D Lacticacid 4, Anaerobic respiration in yeast and in muscle cells are the same in the respect that both processes produce A. ethanol B carbon dioxide © lacticacid D_ heat energy Practice 7 5 Lacticacid produced during anaerobic respiration in human ‘muscles are later oxidised to carbon dioxide and water Oxidation of lactic acid takes place mainly in which of the following organs? A Heart C_ Lungs B Liver =D Skin 6 Diagram 2 shows the apparatus Bi used to investigate respiration © in yeast. mature og east and Jorma! 10% sucose Diagram 2 Which of the following mixtures will give a higher rate of respiration in yeast? A Lgofyeast and 15 m! of 5% glucose solution B_ I gofyeast and 15 m/ of7 glucose solution © Lgofyeast and 15 m/ of 10% glucose solution D_ 1 gofyeast and 15 m/ of 15% glucose solution ‘The Respiratory Structures and Breathing ‘Mechanisms in Humans and Animals 7. Diagram 3 shows the respiratory BA system ofa cockroach, Diagram 3 ‘What are the substances P and Qbeing exchanged? 54 D. Choose the best option P Q A [Carbon [Oxygen dioxide el B [Oxygen [Carbon dioxide [Water [Oxygen D [Oxygen [Water 8 ‘The tiny openings along the sides of the thorax and abdomen of an insect are known as the ‘A spiracles © tracheoles B tracheae D_ valves 9 Diagram 4 shows the structure Bora fish gill. Diagram 4 Which process takes place at M during gaseous exchange? A. Diffusion B Osmosis © Active transport D_ Facilitated diffusion 10 Frogs live on land as wells in | [Baer Gaseous exchange in @F frogs ean occur through which ofthe following structures? A. Diaphragm B_ Intercostal muscles Mouth cavity D_Ribcage LL Whats the primary functional unit of the human lung? A Alveolus B Bronchiole © Capillary D Trachea 12 What happens during the process of breathing out (exhalation)? Diaphragm | Tiernal muscles A {Curves up _|Contract 3 [Rartens [contract ¢ [Curves up [Ret [Fattens [Relax 13 Diagram 5 shows a model EBlor the rib cage used to * demonstrate the breathing mechanism in a person, Stuaton $ Stuation T Diagrams ‘Which ofthe following are demonstrated when the position of the tibs changes from Sto T? 1 The person inhales. IL The pressure in the lungs IL The volume of the chest cavity decreases, IV_Therib cage pushes upwards and outwards, A Landlv B Mand iit C Lllandiv . D 1.1 and IV Gaseous Exchange across the Respiratory Surfaces and Transport of, Gases in Humans Questions 14 and 15 are based on Diagram 6. Diagram 6 shows a section through an alveolus and an associated blood capillary. ™ blood Se ae — D te x c a ie Sanday Diagrams 14 Which of the following does not take place at X? A Oxyhaemoglobin is formed in the red blood cells. B Carbon dioxide reacts with ‘water to form carbonic acid, C_Oxygen dissolves in the film, ‘of water on the surface of the alveolus. D_ Gaseous exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide across the alveolus occurs by diffusion. 15 In which part, A, B, Cor D, is the concentration of earbon dioxide the highest? 16 In which of the following ways is the most carbon dioxide being transported in humans? Iis carried by platelets. Itis dissolved in the plasma, Itreacts with haemoglobin. I reacts with water to form bicarbonate ions. 17 The following are the results of EW anexperiment carried out to "8 determine the oxygen content in exhaled air using aJ-tube Length ofaircokimn (@thaled ait) = 10.0em Length ofa column upon adding the potassium hydroxide solution =95 em Length of air column upon adding the potassium pyrogallate solution Whats the percentage of oxygen in the exhaled air? A 50% CG 110% Base 168% 18 An oxygen molecule enters an alveolus. What must be its next step ifitisto reach a red blood cell A. Diffuses across the alveolar epithelium B. Diffuses across a capillary epithelium © Dissolves inthe liquid film lining the alveolus D_ Dissolvesin the blood plasma surrounding the alveolus 19 Which of the following is not true of haemoglobin? A. Each haemoglobin molecule can bind up to four oxygen molecules. vom 84cm B_ Haemoglobin transports carbon dioxide from the lungs to the cells. © Oxygen detaches from haemoglobin when the partial pressure of oxygen falls D_ Osyhaemogiobi is transported in arterial blood. ‘The Regulatory Mechanism in’ Respiration 20 What part of the human brain contains the primary respiratory centre? A. Cerebellum B Cerebrum © Medulla oblongata D Thalamus 21 Therate at which a person breathes depends mainly on the amount of which of the following in her body? ‘Ammonia Carbon dioxide Oxygen Urea A B c D ‘The Importance of Maintaininga Healthy Cigarette smoking and second hhand smoke A. reduce the riskoflung cancer B_ reduce the risk of heart 'C increase the risk of developing emphysema D_ increase the capacity of the ‘ Jung to exchange gases. EZ espirationinPiants ) 22. | 23 Three test tubes are set up as shown in Diagram 7 ee ee aN NYE SB | ‘otcover = (ep rveroen test weoce ate Diagram 7 Practice 7 | Atthe beginning of the experiment, the indicator in each test tube is red. 24 Diagram is a graph showing | fBhow the amount of carbon. ‘8 dioxide absorbed or released ‘The hydrogen carbonate bya plant varies with light indicator changes from red intensity toyellow when exposedto increased levels of carbon. | dioxide. Whatis the colour of the indicator in each test tube after ‘wo hours? | veins Soom ‘A |Red Red ‘yellow | Pt [Red [Yellow |Yetow neg fellow i ssi & Ee Ls i Which statement is true? [tetow [Yetow [Rea || ‘The diagram depicts the transport of respiratory gases and the gaseous ‘exchange which occurs at the lungs and human tissues. {a) Name structure X. Alveolus ii marta (©) State two adaptations of structure X for gaseous exchange. 1. Large numbers of alveol provide a large surface area for gaseous exchange. 2, The inner surface ofthe alveoli is moist 0 allow respiratory gases to lssolve inthe surface fd o that fusion can occur through the alveolar wall (2 marks} {c)_() Name the respiratory pigment found in the red blood cell which is responsible forthe transport of oxygen. Haemoglobin . ii mack AtK,no carbon dioxide is. released. ‘AtL, the amount of carbon. dioxide absorbed is the same as that released. ‘AUM, the amount of ‘carbon dioxide released is, maximum. AtN, the amount of carbon dioxide absorbed is the same as the amount of, oxygen released. ‘What is the unstable product formed when oxygen combines with the pigment named in (c\i7 Onyhaemaglobin it mark (@)@) In what form is the majority of carbon dioxide transported inthe blood? In the form of bicarbonate fons (HCO) it ma {ip State one other way carbon dioxide is transported. Cajbon dioxide binds tel o haemoglobin ands tansported 3s carbaminohaemoplobin ir a (6) P and Q are two processes which occur during gaseous exchange. Name the processes, Process P:Ditusion Process Q: Difsion (2 mars} (0, What happens i earbon monoxide is present in the air inhaled? Carbon monoxide combines more edly with haemoglobin han oxygen om ‘atbonjhaemnagobin, Hence, les haemoglobin is aaiabe wo combine wih oxygen. (2 mas) (8) In the absence of oxygen, what isthe product produced from the respiration in the body cells? Lactic acid fand energy) ii markt i | it markt ED tie Chemical Composition ofthe) {i) State two ways the energy is used by the Cell | athlete. 1 (Name this type of respiration. 1 Diagram 1 isa graph showing the breathing rate of an athlete before, during and after a race. i 2 | Trey / Te marks} | (iti) Why does the breathing rate increases at | the start ofthe race? (2 marks} (b) Towards the end of the race, another kind of respiration is carried out. This is shown by the following word equation. () Explain why this type of respiration is (a) Before the race, respiration is shown by the naka following word equation. | | (marks @ practe7 (il) Explain why less energy is released. (1 mark] (©) (@) What is the breathing rate of the athlete 2 minutes after the race ended? breaths per minute. [1 mark} Gi) Why Is this rate different from the rate before the race? (2 marks (di After the race has ended, what happens to the Tactic acid? Ti mark GBBT Tre Respiratory Structures and ) Breathing Mechanisms in Humans and Animals 2. Diagram 2.1 shows the apparatus used t0 Blilustrate the breathing mechanism in humans. or ~ ss oe atom ee hoot ty aed Stee Diagram 2.1 (a) What structures in the human respiratory system are represented by the bell jar and, glass tube? Bell jar: Glass tube: marks) (b) (The diaphragm in the human respiratory system is represented by the rubber sheet. ‘What is the function of the rubber sheet in the model? Te marks} i) The human lung is represented by the balloons. Give one characteristic of the balloons that is identical to the human lungs. (2 marks Practice 7 @ The rubber sheet in the model is pulled downwards. Draw the change to the balloons in Diagram 2.2 below. © bet s Diagram 2.2 (Explain your drawing in (c)() by relating the changes in the model and the human respiratory system. [2 marks} (@)_(@) Asample ofair can be analysed to determine the percentages of carbon dioxide and ‘oxygen it contains using the J-tube. Explain wy the end of the J-tube is immersed in im hydroxide solution first before the potassium pyrogllat soliton mark) (ii) Table 1 shows the percentage of carbon dioxide in inhaled and exhaled ait. Tahaled air | Exhaled air | [Carbon dioxide] 0.04 40 ‘Table [Explain the increase in the percentage of carbon dioxide in the exhaled air. TB marks EBB cascous Exchange across the | Respiratory Surfaces and Transport \ of Gases in Humans 3 Diagram 3 shows the structures associated with breathing and gaseous exchange in humans. (a) @ Name the hard tissue X found on the trachea. (mark) i) State the function of X. (mark) (b) Name structure ¥. a marks (©) Name structure Z. (0 mark (a) State the function of Z. Ti mark (@)_ (i) Name the process involved in the gaseous exchange which occurs in the alveolus. (1 mark) (ii) State two characteristics of the alveolus ‘which allow for gaseous exchange (0 take place 1 —— See (2 marks} (6) State two ways how smoking reduces the effectiveness of the respiratory system. (® Name the part of the human brain which controls the rate of breathing. (mark) 38 ae hisses ESSAY QUESTIONS J QD ve Respiratory Process in Energy } Production 4 (a) Diagram 4 shows two different processes FB whieh release energy in @ hurman muscle cel Diagram 4 ‘Outline processes X and Y. (a marks} (b) At the end of a race, an athlete can be in a lot of pain due to muscle fatigue. ‘To recover, the athlete carries out the following actions: Explain why the athlete carries out these actions. [6 marks) (€) The respiratory systems of humans and fishes are adapted for them to survive in their respective habitats. Compare and explain the adaptations. [10 marks QD te Regutatory Mechanism in \ Respiration 5 (@) Various structures in the human body are FH involved in the regulation of the carbon "es dioxide content in the body. Explain the regulatory mechanism of carbon dioxide contents in the body during vigorous exercise. 110 marks (b) Explain the respiratory response and rate of respiration under the following conditions: (i) in fear Gi) at igh altitudes {© In order to maintain a healthy respiratory system, discuss why itis important for a person not to smoke. (6 marks (4 marks| Practice 7 tensed endptyical | tomipmantettachidis | severly impaired a ‘chil sutering rom Iovashiorkor has ky skin thin misecles thin air and Swelling ofthe body especially the abdomen because ofthe retention of din Gases. The ‘hl often experiences stones gow mH Ach with marasmus ooks tracted with winked skin ‘his is due wo lack of energy. providing nuvients ontop of Proven deficiency Deficiency in eaeium, phosphorus and vitamin D: Rickets sa disorder extsed by aac ofealeium, phosphors rviaminD.ttleaist | tefiening snd wening ofthe tones: tH Ach suering rom rickets may have bow legs (outward ure oflong bone ofthe les) fd u deformed chest eb with rickets can experience stunted growth | and wll most kely Be shorn Stature as an adult tH oa 17 460k. The food intake is sufficient ro meet his dally energy requirement. a Consequences ofthe diet The dt of the tenager has sullen intake of proteins ish, chicken, sausage, emgand ml insuflent intake of arbolsarates ec), excessive Intake oli chicken ferry), usage, bute. milk and potato hips) anda compet lack of fruits and vegtabies Silfcent intake of proteins ‘simportan for the teenager daring this period of rapid som. Fie also needs fod rich in carbohydrates o provide anh ey he etre ier Without ample carbohydrates, he il feet Teharse and become red ssl. af His excess intake ofipids can lead vo cardiovascular diseases. Hiecould eut down hisintake afaty and ol foods 0 avoid. having pimples and acne. (1) | He should eonsime more fas and vegetables to supp the important natents needed ining vitamin and mineral 0 | ea a m1 m1 (© Oxford ajar Sin Bh. (008874-1) 2010 ruts and vegetables also provide the essential roughage or dietary fibre. Deficiency of dietary bre can lead to constipation and other disorders 0 Processed meats like sausages ‘and snack foods lke potato ‘chips contain substances believed to be inked tothe development of various kinds of canoer a Experiment 1 (a) Volume of 0.1% ascorbic acid solution = .0 em? Volume of pineapple juice =15em ‘Volume of mango juice =30em! (0) Allarger volume is required by the mango juice compared to pineapple juice because itcontains a lower quantity of vitamin C, Hence, a larger volume of mango juice is needed to decolourise | cm of CPP solution | © 0 | 0.1% ascorbic acid Pineapple] juice ‘Mango juice 10 a0 || w@ Pineapple juice | 10 | 18x10 | 0.67 mgem? Mango juice (4) Pineapple juice contains a larger quantity of vitamin C. ‘Thus, a smaller volume of iis requited to decolourise 1 em* ‘of DCPIP solution, Mango juice containsa smaller quantity of vitamin C. Thus, a larger volume ofitis required to decolourise the same amount of | DCPIP solution. © | as i Decolourisation | Volume of fruit of DCPIP juice required to solution decoloutise the DCPIP solution Concentration | 0.1% ascorbie of ascorbic acid_| acid is used (or used as standard | 1 em’ of DCPIP solution (or | solution is usea) volume of DCPIP solution used) (© Packaged pineapple juice contains ahigher concentration ofvitamin C compared ‘mango juice. (@) Atmospheric oxygen oxidises the reduced DCPIP solution and turns it biue again. Hence, ‘more fruit juice is required to reduce the DCPIP solution and the actual vitamin C content ln the fruit juice eannot be ‘determined accurately (h) (@ When left to stand for day, the vitamin Cin ‘the fruit juice is easily destroyed by oxidation. “Therefore, more fut juice is required to decolourise the DCPIP solution res rut juices might contain mor vitamin C than packaged ones because ici freshly prepared and the vitamin Cis not yet oxidised, Hence the volume of fresh fruit juices needed to decolourise the DCPIP solution is ess. However, some packaged fruit juices are forified with vitamin C (with vitamin C added artical) In this, instance the volume of . fresh fruit juices required is comparatively higher than those fortified with vitamin Reagents: 1.0% ascorbie acid solution, 0.1% DCPIP solution Materials tobe tested: Orange jue, grape juice ww Sart Practice ICS Bology Form 4 ‘arses UA BABA UD A | ispulleddom ithe inthe mcs to fom an Due we wb wc at acide med wie ae ee ay eo faten the volume thn trode he ang sn thebellar he thomeie |) Respetey cone in Structured Questions cav ieeacs and tis theta cong Ta see option ia ae G0 1 rormustiecontmctons | DEE te ioe perme | ioay clade 2, Maintains body air from the atmosphere 4 (a) Process X's anaeroble temperature. is drawn in, causing the respiration, It is process in So ee Balloons te lungs to whlch the mise a proceed apeaeettn ood enlarge and expand. The {to generate energy, in the form SE ce ‘model is used to ilustrate ‘of ATR during the absence is eg nian ese ofan ice gene (6) @ Theathlety muses | peers ae not entirely broken dow, are in a state of oxygen: 1 a the energy released durir deficiency, and oxygen debt (@) () Potassium: paced i anneal eee Pr it tanh eee Slfonsberieaton | Sgn ration bat js insufficient, the muscles dioxide only. However, glucose molecule) compared to obtain the extra energy ro pe ‘that during aerobic respiration from anaerobic ‘solution absorbe oxygen as (38 ATP molecules per glucose tate walle carbon dln ete va (Hota pcsisnot (o Carbon doa gen Se twotan dn comely. outdurngeetular | meni aeable “Much of the energy still respiration. Carbon dioxide z e of oxygen, glucose molectles remains within the is transported tothe lungs nes ae oxidised to release energy. pee ctl ea to be expelled All the available energy stored © 0 Seat 3 (@) ( C-shaped cartilage ‘within the glucose molecules is i) The accumulation ofleetie ) To keep the trachea open released by aerobic respiration, ‘acid ean reach a high evel permanently to receive a * aa) concentration leading to Wwihoutthem, teaches |) rack orloose ating EEaoeren nes ‘would collapse. i should be worn to maintain Ce ee ger cete, | (b)Externa intercostal muscles the high body temperature. A sOHOtOer Yee the (© @) Diaphragm ‘gradual decrease in temperature eee ace, Gi) Ieplaysan important Belpsto convert uccailand (a+ Partot the leetic acid is role inthe breathing prevent muse camps tidied into carbon dlosde, mechanism (by altering yen though the muscles peat iar the volume ofthe thoracie rest, taking long deep breaths i helps to bring in extra oxygen to + Theremaining lactic acid cavity. to brng i a org isconverted to glucose or (@ @ Difusion Convert atic ai into carbon glycogen dor storage inthe Gi) The moist inner surface ae ee eet liver arin muscle cells enables gases to dissolve ih capone la) 2 a) Bell jar thoracte cavity Initand diffusion to take ting awn i por Glass tube: trachea and bronchi plane the wang up The purpose (6) () To change the ar pressure ‘The wall ofan alveokusis ccooeera ee as rescue eben bas A Seeker allow the body of the athlete to thevolume inside the bell” | (@) 1, Heat and tar produced by con eee oameeed ja. 1 smoking destroy the ciliated pump oxygen to t Tiemetonta ing, ike | Soabngcaeiy thacaied | Pat cg nea ballocen an pend td ‘oll als which Ine shingle contac They Spend ig ion Wit tae theless up tring alton and can ine tus Grig ence contract during exbalation, and increase fexbilty. 2] ow plgeealt (©) Differences between the 2 Nepean tkaiaaies respiratory systems in humans cigarette smoke can dissolve beers bet ar sis ube a a Respiratory organ | Lungs Gils ‘Large surface area | Numerous alveoli | Numerous Mlaments aso (0 volume ratia ts and lamellae a Aachiewd by having Respiratory structure | Noss ‘Mouth and opereutura i ‘Network ofblood | The alveoliare rich | The filaments are rich (i) When the rubber sheet capiliares with blood eapltries. | with blood capillaries. (© Oxford fr Sin. Bhs. 008974-1) 2010 AIS Siar Pract 1S Bilogy Form 4 tare) ‘which help in| cage and intercostal | muscular walls of the ‘external respiration | muscles Greathing) | Other structures Diaphragm, eb Operculum and the | 5 (a) During vigorous exercise, partial pressure of carbon dioxide Increases as a result of active collular respiration. Carbon dioxide reacts with water to form carbonic acid. ny ‘The higher concentration of carbonic acid brings about a ‘drop inthe pH value of the blood land tissue Nui bathing the brain {cerebrospinal ful, a The cop inp s dete by the ‘+ central chemoreceptors located inthe medulla oblongata (1) + peripheral chemoreceptors (aortic bodies found within the aortic arch and earotid bodies atthe carotid arteries) [1] These chemoreceptors then send nerve impulses to the respiratory centre in the ‘medulla oblongata a [Nex the respiratory centre sends nerve impulses to the diaphragm land the intercostal muscles. (1) ‘The respiratory muscles contract and relax more rapidly a ‘This brings about a higher + breathing rate im + ventilation rate iy As excess carbon dioxide is removed from the body, the carbon dioxide concentration ‘and pH value ofthe blood are restored to its normal value. [1] (b) G) In fear, the breathing and the heartbeat rates fa person increase to cope with the demand ‘fa higher respiration rate inthe cells. A higher respiration rte is required to generate more energy to help the person deal with his fea, ny ‘Adrenal glands secrete the hormone adrenaline ‘which increases the rates of heartbeat and breathing so that more glucose and. ‘oxygen are supplied 10 the muscles. This equips a person to react accordingly toa dangerous situation I] (i) Athigh altitudes, the atmospheric pressure is low. ‘The lower partial pressure of conygen may cause breathing dlificulty and a lower oxygen level in the blood. [1] © oxford Fajar Sdn hd (008974-7) 2010 oor of the buccal cavity oT ‘A person might experience headaches, nausea and dizziness at fist. However, the body ean often, acelimatise with time as the afinity of haemoglobin for oxygen is educed and -more oxygen is liberated to the body tissues. a (@) The heat and dryness due to smoking ieritate the lungs and can lead to laryngitis. ul Tar in tobacco smoke can cause lng cancer and leave deposit ‘on the bronchioles. 0 ‘Nicotine in obacco smoke isa stimulane which makes the heart beat faster and constrict the blood vessels, ‘meaning the heart has to ‘pump harder and blood pressure increases, Hence, heart diseases, hypertension and strokes ate more common among smokers, n + restricts the mavement of cilia along the respiratory tract, making it harder forthe lungs to get Fd of particulate matter a ‘causes an addiction © smoking a Carbon monoxide in cigarette smoke competes with oxygen to bind with haemoglobin and forms earboxyhaemoglobin. Since earboxyhaemoglobin is relatively stable, it reduces the supply of oxygen to the cells. (1) 1D 2A 3C 4A SB 6B 7C 8A 9A 0D NA 2B 3B 4c 15D 16 B 17C 18D 196 OC 21C 2B 2A MB 2B Structured Questions 1 (a) (0) 600~60=540 4) cn 32x 100% = 10%, () @ Asproducers(symthesises food for the primary consumer) (G) Green plants are autotrophs which synthesise complex organic compounds from ‘aw, simple inorganic substances using ight fenergy. Consumers are hheterotrophs. They cannot synthesise their own nutrients but instead must obtain the nutrients from other organisms. (i) Chemical energy (carbohydrates, proteins and fats) (¢) Decomposers (and detrtivores) (@) Respiration {e) Grass > grasshoppers — frogs ~rsnakes > eagles (©) More energy wil be lost snd less energy will be available for higher consumers the longer the food chain i. Hence, to benefit from taking in more tenergy-rich food it is better for Inumans to be the las organism ina short rather than along food chain, 2 (a) (i) Zone? | i) Avicennia sp. (or Sonneratia sp) (Gi) Soft mud and strong coastal winds! Mud is waterlogged and contains lite dissolved oxygen! iect exposure tothe sun igh salinity of the sea water any two) |) @ Rhizophora sp. (i) Difference: ‘The Avicennia sp. has breathing roots called ppheumatophores which grow vertically upwards through the mud into the ait, Each pneumatophore hhas many pores through which gaseous exchange ‘occurs during low tide The Rhizophora sp. has prop roots which support land anchor the tree to the ‘muddy sol Importance: ‘The ole of pneumatophores fs to faclitate gaseous ‘exchange while that of prop roots is or support in ruddy soil (0 @) Viviparity(viparous seedlings) (G1. Mad contains tle dissolved oxygen, Viviparous seedlings can objain oxygen from the atmosphere during mination. 2, High salinity of the sea ‘smart Prete ICS Blology Form 4 arses)