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Flow charts and C factors as head in feet lost per 1000 some larger sizes added and with
The flow charts feet of pipe at the various flows additional scales added for use in
The following three charts show in gallons per minute. estimating special pipes by actual
the corresponding friction losses inside diameters. For instance,
of cast iron and similar water Service line designers usu- the chart for Type K copper pipe
mains; of schedule 40 steel pipe; ally are interested in losses can be used for plastic pipe and
and Type K copper pipe. expressed in pounds per any smooth pipe where the actual
square inch. The flow charts inside diameter is known.
Most field contractors and engi- for schedule 40 steel pipe and
neers dealing with the construc- Type K copper pipe give the In a similar manner the flows
tion and design of water mains are losses as pounds per square through odd size pipes of similar
accustomed to thinking of losses inch lost in 100 feet of service internal roughness to schedule 40
in feet of water and flow of gal- line at various flows in gallons steel and cast iron pipe can also
lons per minute as determined by per minute. be estimated, since the auxillary
the Williams and Hazens for- inside diameter scales have like-
mula. The flow chart for cast iron These latter charts are taken wise been added to these charts.
and similar mains is based on this from the Bureau of Standards
formula and expresses the losses Publication BMS - 79, with

Williams and Hazen C fac- rior in fair condition. capacity over a long period of
tors* for use with flow chart New welded-steel pipe with years is somewhat impaired
shown on page Eng Info - 24 riveted girth joints. through tuberculation or
New cast iron, usual value. sedimentation. For sizes
Values of C recommended below 6 inches, somewhat
Old brass, copper, lead, tin.
for use in the Williams and Ha- lower values should be used.
zen Formula
C = 120 for smooth pipes, such Velocities in feet per second
C = 140 for extremely smooth and loss of head in feet per
as Smooth wooden pipes or
and straight pipes with 1,000 feet of pipe for C = 100
woodstave pipes. Ordinary
continuous interior and are given in Table XLIV (see
welded or coupled joints, Piping Handbook).
such as New brass, copper,
C = 110 - 130 for new full-
lead, tin. New cast iron.
riveted steel or wrought-iron C = 95 for old full-riveted steel
New welded or seamless under the same conditions.
pipe, depending on thickness
steel. Smooth concrete (see
of plate and extent to which
Scobey concrete formula for C = 90 for brick sewers.
rivets are countersunk (see
full details on various degrees
also Scobey formula).
of roughness). C = 60 for corrugated pipe or
Smooth cement-lined cast badly tuberculated iron or
C = 110 for old cement-lined
iron or steel pipe. steel pipes.
pipe, or vitrified-crock sewers
in good condition
* By permission from PIPING HANDBOOK,
4th Ed., by Sabin Crocker. Copyright, 1945.
C = 130 for very smooth pipes, McGraw- Hill Book Company, Inc.
C = 100 for old cast-iron or old
such as Welded or seamless
continu ous interior steel
steel with continuous inte
pipes where the carrying