Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 52

SUMMER TRAINING REPORT

on

1|Page
By
AMIT JAISWAL
5808614
PERIOD OF TRAINING: 18 JULY 2011 to 20 AUGUST 2011

2|Page
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I express my profound gratitude to our H.O.D and all the


faculty members of the Mechanical Department for taking
pains to guide me in the preparation of this project report.
It is a previlege to express my heartist thanks to all
members of CAD/CAM Solutions, Ambala Cantt. for
their valueable suggestions and constructive criticism was
like a bacon light and becomes a source of inspiration
during my preparation of this project report.

AMIT JAISWAL

Roll No.: 5808614

3|Page
PREFACE

CAD/CAM is a term which means Computer Aided Design & Computer


Aided Manufacturing. It is the technology concerned with the use of
digital computers to perform certain functions in design and production.
Electronics brains in the form of microprocessors are parts of cars we
drive, the planes in which we fly, the televisions we watch and the
automated tools we use to produce such products. The Computer Aided
Design or CAD systems are used to design such products.
The CAD hardware typically includes computer, one or more
graphics display terminals, keywords and other peripheral equipment.
The CAD software consists of the computer programs to facilitate the
engineering functions of the user company. Examples of these
application programs include stress-strain analysis of components,
dynamics response of mechanisms, heat transfer calculations and
customers markers are different.
These factors give rise to differences in CAD systems
requirements. Ultimately CAD/CAM will provide the technology base
for the computer-integrated factory of the future.

4|Page
CONTENTS

Introduction to AutoCAD
GUI of AutoCAD
Commands in AutoCAD
Layers
Viewports
Exercises
Sample 1
Sample 2
Sample 3
Sample 4
Sample 5
3D in AutoCAD
3D commands
3D Exercises
Sample 1
Sample 2

5|Page
AutoCAD

AutoCAD, developed by Autodesk Inc., is the most popular PC CAD


system available in the market. This design package is a general purpose
computer aided design and drafting application for your computer. The
speed and ease with which a drawing can be prepared and modified
using a computer offer a phenomenal advantage over hand preparation.
Here Im going to mention a few of the applications for which
AutoCAD is being used today:-

Architectural drawings of all kinds.


Interior designs on facility planning.
Drawings for Electronics, Chemical, Civil, Mechanical,
Automotives and Aerospace engineering applications.
Theatre set lighting designs.
Line drawing for the Fine Arts, Textiles, Fashion and Dress
designing.
Some other CAD packages developed by the same company are:-

Auto Shade
Auto Flix
Auto Ketch
Animator
3D Studio

AutoCAD Screen
6|Page
Various components of the initial AutoCAD screen are drawing
area, command window, menu bar, several toolbars, model and
layouts, and the status bar (Fig. 1). A title bar that has AutoCAD
symbol and the current drawing name is displayed on top of the
screen.

Figure 1 AutoCAD Screen

7|Page
SCREEN COMPONENTS

Drawing Area
The drawing area covers the major portion of the screen. Here we can
draw the objects and use the commands. To draw the objects, we need to
define the coordinate points, which can be selected by using our pointing
device

Command Window

Figure 2 Command Window

The command window at the bottom of the drawing area has the
command prompt where we can enter the commands. It also displays the
subsequent prompt sequences and the messages. We can change the size
of the window by placing the cursor on the top edge and then dragging it

Application Status Bar

Figure 3 Application Status Bar

The Status Bar is displayed at the bottom of the screen (Fig. 3). It
contains some useful information and buttons that will make it easy to

8|Page
change the status of some AutoCAD functions. We can toggle between
on and off states of most of these functions by choosing them.

Coordinates
The coordinates information is displayed on the left corner of the Status Bar. We
can select this coordinate button to toggle between on and off states. If the
COORDS system variable controls the type of display of coordinates.

Snap Mode
The snap mode allows you to move the cursor in fixed increments. If snap mode is
on, the Snap Mode button is chosen in the Status Bar; otherwise it is not
displayed.

Grid Display
The grid lines are used as a reference lines to draw objects in AutoCAD. If the
Grid Display button is chosen, the grid lines are displayed on the screen.

Ortho Mode
If the Ortho Mode button is chosen in the Status Bar, we can draw lines at right
angles only.

Polar Tracking
If we turn the polar tracking on, the movement of cursor is restricted along a path
based on set as the polar angle settings. Choosing the Polar Tracking button in the
Status Bar turns it on. Remember that turning the polar tracking on, automatically
turns off the ortho mode.

9|Page
Object Snap
When the Object Snap button is chosen in the Status Bar, we can use the running
object snaps to snap a point.

Allow/Disallow Dynamic UCS


Choosing the button allows or disallows the use of dynamic UCS. Allowing the
dynamic UCS ensures that the XY plane of the UCS got dynamically aligned with
the selected face of the model.

Dynamic Input
The Dynamic input button is used to turn the Dynamic Input on or off. Turning it
on facilitates the heads-up design approach because all commands, prompts and
the dimensional inputs will now be displayed in the drawing area and we do not
need to look at the command prompt all the time. This saves the design time and
also increases the efficiency of the user.

Show/Hide Lineweight
Choosing this button in the Status Bar allows you to turn on or off the display of
lineweights in the drawing.

Model
The Model button is chosen by default because you are working in the model space
to create drawings.

10 | P a g e
Annotation Scale
The annotation scale controls the size and display of the annotative objects in the
model space. The Annotation Scale button has a drop-down list that displays all the
annotation scales available for the current drawing.

Annotation Visibility
This button is used to control the visibility of the annotative objects that do not
support the current annotation scale in drawing area.

Automatically Add Scale


This button, if chosen, automatically adds all the annotation scales that are set
current to all the annotative objects present in the drawing.

Quick Properties
If you select a sketched entity when this button is chosen in the Status Bar, the
properties of selected entity will be displayed in a panel.

11 | P a g e
COMMANDS

LINE
Line command is used to draw a continuing series of line segments, but each line
segment is a separate object. We can invoke the LINE command from the Draw
toolbar, as shown in fig. 4

Figure 4 Draw Toolbar

We can also invoke the LINE command by entering LINE or L at the command
prompt. Once you have invoked the LINE command, the next prompt, the Specify
first point, requires us to specify the starting point. After first point is selected,
AutoCAD will prompt you to enter the second point at the Specify next point
prompt. At this point we may continue to select points or terminate the LINE
command by pressing ENTER, ESC, or the SPACEBAR. The prompt sequence of
invoking LINE command is as follows:

Command: LINE > Enter

Specify first point: Move the cursor (mouse) and left click to specify the first point.

Specify next point or [Undo]: Move the cursor and left click to specify the second
point.

Specify next point or [Undo]: Specify the third point.

Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: Enter.

(Press ENTER to exit LINE command.)

12 | P a g e
XLINE
The XLINE command can be used to draw construction or projection lines. These
lines are the lines that aid in construction or projection and are drawn very lightly,
when manually drafting. An xline (construction line) is a 3D line that extends to
infinity at both ends. As the line is infinite in length, it does not have any end
points. The prompt sequence of invoking the XLINE command is as follows:

Command: XLINE > Enter

Specify a point or [Hor/Ver/Ang/Bsect/Offset]: Specify an option or select a point


through which the xline will pass.

PLINE
The PLINE command is used to draw a polyline. A polyline is a line that has
different features. The term POLYLINE can be broken into two parts: POLY and
LINE. POLY means many. This signifies that a poly line can have many lines.
Some features of polylines are listed next.

Polylines can be thick lines with a desired width. They are very flexible and can be
used to draw any shape, such as a filled circle or a doughnut.

Polylines can be used to draw objects in any line type.

Advanced editing commands can be used to edit them (for example, the PEDIT
command).

The command prompt for invoking the PLINE command is as follows:

Command: PLINE < Enter

Specify start point: Specify the starting point or enter its coordinates.

Current line width is nn.nnn

13 | P a g e
Current line width is nn.nnn is displayed automatically, which indicates the
width of the polyline drawn. If we need a different width, invoke the Width option
at the next prompt and set it. Next the following prompt is displayed.

Specify next point or [Arc/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width]: Specify next point or


enter an option.

POLYGON
A regular polygon is a closed geometric figure with equal sides. The number of
side varies from 3 to 1024. For example, a triangle is a three sided polygon and a
pentagon is a five sided polygon. In AutoCAD, the POLYGON command is used
to draw regular 2D polygons. A polygon is said to be inscribed when it is drawn
inside an imaginary circle and its vertices touch the circle. Likewise, a polygon is
circumscribed when it is drawn outside imaginary circle and sides of polygon are
tangent to circle. We can easily choose one option from these two available options
during the invoking process. The prompt sequence of invoking POLYGON
command is given next.

Command: POLYGON < Enter

Enter number of sides <4>: Enter a value between 3 and 1024.

Specify center of polygon: Specify the center point or enter its coordinates.

Enter an option [Inscribed in circle/Circumscribed about circle]: Enter I or C.

Specify radius of circle: Specify the radius of circle, which will inscribe or
circumscribe the polygon.

RECTANG
The RECTANG command is used to draw rectangles in AutoCAD. We can draw
rectangles by specifying two opposite corners of the rectangle, by specifying the
area and the size of one of the sides, or by specifying the dimensions of rectangles.
The prompt sequence of invoking RECTANG command is as follows:
14 | P a g e
Command: RECTANG < Enter

Specify first corner point or [Chamfer/Elevation/Fillet/Thickness/Width]: Specify


first corner point or enter its coordinates.

Specify other corner point or [Area/Dimensions/Rotation]: Specify opposite corner


point or enter its coordinates.

ARC
An arc is defined as a part of a circle. In AutoCAD, it can be drawn using the ARC
command. AutoCAD provides eleven different options to draw an arc. To view
these options, click on Draw option in the Menu Bar, a flyout option will appear as
shown in fig. 5

Figure 5 Options in Menu Bar for Creating an Arc

15 | P a g e
The default setting is for creating a three point arc. The command prompt for
invoking ARC command is as follows:
Command: ARC < Enter

Specify start point of arc or [Center]: Specify first point of arc or enter its
coordinates.

Specify second point of arc or [Center/End]: Specify the through point for arc or
enter its coordinates.

Specify the end point of arc: Specify the end point or enter its coordinates.

16 | P a g e
CIRCLE
The CIRCLE command is used to draw circles. AutoCAD provides six different
options to draw a circle. To view and choose from the available options, click on
Draw option in the Menu Bar, a flyout will appear as shown in fig. 6

Figure 6 Options in Menu Bar for creating a Circle

The default setting is for creating a circle with Center and Radius option. The other
options can be invoked by entering the appropriate letter in the command window
or by the method stated earlier. The prompt sequence for invoking CIRCLE
command is stated next.

Command: CIRCLE < Enter

Specify center point for circle or [3P/2P/Ttr (tan tan radius)]: Specify center point
or enter its coordinates.

Specify radius of circle or [Diameter]: Enter the required value of radius.

17 | P a g e
ELLIPSE
If a circle is observed from an angle, the shape is called an ellipse, which can be
created in AutoCAD using the ELLIPSE command. An ellipse can be created by
two different options and these options are grouped together in the Draw option of
the Menu Bar as shown in fig.7

Figure 7 Options in Menu Bar for creating an Ellipse

The default setting is for creating an ellipse with Axis and End point option. The
Other options can be invoked by entering the appropriate letter in the command
window or by method stated above. The prompt sequence for invoking ELLIPSE
command is stated next.

Command: ELLIPSE < Enter

Specify axis endpoint of ellipse or [Arc/Center]: Enter coordinates of axis end


point or choose an option.

18 | P a g e
Specify other endpoint of axis: Specify other end point or enter its coordinates.

Specify distance to the other axis or [rotation]: Specify the half length of second
axis.

ERASE
After drawing some objects, you may need to erase some of them from the screen.
To erase, we can use ERASE command in AutoCAD. This command is used
exactly the same way as an eraser is used in manual drafting to delete unwanted
information. We can invoke ERASE command from the Modify toolbar

Figure 8 Modify Toolbar

When we invoke the ERASE command, a small box, known as pick box, replaces
the screen cursor. To erase an object, move the pick box so that it touches the
object. Select the object. AutoCAD confirms the selection by changing the selected
objects into dashed lines and the select objects prompt returns again. We can
continue selecting objects or press ENTER to terminate object selection and erase
the selected objects. The prompt sequence is given next.

Command: ERASE < Enter

Select objects: Select first object.

Select objects: Select second object.

Select objects: Enter

COPY
The COPY command is used to copy an existing object. This command makes
copies of the selected objects and places them at specified locations, but the
orignals are left intact. In this command we need to select the objects and specify
the base point. Next we need to specify the second point, this point is where we

19 | P a g e
want the copied objects to be placed. The prompt sequence that is followed when
you invoke COPY command is given next.

Command: COPY < Enter

Select objects: Select objects to copy.

Select objects: Enter

Specify base point or [Displacement/mOde] <Displacement>: Specify base point.

Specify second point or <use first point as displacement>: Specify a new position
on the screen using pointing device or entering coordinates.

Specify second point or [Exit/Undo] <Exit>: Enter

MIRROR
The MIRROR command creates a mirror copy of the selected objects. The objects
can be mirrored at any angle. This command is helpful in drawing symmetrical
figures. This command is available in Modify toolbar but it can be invoked by
using command window as well. When we invoke this command, AutoCAD
prompts us to select the objects and then the mirror line.

After we select the objects to be mirrored, AutoCAD prompts you to enter the
first point of mirror line and the second point of mirror line. A mirror line is an
imaginary line about which objects are reflected. We can specify the end point of
mirror line by specifying points on screen or by entering their coordinates. The
mirror line can be selected at any angle. The prompt sequence of invoking
MIRROR command is given next.

Command: MIRROR < Enter

Select objects: Select objects to be mirrored.

Select objects: Enter

Specify first point of mirror line: Specify the first endpoint.

20 | P a g e
Specify second point of mirror line: Specify the second endpoint.

Delete source objects? [Yes/No] <N>: Enter Y for deletion, N for retaining the
objects.

OFFSET
To draw parallel lines, concentric circles, arcs, curves, and so on, we can use the
OFFSET command. This command creates another object that is similar to the
selected one. Remember that we are allowed to select only one entity at a time to
be offset. While offsetting an object, we can specify the offset distance and the side
to offset, or we can specify a distance through which you want to offset the
selected object. The prompt sequence which follows when we invoke OFFSET
command using command window is given next.

Command: OFFSET < Enter

Specify offset distance or [Through/Erase/Layer] <Through>: Specify the offset


distance.

Through Option

Using this option we do not need to specify a distance; we simply specify an offset
point and the distance between them is stored as offset distance.

Erase Option

The Erase option is used to specify whether the source object has to be deleted or
not.

Layer Option

Use the Layer option to specify whether the offset entity will be placed in the
current layer or the layer of source object.

21 | P a g e
Specify the object to offset or [Exit/Undo] <Exit>: Specify the object to offset.

Specify point on side to offset or <Exit/Multiple/Undo>: Specify a point on side to


offset.

Select object to offset or [Exit/Undo] <Exit>: Select another object to offset or


press Enter.

ARRAY
An array is defined as the method of creating multiple copies of the selected object
and arranging them in a rectangular or circular fashion. In some drawings, we may
need to specify an object multiple times in a rectangular or circular arrangement.
For example, suppose you have to draw six chairs around a table. This job can be
accomplished by drawing each chair seperately or by using the COPY command
tomake multiple copies of the chair. But it is a very tedious process and also the
alignment of the chairs will have to be adjusted. Using ARRAY command, all we
need to do is create just one chair and the remaining five will be created and
automatically arranged around the table by the ARRAY command. This method is
more efficient and less time-consuming.

ARRAY command can be invoked by different methods such as from Modify


toolbar, or by making use of the Command Window, or from the Modify option of
Menu Bar.

RECTANGULAR ARRAY
A rectangular array is formed by making copies of the selected object along the X
and Y directions of an imaginary rectangle (along rows and columns). It can be
created by selecting the Rectangular Array button in the array dialog box (fig. 9)
that appears on invoking ARRAY comand.

ROWS

This edit box is used to specify the number of rows in rectangular array.

22 | P a g e
COLUMNS

This edit box is used to specify the number of columns in the rectangular array.

Figure 9 Rectangular Array option in Array dialog box

Offset distance and direction Area

The options under this area are used to define the distance between the rows and
the columns and the angle of array.

Row Offset. This edit box is used to specify the distance between the rows. We
can either enter the distance value in this edit box or choose the Pick Row Offset
button to define the row offset distance by specifying two points on screen.

Column Offset. This edit box is used to specify the distance between the
columns. We can either enter the distance value in this edit box or choose the Pick
Column Offset button to define the column offset distance by specifying two
points on screen.

Angle of Arrray. This edit box is used to define the angle of array. This is the
value by which the rows and columns will be rotated.

23 | P a g e
POLAR ARRAY
A polar array is an arrangement of the objects around a point in a circular fashion.
This kind of array is created by selecting the Polar Array button in the Array
dialog box (fig. 10) that appears on invoking ARRAY command.

Figure 10 Polar Array option in Arrray dialog box

CENTER POINT

The center point of the array is defined as the point around which the selected
items will be arranged. It is defined as the center point of the imaginary circle on
whose circumference the items will be placed. The coordinates of the center of
array can be specified in the X and Y edit boxes. We can either enter the values in
these edit boxes or select the center point of array from the screen using Pick
Center Point button.

Method and values Area

The options under this area are used to set the parameters related to the method that
will be employed to create the polar array.

Method. This drop-down list provides us three methods for creating the polar
array.These three methods are discussed next.
24 | P a g e
Total number of items & Angle to fill. This method is used to create a polar
array specifying number of items in array an the total included angle between the
first and the last item. The number of items and the angle to be filled can be
specified in the Total number of items and Angle to fill edit boxes respectively.
We can also specify the angle to fill on screen by choosing Angle to fill button
provided.

Total number of items & Angle between items. This method is used when we
want to create a polar array by specifying the total number of items in the array and
the included angle between two adjacent items. The angle between items is also
called as incremental angle. The number items and the angle between the items can
be specified in the Total number of items and Angle between items edit
boxes,respectively. We can also specify theangle between items on the screen by
choosing Angle between items button.

Angle to fill & Angle between items. This method is used when we want to
specifyangle between the items and total angle to fill. In this case the number of
items is not specified, but is automatically calculated using the total angle and
angle between the items. The angle to fill and the angle between the items can be
entered in their respective boxes.

MOVE
Sometimes the objects are not located where they should actually be. In these
situations, we can use the MOVE command. This command allows you to move
one or more objects from their current location to a new location. This change of
location of the objects does not change their size or orientation. On invoking this
command we are prompted to select objects to be moved and the base point. This
base point is the reference point with which the object will be picked and moved.

25 | P a g e
ROTATE
Sometimes we requires an object or any sketch in angular position.the. In these
situations, we can use the ROTATE command. This command allows you to rotate
one or more objects from their current location to a specific angle. This change of
of the objects does not change their size. On invoking this command we are
prompted to select objects to be rotated and the base point. This base point is the
reference point with which the object will be rotated.

SCALE
With the use of this command, we can increase or decrease the size of any object or
a sketch. Sometimes we requires an object in numbers, only with the difference of
sizes. So in this situation, we can use the SCALE command. This command allows
you to scale one or more objects from the selected base point. On invoking this
command we are prompted to select objects to be scaled and the base point. This
base point is the reference point with which the object will be scaled.

STRETCH
With the use of this command, we can increase or decrease the size of some
selected part of any object in a specific direction. In this command, the sketch is
stretched as much we required. Sometimes we requires an object in numbers, only
with the difference of sizes some part of the sketched object. So in this situation,
we can use the STRETCH command. This command allows you to stretch the
objects from the selected base point. On invoking this command we are prompted
to select the portion to be scaled with the help of green window and the base point.
This base point is the reference point with which the object will be stretched.

26 | P a g e
TRIM
With the use of this command, we can remove the line or any sketched entity. In
this command, the sketch is trimmed as much we required. It removes the extra
drawn line or sketch as per our specific requirement. This command allows you to
trim the objects from the selected side. On invoking this command, we have to
right click in the drawing area and we are prompted to left click on the portion to
be trimmed.

EXTEND
With the use of this command, we can increase the line the line upto the specific
point or location. In this command, the sketch is extended as much we required. It
removes the extra drawn line or sketch as per our specific requirement. On
invoking this command, we have to right click in the drawing area and we are
prompted to left click on the portion to be extend.

BREAK AT A POINT
With the use of this command, we can break the line at a point where we required.
In this command, the sketch is broken from that point where we required. We can
create the number of break points as much we required. On invoking this
command, we have to select the line and after that click on that point from where
we want to break the selected line, after using this command the line or any
selected entity will be converted into numbers.

27 | P a g e
BREAK
With the use of this command, we can break the line with a specific distance or
upto a specific point as much we required. On invoking this command, we have to
select the point on the line and after that click on that point upto where we want to
break the line. After using this command on the line or any selected entity, there
will be space between the slelected points in the line or entity.

JOIN
With the use of this command, we can join the line drawn or placed in the same
plane. On invoking this command, we have to select the first line and after that
second line placed at the same plane and then right click. After using this command
, there will be no space between the lines or entities.

CHAMFER
This command is used for removing the sharp corners. On invoking this command,
we have to press A then ENTER, after that fill the distance and then ENTER, then
fill the value of ANGLE and ENTER, after that select the line on which we want to
create the chamfer.

FILLET
This command is used for removing the sharp corners. On invoking this command,
we have to press R then ENTER, after that fill the value and then ENTER, after
that select the lines on which we want to create the radius.

28 | P a g e
REGION
This command is used for converting the relation of LINE into POLYLINE. Before
using this command the sketch should be closed from all sides. On invoking this
command, we have to select all lines and then right click.

EXPLODE
This command is used for converting the relation of POLYLINE into LINE. On
invoking this command, we have to select the POLYLINE and then right click.

29 | P a g e
EXERCISE NO 1:-

30 | P a g e
EXERCISE NO 2:-

31 | P a g e
EXERCISE NO 3:-

32 | P a g e
EXERCISE NO 4:-

33 | P a g e
EXERCISE NO 5:-

34 | P a g e
EXERCISE NO 6:-

35 | P a g e
EXERCISE NO 7:-

36 | P a g e
EXERCISE NO 8:-

37 | P a g e
EXERCISE NO 9:-

38 | P a g e
EXERCISE NO 10:-

39 | P a g e
3D MODELING TOOLBARS

40 | P a g e
MODELING

ORBIT

SOLID EDITING

UCS

VIEW

VISUAL STYLES

41 | P a g e
3D MODELS
EXERCISE NO 1:-

EXERCISE NO 2:-
42 | P a g e
EXERCISE NO 3:-

43 | P a g e
EXERCISE NO 4:-

44 | P a g e
EXERCISE NO 5:-

45 | P a g e
46 | P a g e
ASSEMBLY(MOULDING DIE)

PARTS USED FOR ASSY. OF CORE HALF & CAVITY HALF

47 | P a g e
PLATES USED FOR CAVITY HALF .

48 | P a g e
49 | P a g e
PLATES USED FOR CORE HALF

50 | P a g e
ASSEMBLY VIEW
51 | P a g e
52 | P a g e