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Other raw materials

Official
LEN/2013-02-07
UHT chocolate milks

TP70:128,1004BM
Cocoa powder
specification
H t stability
Heat t bilit off chocolate
h l t milk
ilk
140 HCT at 140C (min)

Skim milk
D-11-A
130
D-11-MC

120

110

100
6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 pH of the (chocolate milk)
TP70:132,1004BM
UHT chocolate
h l t milk
ilk

1004BM
T h l
Technology off UHT-milk
UHT ilk raw milk
ilk quality
lit
For sterility

Heat treatment Incubation

Total spore count 80C/10 min 35 - 37C/2 days


GOAL LIMIT
100 cfu/ml 1 000 cfu/ml

Thermo resistent spore count 100C/10 min 50 - 55C/5 days


GOAL LIMIT
10 cfu/ml 100 cfu/ml

1004BM
S
Sterilization off particles
Obtain sterilization temperature in the
centre
t off the
th particle
ti l

Particle size
Particle shape
Thermo p physical
y p
properties
p of p
particle and liquid
q
Heat transfer coefficient between liquid and particle
Calcium enriched
S
Source off Ca
C in our diet

Milk

Cream

TP70:175,1004BM
R
Recommended
d d daily
d il intake
i t k off calcium
l i

Children 1 10 years 800 mg


Young people 10 24 years 1200 mg
Pregnant or nursing women 1200 mg
Adults 800 mg

No. TP70:125b, JI01


1004BM
Composition of
1 kg off average milk
Water 860 g
Lactose 46 g
Protein 33 g
Casein 26 g
Wheyy proteins
p 7g
Fat 39 g
Minerals
Ca 1300 mg
P 900 mg
Na 400 mg
K 1500 mg
Cl 1100 mg

TP70:126,1004BM
Minerals and salts in milk

Calcium
p
Phosphorus
Potassium
Sodium
S di C
Casein submicelle

Protruding chain

Calcium phosphate
k-casein
Calcium salts
Puracal PP
Adjust pH to 7,2 -7,3 (KOH or Ca(OH)2)
Addition
Additi off K-tri-polyphospates
Kti l h t 0,1%
0 1% as
sequentant
Puracal Qstable
Fortification of soy products 800 1400mg/l
Attition to soy base at 70C
Recommended pH<7

Ca carbonate
Ca phosphates
Ca lactate
Lactoval HiCal micronised
Ca, P and Mg
TP70:49,1004BM
Iron enriched
Iron Fortification
Tetra Therm Aseptic

Ferrous salts (Fe2+)


are more soluble
than Ferric salts
(Fe3+)
Fesulphate most
common
New salts :
NaFe EDTA
Iron fortification
f f

Best Fe salt Fe pyrophophate


= 25% is Fe and 20% P
Disadvantage - not soluble
Micronisated
Mi i t d - 3m
3

Soluble Fe salt Ferrous bisglycinate

Security Level
Initials/YYYY-MM-DD / 16
S
Sources off Omega
O 3

Marine origin
EPA and DHA

In fatty fishes

Plant origin
Mainly LNA

1004BM
Health benefits
f

Reduction of cardio-vascular
disease risk
Anti-inflammatory effects
(rheumatoid arthritis)
Reduced risk for some
cancer forms
Important for brain and
nervous tissue development
in infants

1004BM
O id ti changes
Oxidative h

Formation of off flavours


Formation
of unhealthy
p
compounds
- free radicals
- aldehydes

1004BM
Off flavours
fl

Rancid

Fishy

Train oil
Metallic

Painty

1004BM
O id ti mechanisms
Oxidation h i

Me(n+1)+
. -
LOOH LO + OH

1004BM
O id ti ffaster
Oxidation t iin emulsion
l i
In emulsion droplets => large surface area
In bulk reaction only of the surface => small area

1004BM
S l bilit off oxygen
Solubility

In oil 1.2 mM
In water 0 25
0.25 mM

1004BM
A
Ascorbic
bi acid
id and
d ascorbyl
b l palmitate
l it t

Both showing prooxidative effect


at high concentration levels
- AA 4000 mg/kg
- AP 30 mg/kg

AP the most effective


antioxidant in milk (73%
protection)

1004BM
R
Rapeseed
d oil
il
Gives even better protection than the most
effective antioxidant (87% protection)
protection).

1004BM
Oil quality
lit

Recommendation to use fish oil


with peroxide value lower than 00,5
5
meq/kg, preferable 0,1 meq/kg
Otheroil protections -
microcapsulation

1004BM
Best manufacture?
f ?

Low PV value of the oil


0,1meq/kg
Addition of rapeseed oil 1:1

Addition
of ascorbyl palmitate or
-tocopherol
Protection during processing and
storage

1004BM
T t FlexDose
Tetra Fl D
Aseptic
A ti 5 or 10 lit
litre pouchh P d ti with
Production ith FDU 2000
with bar code

1004BM
Stabilizing systems
Main hydrocolloid functionality
f

Functionality Hydrocolloid

Gelling Carrageenan, pectin, xanthan/LBG, alginate, gelatine

Thickening LBG, guar, starch, pectin, carrageenan

Suspension
p LBG,, guar,
g , starch,, pectin,
p , carrageenan
g

Physical stabilisation Carrageenan, pectin, xanthan

Mouthfeel Starch, guar, LBG

Bulking agent Starch

Nutritional Starch, guar, pectin

Texturising All

Pag
e
30
S
Special features
f

Hydrocolloid Feature

Carrageenan Milk reactivity, brine/meat-gelling

Pectin Low Aw gelling, acid stable

Alginate Cold-gelling
Cold gelling, thermo
thermo-irreversible
irreversible

Xanthan Yield stress


Guar Viscosity
Gelatine Melting, slow-setting, clarity
Starch Bulk / carrier, gelatinisation
CMC Clarity, viscosity

Pag
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Main food
f gelling agents

Pectin Carrageenan
Starch Gellangum
Gelatine Xanthan / LBG
Alginate

Pag
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32
Main food
f thickeners

Starch

Guar gum
Locust bean gum
Xanthan

CMC

Pag
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Effectiveness
ff

The effectiveness may change depending on level of dosage

900
800
700
ec)

GRINSTED TM Guar 178


y (mPa*se

600 GRINDSTED TM LBG 147

500 GRINDSTED TM CMC 1250


GRINDSTED TM Xanthan X
400 GRINDSTED TM Alginate FD 175
Viscosity

300 GRINDSTED TM CarrageenanCL350H


GRINDSTED TM Pectin RS 461
200
100
V

0
0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8
Dosages (%)

Pag
e
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Main food
f hydrocolloid stabilisers

Xanthan gum (beverages,


MCC (all drinks with particulate
dressings)
material)
Locust bean gum (ice cream)
CMC ((acidified
idifi d milk
ilk d
drinks)
i k )
Pectin (acidified milk drinks)
Alginate (
Carrageenan (chocolate milk)

Source : Danisco Pag


e
35
Hydrocolloids in focus
f

Guar gum
Locust Bean Gum
Xanthan Gum
Cellulose
Pectin
Carrageenan
Source : Danisco Pag
Alginate e
36
Guar gum
Theendosperm from the seed of the guar plant
(Cyamopsis tetregonolobus)

CH2OH CH2OH CH2OH CH2OH CH2OH

GAL O GAL O GAL O GAL O GAL O


CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2
O O O O O
MAN O MAN O MAN O MAN O MAN O MAN O MAN O MAN O MAN
O O O O
CH2OH CH2OH CH2OH CH2OH

Pag
Source : Danisco e
37
S
Source off guar gum

Source : Danisco Pag


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38
Main properties
G
Guar Gum
G

ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
Long and slimy texture
Cold soluble
Freeze/thaw stable
Neutral in taste and odour
Cost effective

Source : Danisco Pag


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39
Hydrocolloids in focus
f

Guar gum
Locust Bean Gum
Xanthan Gum
Cellulose
Pectin
Carrageenan
Source : Danisco Pag
Alginate e
40
L
Locust
t bean
b gum
The endosperm from the seeds of the
carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua)
E410

CH2OH CH2OH CH2OH

GAL O GAL O GAL O


CH2 CH2OH CH2 CH2
O O O O
MAN O MAN O MAN O MAN O MAN O MAN O MAN O MAN O MAN
O O O O O
CH2OH CH2OH CH2OH CH2OH CH2OH

Source : Danisco Pag


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41
S
Source off LBG
G

Source : Danisco Pag


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42
Main properties
Locust bean gum

ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES

Freeze/thaw stable Hot soluble


Neutral in taste and odour Black spots
Short and creamy texture
Synergy with xanthan
and kappa carrageenan

Source : Danisco Pag


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43
S
Synergy with
ith Xanthan
X th (LBG)

Source : Danisco Pag


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Hydrocolloids in focus
f

Guar gum
Locust Bean Gum
Xanthan Gum
Cellulose
Pectin
Carrageenan
Source : Danisco Pag
Alginate e
45
Xanthan Gum

Polysaccharide produced by the


bacterium Xanthomonas Campestris

E415

Source : Danisco Pag


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46
Rheological
g properties
p p of xanthan
gum

High viscosity and gel like visco-elastic properties


at rest provide suspension and stability.
Low viscosity at high shear rates is ideal for
pumping, spraying and pouring

100000

osity (mPa.s)
10000

1000
Visco 100

10

1
0,001 0,01 0,1 1 10 100 1000 10000
Shear rate (s-1)

Source : Danisco 3% alginate 0.3% xanthan 1% LBG 0.5% guar gum 0.45% HEC
Pag
e
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Rheological properties of xanthan gum

10000000
Suspension
1000000
100000
Levelling Cling
Viscosity ((mPa s)

10000
1000
Pouring
100 Mouthfeel
Pumping
10 Brushing Spraying
1
0,000001 0,001 1 1000 1000000
Shear Rate (s -1)
Source : Danisco Pag
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Rheological properties of xanthan gum

10000 10
Pa.s)

Viscosity (Pa..s)
Viscosity (mP

V
0 3% Xanthan gum
0.3%
1000 0.8% Guar gum
1 3 5 7 9 11 0,1
pH 0 20 40 60 80 100
Temperature (C)

Xanthan viscosity is constant over a very The viscosity of xanthan gum decreases with
broad pH range
range. increasing temperature
temperature, however
however,
the viscosity is completely recovered when the
solution is cooled.
Guar gum loses some viscosity after heating
even in neutral conditions.

Source : Danisco Pag


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Main properties of xanthan Gum
St bilit
Stability Rheological properties

Alcohol
I i strength
Ionic t th variations
i ti High Viscosity at low concentrations
Heat High Viscosity at low shear rates
pH
Shear
Enzymes
Chemical - salts, acids, bases
Freeze-thaw stable

Source : Danisco Pag


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Hydrocolloids in focus
f

Guar gum
Locust Bean Gum
Xanthan Gum
Cellulose
Pectin
Carrageenan
Source : Danisco Pag
Alginate e
51
C
Cellulose definition
f

Cellulose from wood or cotton


Cotton: Cheaper and better, but GMO-issue
Limited use in food (E460ii) as bulking agent

Source : Danisco Pag


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C
Cellulose ffunctionality

E469: Enzymatically hydrolysed


CMC
E466: Regular CMC
Functionality: Viscosity + protein
stabilisation
bili i (l (low pH)
H)
Applications: Ice cream, milk/juice
drinks
E460i: MCC
Viscosity independent of temperature
Functionality: Viscosity,
Viscosity whitener
whitener, fat
replacer
Applications: Hot-filled chocolate milk,

Source : Danisco Pag


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Stabilisation through viscosity

Stabilisation through viscosity

Distribution in the water phase and no interaction with protein


High viscosity slows down separation rate
Possible negative effect on flavour release and mouthfeel

Source : Danisco
Pag
e
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Hydrocolloids in focus
f

Guar gum
Locust Bean Gum
Xanthan Gum
Cellulose
Pectin
Carrageenan
Source : Danisco Pag
Alginate e
55
Pectin definition
f

Water soluble hydrocolloid


Extracted
E t t d from
f higher
hi h llandd
plants as lime, lemon, orange
and apple
E440

Source : Danisco Pag


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S
Source off pectin

Source : Danisco Pag


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Nomenclature

PECTIN

High ester pectin Low ester pectin


(HE pectin),
pectin) ii.e.
e %DE > 50 (LE pectin),
pectin) ii.e.%DE
e %DE < 50

Low ester Low ester


Conventional pectin amidated pectin
Degree
g of: (LC pectin)
pectin), %DE < 50 (LA pectin)
pectin), %DA < 25
Esterification (% DE)
Amidation (% DA)
Free acids (% DFA)

Source : Danisco Pag


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Pectin properties

Pectin type Type of gel structure Reaction with calcium

HE pectin Non-reversible Calcium sensitive

LE pectins (LC, LA) Shear reversible (pumpability) + to +++++

LA pectin (LA pectin only!) Heat reversible +++ to +++++

LC pectins Heat stable + to +++

Source : Danisco Pag


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Primary and secondary structure of
pectin
Hairy region Galacturonic acid
Methylated galacturonic acid
Amidated galacturonic acid
Rhamnose
Arabinose or galactose
The Xylose (high content in apple pectin
di ib i
distribution A t l group (hi
Acetyl (high
h content
t t iin sugar b
beett
of methylated pectin)

groups and
CONH2
H
substitutes
b tit t COOCH3 OH O
are of OH O OH
OH OH
significant OH OH
importance in OH COOH
OH O
the pectin OH
functionality. OH
OH

Pectin is not just a simple


polymer of galacturonic acids Source : Danisco Rhamnogalacturonan
Pag
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Pectin types, applications and
specialties
% Esterfication
Protein protection
80 R id sett
Rapid B
Beverage
Jams
70 Bakery jams
Medium rapid set
Jam
60 Slow set
Confectionery jellies (CF)
Extra slow set
50

40
35 LA Low Ester Amidated LC Low Ester Conventional
30
20
Spreadable jams (SF) Bake stable fillings (FB)
10 Yogurt fruit preparations (YF) Yogurt stabilisation (SY)
C lt d products
Cultured d t (SY) O
Organic
i jams
j
0
Source : Danisco Pag
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Is stabilisation of acidified milk drinks
required?

Almost identical products but one important difference

Low quality High quality

Food spoilage? No risk

Clear separation Nice appearance

Sandy mouthfeel Smooth mouthfeel

Uncontrolled Consistent
viscosity Source : Danisco viscosity
Pag
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Stabilisation of acidified proteins drinks

Steric stabilisation
Electrostatic interaction with protein
Steric stabilisation protects proteins against
aggregation
Clean flavour release and excellent mouthfeel
GRINDSTED P ti AMD
Pectin

Pag
Source : Danisco e
63
GRINDSTED Pectin AMD series
for protein beverages

Function Benefits
Protein protection in low pH and Prevents protein coagulation and
heat-treated products sedimentation
Dairy or vegetable proteins
Flexible
Variety of textures and mouth feel
Designer beverages

Pag
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Hydrocolloids in focus
f

Guar gum
Locust Bean Gum
Xanthan Gum
Cellulose
Pectin

Source : Danisco Carrageenan


Pag
Alginate e
65
C
Carrageenan definition
f

Water-soluble hydrocolloid
Extracted from red algae
g
E407

Source : Danisco Pag


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S
Source off carrageenan

Source : Danisco Pag


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Molecular model for carrageenan
OSO3- OH X=OH (30%)
O X=OSO3- (70%)
O
O
O O
OH
OH
Kappa
1 sulphate group for 2 OSO3- OH
O O
galactose units
O 3 sulphate groups for 2
25 % sulphate O O galactose units
34 % 3-6 bridges OH
OSO3- 35 % sulphate
p
0 % 3-6 bridge
Iota
OH OSO3-
OH
2 sulphate g
groups for 2 O OH
galactose units O
O O
30 % sulphate X
30 % 3-6 bridge OSO3-
Lambda

Source : Danisco Pag


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Comparative properties of carrageenan types

Kappa Iota Lambda Hybrid


Partly cold soluble
Solubilityy Hot Cold Soluble Hot
(>40C)

Synergy with LBG Yes No No Yes

Gels most strongly Gels most strongly Gels with both K+ and
Gelling Non-gelling
with K+ with Ca++ Ca++

Gel properties Brittle gel Elastic gel Non-gelling Elastic gel

Syneresis High Low Low

Re-gelling after shear


No Yes No Yes
(thixotropic)

Source : Danisco Pag


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G lli mechanism
Gelling h i for
f kappa
k carrageenan

Cool Cool

Heat Heat

Solution Gel 1 Gel 2


Pag
Source : Danisco e
70
C
Carrageenan gelling profile
f

Kappa carrageenan
Hybrid carrageenan

Iota carrageenan

Source : Danisco Pag


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Model of network formation in chocolate milk

Source : Danisco Pag


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S
Synergy with LBG
G

Increased gel
strength, increased
gel elasticity,
g y,
1600 reduction
1400 of syneresis
h [g]

1200
Gel strength

1000
800
600
400
200
0
0% 20 / 80 40 / 60 60 / 40 80 / 20 100 /0
100%

Proportion of Kappa
Kappa-Carr:
Carr: LBG

Source : Danisco Pag


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Carrageenan applications

Food
Water jellies & glazes
Dairy products
Fresh Desserts
Frozen Desserts
Beverages
g
Whipped Cream
Recombined milk
Processed Cheese
Fruit preparations
Sauces
Beverages drinking jellies

Source : Danisco Pag


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Hydrocolloids in focus
f

Guar gum
Locust Bean Gum
Xanthan Gum
Cellulose
Pectin
Carrageenan
Pag
e
Alginate 75
Alginate definition
Extractedfrom brown algae
Also produced by certain bacteria
E400 - E401 - E402 - E403 - E404

Pag
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Alginate - raw materials

Pag
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Egg box model for alginate gelation

Pag
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3 things to remember
about the characteristics of alginate

1. Polysaccaride
2. Cold gelation
g
3. Heat-stable gels

Source : Danisco Pag


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Hydrocolloids - summary

nan

Xanthan
n
Carrageen

Pectin
HDC

Guar
CMC

LBG
Property

Alcohol tolerance + + ++ + + + +++

Thickening ++ + +++ +++ ++ + +++

Suspension ++ + +++

Gelling
Hot soluble
Cold soluble
pH stability + + ++ + + ++ +++

Colloidal stabilisation
Mouthfeel
Cost in use + ++ + + +++ +++ ++
Source : Danisco Pag
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Important parameters to assure full
functionality of the stabiliser

Definitions
Dispersibility is the separation of
the individual gum particles
Hydration
y is the which these
individual particles swell and
develop viscosity

Source : Danisco Pag


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Factors affecting dispersion &
hydration

Dispersion Hydration
Solubility
y of the hydrocolloid
y Solubility
y of the hydrocolloid
y
Mixing conditions Dispersion
Particle size Particle size
Solvent Solvent
Other ingredients Temperature

Source : Danisco Pag


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Emulsifiers for Neutral pH
Dairy Products

Source : Danisco
What is an emulsifier?
f ?

Emulsifier
Oil
W t
Water

Homogeneous
blend

Source : Danisco
Emulsion types
Emulsion Stability

Water-in-oil emulsion
Examples: Margarine and
spreads

Oil-in-water emulsion
Examples: Coffee whitener
whitener,
recombined milk, dairy
cream, Source : Danisco
What is an emulsifier?
f ?

An emulsifier is a surface active substance consisting of molecules with


hydrophilic and lipophilic parts it is an amphiphilic molecule.

The lipophilic (hydrophobic) part of the


emulsifier may consist of a fatty acid

The hydrophilic part of the emulsifier may consist


of glycerol and its derivatives

Source : Danisco
Frequently used emulsifiers in
neutral pH dairy products

Mono-diglycerides (E471)

Lactic acid esters of monoglycerides (E472b)

Mono-
M andd diacetyl
di t l tartaric
t t i acid id esters
t off mono-
And diglycerides of fatty acids (E472e)

Sodium
S di stearyl
t l lactylate
l t l t (E481)

Polysorbate

Proteins

Source : Danisco
Page 87
Emulsifier dosage versus fat globule size

3.22
3.0
Particle size d(4..3) Micron

2.0 18
1.8

1.5
1.32
10
1.0 0.91
0.81

0 0.04 0.08 0.12 0.14 0.18 0.22


% Emulsifier
Source : DaniscoPage 88
Fat globule structure in recombined
milk

Source : Danisco
F
Function
ti off emulsifiers
l ifi in
i recombined
bi d milk
ilk

Increase fat emulsion stability

Reduce fouling of PHE

Improves creaminess

I
Improve th effect
the ff t off the
th stabiliser
t bili t
systems

Source : Danisco
Page 90
Good emulsion stability with neither
f separation nor feathering
fat f
Na caseinate and emulsifiers are responsible for the emulsion stability
Na-caseinate
Non-ionic emulsifiers like DIMODAN distilled monoglyceride controls the amount of
proteins in the membrane surface
To prevent aggregation of the fat globules through protein-protein interaction, ionic
emulsifiers
l ifi lik
like PANODAN DATEM are used d to
t ensure the
th emulsion
l i stability
t bilit through
th h
electrostatic repulsion
Emulsifier dosage guideline: 4-5% of the total fat with a 10:1 ration of non-ionic to ionic

Water Protein

DATEM

Oil
Monoglycerid
e Source : Danisco
Page 91
Whitening effect is influenced by the
particle size off the ffat globules

Non-ionic emulsifiers like distilled monoglycerides DIMODAN reduce the size of the fat globules
The higher the dosage monoglycerides, the higher the whitening effect
Recommend dosage of 1-2% of pure monoglycerides

700 40
size (nm)

600

Whitening
39

ue
L-valu
Particle s

500

38
400

300 37

0 1 2 3
% Monoglyceride Source : Danisco
Page 92
Emulsifiers used in dairy whipping
cream

GRINDSTED LACTEM
Lactic Acid Ester

GRINDSTED MONO-DI
Mono-diglyceride

Efficient whipping agents


Fine air cell distribution
Increases firmness of foam

Source : Danisco
Page 93