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CHAPTER 2: ALGEBRA

Example:

2.1 INDICES 2

2 3 35 ( 7 2 ) 32 9

LAW OF EXPONENT = =

7 4 2 4 33 2 2

Law Example Example:

m

a a =an m+n

3 3 = 32 + 4 = 36

2 4

am 34 32 55 + 33 53

= a mn = 34 2 = 32

an 32 34 5 4

m n 4 2

(a ) = a mn (3 ) = 342 = 38

n 4

( ab ) = a nb n ( xy ) = x4 y4

n 2

a an 3 32 9

= = 2

=

b bn 4 4 16

n n 2

a b 3 32 16

= = =

b a 4 4 2 9

an bm 3 3 4 2 16

m = n 2 = 3 =

b a 4 3 27

m 3

a n = n am 2 = 4 23

4

Example:

a0 = 1 x

0

y =1

92 74

1 5 34 7 4 + 33 7 2

a 1 = 5 x 3 = 3

a x

Example:

7 2 7 4 7 7 3 = 7 2 + 4 +1+3 = 710

Example:

2 3 2 3

(9 3 ) =

(3 3 ) 2

2 3 2

( 3 27 ) ( 3 3 )

4 3

=

(3 ) = 3 4

Example:

4 2

(3 ) If 3 p + 4 = 9 p 2 find the value of p

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24 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

FUNCTION The logarithm with base 10 is called common

logarithm and is denoted by omitting the base

DEFINITION

Let a be a positive number with a 1. The lg x = log x = log10 x

logarithmic function with base a, denoted by

loga is defined by Natural Logarithm

natural logarithm and is denoted by ln

When we use the definition of logarithms to

switch back and forth between the ln x = loge x

logarithmic form log a x = y and the The natural logarithmic function y = ln x is

exponential form a y = x , its helpful to notice the inverse function of the exponential

x

function y = e

that, in both form, the base is the same:

By the definition of inverse function we have

Logarithmic form: ln x = y e x = x

exponent

log a x = y

Property Reason

base ln1 = 0 We must raise e to the

power 0 to get 1.

Exponential form: ln e = 1 We must raise e to the

exponent power 1 to get e

ln e x = x We must raise e to the

ay = x power x to get e x

eln x = x ln x is the power to

which e must be raised

base to get x.

Evaluate the following:

Property Reason

We must raise a to x = log 3 9 x = log10 0.001

log a 1 = 0

the power 0 to get 1. 3x = 9 10 x = 0.001

log a a = 1 We must raise a to

the power 1 to get a

3x = 32 10 x = 103

log a a x = x We must raise a to x = 2 x = 3

the power x to get

ax x = ln e 1

x = log 3

a log a x

=x loga x is the power x = log e e 81

to which a must be x =1 1

3x =

raised to get x. 81

3 = 34

x

x = 4

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25 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

x = 23 x = 52 = 6 log 2 7 log 2 + 5log 2

x = 8 1 = 4 log 2

x =

25

3. Evaluate

LAWS OF LOGARITHMS 1

log 25 log125 + log 625

2

Let a be a positive number, with a 1. 3log 5

Let A > 0, B > 0, and C be any real numbers. 1

log 52 log 53 + log 54

= 2

3log 5

Law

4

log a ( AB ) = log a A + log a B 2 log 5 3log 5 + log 5

= 2

A 3log 5

log a = log a A log a B

B 1log 5 1

= =

log a ( AC ) = C log a A 3log 5 3

log ( x 1) + log ( x + 1) = 2 log ( x + 2 )

1. Write the following in terms of

log 2,log 3 and log 5 LHS : log ( x 1) + log ( x + 1) = log ( x 1)( x + 1)

= log ( x 2 1)

log 30 = log ( 2 3 5 ) 2

RHS : 2 log ( x + 2 ) = log ( x + 2 )

= log 2 + log 3 + log 5

= log ( x 2 + 4 x + 4 )

log 450 = log ( 2 3 3 5 5 )

log ( x 2 1) = log ( x 2 + 4 x + 4 )

= log ( 2 3 5

2 2

) x2 1 = x2 + 4 x + 4

= log 2 + 2 log 3 + 2 log 5 1 = 4x + 4

5

x=

8 4 5 4 4

log = log 8 + log 5 log 81

81

1

= log 23 + log 5 4 log 34

1

= 3log 2 + log 5 4 log 3

4

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26 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

Suppose we are given loga x and want to find graph lies closer to the x axis. Note, however,

logb x that the graph never becomes parallel to the x

axis, it steadily increases.

Let y = logb x , Both graphs cross at x = 1. This is because

We write this in exponential form and take the every nonzero base raised to the exponent 0

logarithm, with base a, of each side. equals 1. At x = 10, log(x) = 1 and at x = 2.74,

ln(x) = 1. This makes sense since any base with

by = x Exponential form

the exponent 1 is that base.

log a ( b y ) = log a x Take loga of each side

y log a b = log a x Law 3 Next is a closer look at the interval 0< x < 1.

log a x Divide by loga b

y=

log a b

So,

logb x =

log a b formula

EQUATION

The graphs are asymptotic to the Y axis, they

cross at x=1 and are always increasing for

positive x.

exponent (in magnitude) for a given number

than the smaller base does.

For example, for x = 0.4, 10 needs the power

-0.4 while 2.72 requires -0.9. Comparing the

magnitudes these exponents we see that 10

has smaller exponent. As before, as the base

of the logarithm increases the graph of the

logarithm flattens toward the x axis.

the negative y axis rather quickly. A very small

Notice log(x) is flatter than ln(x). For two change in x near zero results in a very large

exponentials of different bases the larger base change in y. This means from a practical point

requires a smaller exponent while the smaller of view a large number of significant digits in

base requires a larger exponent for both the logarithm are required to distinguish one

exponentials to equal the same number. x value form another from another in this

range.

From the graph we read the common log of 7

is about 0.8. The natural log of 7 is about 2.0.

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27 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

There is no exponent of a base that will cause

A logarithmic equation is one in which a

that exponential to be zero

logarithm of the variable occurs. For example,

EXPONENTIAL EQUATION log 2 ( x + 2 ) = 5

An exponential equation is one in which the To solve for x we write the equation in

variable occurs in the exponent. For example, exponential form.

2x = 7 x + 2 = 25

The variable x presents a difficulty because it x = 32 2

is in the exponent. To deal with this difficulty x = 30

we take the logarithm of each side and then

use the Laws of Logarithms to bring down x

from the exponent. Example:

Solve the following equation for x

2x = 7

ln 2 x = ln 7 ln x = 8 ln x = 8

Take ln of each side

8

x ln 2 = ln 7 Law 3 (bring down the x=e OR eln x = e8

exponent) x 2981 x 2981

ln 7

x=

ln 2 Solve for x. Use a calculator

2.807 log 2 ( 25 x ) = 3

25 x = 23

Example:

25 x = 8

Solve the exponential equation

x = 17

8e2 x = 20 4 + 3log ( 2 x ) = 16

20

e2 x = 3log ( 2 x ) = 12

8

2x

ln e = ln 2.5 log ( 2 x ) = 4

ln 2.5 2 x = 104

x=

2 x = 5000

0.458

2. 4 TRANSPOSITION OF FORMULA

2x x

e e 6= 0

When a symbol other than the subject is

x 2

(e ) e 6 = 0

x

required to be calculated it is usual to

rearrange the formula to make a new subject.

( e 3)( e + 2 ) = 0

x x

e x 3 = 0 or e x + 2 = 0 the formula or transposition.

ex = 3 e x = 2 (ignore)

The formula y = ax + b has y as the subject. By

x = ln 3

rearranging this formula we could make x the

subject.

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28 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

2. Rearrange the formula R = to make

a

Remove square roots or other roots

Get rid of brackets a) a the subject b) l the subject

Clear brackets

Collect together the terms containing l aR

a) a = b) l =

the required subject R

Factorise if necessary

Isolate the required subject.

3. The final length, l 2 of a piece of wire heated

These steps should be performed in the order through C is given by the formula

given. l2 = l1 (1 + )

subject

2R

1. Transpose the formula V = to make

Rr l2 = l1 + l1

R the subject.

l1 = l2 l1

Step 1: Since there are no roots get rid of the l2 l1

=

fraction by multiplying both sides of the l1

equation by ( R r )

l

t = 2

V (R r) = 2R g , find g.

4. Given

t = 2

g

VR Vr = 2 R

l

t 2 = 4 2

Step 3: Collect the terms containing R on the g

2

LHS 4 l

g= 2

t

VR 2 R = Vr

CONSTRUCTION OF EQUATIONS FROM

Step 4: Factorise the LHS

VERBAL DATA

R (V 2 ) = Vr

To solve word problems:

Step 5: Isolate R by dividing both sides of the Read the problem carefully

equation by (V 2) If possible draw a diagram to assist in

interpreting the given information

Vr Translate the English phrases into

R=

(V 2 ) mathematical phrases and choose a

variable for the unknown quantity

Although we used five steps to obtain the

Write the equation using all of the

required subject, in very many cases far fewer

above information

steps are needed. Nevertheless, you should

Solve the equation

work through the steps in order given.

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29 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

whether it satisfies the original

A linear function is a first degree equation in x

problem

and y (with two variables). That is, there are

Mathematical translations of common English no exponents greater than one or negative

phrases are listed below: exponents in a linear equation. A first degree

equation, when solved for y, expresses y as a

English Mathematical linear function of x:

phrase phrase

y=mx+c

4 more than a number x+4

where, m is the slope (measure of the

A number increased by y+5

steepness of the line) and the constant c is

5

+ The sum of x and y x+y the y-intercept (value of y where the line

A number added to 3 3+n crosses the y-axis)

x plus y x+y The graph of a linear function is a straight line.

A number decreased by y5

5

5 less than a number n5

The difference between xy

x and y

x minus y xy

The product of a and b a.b

x multiplied by a a.x

x Twice a number 2.n

of y .y These equations are called linear systems and

32 percent of z (0.32).z must be solved simultaneously (at the same

x times y x.y time). There are several methods of solution

The quotient of x and y x/y that can be used:

The quotient of y and x y/x Graphical method

The ratio of x and y x/y Algebraic method (substitution or

x divided by y x/y elimination)

Example:

The problem of solving a system of two linear

equations with two variables can be viewed as

a geometry problem. The graph of each

equation is a line, thus, a system of two

equations containing two variables represents

a pair of lines. The lines intersect, are parallel

or are coincident.

of equations has one solution, given

by the point of intersection. The

system is consistent and the

equations are independent.

(b) If the lines are parallel, then the

system of equations has no solution,

because the lines never intersect. The

system is inconsistent.

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30 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

(c) If the lines are coincident, then the SOLVING SYSTEMS OF TWO LINEAR

system of equations has infinitely EQUATIONS BY:

many solutions, represented by the

totality of points on the line. The GRAPHICALLY

system is consistent and the

equations are dependent. 1. Solve:

3 x 2 y = 4 equaJon 1

Figure illustrates these conclusions: 6 x + y = 13 equaJon 2

by using graphical method (intercept method)

system has one solution

(b) parallel lines

solution which is given by the point of

system has no solution

intersection; (2, 1)

2. Solve:

4 x + 2 y = 8 equaJon 1

2 x + y = 5 equaJon 2

by using graphical method (intercept method)

system has infinitely many solutions

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31 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

4 x + 8 y = 4.................(3)

4 x 3 y = 18

- 4 x + 8 y = 4

0 x 11 y = 22

y = 2

x + 2 ( 2 ) = 1

The two lines are parallel, the system has no x=3

solution.

ALGEBRAICALLY

Solve the following equations for x and y

Two methods of solving simultaneous

equations analytically are: x 5

+ = y..............................(1)

8 2

a) By substitution y

b) By elimination 13 = 3x...........................(2)

3

Example: Multiplying eq (1) by 8 gives:

Solve the following equations for x and y

x 5

8 + 8 = 8y

x + 2 y = 1..............................(1) 8 2

4 x 3 y = 18............................(2) x + 20 = 8 y.........................(3)

By Substitution

39 y = 9 x.........................(4)

From eq (1): x = 1 2 y

Substituting this expression for x into eq (2) gives: Rearranging eq (3) and (4) gives:

4 ( 1 2 y ) 3 y = 18 x 8 y = 20.......................(5)

4 8 y 3 y = 18 9 x + y = 39.........................(6)

11 y = 18 + 4

y = 2

By Substitution

Substituting y = 2 into eq (1) gives:

x + 2 ( 2 ) = 1 From eq (1): x = 20 + 8 y

x=3 Substituting this expression for x into eq (2)

gives:

By Elimination 9 ( 20 + 8 y ) + y = 39

180 + 72 y + y = 39

If eq (1) I multiplied throughout by 4 the

73 y = 219

coefficient of x will be the same as in eq (2),

giving: y =3

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32 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

Substituting y = 3 into eq (1) gives: Therefore, we need to adjust this formula for

x = 20 + 8 ( 3) consideration of head winds and tail winds as

follows:

x=4

By Elimination

Head wind Tail wind

Multiplying eq (6) by 8 gives: d = (ground speed) x t d = (ground speed) x t

d = ( air speed wind d = ( air speed + wind

72 x + 8 y = 312.................(7) speed ) x t speed ) x t

Adding eq (5) from eq (7) gives: We will now substitute a variable for air speed (x)

x 8 y = 20 and a variable for wind speed (y)

+72 x + 8 y = 312 d = (x - y) x t d = (x + y) x t

73x + 0 y = 292

x = 4

4 8 y = 20

4 + 20 = 8 y

24 = 8 y

y =3

used in the aviation problem.

wind, which causes the plane fly more slowly.

and can go at a faster rate of speed.

consideration of the effect of the wind

the wind speed and air speed.

arbitrary angle with respect to the planes

direction.

Remember that:

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33 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

Suppose it takes a small airplane flying with a Three methods of solving second degree or

head wind 16 hours to travel 1800 miles. quadratic equations:

However, when flying with a tail wind, the

airplane can travel the same distance in only 9 a) Factorisation (where possible)

hours. Find the rate of speed of the wind and b) Completing the squares

the air speed of the airplane.

c) Quadratic formula

Let x = air speed and y = wind speed

FACTORISATION

1800 = (x y) 16

The technique of factoring is often one of

1800 = 16x 16y . (1) trial and error. The method of complete

factorization is applicable only if we can

1800 = (x + y) 9

convert the quadratic expression

1800 = 9x + 9y .(2) ax 2 + bx + c into two factors. Each factor

when equated to zero gives the value of the

16200 = 144 x 144 y

root. We check our answer by using

28800 = 144 x + 144 y calculator.

45000 = 288 x

Example:

x = 156.25

x 2 + 4 x 12 = 0

the small airplane is 156.25 miles per hour. ( x + 6)( x 2 ) = 0

Substituting into the second equation, we

( x + 6) = 0 or ( x 2 ) = 0

obtain the following: x = 6 or x = 2

1800 = 9 (156.25) = 9 y 2 x 2 + 5x 3 = 0

y = 43.75 ( 2 x 1)( x + 3) = 0

We have now determined that the speed of

( 2 x 1) = 0 or ( x + 3) = 0

the wind is 43.75 miles per hour. 1

x = or x = 3

2

Therefore, we have determined that the

average rate of speed of the airplane for the

1800 mile trip is 156.25 miles per hour and

the rate of speed of the wind is 43.75 miles

per hour

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34 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

equation x=

4 4

When the method of factorization fails, we

5 7 1

may try to solve the equation using x= + =

completing the square method. 4 4 2

5 7

x = = 3

Example: 4 4

QUADRATIC EQUATION

The procedure is as follows:

+ = x=

of the x 2 term unity. 2 2 2 2a

In this case this is 5x 3

achieved by dividing x2 + = Example:

throughout by 2 2 2

a)

Add to both sides of x2 + 2x 8 = 0

the equation (half the 5x 5

2

2 x2 + + a = 1, b = 2, c = 8

coefficient of x ) In 2 4

this case the

3 5

2 Substitute this values into the quadratic

5 = + formula

coefficient of x is .

2 2 4

2 2 2 4 (1)( 8 )

Half the coefficient x=

2 2 (1)

5

squared is

4 2 4 + 32

x=

2

The LHS is now a 2 2 2 6

5 3 5 x=

perfect square x+ = + 2

4 2 4

x = 2 or x = 4

Evaluate the RHS 5 3 25

2

x+ = + b)

4 2 16

3 x 2 4 11x = 0

2

5 49 a = 3, b = 11, c = 4

x+ =

4 16

Substitute this values into the quadratic

Taking the square root 5 49 formula

of both sides of the x+ = 2

4 16 ( 11) ( 11) 4 ( 3 )( 4 )

equation x=

(remembering that the 5 7 2 (3)

x+ =

square root of a 4 4

11 121 + 48

number gives a x=

answer) 6

11 13

x=

6

1

x = 4 or x =

3

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35 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

A quadratic equation is an equation that can The following table provides several

be written on the standard form commonly used mathematical inequalities

and their respective meanings

ax2 + bx + c = 0

Phrase Mathematic

The other method to solve quadratic equation Inequality

is to solve it graphically. The roots of a a is less than b a<b

quadratic equation are the x-intercepts of the

graph a is greater than b a>b

a exceeds b

Example:

a is less than or equal ab

Solve x2 - 3x - 10 = 0 by using graphical to b

method a is at most b

a is not more than b

a is greater than or ab

equal to b

a is at least b

a is not less than b

and Coordinate Line

5. These are the roots of the quadratic

equation.

has two x-intercepts

A quadratic equation has one root it its graph

has one x-intercept

A quadratic equation has no real solutions if

its graph has no x-intercepts

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36 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

Example: 2 3 x < x + 10

3 x x < 10 2

Complete the table below:

4x < 8

Inequalities Coordinate line Interval 8

x>

2 < x <5 4

x>2

Solution set: { x : x > 2}

-2 4

( ,3] Interval notation: ( 2, )

(6, ) Graph:

2

-2

5 x + 25 > 0

5>x

5 x > 25

25

x<

5

Solving Linear Inequalities x<5

If both sides of an inequality are multiplied or Solution set: { x : x < 5}

divided by a negative quantity, the inequality Interval notation: ( , 5 ]

sign must be reversed.

Graph:

Example:

5

Solve the following inequalities and graph the

4 < x 3 < 5

solution set

4 + 3 < x < 5 + 3

3x + 4 x 5 1 < x < 8

3 x x 5 4 Solution set: { x : 1 < x < 8}

2 x 9

Interval notation: ( 1,8 )

9

x

2 Graph:

9

Solution set: x : x

2

9

Interval notation: 2 ,

8

1

Graph:

Hence, its graph representation is as below:

9

2

1 8

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37 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

x + 4 Example:

2 9

2

Solve the following inequalities using real

4 x + 4 18

number line method

x + 4 4 and x + 4 18

2 x 2 + 3x 5

x 8 x 14 2 x2 + 3x 5 0

x8 x 14

( 2 x + 5 )( x 1) 0

5

If ( 2 x + 5 ) 0, then x

2

Solution set: { x : 14 x 8} If ( x 1) 0, then x 1

Interval notation: [ 14, 8 ] - + +

Graph:

- - +

+ 5 - +

1

2

14 8 5

The solution set is: ,1

2

Hence, its graph representation is as below:

* The original inequality is less than 0,

choose the negative interval

14 8

x2 < x 2

x2 + x + 2 < 0

Solving Quadratic Inequalities

( x + 2 )( x + 1) < 0

A quadratic inequality is an inequality of the If ( x + 2 ) > 0, then x < 2

form ax 2 + bx + c > 0 where a,b, and c are If ( x + 1) > 0, then x > 1

real numbers with a 0 . There are 2

- + +

methods to solve quadratic inequalities.

+ + -

a) Real number line method

b) Table of sign - 1 + 2 -

choose the negative interval

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38 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

Solve the following inequalities using a table Strategy for solving rational inequalities

of signs

1. Rewrite the inequality with 0 on the

2

2 x + 7 x < 3 right

2 x 2 + 7 x 3 < 0 2. Use only addition or subtraction to

( 2 x + 1)( x 3 ) < 0 get an equivalent inequality. Do not

cross-multiply variable terms.

1 3. Factorize the numerator and

3 denominator

2

4. Use the real number line method or

( 2 x + 1) + - -

table of signs method to determine

( x 3) - - + the intervals that satisfy the original

( 2 x + 1)( x 3 ) - + - inequality

5. Write the solution set using interval

notation

1 Example:

The solution set is: , ( 3, )

2

Solve the following inequalities using the real

number line method

y 2 ( y + 1) 20 2x 1

>1

x +1

y 2 + y 20 0

2x 1

( y + 5 )( y 4 ) 0 1 > 0

x +1

( 2 x 1) ( x + 1) > 0

5 4

x +1

( y + 5) - + +

x2

>0

( y 4) - - + x +1

( y + 5 )( y 4 ) + - + If ( x 2 ) > 0, then x > 2

If ( x + 1) > 0, then x > 1

- + +

- - +

The solution set is: ( , 5 ] [ 4, )

+ 1 - 2 +

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39 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

x

3 0 3 2

x2

x 3( x 2) x + 2 x 1

0 3 2

x2 0

x 3x + 6 x + 2 x 1

0 3 ( x 1) 2 ( x + 2 )

x2 0

2 x + 6 ( x + 2 )( x 1)

0

x2 3x 3 2 x 4

0

If ( 2 x + 6 ) 0, then x 3 ( x + 2 )( x 1)

If ( x 2 ) > 0, then x > 2 x7

0

+ + - ( x + 2 )( x 1)

- + +

2 1 7

2 + 3 -

- (x 7) - - - +

The solution set is: ( , 2 ) [3, )

( x + 2) - + + +

( x 1) - - + +

x7 - + - +

Example: ( x + 2 )( x 1)

Solve the following inequalities using the

table of sign method

The solution set is: ( 2,1) [ 7, )

0

x+2 x+3 the quotient is undefined if x = -2 or 1

3 ( x + 3 ) ( x + 1)

0

( x + 3 )( x + 1)

2x + 8

0

( x + 3 )( x + 1)

4 3 1

(2 x + 8) - + + +

( x + 3) - - + +

( x + 1) - - - +

2x + 8 - + - +

( x + 3)( x + 1)

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40 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

variable x is a function defined by:

Example:

where

a1 = the constant coefficient of x in the

polynomial

an = the leading coefficient in the

polynomial and an 0

an xn = the leading term in the polynomial

occurs so often that we give them special Division

names, as shown in the chart below:

To divide one polynomial by another

polynomial, we will use the long division

method.

OPERATIONS OF POLYNOMIAL

Steps to perform long division:

first remove the parentheses and then

combine like or similar terms. The resulting 1. Write the terms on both polynomials in

expression is written in order of decreasing order. Leave gaps for missing terms.

degree from left to right. This is called the 2. Divide the first term in the DIVIDEND by

standard form of a polynomial. the first term in the DIVISOR

3. Write the result in the correct column

Addition and Subtraction over the division line that is in the

QUOTIENT

Example:

4. Multiply all the terms in the DIVISOR by

this result and subtract the answer from

the DIVIDEND.

5. A new dividend is now left. Repeat this

process until the dividend that is left is of

Example: a lower degree than the divisor.

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41 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

THEOREM

Factor Theorem

f(a) = 0.

f(x), f(a) = 0, then x-a is a factor of f(x)

factorizing polynomials of degree greater than

2.

Example:

Example: 9. Show that ( x - 3 ) is a factor of f(x).

Find the quotient and the remainder for Let x = 3

f(3) = 2(3)3 - (3)2 - 18(3) + 9

= 54 - 9 - 54 + 9

=0

factor of f(x).

(x + 2).Find the value of k.

Let x = -2

Since (x + 2) is a factor, then f(-2) = 0

Thus, (-2)3 + 8(-2)2 + k(-2) + 10 = 0

-8 + 32 - 2k + 10 = 0

-2k = -34

k = 17

Therefore, the quotient is x2 + 4x +11 and the

remainder is 35x - 39 Show that (x + 3) is a factor of x3 + 2x2 + x + 12.

Let x = -3

Example: Suppose f(x) = x3 + 2x2 + x + 12

Solve f(-3) = (-3)3 + 2(-3)2 + (-3) + 12

= -27 + 18 - 3 + 12

=0

Since f(-3) = 0 then it is shown that ( x + 3 ) is a

factor of f(x)

SES

42 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

Remainder Theorem b = -5

Substitute b = -5 in (1),

If a polynomial f(x) is divided by ( x - a ) , then

the remainder is f (a). 2a - (-5) = 7

2a = 2

Note : f (a) is the value of f (x) when x = a

a=1

Thus, f(x) = 2x3 + x2 - 5x + 2

The remainder of a polynomial when divided

by a linear function can be obtained from

a) Long division

b) The Remainder Theorem.

GIVES A (SIMPLE) METHOD FOR EVALUATING

THE REMAINDER ONLY. IF THE QUOTIENT IS

REQUIRED IN A QUESTION, LONG DIVISION

MUST BE USED.

Example:

divided by ( x + 2 ).

Let x = -2

f(-2) = 3(-2)5 - (-2)2 + 1

= -96 - 4 + 1

= -99

The remainder is -99

divisible by ( x + 2 ). The same expression

leaves a remainder of 12 on division by (x - 2 ).

Calculate the values of a and b.

Let f(x) = 2x3 + ax2 + bx + 2

f(-2) = 0

2(-2)3 + a(-2)2 + b(-2) + 2 = 0

-16 + 4a - 2b + 2 = 0

4a - 2b = 14

2a - b = 7 ---------------------------(1)

f(2) = 12

2(2)3 + a(2)2 + b(2) + 2 = 12

16 + 4a + 2b + 2 = 12

4a + 2b = -6

2a + b = -3 ---------------------------(2)

Eq (1) - Eq (2)

-2b = 10

SES

43 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

EXERCISE 5. Evaluate

INDICES 1 1

log16 log 8

1. Simplify the following expressions: a) 2 3

log 4

33 a0 52

a) b) 1

3 53 t 0 log 9 log 3 + log 81

2

(3 )(3 )(3 )

4 2 5

b) 2log 3

c)

(3 )(3 )

2 3

23 2 6 2 6 2 7

d) 4 3

a) log x log x = log5x log 2 x

2 4 2 5 2 0

3

e) 16ab 4 c 8 d b) log 2t log t = log16 + log t

2

f) (36x )(9xy 4 ) c) 2log b 3log b = log8b log 4b

LOGARITHM log 3 = 0.4771 and log 5 = 0.6990 .

Without using calculator, evaluate the

2. Solve the equations:

following logarithmic functions.

a) log10 x = 4 lg x = 5 75

b) a) log 45 b) log 4

1 4

8. Solve the following for x:

c) log 4 x = 2 2 log 8 x =

3

d)

2x x

a) 4 5 4 + 6 = 0

3. Write the given expression in terms of 2x x

log 2,log 3 and log 5 b) 3 5 14 5 + 8 = 0

16 4 5

a) log 300 b) log

27

125 4 16

log

c)

4

813

SES

44 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

VERBAL DATA

9. Make the symbols indicated the subject of

each of the formula shown and express 12. A rectangle and a square have the same

each in its simplest form area. If the rectangle is 4 cm longer and 3

cm narrower than the square, find the

a2 b2 lengths of the sides of the rectangle.

a) + =1 ( x)

x2 y2

13. Two rectangles of equal area have widths

2 of 10cm and 12 cm. The difference in

b) Z = R 2 + ( 2 fL ) ( L) their lengths is 3 cm. Find their areas.

a= (b )

c) bd be screws. Five screws are removed from the

box. The screws remaining in the box are

D f +p counted and it is found that there are 12.

= ( p) Write an equation to illustrate this

d) d f p

information. Solve the equation to find

how many screws were originally in the

p a + 2b

= (b ) box.

e)

q a 2b

15. For a hydraulic lift, the ratio of the applied

10. In an electrical alternating current circuit force F1 to the resulting force F2 is equal

the impedance Z is given by: to the ratio of the squares of the

2 diameters of the pistons:

1

Z= R2 + L

C

Transpose the formula L to be the subject

of the formula

11. The sag,S at the center of a wire is given What applied force is necessary to lift a

by the formula: 1440 kg automobile if D1 = 10cm and D2 =

3d ( l d ) 80cm?

S=

8

16. Three more than a certain number is 10.

Make l the subject of the formula and

Find the number.

evaluate l when d = 1.75, S = 0.80

17. Four more than twice a certain number is

8. Find the number.

sum of their ages is 46. How old is each?

14. Find the number.

than its length. If the perimeter of the

SES

45 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

rectangle is 50 meters, find the 26. The distance s meters from a fixed point

dimensions of the rectangle. of a vehicle travelling in a straight line

with constant acceleration. a m / s 2 is

21. One number is 20 more than another. If

1 2

the greater number is increased by 4, the given by s = ut + at , where u is the

result is five times the smaller. Find the 2

initial velocity in m/s and t the time in

two numbers.

seconds. Determine the initial velocity

22. A square and an equilateral triangle have and the acceleration given that s = 42 m

the same perimeter. Each side of the when t = 2 s and s = 144 m when t = 4 s .

triangle is 8 meters, find the length of Determine also the distance travelled

each side of the square. after 3s.

23. Seventy-seven mathematics students are 27. An airplane flying with a head wind

separated into two groups. The first group travelled 1000 miles from one city to

is 4 less than twice the second group. another in 2 hours and 12 minutes. On

How many students are in each group? the return flight, flying with a tail wind,

the total time was only 2 hours. Find the

air speed of the plane and the speed of

SIMULTANEOUS EQUATION the wind.

SECOND DEGREE EQUATION

simultaneously.

28. Solve the following equation by using

a) b)

completing the square method.

x 2 y 49

+ =

1.5 x 2.2 y = 18 5 3 15 2

a) 2 x + 9 x + 8 = 0

2.4 x + 0.6 y = 33 3x y 5

+ =0

7 2 7 2

b) 4.6 y + 3.5 x 1.75 = 0

2

c) d)

c) 3 x x 5 = 0

1 4 3r + 2 2 s 1 11

= =

x + y 27 5 4 5 2

d) 4 x 11x + 3 = 0

1 4 3 + 2r 5 s 15

= + = 29. Calculate the diameter of a solid cylinder

2 x y 33 4 3 4

which has a height of 82.0cm and a total

25. The equation of a straight line, a gradient surface area 2.0m 2

m and intercept on the y-axis c is

y = mx + c Total surface area of cylinder = 2 rh + 2 r 2

If the straight line passes through the

30. If the total surface area of a solid cone is

point where x = 1 and y = -2. And also

1 486.2cm 2 and its slant height is 15.3cm,

through the point where x = 3 and determine the base diameter.

2

1

y = 10 , determine the value of the [Total surface area of solid cone = rl + r 2 ]

2

gradient and y-axis intercept

SES

46 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

r = base radius

34. Simplify the following polynomial:

31. The angle a rotating shaft turns through in

t seconds is given by:

1

= t + t 2

2

radians if = 3.0 rad / s and

= 0.60 rad / s 2

circuit is given by:

35.

2

P = 10 I 8 I

Determine the current necessary to

produce a power of 2.5 watts in the

circuit

a) 3 x 2 x + 3

b) <2

3 2

x2 + 4x 0

c)

(

2

d) 6 x 1 5 x )

( x + 2 )( x 3 ) 0

e) x

m 3

>

f) 2 m 1 m +2

SES

47 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

division

d) ( x + 2 )( x 2 )

4x 3

2

e) ( x + 1)

39. Simplify the following by using long

division method. x2 + 7 x + 3

x 2 ( x + 3)

f)

5 x 2 30 x + 44

3

g) ( x 2)

2

are x , ( x + 1) , ( x 1) . Determine a, b and h)

( x 5)( x + 2 )

c.

x 2 x 13

41. Determine the values of a and b if

i)

( x2 + 7 ) ( x 2)

ax 4 + bx 3 8 x 2 + 6 has remainder

2 x + 1 when divided by x 2 1 6x 5

j)

( x 4 ) ( x 2 + 3)

42. Given that ( 2 x 1) is a factor of

8 x 3 + 4 x 2 + kx + 15 . Determine the 15 + 5 x + 5 x 2 4 x 3

value of k x 2 ( x 2 + 5)

k)

43. The expression ax 2 + bx + c is divisible by

x 1 , has remainder 2 when divided by x3 + 4 x 2 + 20 x 7

2

x + 1 and has remainder 8 when divided l)

( x 1) (x 2

+ 8)

by x 2 . Determine the values of a, b

and c.

fractions:

12

a) 2

x 9

3 ( 2 x 2 8 x 1)

b) ( x + 4 )( x + 1)( 2 x 1)

x 2 x 14

x2 2 x 3

c)

SES

48 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

ANSWER C Z 2 R 2 + 1

L=

1 1 2C

1. a) 9 b) c) 10.

5 9

8S 2

d)

1

e) 4b 2 c 4 ad f) 18xy 2 l= + d ; 2.725

8 11. 3d

b) 4 log 2 + 4 log 5 3 log 3 x = 17

c)

16. 7

4. a) 5 log 3 b) 4 log 2 c) 6 log 2

17. 2

5. a) 1/2 b) 3/2

18. Sarah = 25, Hakim = 21

5

6. a) x = b) t = 8 c) b = 2 19. 16

2

1 21. S = 6, G = 26

8. a) x = 0.792 @

2

22. 6m

x = 0.252 @ 0.861

b) 23. G1 = 50, G2 = 27

ay

x= 24. a) x = 10, y = 15

y 2 b2

9. a)

b) x = 3, y = 4

Z 2 R2

L=

2 f 3

b) c) x = 5, y = 1 4

2

b=

(x y) 1

a2 (d e) r = 3, s =

c) d) 2

f (D2 d 2 ) m = 5, c = 7

p= 25.

d) (d 2

+D 2

)

2

b=

2 2

)

2( p + q 2 2

)

e)

SES

49 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

0.344, 1.105

b)

1.468, 1.135

c)

d)

57.5cm

29.

30. 13.82cm

31. 1.191s

5 5

33. a) , ,5

4 b) 3 37.

2 3

[ 4, 0 ] d)

, ,

c) 3 2

[ 2, 0 ) [3, )

e)

38.

( , 2 )

1

,1 ( 3, )

f) 2

34.

39.

SES

50 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

40. a = 1, b = 1, c = 0

41. a = 3, b = 2

42. k = 34

43. a = 3, b = 1, c = 2

2 2

( x 3) ( x + 3)

44. a)

7 3 2

b) ( x + 4 ) ( ) ( 1)

x + 1 2 x

2 3

1 +

c) ( x 3 ) ( x + 1)

1 5

3x 2 +

d) ( x 2) ( x + 2)

4 7

e)

( x + 1) ( x + 1)2

1 2 1

2

+

x x ( x + 3)

f)

5 10 4

2

+ 3

x 2 ( x 2) ( x 2)

g)

2 3 4

+

h)

( x 5) ( x + 2 ) ( x + 2 )2

2x + 3 1

i)

( x + 7) ( x 2)

2

1 2 x

+ 2

j)

( x 4 ) ( x + 3)

1 3 2 5x

+ 2+ 2

x x ( x + 5)

k)

3 2 2 x + 1

+ + 2

( x 1) ( x 1) ( x + 8)

2

l)

SES

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