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HA HC THC PHM

David S. Reid, Tanaboon Sajjaanantakul,


Peter J. Lillford, Sanguansri Charoenrein

CHNG 4 WATER PROPERTIES


IN FOOD, HEALTH, PHARMACEUTICAL
AND BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS: ISOPOW 10
NC Wiley Blackwell
A John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Publication
2010, 771p

1 Google.au/books/water 2
Tn N Minh Nguyt HBK TPHCM

CAU TAO PHAN T NC CAU TAO PHAN T NC

Dang n phan Lien ket hydro

Cong thc phan t : H2O (M=18 nc thng) Lien ket Hydro AH+ ------ B-

Lien ket gia H va O la lien ket cong hoa tr (492.2 kJ/mol) B la cac nguyen t co o am ien cao nh F, Cl, N,

o phan cc manh, 2 v tr tch ien + / 2 v tr tch ien - Lien ket hydro la lien ket yeu (23,3 KJ/mol)
So lng ln
CAU TAO PHAN T NC CAU TAO PHAN T NC
Lien hp phan t nc
Lien hp phan t nc
Qua trnh tao lien hp nc --- hydrat hoa nc
Cong thc: [H2O]n vi n = 2,3,4,
Qua trnh tach lien hp nc --- dehydrat hoa nc
Tao thanh do lien ket hydro gia cac phan t nc
nH2O [H2O]n
Mot phan t nc co the gan vi toi a 4 phan t nc khac
[H2O]n [H2O]n-1 + H2O
tao nen cau truc t dien

Yeu to anh hng en qua trnh lien hp nc

Nhiet o lam thay oi toc o dao ong cua cac phan t nc


Cac chat ien ly Na+, K+,Cl- co the tao lien ket Hydro vi nc
Cac chat khg phan cc lam giam ch ong nhiet cua pt nc
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GIAN O PHA CUA NC CAU TAO PHAN T NC


Trang thai ton tai cua nc
Long: 0 100oC (V mL) hydrat hoa dehydrat hoa
100oC nc soi cac phan t nc dang n phan

Kh: Tai iem hoa hi (100oC) dang n phan (P atm)

ng c Ha hi Ran: Tai iem ong ac (0oC) dang lien hp


nng chy Cau truc tinh the cua nc a: t dien eu va cau truc rong
Ngng t

Thng hoa

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TNH CHAT CUA NC TNH CHAT CUA NC
Tnh chat vat ly Tnh chat vat ly

Chat long vo nh hnh, o nht thap Ap suat hi bao hoa trang thai can bang

Dung moi tr hoa hoc, o phan cc cao Ty trong nc long 0oC (0,9998g/mL)
Ty trong nc a 0oC (0,9168g/mL)

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CAU TRUC T DIEN CUA NC A Tnh chat vat ly TNH CHAT CUA NC

Tnh chat Gia tr


Khoi lng phan t 18,0153
iem nong chay (1atm) 0,000 oC
iem soi (1atm) 100,000 oC
Nhiet o ti han 373,99 oC
Ap suat ti han 218,6 atm
Can bang Eutecti 0,01 oC - 0,006 atm
Nang lng hoa long (0OC) 6,012 KJ/mol
Nang lng hoa hi (100OC) 40,657 KJ/mol
Noi nang 50,91 KJ/mol
20OC 0OC (Nc) 0OC (a) - 20OC (a)
Ty trong [g/mL] 0.99821 0.99984 0.9168 0.9193
o nht [Pa.s] 1,002. 10-3 1,793. 10-3 - -
Sc cang be mat vi kk [N/m] 72,75. 10-3 75,64. 10-3 - -
Ap suat hi [kPa] 2,3388 0,6113 0,6113 0,103
Nhiet dung rieng [J/g oK] 4,1818 4,2176 2,1009 1,9544
o dan nhiet [W/m. oK] 0,5984 0,5610 2,240 2,433
Nhiet khuech tan [m2 /s] 1,4. 10-7 1,3. 10-7 11,7. 10-7 11,8. 10-7
Hang so ien moi 80,20 87,90 -90 -98

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HOAT TNH NC HOAT TNH NC
(aw : water activity) Xac nh hoat o nc (aw : water activity)

Hoat o nc cua mot loai thc pham


= la ty so ap suat hi bao hoa pha tren be mat thc pham va
ap suat hi bao hoa cua nc nguyen chat

Bieu thc Raoult e tnh hoat tnh nc:

P - ap suat hi bao hoa cua nc nguyen chat


P < P0 nen aw < 1 Po - ap suat hi bao hoa cua nc tren san pham
khong co n v tnh N so mol nc trong dung dch
n so mol chat tan trong dung dch

o am (%W; g/100g)
= ham lng nc t do co trong thc pham
= % nc t do trong toan bo khoi lng san pham thc
pham (o bang phng phap say ti khoi lng khong oi)
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HOAT TNH NC HOAT TNH NC


(aw : water activity) (aw : water activity)
Anh hng cua hoat o nc en
che bien va bao quan thc pham
Cac phng phap giam hoat tnh nc
e bao quan thc pham

Say: nang nhiet o len lam bay hi nc.


khong phai san pham nao cung co the qua say c

Bo sung cac chat co kha nang hydrat hoa cao: Glucid, protein

Cho dong kh co o am tng oi xac nh i qua vat lieu can


ieu chnh hoat o nc

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LIEN KET NC TRONG TP LIEN KET NC TRONG TP

Lien ket hoa hoc Lien ket hoa ly

Nc hap phu: polymer sinh hoc (thanh phan cua TP)


Lien ket ion : Ca2+ + 2COO- de hap phu nc len be mat phan t cua mnh hnh thanh
Lien ket phan t: CuSO4.5H2O, C6H12O6.H2O mot lp nc hydrat hoa.

Nc tham thau ket cau: v s chenh lech ap suat


4-6% lng nc (Loai 1) tham thau, nc se tham thau vao mang gel cua TP.

10-25% tong lng nc trong vat lieu (Loai 2)

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LIEN KET NC TRONG TP NG ANG NHIET HAP PHU

ng ang nhiet hap phu

Lien ket vat ly (nc t do) la ng cong bieu dien moi quan he gia o am (g nc /g ck) va
hoat tnh nc ieu kien can bang va mot nhiet o nhat nh
Nc mao quan: Do chenh lech ap suat thuy tnh
nc t do ben ngoai se b hut vao cac ong mao dan.

Nc tham t be mat: Nc c hoc, la lng nc


d bao phu toan bo be mat vat lieu, ay chnh la dung
moi cua cac dung dch nc

70 - 80% tong ham lng nc (Loai 3)

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NG ANG NHIET HAP PHU NG ANG NHIET HAP PHU
Vat lieu co o am cao
Loai I (aw = 0 0,2) Khoai tay
Nc lien ket = ion (COO-, NH3+, OH-), 020406080100oC
+ hydro + Van der Waals
Hap phu manh, kem linh ong nhat
Khong ong ac -40oC
Khong co kha nang hoa tan chat tan
Chiem 3 10% lng nc

Loai II (aw = 0,2 0,7) Vat lieu khac nhau


Nc hap phu, tham thau, hydrat hoa
o ben lien ket khong cao
Cac phan t nc linh ong hn

Loai III (aw > 0,7)


Nc t do = mao quan (aw = 0.9)
+ tham t (aw > 0.9) A. Vat lieu khong
Gi c tnh chat cua nc, tham gia ong ran
phan ng va lam dung moi B. Thc pham
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C. Chat ran 22

NG ANG NHIET HAP PHU VAI TRO CUA NC


Vai tro sinh hoc
Hien tng tre Tham gia vao thanh phan cau truc cua te bao: lien ket
hap phu vi cac polime sinh hoc tao thanh dch te bao
Dung moi hoa tan cac chat va la moi trng e xay ra cac
phan ng hoa hoc
o ng cong tre hap Tham gia cac phan ng thuy phan, hydrat hoa, oxy hoa
phu kh
Van chuyen cac chat en cac c quan can thiet
ham am aw (say) ieu hoa than nhiet va on nh nhiet cho c the
o Nguyen lieu khac La chat em on nh pH pH trung tnh
nhau th co ng Bao ve te bao, mo, c quan, khp xng nh phan em
cong tre hap phu nc cac gian bao
khac nhau. ao thai c cac chat d tha, can ba, chat oc va vi
sinh vat co hai ra khoi c the (than)

Thieu nc: roi loan sinh ly, co the chet khi lng
23 nc mat hn 12 % so v khoi lng c the. 24
VAI TRO CUA NC VAI TRO CUA NC
Vai tro trong san xuat TP Vai tro trong san xuat TP
Nc la thanh phan chnh cua hau het cac nguyen lieu trong
san xuat thc pham X ly nguyen lieu: nhao ra, lam sach, van chuyen

Loai Nguyen lieu Ham lng nc [%]


Tht, ca Tht heo, nguyen lieu, phan nac 53 60 Tao san pham, x ly san pham
Tht bo, nguyen lieu, 50 70
Nguyen lieu chnh: bia, nc giai khat,
Tht ga, cac loai, khong co da 74
Ca, phan tht 65 81 Tham gia phan ng: phan ng thuy phan,
Trai cay Cac loai qua mong, anh ao, le 80 85 Thc hien qua trnh sinh hoc: len men, nay mam,
Tao, ao, cam, bi 90
ai hoang, dau, ca chua 90 95 Tang chat lng san pham: o bong, o dai, o mn,
Rau Avocado, chuoi, au Ha Lan 74 80
Ccai g, broccoli, ca rot, kh tay 85 90 ot nong, lam lanh cac thiet b, la chat tai nhiet trong noi 2 vo,
Mang tay, au, cbap, bong cai 90 95 noi thanh trung, noi hap
Lng Lua 13 14
thc Ngu coc 16 -17 25 26

NC CP

TIU CHUN V SINH NC N UNG


(Ban hnh km theo Quyt nh ca B trng B Y t
s 1329/ 2002/BYT/Q ngy 18 / 4 /2002)
Nc n ung dng trong tiu chun ny l nc dng cho n
ung, ch bin thc phm, nc t cc nh my nc khu vc
th cp cho n ung v sinh hot

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NC THI

QUY CHUN K THUT QUC GIA


V NC THI CNG NGHIP

National Technical Regulation on Indus trial Wastewater

QCVN 40:2011/BTNMT

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