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Will x Going to

In portuguese, theres no such difference. It can express different meanings, some question can help
you to decide between them:
1 Is this action a decision made now or it just communicating what was decided before?
Ill call you later ( decided now)
Im going to call you later ( decided before, just communicating)
2 Do you have any prove or evidence for this future action or its just based on your opinions and
beliefs?
Lula will be president in 2018 ( you think this, you see this way)
Lula is going to be president in 2018 ( Therere external evidences, fact that proves this fact)
3 Is this future something planned and youre making something to make it happen?
I will marry to a handsome man ( You want it, youre sure but theres nothing in course to make it
happen)
Im going to marry to a handsome man ( you have a handsome man in your life, and you are
planning to marry him, or organizing your wedding or at least talking about it)

Will x Going to
In portuguese, theres no such difference. It can express different meanings, some question can help
you to decide between them:
1 Is this action a decision made now or it just communicating what was decided before?
Ill call you later ( decided now)
Im going to call you later ( decided before, just communicating)
2 Do you have any prove or evidence for this future action or its just based on your opinions and
beliefs?
Lula will be president in 2018 ( you think this, you see this way)
Lula is going to be president in 2018 ( Therere external evidences, fact that proves this fact)
3 Is this future something planned and youre making something to make it happen?
I will marry to a handsome man ( You want it, youre sure but theres nothing in course to make it
happen)
Im going to marry to a handsome man ( you have a handsome man in your life, and you are
planning to marry him, or organizing your wedding or at least talking about it)
PAST CONTINUOUS

This use is pretty familiar to Portuguese

1 Sometimes in narrative theres the need to narrate something that as in progress at a certain time in
the past. I can be used as the same way as present continuous but to talk about the past.

Compare:

Present: I wake up early and I have breakfast while Im watching TV. After that I go to work.
Im studying hard this week.

Past: I woke up early, had breakfast while I was watching TV. After that I went to work, I was
studying hard that week.

2 Sometimes is used to show and action that was in progress and was interrupted by another action:

I was having dinner when my boyfriend called me.

PAST CONTINUOUS

This use is pretty familiar to Portuguese

1 Sometimes in narrative theres the need to narrate something that as in progress at a certain time in
the past. I can be used as the same way as present continuous but to talk about the past.

Compare:

Present: I wake up early and I have breakfast while Im watching TV. After that I go to work.
Im studying hard this week.

Past: I woke up early, had breakfast while I was watching TV. After that I went to work, I was
studying hard that week.

2 Sometimes is used to show and action that was in progress and was interrupted by another action:

I was having dinner when my boyfriend called me.

ADVICE GIVING
HAD BETTER X SHOULD X MUST X HAVE TO

Each one carries different meanings showing different speakers perspective

Should: It is used when the speaker thinks that something is a good idea, Itll be good to the listener
to follow the advice however nothing is going to happen if the advice isnt followed.

Had Better: The speakers also think that the advice is a good idea but in this case if it isnt
followed, there will be consequences (generally showed by the context).

Must: The idea here is the idea of necessity in the speakers point of view. When the speaker
chooses to use MUST hes showing that he really sees that advice as necessary to the listener, and
he has obligation to follow for being such important for the listener.

Have to: It expresses almost the same idea of MUST, but unlike MUST (that indicate a necessity
according to the speakers opinion) the use of HAVE TO expresses that theres an external force
that forces this necessity (laws, rules, physical need etc.) Unlike must HAVE TO can be used in the
past form, future form and others

ADVICE GIVING

HAD BETTER X SHOULD X MUST X HAVE TO

Each one carries different meanings showing different speakers perspective

Should: It is used when the speaker thinks that something is a good idea, Itll be good to the listener
to follow the advice however nothing is going to happen if the advice isnt followed.

Had Better: The speakers also thinks that the advice is a good idea but in this case if it isnt
followed, there will be consequences.

Must: The idea here is the idea of necessity in the speakers point of view. When the speaker
chooses to use MUST hes showing that he really sees that advice as necessary to the listener, and
he has obligation to follow for being such important for the listener.

Have to: It expresses almost the same idea of MUST, but unlike MUST (that indicate a necessity
according to the speakers opinion) the use of HAVE TO expresses that theres an external force
that forces this necessity (laws, rules, physical need etc.) Unlike must HAVE TO can be used in the
past form, future form and others

INFINITIVE X GERUND
Sometimes a verb needs a complement, and there are cases where this complement is a VERB.
I live to love you
When it happens, there are two verb forms to the second verb: gerund or infinitive. This decision can be
taken based in 3 possibilities
1 Groups of verbs that after them the verbs can be used in GERUND or INFINITIVE, without any
difference in meaning (same information) Eg : Like , Hate , continue etc.
I like to play games = I like playing games
2 Groups of verbs that you can only use Infinitive or Gerund, you do not decide between these forms, it is
grammatically wrong if you dont use the write form, you need to check in a grammar book, or dictionary,
on internet. However if you use It wrong theres no change in meaning.
Only infinitive : agree, want , hope I want to be here on time.
Only gerund: admit , enjoy , consider, admit . He admitted driving too fast.
3 Group of verbs that after them the verbs can be used in the INFINITIVE or GERUND
But your choice is going to be based on what you want to say. There is a big chance of meaning when used
in this two forms Eg. Forget, Remember, Regret . (Check the differences on your book)
I Forgot calling you ( I called you but I forgot that I did)
I Forgot to call you ( I didnt call cause I forgot)

INFINITIVE X GERUND
Sometimes a verb needs a complement, and there are cases where this complement is a VERB.
I live to love you
When it happens, there are two verb forms to the second verb: gerund or infinitive. This decision can be
taken based in 3 possibilities:
1 Groups of verbs that after them the verbs can be used in GERUND or INFINITIVE, without any
difference in meaning (same information) Eg : Like , Hate , continue etc.
I like to play games = I like playing games
2 Groups of verbs that you can only use Infinitive or Gerund, you do not decide between these forms, it is
grammatically wrong if you dont use the write form, you need to check in a grammar book, or dictionary,
on internet. However if you use It wrong theres no change in meaning.
Only infinitive : agree, want , hope I want to be here on time.
Only gerund: admit , enjoy , consider, admit . He admitted driving too fast.
3 Group of verbs that after them the verbs can be used in the INFINITIVE or GERUND
But your choice is going to be based on what you want to say. There is a big chance of meaning when used
in this two forms Eg. Forget, Remember, Regret . (Check the differences on your book)
I Forgot calling you ( I called you but I forgot that I did)
I Forgot to call you ( I didnt call cause I forgot)
SIMPLE PAST X PRESENT PERFECT
PRESENT PERFECT: youre talking about an action that happened before the present time but what youre
interested in is the impact of that at the present time it can manifest in two ways:
1 An action that started in the past and continue in the present ( continuity) I have studied for two years
2 Something that happened at any time in the past ( we dont care when it happened, there is no indication
of time) what were interested in is how this action has an impact in the present (relevance)
The present perfect CANNOT be used if there is any reference, explicit or implied, to the time when
the action happened EXCEPT If the time reference is a period of time which has not yet ended at the time
of speaking: Have you seen Bob this morning? (Morning isnt over)
If the time reference is introduced by for or since referring to action that started in the past and is still
continuing We have lived in Rio for seven years (I still live probably) We lived in Rio for seven years (I
dont live anymore)
SIMPLE PAST: when we use the past simple, we are simply reporting the past. We are going back to a
moment in the past and telling it (accompanied in general by something that tell us when)
Judy broke her arm. (The listener knows that its a story about the past having no immediately relevance
to the present the speakers is just telling it)
Judy has broken her arm. (It can mean, it just happened and we have to do something about it or this fact
has some connection with what youre going to saying about the present)

SIMPLE PAST X PRESENT PERFECT


PRESENT PERFECT: youre talking about an action that happened before the present time but what youre
interested in is the impact of that at the present time it can manifest in two ways:
1 An action that started in the past and continue in the present ( continuity) I have studied for two years
2 Something that happened at any time in the past ( we dont care when it happened, there is no indication
of time) what were interested in is how this action has an impact in the present (relevance)
The present perfect CANNOT be used if there is any reference, explicit or implied, to the time when
the action happened EXCEPT If the time reference is a period of time which has not yet ended at the time
of speaking: Have you seen Bob this morning? (Morning isnt over)
If the time reference is introduced by for or since referring to action that started in the past and is still
continuing We have lived in Rio for seven years (I still live probably) We lived in Rio for seven years (I
dont live anymore)
SIMPLE PAST: when we use the past simple, we are simply reporting the past. We are going back to a
moment in the past and telling it (accompanied in general by something that tell us when)
Judy broke her arm. (The listener knows that its a story about the past having no immediately relevance
to the present the speakers is just telling it)
Judy has broken her arm. (It can mean, it just happened and we have to do something about it or this fact
has some connection with what youre going to saying about the present)

PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE X PRESENT PERFECT CONTIUNOUS


Present Perfect and Present Perfect continuous can be interchangeable sometimes- with no difference on
meaning: Ive studied a lot x Ive been studying a lot
However Present Perfect continuous presents only the idea of continuity, present perfect simple can present
the idea of continuity or relevance being only able to be analyzed by the context.
Lets compare:
Ive been reading a lot about babies. (Once the idea of PPC is of continuity in this sentence we can infer
that the person is still reading a lot)
Ive read a lot about babies. (In this case, the person cannot necessary be reading about babies currently, or
now but shes mentioning something she has done several times along her life)
As PPC expresses action in continuity it can be used to demonstrate gradual changes or actions that havent
stop happening: The price of oil has been falling lately. (It is going to keep falling) Your son has been
growing ( he will keep growing, focus on the process, on the changing).
Notice now the sentences in PPS The price of oil has fallen 50 percent (it wont keep falling) Your son
has grown ( Hes big now, focus on the result, on the consequence)
REMENBER : If you mention the numbers of time you perform the action ONLY PPS is possible: Ive read
this book 3 times. DO NOT USE PPC with the adverbs NEVER , EVER and ALWAYS. And the VERB
TO BE is not used in PPC Ive been in love with you since forever.

PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE X PRESENT PERFECT CONTIUNOUS


Present Perfect and Present Perfect continuous can be interchangeable sometimes- with no difference on
meaning: Ive studied a lot x Ive been studying a lot
However Present Perfect continuous presents only the idea of continuity, present perfect simple can present
the idea of continuity or relevance being only able to be analyzed by the context.
Lets compare:
Ive been reading a lot about babies. (Once the idea of PPC is of continuity in this sentence we can infer
that the person is still reading a lot)
Ive read a lot about babies. (In this case, the person cannot necessary be reading about babies currently, or
now but shes mentioning something she has done several times along her life)
As PPC expresses action in continuity it can be used to demonstrate gradual changes or actions that havent
stop happening: The price of oil has been falling lately. (It is going to keep falling) Your son has been
growing ( he will keep growing, focus on the process, on the changing).
Notice now the sentences in PPS The price of oil has fallen 50 percent (it wont keep falling) Your son
has grown ( Hes big now, focus on the result, on the consequence)
REMEMBER : If you mention the numbers of time you perform the action ONLY PPS is possible: Ive
read this book 3 times. DO NOT USE PPC with the adverbs NEVER , EVER and ALWAYS. And the
VERB TO BE is not used in PPC Ive been in love with you since forever.