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Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.1178-1183

Modelling the Effect of Infill Walls on Seismic Performance of

Reinforced Concrete Buildings

Sabri Attajkani*, Abdellatif Khamlichi*, Abdellah Jabbouri*

*Department of Physics, Abdelmalek Essadi University, Mhannech 2, Tetouan, Morocco

ABSTRACT

Infill walls contribute to lateral stiffness mortar used, reinforcements, type of junction with

and resistance of buildings they stuff. These the frame members, etc.

variations of rigidity and strength are dependent

on the mechanical properties of the material used Because of the complexity to take into

for the infill and also on the interaction existing account the infill effect on the frame behavior, many

between this last and the frame. In this work, researches have attempted at simplifying the

masonry like infill walls were modeled by using modelling of the infill effect on the frame response

the equivalent diagonal strut concept in order to by introducing simple analytical models. Extensive

asses their involvement in seismic resistance of experimental investigations were used to identify

regular reinforced concrete building. Pushover these approximate models. In this context, infilled

analysis was performed by means of ZeusNL steel frames were studied at first. On the basis of

software package. Various scenarios of infilled experimental evidence showing that detachment of

frames that include weak story arrangements at the frame from the infill occurs, Holmes [1] has

different storey levels were considered. proposed replacing the panel by an equivalent

Comparison between complete infilled building, diagonal strut made of the same material as the infill

partially infilled with a weak story and bared and having a width equal to 1/3 of the infill diagonal

buildings was performed. The obtained results length. Based on experimental investigation on

have shown that infill walls have considerable diagonally and laterally loaded square infilled steel

effect on the lateral stiffness and resistance of frames, Stafford Smith [2] has subsequently

reinforced concrete buildings when subjected to developed furthermore the idea of an equivalent strut

the static equivalent seismic loads. It was found as suggested by Holmes, and provided a numerical

also that infill enhances seismic performance. procedure to evaluate its dimensions.

This enhancement is however largely affected by The procedure proposed in [2] for the

the distribution of infill through the building evaluation of the geometrical dimensions of the

stories. The soft storey mechanism was found to equivalent strut that represents the stiffening effect

be more severe when the bared storey is located of the infill is nowadays well accepted. It was found

in the inferior part of the building. For non to be sufficient in many situations, in spite of

infilled higher stories an unusual equilibrium neglecting some mechanical aspects of the infill-

state can be reached showing very high lateral frame interaction [3-5]. Other refined models that

resistance. embody the effect of infills walls can be found in the

literature [7-10].

Keywords - masonry infills, reinforced concrete The equivalent strut characteristics are

buildings, seismic performance, pushover, identified according to Mainstone model [9] and

equivalent diagonal strut used after that for pushover analysis of the infilled

frames, where all the walls are replaced by their

1. INTRODUCTION equivalent diagonal struts. ZeusNL [11] software

It is well known that infill walls enhance package is employed in this analysis. The objective

the lateral behavior of the frames they fill up. In is to assess the influence of infills on seismic

common situations, the infill stiffens the frame capacity of buildings. A four-storey three-bay

laterally by an order of magnitude and increases its reinforced concrete building will be studied and the

ultimate strength to very high values. These weak-story effect investigated.

variations of stiffness and strength are dependent on

the mechanical properties of the material used for 2. EQUIVALENT STRUT MODELS FOR

the infill: masonry, concrete blocs, reinforced INFILLED FRAMES

concrete, etc. The interaction between the frame and In FEMA 273 [6], FEMA 306 [7] and

the infill wall is also strongly affected by the FEMA 356 [8] it is suggested that the stiffness of the

extension of the infill in the frame. It is also infills is represented in the structural model by

influenced by the ratio between the horizontal and equivalent diagonal struts based on the work of

vertical applied loads and the infill characteristics: Mainstone [9]. The equivalent strut width is given

by

1178 | P a g e

Sabri Attajkani, Abdellatif Khamlichi, Abdellah Jabbouri / International Journal of

Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com

Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.1178-1183

nonlinear concrete model with constant active

H2 L2

w 0.201 Ef Ic H0.1 (1) confinement modelling (con2), Fig.2. This enables

H0.4 Ed ssin(2)

0.1

accurate uniaxial concrete behaviour description

with where a constant confining pressure is assumed in

order to take into account the maximum transverse

H

tan 1 (2) pressure from confining steel. This is introduced on

L the model through a constant confinement factor,

where s is the actual infill thickness that is used to scale up the stress-strain relationship

in contact with the frame, d the diagonal length of throughout the entire strain range. To enter this

the infill, E d is the Young modulus of the infill concrete model during simulations, four parameters

along the diagonal, E f the Young modulus of the are required: compressive strength f c , tensile

reinforced concrete, H and L are the height and the strength f t , crushing strain co and confinement

length of the frame, and H and L are the height factor k .

and the length of the infill as shown in Fig.1, finally

Ic is the entire inertia moment of the cross-

sectional area of the column.

model

assumed to be a bilinear elastic plastic model with

kinematics strain-hardening (stl1), Fig.3. This model

Figure 1. Scheme of the infilled-frame showing the is applied for the uniaxial modelling of mild steel.

equivalent strut median fibre To enter this model during simulations, three

parameters are required: Youngs Modulus E , yield

3. STATIC NONLINEAR PUSHOVER ANALYSIS strength y and kinematic strain-hardening .

BY MEANS OF ZEUSNL SOFTWARE

ZeusNL is an open source software package

[11] which provides an efficient way to run

structural analyses such as conventional and

adaptive pushover and nonlinear dynamic time-

history. The modelling takes into account both

geometric and material nonlinear behaviour.

Common concrete and steel material models are

available, together with a large library of elements

that can be used with a wide choice of typical pre-

defined steel, concrete and composite section

configurations. The applied loading can include

constant or variable forces, displacements and

accelerations.

In the conventional pushover analysis

which is used in the following, the applied loads

vary proportionally according to a predefined Figure 3. Uniaxial bilinear elastic-plastic law with

pattern. The post-peak response is obtained with a kinematic strain-hardening modelling mild steel

displacement control procedure.

Modelling static pushover under ZeusNL Static pushover analysis was conducted by

software requires entering configuration of members taking the most adverse seismic direction when the

sections, material properties, applied loadings and building structure is assumed to be a plane gateway

analysis protocol. frame. Response control protocol was chosen to

In the present analysis, the concrete monitor the nonlinear analysis. This refers to the

behaviour was chosen to be described by the situation where the displacement of the building roof

1179 | P a g e

Sabri Attajkani, Abdellatif Khamlichi, Abdellah Jabbouri / International Journal of

Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com

Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.1178-1183

is specified by the user and is incrementally confined part of the beam Hc 600mm , effective

increased. The loading applied as well as the width of the compressed span B 1250mm , width

deformations of the other nodes are determined by

of confined part of the compressed span

the solution of the program.

Bc 1200mm , width of the beam b 300 mm and

4. PRESENTATION OF THE CASE STUDY width of the confined part of the beam bc 250mm .

A reinforced concrete building consisting Table 2 gives the steel reinforcements bar sections

of a regular framed structure having four stories and and their positions on the transverse beam sections.

three bays is considered. The inter-storey height is

3m , the bay length is 4m . Fig.4 shows the portal

frame which is equivalent to this building when

subjected to static lateral equivalent loading along

the most adverse seismic direction.

reinforced concrete structure in the seismic direction Figure 6. Beams reinforced section; pushover is

considered along the horizontal y-axis while x-axis

All the columns are assumed to be identical is the other horizontal direction

and all the beams equal. Fig. 5 and Fig.6 show Table 1. Steel reinforcements section and their

respectively the columns and beams sections. locations in columns transverse sections

Columns characteristics are: section height Section Distance d x Distance d y

h 400 mm , height of the confined part mm2 mm mm

h c 350mm , section width b 300 mm and width 255 125 175

of the confined part bc 250mm . Table 1 gives the 127.5 0 175

reinforcements sections and their locations. 127.5 125 0

locations in beams transverse sections

Section Distance d x Distance d z

mm2 mm mm

255 25 125

255 775 125

127.5 25 0

127.5 775 0

bars is chosen to be such that E 2.11011 Pa ,

Figure 5. Columns reinforced section; pushover is y 500 106 Pa and 0.05 . For confined

considered along the y-axis while x-axis is the other concrete, the following characteristics are assumed

horizontal direction

to hold: fc 20 106 Pa , f t 2.2 106 Pa ,

Beam characteristics are as follows: co 0.002 and k 1.2 . The unconfined concrete is

compressed span height h 200 mm , height of the assumed to have the same properties as for confined

confined part of compressed span h c 200mm , concrete except that k 1.02 . Material of struts that

are equivalent to infills is assumed to be like that of

height of the beam H 600mm , height of the

concrete with the following properties:

1180 | P a g e

Sabri Attajkani, Abdellatif Khamlichi, Abdellah Jabbouri / International Journal of

Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com

Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.1178-1183

fc 10 106 Pa , f t 1.1 106 Pa , co 0.001 and

k 1.02 .

The infill section is considered to be

uniform over all the infilled stories of the building.

Fig.7 gives the different configurations of infills that

are considered. These include the bare frame (a),

variable level weak storey (b)-(e) and the complete

infilled frame (f).

(7e)

(7a)

(7f)

(a) bared frame; (b) bared first storey; (c) bared

second storey; (d) bared third storey; (e) bared

fourth storey and (f) completely infilled

frame

Fig.8 gives pushover curves, as they were computed

by ZeusNL for the different infilled frame

configurations and given infill section. These last

have been varied in the set

(7b) 100 100; 200 200; 300 300; 400 400 . This

parametric study is intended to determine the effect

of infill section for a given infilled configuration. It

enables to answer the question about which weak

storey will have a minor effect on seismic

performance?

Fig.9 gives pushover curves, but this time as

function of the infilled configuration for the different

infill section taken in the set

100 100; 200 200; 300 300; 400 400 . This is

to determine for a given infilled section which

configuration performs the best?

(7c) 3.5E+05

3.0E+05

Base shear (N)

2.5E+05

2.0E+05

1.5E+05

1.0E+05

5.0E+04

0.0E+00

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

Roof drift (m)

(8a)

(7d)

1181 | P a g e

Sabri Attajkani, Abdellatif Khamlichi, Abdellah Jabbouri / International Journal of

Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com

Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.1178-1183

3.5E+05 3.5E+05

3.0E+05 3.0E+05

Base shear (N)

2.5E+05 2.5E+05 100x100

100x100

2.0E+05 2.0E+05 200x200

200x200

300x300

300x300 1.5E+05

1.5E+05 400x400

400x400

1.0E+05 1.0E+05

5.0E+04 5.0E+04

0.0E+00 0.0E+00

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

Roof drift (m) Roof drift (m)

(8b) (8f)

3.0E+05

sections for the different infilled configurations; (a)

100x100 bared frame; (b) bared first storey; (c) bared

Base shear (N)

2.5E+05 200x200 second storey; (d) bared third storey; (e) bared fourth

300x300

2.0E+05

400x400

storey and (f) completely infilled frame

1.5E+05

Fig.8 and Fig.9 show that infill has always

1.0E+05

a benefit effect of the lateral seismic behavior of the

5.0E+04 portal frame as the obtained capacities are always

0.0E+00 higher independently of where the infill has been

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 placed. As this can be seen from Fig.8b, if the first

Roof drift (m) storey is not infilled, then there is no need to seek

(8c) enhancing the seismic behavior of the building, by

inserting infills in the upper stories. Also, as seen

3.5E+05 from Fig. 9a, if the infill quantity is not enough, only

100x100 insignificant changes will be observed on the

3.0E+05

200x200

300x300

capacities independently from where the weak

Base shear (N)

2.5E+05

400x400 storey exists. The infill will affect in this case only

2.0E+05 the initial stiffness and insignificant variations

1.5E+05 appear in the lateral capacity.

1.0E+05

1.0E+05

5.0E+04

8.0E+04

0.0E+00

Base shear (N)

Roof drift (m) Bared frame

Bared first storey

(8d) 4.0E+04 Bared second storey

Bared third storey

Bared fourth storey

2.0E+04 Complete filled frame

3.5E+05

3.0E+05

0.0E+00

Base shear (N)

Roof drift (m)

100x100

2.0E+05

200x200 (9a)

1.5E+05 300x300 1.6E+05

400x400

1.0E+05

5.0E+04 1.2E+05

Base shear (N)

0.0E+00

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 8.0E+04

Roof drift (m) Bared frame

Bared first storey

(8e) 4.0E+04 Bared second storey

Bared third storey

Bared fourth storey

Complete filled frame

0.0E+00

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7

Roof drift (m)

(9b)

1182 | P a g e

Sabri Attajkani, Abdellatif Khamlichi, Abdellah Jabbouri / International Journal of

Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com

Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.1178-1183

2.5E+05 stories should be first infilled and the infill quantity

Bared frame

Bared first storey should be significant.

Bared second storey

2.0E+05

Bared third storey

The obtained results have shown also that

Bared fourth storey some infill configurations with bared stories are

Base shear (N)

1.5E+05

more advantageous than the complete infilled frame

1.0E+05

in terms of ductility, while the highest stiffness is

always achieved by the configuration where all the

5.0E+04 stories are infilled.

0.0E+00 REFERENCES

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7

Rood drift (m)

[1] H. Holmes. Steel frames with brickwork

(9c) and concrete infilling. Proceedings of the

3.0E+05

Institute of Civil Engineers 1961; 19:473-

478.

2.5E+05

[2] B. Stafford Smith. Behaviour of the square

2.0E+05 infilled frames. Journal of Structural Div.

Base shear (N)

1.5E+05

[3] R.E. Klingner, V.V. Bertero. Earthquake

1.0E+05 resistance of infilled frames. Journal of

5.0E+04 Bared frame Bared first storey

Structural Engineering, ASCE 1978;

Bared second storey

Bared fourth storey

Bared third storey

Complete fillled frame

104:973-989.

0.0E+00

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7

[4] T.N. Valiasis, K.C. Stylianidis, G.G.

Roof drift (m)

Penelis. Hysteresis Model for weak brick

(9d) masonry infills in R/C frames under lateral

Figure 9: Pushover curves as function of the infilled reversals. European Earthquake

configuration for different infill sections; (a) Engineering 1993; 1:19.

100 100 ; (b) 200 200 ; (c) 300 300 ; (d) [5] T.B. Panagiotakos, M.N. Fardis. Seismic

400 400 ; (e) bared fourth storey and (f) response of infilled RC frames structures.

completely infilled frame Proceedings of the 11th World Conference

Some frame configurations with partially on Earthquake Engineering, Acapulco,

infilled stories are more advantageous than the Mexico. Paper no. 225. Oxford: Pergamon,

complete infilled frame in terms of ductility as this 1996.

can be seen from Fig.8e, Fig.8f , Fig.9c and Fig.9d. [6] Applied Technology Council. NEHRP

The bared fourth storey will have quantitatively Guidelines for the seismic rehabilitation of

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even if the initial stiffness shows the reverse (project 33) for the Building Seismic Safety

behavior. This behavior can be beneficial if Council. Washington (DC): Federal

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irregularity from bared stories can have a drastic wall buildings - basic procedures manual.

effect on the results that could not be assessed FEMA 306, prepared by ATC (project 43)

through only nonlinear static analysis. for the Partnership for Response and

Recovery. Washington (DC): The Federal

6. CONCLUSION Emergency Management Agency; 1998.

The effect of infills on seismic performance [8] ASCE. FEMA 356 Prestandard and

of reinforced concrete building was analyzed. This commentary for the seismic rehabilitation

was achieved through using the concept of of buildings. Reston (VA): American

equivalent compression diagonal strut that enables to Society of Civil Engineers; 2000.

model the infill mechanical behavior. Considering [9] R.J. Mainstone. On the stiffnesses and

regular buildings for which the seismic response can strengths of infilled frames. Proc Inst Civil

be sought by means of the equivalent portal frame Eng 1971(Suppl. iv):57-90 [7360 S].

subjected to lateral static equivalent loads to seismic [10] B. Stafford Smith. Behavior of square

action, pushover curves were derived by using infilled frames. Journal of Structural

ZeusNL software package. Engineering, ASCE 1966:381-403.

The obtained results have shown that infill [11] A.S. Elnashai, V.K. Papanikolaou, D.H.

enhances always seismic performance. This Lee, 2008. Zeus NL A system for inelastic

enhancement is however largely affected by the analysis: User Manual, Version 1.8.7,

distribution of infill through the levels of the University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign,

building stories. For infill to be beneficial, the lower Mid- America Earthquake Center.

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