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Chemical Engineering Department

Tikrit University

Abstract

The mathematical modeling of continuous stirred tank reactor system is developed

based on the mass and energy balances for the reactor and heating system. The system is

studied by introducing step change in concentration, inlet flow, flow of heating fluid,

inlet temperature and heating fluid temperature and measuring the temperature change

in the reactor. In this paper, a fuzzy logic controller has been designed and evaluated.

Through simulation study by using MATLAB, it has been shown that the proposed

fuzzy logic controller has given an excellent tracking and regulation performance

compared to that of the PID control system.

Keywords: Mathematical modeling of continuous stirred tank reactor, MATLAB

simulation, Fuzzy logic, PID controller.

.

.

--

.""

.

, , , :

.--

e(t): Temperature error signal. Concentration of A in the reactor,

: Volumetric flow rate of the inlet (kmole/m3).

stream, (m3/hr). Concentration of A in the inlet

Volumetric flow rate of the jacket, stream, (kmole/m3).

3

(m /hr). : Specific heat capacity of the inlet

: Heat of reaction, (kJ/kmol). stream, (kJ/kg.K).

k1: Reaction rate constant (min-1). : Specific heat capacity of the jacket

Constant of Eq.(1). water, (kJ/kg.K).

KT: Constant of Eq.(1). Specific heat capacity of the reacting

Gains of energy balance in Eq. mixture.

(4&6).

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Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences/Vol.20/No.2/March 2013, (70-80)

digital PID controllers (MSaad et al. [6] R: Universal gas constant, (kJ/kmol. K).

and Cameron, Seborg[7]) and gain- S: Laplace transform.

scheduled fuzzy logic controller (Pramit t : Time, (min.).

[8]

). td: Time delay, (min.).

Czeczot [9] applied a balance-based : Temperature of the outlet , (K).

adaptive control methodology and its :Temperature of the jacket, (K).

application to the control of the : Inlet temperature of the jacket, (K).

continuous stirred tank reactor. This U: Overall heat transfer coefficient,

control methodology combines (kw/K.m2).

simplicity and generality, the simulation V: Volume of the reactor, (m3).

results prove very good control Volume of the jacket, (m3).

performance of the balance-based

: Density of the outlet stream, (kg/m3).

adaptive controller in comparison with

Density of the jacket water, (kg/m3).

the classical PI controller. Salehi &

Mohammad [10] applied an adaptive : Time constant, (min.).

fuzzy temperature controller for a class : Concentration time constant, (min.) .

of continuous stirred tank, a fuzzy logic : Thermal time constant, (min.).

system is used to estimate the : Jacket time constant, (min.).

concentration dependent terms and other D: Derivative time constant, (min.).

unknown system parameters in the I: Integral time constant, (min.).

control law, using temperature A: Membership function.

measurements. Prakash & Senthil [11]

applied a nonlinear observer based Introduction

model predictive controller continuous Continuous stirred tank reactor system

stirred tank reactor. The nonlinear state (CSTR) is a typical chemical reactor

estimation is achieved by using fuzzy system with complex nonlinear dynamic

kalman filter and augmented state fuzzy characteristics. There has been

kalman filter. The fuzzy kalman filter is considerable interest in its state

used to estimate the reactor estimation and real time control based on

concentration and reactor temperature mathematical modeling. However, the

whereas the augmented state fuzzy lack of understanding of the dynamics of

kalman filter is used to estimate the the process, the highly sensitive and

reactor concentration, From the nonlinear behavior of the reactor, has

extensive simulation studies on the made difficult to develop a suitable

reactor, they infer that fuzzy kalman control strategy. An efficient control of

filter based nonlinear model predictive the CSTR can be achieved only through

controller was able to achieve an accurate model [1].

satisfactory servo performance. For fuzzy control, the issue for

Soukkou et al. [12]

applied a fuzzy designing robust controller using fuzzy

optimal control methodology to the logic technique has always been the key

design of the feedback loops of an point. In most cases, fuzzy control is

exothermic continuous stirred tank designed based on the use of heuristic

reactor system. Simulations demonstrate information from human experts without

that the proposed robust has successfully using any plant model as a reference

[2]

met the design specifications. Galluzzo .The control of continuous stirred tank

& Cosenza [13] considered a mixed reactor requires the application of

feedbackfeedforward control advanced techniques such as neural

configuration and type-2 fuzzy logic network control ( Nikravesh et al. [3],

Thompson and Kramer [4] and Seborg[5]),

72 Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences/Vol.20/No.2/March 2013, (70-80)

Take the Laplace transform of Eq. (3): controllers they're considered for the

temperature control of a non-isothermal

continuous stirred tank reactor. The

simulation results show that the

... (4) proposed control configuration with

type-2 FLCs can be an effective solution

to a very difficult control problem and an

The energy balance for the jacket

alternative to the use of adaptive

becomes.

controllers.

Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor

Take the Laplace transform of Eq. (5): The dynamic behavior of the continuous

stirred tank reactor has been modeled by

the following set of nonlinear equations

based on the mass and energy balances

(6) for the reactor and heating system. Heat

and mass balance has been developed

Fuzzy Logic Controller and comprehensively validated against

Fuzzy logic control is a methodology the pilot plant. For the hydrolysis of

bridging artificial intelligence and ethyl acetate (A) forming ethanol &

traditional control theory. This acetic acid with NaOH as a catalyst, the

methodology is usually applied in the following differential equations describe

only cases when accuracy is not of high the dynamics of the continuous stirred

necessity or importance. On the other tank reactor [14].

hand, Fuzzy Logic can address complex The mass balance equation of continuous

control problems, such as robotic arm stirred tank reactor becomes.

movement, chemical or manufacturing

process control, automobile transmission

control with more precision and

accuracy, in many cases, than traditional

control techniques . Fuzzy Logic is a

methodology for expressing operational

laws of a system in linguistic terms

instead of mathematical equations.

Wide spread of the fuzzy control and

high effectiveness of its applications in a

great extend is determined by Take the Laplace transform of Eq. (1):

formalization opportunities of necessary

behavior of a controller as a fuzzy

(flexible) representation. This .. (2)

representation usually is formulated in

the form of logical (fuzzy) rules under The energy balance equation of

linguistic variables of a type If A then continuous stirred tank reactor becomes.

B (15).

Fuzzy Set Basic operation

The theory of sets and the concept of a (3)

set itself constitute a foundation of

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Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences/Vol.20/No.2/March 2013, (70-80)

function is usually called the considers mathematical and simulation

membership function. models of application problems, on deals

Design of Fuzzy Logic Controller with mathematics and the set theory at

The decision-making activities of a the base of mathematics. The space

process operator in a regulation control which fuzzy sets are working in is called

task are shown in Figure (2); for the the universal set. Then a fuzzy subset

purposes of this work this activity is (A) of universal set (U) is characterized

expressed as a fuzzy relationship or by a membership function (A(u)) which

algorithm, relating significant observed is assigns to each element (U u). This

variables to the control actions. The form function determines if the element of the

of the decision rules employed depends universal set does or does not belong to

on the process under control and the this subset A. Hence the function may

heuristics employed. In the case of single have two values: TRUE or FALSE or in

input-single output regulation tasks numbers, 1 or 0.(16)

which are the subject of this study, the

process operator is assumed to respond

to the system error (E) and its rate of

change (CE), the result of a control {

decision being a change in the control

valve setting (CU). The resulting control

system has a measurement and control The main operations used are defined as

action basis similar to the versatile follow (16):

proportional + integral control system 1-The intersection of the fuzzy subsets

used extensively in the process industry (A) and (B) of the universal with

(17)

. The first step in fuzzy logic is to characteristic function define by:

convert the measured signal x (which

might be the error signal in a control

system) into a set of fuzzy variables.

This is called fuzzy classification or This corresponds to the logical AND

fuzzification. It is done by giving values operation.

(these will be our fuzzy variables) to 2-The union of the fuzzy subsets (A)

each of a set of membership functions. and (B) of the universe set (U) is

The values for each membership dented by:

function are labeled (x), and are with characteristic function define by:

determined by the original measured

signal x and the shapes of the

membership functions. A common fuzzy This corresponds to the logical OR

classifier splits the signal x into five operation.

fuzzy levels as follows: - 3-The complement of a fuzzy subset

a) LP: x is Large Positive (A) of the universe set (U) is denoted

b) SP: x is Small Positive by:

c) Z: x is Zero

d) SN: x is Small Negative

e) LN: x is Large Negative This corresponds to the logical NOT

operation.

We can simply follow these steps in

designing a fuzzy logic control:

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Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences/Vol.20/No.2/March 2013, (70-80)

5-The fuzzy decision rules are of set (U) of;

developed linguistically to do a

particular control task and are L (Ei) L

implemented as a set of fuzzy

conditional statements of the form: -L (CEi) L

Action and negative ends respectively of this

universe which is quantified into equally

This form can be translated with the help spaced levels in between those two ends.

of fuzzy sets definition into a new Ei and CEi represent the error and its rate

statement; of change for the same instant (i). The

calculation of the error and its rate of

IF PEB AND NCB THEN PUS change, from the fuzzy logic control

point of view the calculations of error

The derivation of the fuzzy rules can be (E) and its rate of change (CE) are as

obtained directly from the phase-plane of below:

error and its rate of change. Table (1) Ei = (Measured value)i Set value

shows the fuzzy rules conclusions. The CEi = Instant error Previous error

five fuzzy sets definition generates (25) The error definition here is the opposite

rules fuzzy controller. of that used in other control theory and

7- Choice of the defuzzification the cause is just to keep the linguistic

procedure. The defuzzification goal in that the fuzzy rules have already built

Mamdani type fuzzy controllers is to on.

produce a crisp output taking the fuzzy 2-Both Ei, CEi and u are multiplied by a

output obtained after rules processing. scale factor of the universe of set to

The center of gravity (COG) method is ensure mapping their values into suitable

used. intervals that belong to each one, also

8- Fuzzy Controller program: The fuzzy this scale factor helps to simplify

controller can be programmed in C, handling the numerical values of all

Fortran, Basic, MATLAB, or virtually variable.

any other programming language. 3-Choose a membership function,

Suppose that we let the computer such as number of classes to describe

variable (er) denote E(t), which we call all the values of the linguistic

the first input, and (de) denote CE(t), variable on the universe, the position

which we will call the second input. of different membership functions on

Using these definitions, consider the the universe of discourse, the width

program for a fuzzy controller output of the membership functions and the

given its two inputs: shape of a particular membership

For i=1 t0 200 function.

Multiplying e (i) and der (i) by a 4-Calculate the applicability degree.

suitable scale factor to get er(i) At this the degree to which the whole

and de (i). (inputs of fuzzy condition part (all the inputs)

controller). satisfies the rule is calculated. This

Compute 1 and 2. (Find the degree is called the degree of

values of all membership applicability of the condition part. It

is denoted as :

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Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences/Vol.20/No.2/March 2013, (70-80)

blades. The stirrer operates with range of functions given the values for

(0-250) rpm. (er) and (de).

Three glass rectangular vessels of Compute = min(1,2). (Find

two liters were used as feeding tanks. the values for the premise

These were fitted at the top of reactor membership functions for a given

and transfer of liquids by gravity to the (er) and (de).using the minimum

reactor. All the transport tubes of the operation).

system to the reactor are 12 mm inside Compute "du"

diameter and are made of stainless steel Let w (no. of rule)=0, du(no. of

to prevent any chemical corrosion. Flow rule).=0

rates were measured by independently

calibrated rotameters. The range of flow After applying these six steps on

of each rotameter is (0 40 L/hr.) of our 25 rules, then calculate COG

water at 200 C. num.= sum [du* ]/sum []

The reactor was heated by hot water, Output u crisp=u(i)+ COG*

which flows through the jacket around suitable scale factor for FLC

the reactor by using a small pump. The output

pump was capable of handling about (40 T(i+1) = T(i+1) + u

L/hr.) water and was heated by an

external electrical heater. The electrical Simulation of Control Methods

heater was provided with a digital screen The simulation technique is based on

to view the temperature. the software tool MATLAB to solve the

Thermocouple (3B37-T-03) was ordinary differential equations which

installed to measure reactor temperature, represent the system behavior. During

the input range of this thermocouple (- the digital simulation of the two methods

1000 C to +4000 C) and the output ranges of control, the controlled variable (T) is

(0 10 mV), this signals were converted calculated and from the response of this

through transmitter and then fed to the variable we find the best condition of the

computer through Analog digital control system.

interface. The open loop responses to step

change in ( are calculated

Results and Discussion from MATLAB program. The closed

Open Loop System loop response for Fuzzy Logic controller

In order to obtain a model for each is calculated by applying the steps in the

process, the input and output data of the simulation section, and software tool

open loop system are needed for the MATLAB to obtain the closed loop

evaluation purpose. The data is obtained response to a step change in the

from experiments done on the real mentioned variables.

process plant. The experimental results

of the open loop responses in the reactor Experimental Work

temperature for a step change in step The experiments were carried out in a

change in ( are shown in laboratory scale continuous stirred tank

the figures (3) to (6). reactor. The laboratory plant consists of

The mathematical model equations of 1 liter glass reactor with constant volume

continuous stirred tank reactor were byproduct overflow out of the vessel.

solved using MATLAB software. The Surrounded by a glass jacket as shown in

results values for model parameters are figure (1), it also equipped with the

as follows: stirrer of stainless steel which has two-

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Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences/Vol.20/No.2/March 2013, (70-80)

reactor system using fuzzy logic by =0.028, = 0.033, =0.08 and

shorting the time requires for reaching

the set point and eliminating the The transfer function of the reactor

oscillation in the response. can represent as the following equation

and Table (2) gives the value of these

Conclusions parameters:

From the present study, the following 21.69e 0.36s

conclusions are drawn regarding the G( s) .............................(7)

12.8s 1

control of continuous stirred tank

reactor.The process identification

Simulation was also used to calculate

procedure using process reaction curve

the controller parameters. These

methods showed that the system was

parameters were determined using

described as first-order lag system with

Cohen-Coon method. The simulated

dead time. The results have shown

reactor temperature responses are also

priority of the fuzzy logic controller

shown in the same figures for

compared with the classical controller

comparison. The Mean Square Error

(PID). The comparison between the

between the simulated and experimental

experimental data and simulation results

results are (0.077), (0.0743), (0.0595) &

gave a little deviation. It was considered

(0.0936) respectively. This deviation

that the differences were due to some

between the actual and simulated

reasons like the unisolated system and

response arises from the linearization

the non- linearity of the system

inherent in the transfer function model.

However, the responses with simulated

References and experimental are not significantly

1. Suja Malar & Thyagarajan,"

different.

Modelling of Continuous Stirred

Fuzzy Logic Controller

Tank Reactor Using Artificial

The fuzzy controller presented is

Intelligence Techniques",

applied for the continuous stirred tank

Department of Electrical and

reactor system. In order to certain the

Electronics Engineering, PET

advantages offered by the fuzzy control

Engineering College of India, Vol.3,

strategy, simulation results are also

pp. 145-155, (2009).

presented for PID controller. A

2. Passino K.M. and Yurkovich S,

simulation study was carried out to

"Fuzzy control", Menlo Park,

establish the effectiveness of the

California Addison Wesley Longman

proposed methods in controlling the

Inc.134, pp. 243-253 (1998).

reactor temperature and to predict the

3. Nikravesh M. , Farell A.E., Stanford

dynamic process behavior with tuning

T.G.," Control of Nonisothermal

the parameters of the controllers.

CSTR With Time Varying

The results obtained for the control

Parameters Via Dynamic Neural

system are shown in the figures (7) to

Network Control", Chemical

(10). The results obtained with the fuzzy

Engineering Journal,vol.76, pp. 1

controller were much better than

16, (2000).

conventional method. The fuzzy

4. Thompson M., and Kramer M.,

controller gave good control at all

"Modeling chemical processes using

operating points with a rapid response

prior knowledge and neural

and small amount of overshoot. These

responses show the improvement in

77

Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences/Vol.20/No.2/March 2013, (70-80)

Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor", (1994) 1328-1340

Journal of Process Control, Vol.18, 5. Seborg, D.E. "Experience with

pp. 504514, (2008). nonlinear control and identification

12. Soukkou A., Khellaf A., Leulmi S. strategies", Control'. (1994) 94, 879-

and Boudeghdegh K.," Optimal 886.

Control of a CSTR Process", 6. MSaad M., Bouslimani M. and

Brazilian Journal of Chemical Latifi M. A.," PID Adaptive Control

Engineering, pp. 799 812, (2008). of Exothermic Stirred Tank

13. Galluzzo M., and Cosenza M.," Reactors", Conference on Control

Control of a Non-Isothermal Applications, Vancouver, pp. 113-

Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor By 117, (1993).

a FeedbackFeedforward Structure 7. Cameron F., and Seborg D.E., "A

Using Type-2 Fuzzy Logic self-tuning controller with a PID

Controllers", Information structure", International Journal of

Sciences,Vol.32, pp. 35353550, Control 38 (2) (1983) 401 - 417.)

(2011). 8. Sarma P.," Multivariable Gain-

14. Stephanopoulos G., "Notes on Scheduled Fuzzy Logic Control of an

Chemical Process Control And Exothermic Reactor", Engineering

Chemical Modeling", Prentice/Hall Applications of Artificial

International, Inc, pp. 81-120, Intelligence, Vol.14, pp. 457471,

(1986). (2001).

15. Grigorie T. L.," Fuzzy Controllers, 9. Czeczot J., "Balance-Based Adaptive

Theory and Applications", InTech Control Methodology and Its

web organization, p. 17-20, (2011). Application to the Non-Isothermal

16. Passino, M. K. and Stephen, Y., CSTR", Chemical Engineering and

Fuzzy Control, Addison-Wesley Processing, Vol.45, pp. 359371,

Longman, Inc., California, (1998). (2006).

17. King, P. S. and Mamdani, E. H., 10. Salehia S., Mohammad Shahrokhi,"

The Application of Fuzzy Control Adaptive Fuzzy Approach For H

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(1977). Control Engineering Practice,

Vol.16, pp. 11011108, (2008).

11. Prakash J. and Senthil R.," Design

of Observer Based Nonlinear Model

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Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences/Vol.20/No.2/March 2013, (70-80)

Process.

307 301

306 300

305 Simulation

299

Temperature (k)

304 Experimental

Temperature (K)

Simulation

303 298

302 Experimental

297

301

296

300

299 295

0 20 40 0 10 20 30 40

Time (min.) Time (min.)

Figure (3): Comparison between the Figure (4): Comparison between the

open-loop simulated and experimental open-loop simulated and experimental

temperature responses to step change in temperature responses to step change in

jacket flow rate from 10 to 30 L/hr. jacket temperature from 313 to 323 K.

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Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences/Vol.20/No.2/March 2013, (70-80)

306 310

Temperature

305 308

304 306

Temperature (K)

(K)

302 PID

302 Experimental

300 - - - Setpoint

301

298

300

296

299

0 100 200 300

0 20 40

Time (min.) Time (sec.)

Figure (4): Comparison between the open-loop Figure (7) Comparison between

simulated and experimental temperature conventional control and fuzzy logic

responses to step change in jacket temperature control to a step change in jacket flow

from 313 to 323 K. from 10 to 30 L/hr

301 312

300 310

Simulation

299 308

Temperature (K)

Temperature (K)

Experimental

306 Fuzzy

298

304 PID

297 - - -Setpoint

302

296

300

295 298

0 10 20 30 40 0 100 200 300

Time (min.)

Time (sec.)

Figure (5): Comparison between the open-loop

simulated and experimental temperature Figure (8) Comparison between

responses to step change in feed flow rate conventional control and fuzzy logic

from 4.5 to 9 L/hr. control to a step change in feed

temperature from 285 to 293K

304

303

Temperature (K)

Simulation

302

Experimental

301

300

299

0 10 20 30 40

Time ( min.)

Figure (6): Comparison between the open-loop

simulated and experimental temperature responses

to step change in feed temperature from 285 to 293 K.

80

Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences/Vol.20/No.2/March 2013, (70-80)

E

PEB PES ZE NES NEB

CE

PCB NUB NUB NUB NUS ZU

PCS NUB NUS NUS ZU PUS

ZC NUB NUS ZU PUS PUB

NCS NUS ZU PUS PUS PUB

NCB ZU PUS PUB PUB PUB

transfer function of CSTR.

parameters Theoretical Experimental Error

KP, K.m3 /kmol 21.69 21.54 0.15

td , (min) 0.36 0.5 0.15

, (min) 12.8 18.92 6.12

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