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Fundamentals of SDH

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document, use and communication of its contents not
permitted without written authorization from Alcatel

Training manual
8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed. 01
Edition 2002
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Note : Please print this document with comments pages

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 0.2


Contents

1 Introduction to the synchronous system


1.1 Transmission networks
1.2 Plesiochronous hierarchy
1.3 Synchronous hierarchy
1.4 SDH transport network

2 Base frame components


2.1 Container : Cn
2.2 Virtual container : VCn
2.3 Tributary Unit (Group) : TU (TUG)
2.4 Administrative Unit (Group) : AU (AUG)
2.5 ITU-T Multiplexing Structure
2.6 ETSI Multiplexing Structure
2.7 Base Frame : STM-1
2.8 Base elements : Overview

3 Section Overhead
3.1 Definition of Path and Section
3.2 Example of Path and section
3.3 STM-1 Section Overhead : SOH
3.4 STM-1 Regeneration Section Overhead : RSOH
3.5 STM-1 Multiplexing Section Overhead : MSOH

4 Pointer
4.1 AU-4 Pointer addressing area
4.2 Au- Pointer management
4.3 AU-4 Pointer settings
4.4 AU-4 Pointer and justification use
4.5 Pointer justifications depending on clock deviation

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 0.3


Contents

5 Path Overhead, Low rate Multiplexing Mapping


5.1 VC-4, VC-3 POH
5.2 140 Mbit/s mapping
5.3 VC3->TUG3->VC-4 Generation
5.4 STM-1 made up of 3 x VC-3
5.5 VC-2, VC-12, VC-11, POH
5.6 Asynchronous mapping at 2 Mbit/s
5.7 Generation of a VC-12 Multiframe
5.8 Organisation of the STM-1 made up of VC-12
5.9 TU-12 Unit Numbering in a VC-4
5.10 ATM cell insertion into a VC-4

6 High-Rate Multiplexing
6.1 Byte interleaved Multiplexing
6.2 STM-N Section Overhead
6.3 Contiguous Concatenation

7 Usage of SDH Networks


7.1 Example of SDH Network
7.2 Principle of Partitioning & Layering
7.3 Partitioning of Layer Networks & Sub-Networks
7.4 SDH Layer Networks
7.5 Example : Layers used by a Low Order Path
7.6 Definition of reference Points
7.7 Relation between Reference Points & Transport Entities

8 The Functional Model


8.1 Layer function : Adaptation
8.2 Layer Function : Termination
8.3 Layer Function : Connection
8.4 Atomic & Basic Functions in a Network Element

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 0.4


Contents

9 Alarm and Error Handling


9.1 Communication Alarms
9.2 Alarm Indication Signal : AIS
9.3 Remote Defect Indication : RDI
9.4 Alarm and Error Processing within an NE
9.5 Explanation of Alarm and Error Codes
9.6 Alarm and Error Processing
9.7 Performance Monitoring : PM
9.8 Tandem Connections

10 Protection and Restoration


10.1 Equipment Protection : EPS
10.2 Network Protection
10.3 Network Restoration

11 Network Synchronisation
11.1 Synchronisation Distribution
11.2 Clocks Types and Distribution in the Network
11.3 Synchronisation Diagram
11.4 Synchronous Equipment Timing
11.5 Synchronisation Signals : Quality and Priority
11.6 Linear Networks without SSM
11.7 Linear Network with SSM

12 Optical Interfaces
12.1 Classification of Optical Interfaces
12.2 Laser Safety
12.3 Automatic laser Shutdown : ALS
12.4 Laser Operation Actions

13 Appendices

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 0.5


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Self assessment of the objectives Contract number :
Course title : Fundamentals of SDH
Client (Company, centre) :
Language : English dates from : to :
Number of trainees : Location :
Surname, First name :

Did you meet the following objectives ?


Tick the corresponding box
Please, return this sheet to the trainer at the end of the training
Yes (or No (or
Instructional objectives Globally globally Comments
yes) no)

1. To be able to list the advantages of SDH

2. To be able to describe the SDH frame

3. To be to be able to describe the function of OH


bytes

4. To be able to describe the function of the


pointer

5. to be able to describe the multiplexing structure


in an SDH frame

6. To be able to describe the multiplexing of STM-


1 frames

7. To be able to describe the layering of SDH


Networks

8. To be able to describe the functional model in


SDH

9. to be able to describe the way the alarms are


managed in an SDH network

10. To be able to describe the different kinds of


protection in SDH

11. To be able to describe the principles of


synchronisation of SDH networks

12. To be able to list the optical interfaces used in


SDH


© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 0.7


Self assessment of the objectives (continued)

Yes (or No (or


Instructional objectives Globally globally Comments
yes) no)

Other comments

Thank you for your answers to this questionnaire




© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 0.8


1 Introduction to the synchronous system

1.1
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VT ZZA Ed.01

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 1.1


1 Introduction to the synchronous system
Session presentation

 Objective: to be able to list the advantages of SDH


 program:
 1.1 Transmission networks
 1.2 Plesiochronous hierarchy
 1.3 Synchronous hierarchy
 1.4 SDH transport network

1.2

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 1.2


1 Introduction to the Synchronous System
Transmission networks

Mobile communication network


Subscriber Subscriber
system system
Intelligent network

Switching Switching
system system
Access PDH / SDH Access
system system
exchange transport exchange

Narrowband network Narrowband


Broadband Broadband
Copper Optical Copper
Optical Microwave Optical
Radio Satellite Radio
Voice Voice
Data Data
Images Images
Management network

1.3

 The "Transport" function comprises the transmission of traffic :


 from one exchange to another
 from one access system to another
 directly between subscriber terminals

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 1.3


1 Introduction to the Synchronous System
Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy : PDH

G.752
32.064 97.728 397.200
JAPAN *3 *4

G.752
*5

UNITED G.753 G.752


1.544 6.312 44.736 274.176
STATES *4 *7 *6

*3 *3
Interoperation
(G.802) G.757 G.755

G.742 G.751 G.751


2.048 8.448 34.368 139.264 564.992
EUROPE *4 *4 *4 *4

Frame structure not defined in the ITU-T Values in Mbit/s

1.4

 The Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH):


 is NOT designed for high rates
 is based on three different standards
 does not provide optical interconnections for interfaces supplied by different manufacturers
 defines a cost intensive and fairly inflexible multiplexing structure
 has a low binary rate dedicated for monitoring and a limited transmission quality
 does not provide centralized network management
 has an exclusively point-to-point connection topology
 The PDH standards were approved by the ITU-T in 1988 (G.702)

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 1.4


1 Introduction to the Synchronous System
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy : SDH

 The SDH results from the SONET concepts proposed in the


USA.
 The first SDH standards were approved by the ITU-T in 11/1988
(recommendation series G.7xx):
They define the rate, the frame and the multiplexing processes.
 The SDH is an international, high-rate telecommunication
networks standard.
 The SDH is defined as an assembly of normalized digital
transport structures.
 The SDH provides centralized network management.

1.5

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 1.5


1 Introduction to the Synchronous System
SDH transport network

Plesiochronous Plesiochronous
Signals Signals

SDH Network

ATM ATM

1.6

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 1.6


1 Introduction to the Synchronous System
Evaluation

 Objective: to be able to list the


advantages of SDH

Thank you for answering


the self-assessment
of the objectives sheet

1.7

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 1.7


2 Base frame components

2.1
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VT ZZA Ed.01

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 2.1


2 Base Frame Components
Session presentation

 Objective: to be able to describe the SDH frame


 program:
 2.1 Container : Cn
 2.2 Virtual container : VCn
 2.3 Tributary Unit (Group) : TU (TUG)
 2.4 Administrative Unit (Group) : AU (AUG)
 2.5 ITU-T Multiplexing Structure
 2.6 ETSI Multiplexing Structure
 2.7 Base Frame : STM-1
 2.8 Base elements : Overview

2.2

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 2.2


2 Base Frame Components
Container : Cn

139.264 Mbit/s
44.736 Mbit/s

n=4
n=3

n = 11
1.544 Mbit/s C-n

n = 12
n=3
n=2

2.048 Mbit/s 34.368 Mbit/s


6.312 Mbit/s

2.3

 C-n: Container, n = index of the container (n = 11, 12, 2, 3, 4)


 The rate of a container depends on the signal which is being transported.
 The mapping of a signal in the corresponding container is specified in G.707

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 2.3


2 Base Frame Components
Container : VCn

P
O VC-4 C-4 139.264 Mbit/s
H

P
O VC-3
H

C-3 44.736 Mbit/s


34.368 Mbit/s

P
O C-n P
H
O VC-2 C-2 6.312 Mbit/s
H

P
O VC-12 C-12 2.048 Mbit/s
H

P
VC-n O VC-11 C-11 1.544 Mbit/s
H

2.4

 VC-n: Virtual Container, it is made up of a C-n and a POH


 POH: Path OverHead
 The POH is an additional transport-capacity designed for the container:
it carries details on e.g. the payload contents.
 VC-n = C-n + POH n = 11, 12, 2, 3, 4

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 2.4


2 Base Frame Components
TU

P
O VC-4 C-4 139.264 Mbit/s
H

P
TU-3 O VC-3
H

C-3 44.736 Mbit/s


34.368 Mbit/s

P
TU-2 O VC-2 C-2 6.312 Mbit/s
H

P
TU-12 O VC-12 C-12 2.048 Mbit/s
H

P
TU-11 O VC-11 C-11 1.544 Mbit/s
H

high order low order


2.5

 TU: Tributary Unit, it is made up of a low order VC-n (n=11,12, 2, 3) and a pointer
 The pointer is an additional rate used to locate its VC-n within the TU: Pointers allow to transport virtual containers phase shifted
related to their TU, which facilitates data processing in the network element.
 For high order container (VC-3, VC-4) see: Administrative Unit (AU)
 TU-n = VC-n + PTR n = 11, 12, 2, 3

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 2.5


2 Base Frame Components
TUG
P
O VC-4 C-4 139.264 Mbit/s
H

X3

X1 P
TUG-3 TU-3 O VC-3
H

X7 C-3 44.736 Mbit/s


34.368 Mbit/s

X1 P
TUG-2 TU-2 O VC-2 C-2 6.312 Mbit/s
H
X3
P
TU-12 O VC-12 C-12 2.048 Mbit/s
H

X4

P
TU-11 O VC-11 C-11 1.544 Mbit/s
H

high order low order

2.6

 TUG: Tributary Unit Group, the TUG-2 / TUG-3 can consist of several types of capacity payloads with different sizes.
 The TUG-2 is 4 X TU-11 or
3 X TU-12 or
1 X TU-2.
 The TUG-3 is 7 X TUG-2 or
1 X TU-3.
 The TUG is obtained through byte interleaved multiplexing.
 For high order container (VC-3, VC-4) see: Administrative Unit Group (AUG)
 TUG-k = m * TU-n n = 11, 12, 2, 3

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 2.6


2 Base Frame Components
AUG
X1
P
AUG AU-4 O VC-4 C-4 139.264 Mbit/s
H

X3
X1 P
X3 TUG-3 TU-3 O
H
VC-3

X7
P
C-3 44.736 Mbit/s
AU-3 O
H
VC-3 34.368 Mbit/s

X7
X1 P
TUG-2 TU-2 O
H
VC-2 C-2 6.312 Mbit/s

X3
P
TU-12 O
H
VC-12 C-12 2.048 Mbit/s

X4
P
TU-11 O
H
VC-11 C-11 1.544 Mbit/s

high order low order

2.7

 AU: Administrative Unit, it is made up of a high order VC-n (n = 3,4) and a pointer.
 The AU-3 multiplexing structure is designed for compatibility with SONET frames.
 Two types of virtual containers VC-n are used:
 Lower order VC-n (n = 11,12, 2, 3)
This entity contains a single container n associated with the POH.
 Higher order VC-n (n = 3, 4)
This entity contains either a single container n or a TUG (Tributary Unit Group) assembly (TUG-2 or TUG-3) associated
with the POH.
 VC-3 can be: lower order  TU-3  TUG-3  VC-4  AU-4 or
higher order  AU-3

AU-n = VC-n + PTR n = 3, 4

AUG = 1 * AU-4 or 3 * AU-3

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 2.7


2 Base Frame Components
ITU-T Multiplexing Structure

*N X1 P
STM-N AUG AU-4 O VC-4 C-4 139.264 Mbit/s
H

X3
X3 X1 P
TUG-3 TU-3 O
H
VC-3

X1 P X7 44.736 Mbit/s
STM-0 AU-3 O
H
VC-3 C-3 34.368 Mbit/s

X7
X1 P
High rate TUG-2 TU-2 O
H
VC-2 C-2 6.312 Mbit/s
multiplexing
X3
P
Low rate TU-12 O VC-12 C-12 2.048 Mbit/s
H
multiplexing
X4
P
TU-11 O VC-11 C-11 1.544 Mbit/s
Insertion of the SOH H

2.8

 N = 1, 4, 16, 64
 STM: Synchronous Transport Module
 ITU-T: International Telecommunication Union – Telecommunication sector
 SDH-SONET compatibility: see Appendix A2

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 2.8


2 Base Frame Components
ETSI Multiplexing Structure

*N X1 P
STM-N AUG AU-4 O VC-4 C-4 139.264 Mbit/s
H

X3
X1 P
TUG-3 TU-3 O VC-3
H

X7 44.736 Mbit/s
C-3 34.368 Mbit/s

X1 P
TUG-2 TU-2 O
H
VC-2
X3
P
TU-12 O VC-12 C-12 2.048 Mbit/s
H

P
O VC-11 C-11 1.544 Mbit/s
Insertion of the SOH H

2.9

 N = 1, 4, 16, 64
 ETSI: European Telecommunication Standard Institute.
 It is a subset of ITU-T standard.
 It focuses on European digital signals to simplify equipment.
 ETSI-standard will be handled in the following chapters
 In the SDH signal (or data) processing takes place in three levels:
 mapping of digital signal to container C-n
 multiplexing of low order containers to high order containers via TUGs and finally via AU (AUG) into the STM-1 base
frame.
 multiplexing of base frame, i. e. STM-1 frames at 155.520 Mbit/s with each other to create a high-rate frame:
 STM-4 at 622.080 Mbit/s
 STM-16 at 2488.320 Mbit/s
 STM-64 at 9953.280 Mbit/s

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 2.9


2 Base Frame Components
Base Frame STM-1

270 columns (bytes)


9 1

1 270

RSOH

AU-4 pointer
9 rows P
(bytes) O C-4
H

MSOH

2430

MSOH + RSOH= SOH


VC-4

2.10

 The STM-1 base frame is structured with the following characteristics:


 Length : 2430 bytes
 Duration : 125 µs i.e. 8000 frames/s
 Rate : 155.520 Mbit/s
 Payload : 2340 bytes i. e. 149.760 Mbit/s
1byte i.e. 64 kbit/s (e.g. speech channel)
 STM Synchronous Transport Module
MSOH Multiplex Section Overhead
RSOH Regenerator Section Overhead
SOH Section Overhead
 STM-1 = AU-4 + SOH

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 2.10


2 Base Frame Components
Base Elements : Overview
Container C-n n = 11, 12, 2, 3, 4

Virtual Container VC-n = C-n + POH n = 11, 12, 2, 3, 4

Tributary Unit TU-n = VC-n + PTR n = 11, 12, 2, 3

Tributary Unit Group TUG-k = m * TU-n k = 2, 3


m = 4, 3, 1, 7
n = 11, 12, 2, 3

Administrative Unit AU-n = VC-n + PTR n = 3, 4

Administrative Unit Group AUG = 1 * AU-4


or 3 * AU-3

Synchronous Transport Module STM-1 = AU-4 + SOH (Base Frame)


STM-N = 4 * STM-m N = 4, 16, 64
m = 1, 4, 16
2.11

 In the SDH signal (or data) processing takes place in three levels:
 mapping of digital signal to container C-n
 multiplexing of low order containers to high order containers via TUGs and finally via AU (AUG) into the STM-1 base
frame
 multiplexing of base frame, i. e. STM-1 frames at 155.520 Mbit/s with each other to create a high-rate frame:
 STM-4 at 622.080 Mbit/s
 STM-16 at 2488.320 Mbit/s
 STM-64 at 9953.280 Mbit/s

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 2.11


2 Base Frame Components
Evaluation

 Objective: to be able to describe the


SDH frame

Thank you for answering


the self-assessment
of the objectives sheet

2.12

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 2.12


3 Section Overhead

3.1
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VT ZZA Ed.01

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 3.1


3 Section Overhead
Session presentation

 Objective: to be able to describe the function of OH bytes


 program:
 3.1 Definition of Path and Section
 3.2 Example of Path and section
 3.3 STM-1 Section Overhead : SOH
 3.4 STM-1 Regeneration Section Overhead : RSOH
 3.5 STM-1 Multiplexing Section Overhead : MSOH

3.2

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 3.2


3 Section Overhead
Definition of Path and Section

Terminal- or Cross-Connect-Multiplexer Terminal- or Cross-Connect-Multiplexer

SOH SOH
POH POH
C VC Regenerator Regenerator VC C
plesiochronous Signal

plesiochronous Signal
STM-N STM-N STM-N STM-N

C VC VC C

Regenerator Regenerator Regenerator


Section Section Section
Multiplex Section

Path

3.3

 C Container
 VC Virtual Containe
 POH Path Overhead
 SOH Section Overhead

 The SECTION is the link between two network elements.

 The PATH connects the two points where the POH is generated / analyzed.

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 3.3


3 Section Overhead
Example of Path and Section
2 Mbit/s

Section 2
STM-16
1 Pa
on
cti NE-B NE-C S T th SDH Network
Se -1 M 2
M -1
ST
Path 1
NE-A NE-D

STM-4
STM-4

NE-E NE-F
STM-4

2 Mbit/s 2 Mbit/s 2 Mbit/s

3.4

 NE Network Element

 Overheads carrying specific info of every path or section, from one end to the other
(e.g. Path 1 between NE-A and NE-E)

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 3.4


3 Section Overhead
Section Overhead : SOH
9 bytes

* * * * * * * * *
A1 A1 A1 A2 A2 A2 J0
B1 D D E1 D F1 RSOH

D1 D D D2 D D3

AU-4 pointer
9 rows
B2 B2 B2 K1 K2

D4 D5 D6

D7 D8 D9 MSOH

D10 D11 D12

S1 Z1 Z1 Z2 Z2 M1 E2

Bytes reserved for national use.


*
Unscrambled bytes. Their contents should therefore be monitored.

∆ Bytes depending on the medium (satellite, radio relay system, ...)

3.5

 All unmarked bytes are reserved for future international normalization (medium dependence, additional national use and other
purposes).

 The Section OverHead (SOH) is divided into two subassemblies:


 RSOH: Regenerator Section OverHead
 MSOH: Multiplex Section OverHead

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 3.5


3 Section Overhead
Regeneration Section Overhead : RSOH

* * * * * * * * *
A1 A1 A1 A2 A2 A2 J0
B1 D D E1 D F1 RSOH: Regenerator
Section
D1 D D D2 D D3
OverHead

3.6

 A1, A2 The Frame Alignment Word is used to recognize the beginning of an STM-N frame.
A1: 1111 0110 = F6 (HEX)
A2: 0010 1000 = 28 (HEX)

 J0 Path Trace. It is used to give a path through an SDH Network a ‘Name’. This message (Name) enables the
receiver to check the continuity of its connection with the desired transmitter.

 B1 Bit Error Monitoring. The B1 Byte contains the result of the parity check of the previous STM frame, before
scrambling of the actual STM frame. This check is carried out with a Bit Interleaved Parity check (BIP-8).

 E1 Engineering Orderwire (EOW). It can be used to transmit speech signals beyond a Regenerator Section for
operating and maintenance purposes.

 F1 User Channel. It is used to transmit data and speech for service and maintenance.

 D1 - D3 Data Communication Channel at 192 kbit/s (DCCR).


This channel is used to transmit management information via the STM-N frames

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 3.6


3 Section Overhead
Multiplexing Section Overhead : MSOH

B2 B2 B2 K1 K2

D4 D5 D6

D7 D8 D9 MSOH: Multiplex
Section
D10 D11 D12
OverHead
S1 Z1 Z1 Z2 Z2 M1 E2

3.7

 B2 : Bit Error Monitoring. The B2 Bytes contains the result of the parity check of the previous STM frame, except the RSOH,
before scrambling of the actual STM frame. This check is carried out with a Bit Interleaved Parity check (BIP24).

 K1, K2 Automatic Protection Switching (APS). In case of a failure, the STM frames can be routed new with the help of the K1, K2
Bytes through the SDH Network.
Assigned to the multiplexing section protection (MSP) protocol.
 K2 (Bit6,7,8) MS_RDI: Multiplex Section Remote Defect Indication (former MS_FERF: Multiplex Section Far End Receive
Failure).

 D4 to D12 Data Communication Channel at 576 kbit/s (DCCM). (See also D1-D3 in RSOH)

 S1 (Bit 5 - 8) Synchronization quality level


0000 Quality unknown
0010 G.811 10-11/day frequency drift
0100 G.812T transit 10-9 /day frequency drift
1000 G.812L local 2*10-8/day frequency drift
1011 G.813 5*10-7/day frequency drift
1111 Not to be used for synchronization
 E2 Engineering Orderwire (EOW). Same function as E1 in RSOH.

 M1 MS_REI: Multiplex Section Remote Error Indicator, number of interleaved bits


which have been detected to be erroneous in the received B2 bytes. (former MS_FEBE:
Multiplexing Section Far End Block Errored)

 Z1, Z2 Spare bytes

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 3.7


3 Section Overhead
Evaluation

 Objective: to be able to describe the


function of OH bytes

Thank you for answering


the self-assessment
of the objectives sheet

3.8

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 3.8


4 Pointer

4.1
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VT ZZA Ed.01

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 4.1


4 Pointer
Session presentation

 Objective: to be able to describe the function of the pointer


 program:
 4.1 AU-4 Pointer addressing area
 4.2 Au- Pointer management
 4.3 AU-4 Pointer settings
 4.4 AU-4 Pointer and justification use
 4.5 Pointer justifications depending on clock deviation

4.2

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 4.2


4 Pointer
AU-4 Pointer addressing area

Pointer addressing area

AU-4 Pointer

VC-4

Au-4 Pointer

4.3

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 4.3


4 Pointer
AU-4 Pointer management

pointer interpretation pointer generation

received transmitted
STM-1 STM-1
VC-4 VC-4 VC-4 VC-4

extraction retrieved clock local clock insertion


of the SOH of the NE of the SOH

4.4

 The rate of a transmitted VC-4 is consistent with the rate of the received VC-4.

 Pointers allow to transport virtual containers phase shifted related to their TU respectively AU, which facilitates data processing in
the network element.

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 4.4


4 Pointer
AU-4 Pointer settings

Clock 1 Clock 2 Clock 3

NE-A STM-1 NE-B STM-1 NE-C


Plesio.
STM-1
(Clock 4)
Plesio. Plesio.

Pointer movement

4.5

 Negative justification: Clock 1 > Clock 2


The rate of the incoming STM-1 is
higher than the capacity of the outgoing STM-1. Additional bits must be used to increase the capacity of the outgoing STM-1.

 Positive justification: Clock 1 < Clock 2


The rate of the incoming STM-1 is
lower than the capacity of the outgoing STM-1. Additional stuffing bits must be used in the outgoing STM-1 to reduce its useful
capacity

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 4.5


4 Pointer
AU-4 Pointer and justification use

PTR(n) H3 Frame N PTR(n) H3

PTR(n) H3 Frame N + 1 PTR(n) H3

PTR(n-1)H3 Frame N + 2 PTR(n+1)H3 B

PTR(n-1)H3 Frame N + 3 PTR(n+1)H3

Negative Justification Positive Justification

4.6

 PTR(n): Pointer with value n


 H3: 3 stuffing bytes used for negative justification
 B: 3 stuffing bytes used for positive justification

 Negative justification:
If the frame rate of container VC-n is too fast compared to that of the AUG, the alignment of container VC-n must be periodically
advanced in time and the pointer‘s value reduced by one unit.

 Positive justification:
If the frame rate of container VC-n is too slow compared to that of the AUG, the alignment of container VC-n must be periodically
delayed in time and the pointer‘s value increased by one unit.

 A positive or negative justification corresponds to a 3-byte offset in the AU-4.

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 4.6


4 Pointer
Pointer and justification use (continuation)

3 negative justification 3 positive justification


opportunity bytes opportunity bytes

1 9 10 270
1

4 H1 H1 H1 H2 H2 H2 H3 H3 H3 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 2 2 86 86 86
* * ** **

5 87

9
522

782

4.7

 The value of the pointer remains constant for at least 3 consecutive frames (G.707).
The maximum justification therefore takes place in 1 out of every 4 frames.

H1+H2: NNNNSSPP PPPPPPPP


NNNN New data flag (4 bits)
SS Type of pointer, Section Supporting Bits (2 bits):
10 for AU-4 / AU-3 pointer
01 for TU-3 pointer
00 for concatenated payload

PPPPPPPPPP Pointer value (10 bits):


every third byte in VC-4 must be addressable:
(261 * 9) byte / 3 = 783 addresses

H1*+H2**: 1001SS11 11111111 Concatenation Indication (CI):


SS 00 SDH-SONET interworking
01 SDH

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 4.7


4 Pointer
Pointer justifications depending on clock deviation

justification events /
Number of pointer

second

2000

200

Forbidden area
20
6.48 Hz
2

0,2

0,02

Difference of incoming
3.10-9 3.10-8 3.10-7 3.10-6 3.10-5 3.10-4 clock to equipment
1 ppm clock
≈300 ppm

4.8

 A 1-ppm clock difference causes a pointer action frequency of 6.48 Hz, one action every 1235 frames.

 Maximum clock difference:


 One justification event every 4 frames (ITU-T)
 3 bytes / (2430 bytes x 4) ≈ 300 ppm

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 4.8


4 Pointer
Evaluation

 Objective: to be able to describe the


function of the pointer

Thank you for answering


the self-assessment
of the objectives sheet

4.9

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 4.9


5 Path Overhead, Low rate Multiplexing Mapping

5.1
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VT ZZA Ed.01

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 5.1


5 Path Overhead, Low Rate Multiplexing, Mapping
Session presentation

 Objective: to be able to describe the multiplexing structure in an


SDH frame
 program:
 5.1 VC-4, VC-3 POH
 5.2 140 Mbit/s mapping
 5.3 VC3->TUG3->VC-4 Generation
 5.4 STM-1 made up of 3 x VC-3
 5.5 VC-2, VC-12, VC-11, POH
 5.6 Asynchronous mapping at 2 Mbit/s
 5.7 Generation of a VC-12 Multiframe
 5.8 Organisation of the STM-1 made up of VC-12
 5.9 TU-12 Unit Numbering in a VC-4
 5.10 ATM cell insertion into a VC-4
5.2

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 5.2


5 Path Overhead, Low Rate Multiplexing, Mapping
VC-4 , VC-3 POH

POH

J1
B3
C2
G1 C-4 or C-3
F2 VC-4 , VC-3 POH
H4
F3
K3
N1

5.3

 C2: Signal label - indicates the composition of C-4 / C-3

(HEX-values)
00: path not equipped
01: path equipped, payload not specific
02: TUG payload structure (TUG-2/ TUG-3)
03: TU alignment, locked TU mode
04: asynchronous mapping of signals at 34 / 45 Mbit/s in a C-3 container
12: asynchronous mapping of signals at 140 Mbit/s in a C-4 container
13: ATM mapping
14: MAN mapping (DQDB)
15: FDDI mapping (100 Mbit/s, Fiber Distributed Data Int)
FE: tests signal, 0.181 specific mapping
FF: VC-AIS signal

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 5.3


5 Path Overhead, Low Rate Multiplexing, Mapping
VC-4, VC-3 POH (continuation)
J1 Path trace, identifier of the path
It is used to check that the path connection between transmitter and
receiver is maintained. 64-byte character string or one 16-byte frame,
transmitted in 64 resp. 16 consecutive STM frames (64*125µs or 16*125µs)
J1
B3 BIP-8, parity block check of the previous VC-4 / VC-3 before scrambling
B3
C2 C2 Signal Label

G1 G1 Path status of the opposite path terminal

F2
REI RDI reserved spare
H4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

F3
F2, F3 Path user channels: assigned to the user's communication requirements.
K3
N1 H4 Multiframe Indicator: used to designate a specific use of the VC-4's capacity:
VC-2, VC-12, VC-11

K3 Automatic Protection Switching (APS) channel (bits 1 to 4)


N1 Tandem connection monitoring (TCM) function (bits 1 to 4).
Data link (bits 5 to 8).

5.4

 G1, bit 1 to 4: HP_REI: Higher Path Remote Error Indication Return


of the remote B3 (BIP-8 code) (former HP_FEBE: Far End Block Error)

 G1, bit 5: HP_RDI: Higher Path Remote Defect Indication Path


remote alarm (former HP_FERF: Far End Receive
Failure)

 G1, bit 6 to 7: reserved for optional use


(transmission of remote alarm with fault differentiation).
If they are not used, they shall be set to 00 or 11.

 G1, bit 8: reserved for future use.

 H4: A multiframe synchronization is required if the VC-4 contains


VC-2s, VC-12s, VC-11s. These
multiframes are spread over 500 µs. It is therefore necessary
to indicate in which VC-4 they start.

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 5.4


5 Path Overhead, Low Rate Multiplexing, Mapping
140 Mbit/s Mapping

1 blocks 20

rows

9
180
blocks

C-4: 20 blocks of 13 bytes on 9 rows

5.5

 Breakdown of C-4 into 180 blocks of 13 bytes ((9 * 20) * 13 = 2340 bytes payload)

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 5.5


5 Path Overhead, Low Rate Multiplexing, Mapping
140 Mbit/s Mapping (continuation)
Structure of one of the nine lines in container C-4
1 12 bytes

W 96 D X 96 D Y 96 D Y 96 D Y 96 D

X 96 D Y 96 D Y 96 D Y 96 D X 96 D

Y 96 D Y 96 D Y 96 D X 96 D Y 96 D

Y 96 D Y 96 D X 96 D Y 96 D Z 96 D

W Y D Data bit
DDDDDDDD RRRRRRRR
R Fixed stuff bit
O Overhead bit
X CRRRRROO Z DDDDDDSR S Justification opportunity bit
C Justification control bit

5.6

 The overhead bits (O) are reserved for future communication requirements

 CCCCC = 00000 means that bit S (in byte Z) is a data bit.


 CCCCC = 11111 means that bit S (in byte Z) is a justification bit.

 Majority vote for protection against decision errors (data or justification bit).

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 5.6


5 Path Overhead, Low Rate Multiplexing, Mapping
VC-3 --> TUG-3 --> VC-4 Generation
POH VC-3
1 85
1 J1
B3
C2
G1
125 µs
rows F2
periodicity
H4
F3
K3
9 N1
VC-3: 85 columns of bytes

1 86 1 86 1 86

TUG-3 A TUG-3 B TUG-3 C

stuffing

1 P
2 PTR PTR PTR
O A B C
3 H
A B C A C A B C
...
9 VC-4
1 2 3 4 5 6 261
5.7

 A VC-3 POH has the same structure as the VC-4 POH.

 The TU-3 pointer is similar to the AU-4 pointer and serves the same purpose.

 The TUG-3 defines the locations of the TU-3s in the VC-4.

 Bytes H1 H2 H3 of the TU-3 pointers are the bytes of rows 1, 2 and 3 of columns 4, 5 and 6 of the VC-4.

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 5.7


5 Path Overhead, Low Rate Multiplexing, Mapping
STM-1 made up of 3 x VC-3
POH VC-4
1 9 10 270
MSOH G1
F2
H4
RSOH F3
K3
AU-4 pointer N1
J1 H1 H1 H1 595 595 595
B3 H2 H2 H2 680 680 680
MSOH 764 764 764 C2 H3 H3 H3 0 0 0 1 82 83 83 83
84 84 84 G1 85 85 85 86
F2
H4

VC-3#A
VC-3#B
VC-3#C
Stuffing
RSOH F3
K3
AU-4 pointer N1
J1 H1 H1 H1 595 595 595
B3 H2 H2 H2 680 680 680
MSOH 764 764 764 C2 H3 H3 H3 0 0 0 1 82 83 83 83
84 84 84 G1 85 85 85 86
F2
A B C A B C A B C A C A B C
261 columns of bytes
5.8

 Payload: 2340 bytes = 3 * 9 * 85 bytes (3 * VC-3: A, B, C)


+3 * 3 bytes (3 * Pointer)
+3 *12 bytes (3 * stuffing)

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 5.8


5 Path Overhead, Low Rate Multiplexing, Mapping
VC-2, VC-12, VC-11 POH

V5 BIP-2 REI RFI Signal label RDI


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

J2 Path trace (16-byte frame)

N2 Network operator byte (Monitoring function)

K4 Automatic Protection Switching (APS) channel (bits 1 to 4).

5.9

 V5: BIP-2 even parity of order 2 of the previous VC-2 / VC-12 / VC-11
REI LP_REI: Lower Path Remote Error Indication
Set to 1 and returned to the source of the path if the BIP-2 parity detects one or
more errors
RFI Remote Failure Indication in the path (optional)
A failure is a fault which lasts longer than the maximum duration of the
transmission systems protection mechanisms.

Signal label (bit 5, 6, 7) indicates the composition of C-2 / C-12 / C-11:

000 not equipped or monitoring not equipped


001 equipped - not specific
010 asynchronous
011 bit synchronous (not used)
100 byte synchronous
101 reserved for future use
110 test signal, 0.181 specific mapping
111 VC-AIS signal

RDI LP_RDI: Lower Path Remote Defect Indication


Indicates connection and server faults

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 5.9


5 Path Overhead, Low Rate Multiplexing, Mapping
Asynchronous Mapping at 2 Mbit/s
V5
VC-12 Multiframe
RRRRRRRR
(= 4 * VC-12)
32 bytes

RRRRRRRR
J2
C1 C2 O O O O R R

32 bytes

140 RRRRRRRR
bytes N2
C1 C2 O O O O R R

32 bytes

RRRRRRRR
K4
C1 C2 R R R R R S1
S2 D D D D D D D D data bit
R fixed stuff bit
31 bytes O overhead bit
S justification opportunity bit
RRRRRRRR C justification control bit

5.10

 The 2 Mbit/s signal is placed in a C-12 without taking ist composition into consideration: No link between the 2 Mbit/s frame and
the C-12.

 Justification process upon mapping within the C-12 to enable a +/- 50 ppm synchronization tolerance.

 Bits are placed in the C-12 as they arrive.

 VC-12s (35 bytes in 125 µs) of 4 consecutive STM-1 frames (4 x 125 µs = 500 µs) are combined to a multiframe (140 bytes in
500 µs) to reduce overhead / useful signal ratio.

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 5.10


5 Path Overhead, Low Rate Multiplexing, Mapping
Generation of a VC-12 Multiframe
byte H4 status TU-12 VC-12 VC-12 Multiframe
0 µs = 4 * VC-12
XXXXXX00 V1
V5

35 bytes
125 µs
XXXXXX01 V2
J2

35 bytes

250 µs
XXXXXX10 V3 N2

35 bytes

375 µs K4
XXXXXX11 V4

35 bytes

140 bytes
500 µs
capacity of 4 container VC-12:
multiframe (bytes/500 µs)
5.11

 TU-n pointer: 4 bytes V1, V2, V3, V4


 V1, V2: pointer value
 V3: negative justification opportunity
 V4: spare

 H4: multiframe indicator - used for location within the 500 µs multiframe (see VC-4 POH)

 Different sizes of virtual containers VC:


 VC-11 26 bytes
 VC-12 35 bytes
 VC-2 107 bytes

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 5.11


5 Path Overhead, Low Rate Multiplexing, Mapping
Organization of the STM-1 made up of VC-12

1 10 19 82 145 208 270


N
Multiframe No 1 1
125 µs
J
1 1 2 3 63 1 2 3
63 1 2 3 63 1 2 3 63
B N N N
RSOH 3 P P P
I I I
C
2
G
AU-4 pointer 1
F
2
H
4
F
MSOH 3
K
3
N
Multiframe No 2 1
250 µs
J
Multiframe No 3 1 1 2 3 63

Stuffing

5.12

 NPI: Null Pointer Indication


(bytes used for STM-1 made up of 3 VC-3s via TUG-3)

 VC-12 TU-12 TUG-2 TUG-3 VC-4 AU-4

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 5.12


5 Path Overhead, Low Rate Multiplexing, Mapping
TU-12 Unit Numbering in a VC-4

TUG-2 # 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 7
VC-12 # 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3

x7

TUG-3 # 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
TUG-3 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 7
TUG-3 # 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7 3
TUG-2 # 1 23 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3
VC-12 # 1 11 1 1 1 1 2 2 22 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

x3
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 70 72 256 258 260 Number of VC-4
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 ... 69 71 73 ... 257 259 container column x
000000000111111111122222 66660 556666 Time period number
V 123456789012345678901234 01231 890123
C
4
P 123123123123123123123123 3 1 2 31 123123 K
O
H
111222333444555666777111 ... 6 7 7 7 1 ... 6 6 6 7 7 7 L address
111111111111111111111222 33331 333333 M

5.13

 Each TU-12 unit has an address (K, L, M), where


K = TUG-3 number (1 to 3)
L = TUG-2 number (1 to 7)
M = TU-12 number (1 to 3)

 VC-12 TU-12 TUG-2 TUG-3 VC-4 AU-4

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 5.13


5 Path Overhead, Low Rate Multiplexing, Mapping
ATM Cell Insertion into VC-4

Header Payload

5 48

J1
B3
C2
G1
F2
H4
F3
K3
N1

5.14

 ATM: Asynchronous Transfer Mode

 ATM cell is a 53 byte indivisible cell

 The cell train is mapped in the containers in accordance with the byte structure

 ATM cells may overlap a VC-4 container frame boarder

 Number of cells inside C-4:


2340 bytes / 53 bytes = 44 ATM-cells and 8 bytes remainder

 Mapping of ATM cells in containers:


VC-4-Xc, VC-2-mc, VC-4, VC-3, VC-2, VC-12, VC-11 (G.707, I.432)

 VC-4-Xc virtual container obtained through the Contiguous Concatenation of


X containers C-4.

 VC-2-mc virtual container obtained through the Contiguous Concatenation of


m containers C-2.

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 5.14


5 Path Overhead, Low Rate Multiplexing, Mapping
Evaluation

 Objective: to be able to describe the


multiplexing structure in an SDH frame

Thank you for answering


the self-assessment
of the objectives sheet

5.15

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 5.15


6 High-Rate Multiplexing

6.1
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VT ZZA Ed.01

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 6.1


6 High Rate Multiplexing
Session presentation

 Objective: to be able to describe the multiplexing of STM-1


frames
 program:
 6.1 Byte interleaved Multiplexing
 6.2 STM-N Section Overhead
 6.3 Contiguous Concatenation

6.2

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 6.2


6 High Rate Multiplexing
High-Rate Multiplexing

270 x N

9xN 261 x N

RSOH

AU-PTR
125 µs
9 PAYLOAD periodicity

MSOH

6.3

 A STM-N frame is made up of N * 270 columns of 9 lines each.

 N = 1, 4, 16, 64

 STM-1 at 155.520 Mbit/s


STM-4 at 622.080 Mbit/s
STM-16 at 2.488.320 Mbit/s
STM-64 at 9.953.280 Mbit/s

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 6.3


6 High Rate Multiplexing
Byte interleaved multiplexing

PTR Nx9
AU-4 3
VC-4 VC-4#1
#1

PTR Addition of the STM-N RSOH

(byte interleaving)
AU-4

MULTIPLEXING
VC-4 VC-4#2 Nx9 N x 261
#2
RSOH
STM-N
PTR
AU-4 MSOH
VC-4 VC-4
#3 #3
Addition of the STM-N MSOH
PTR
AU-4
VC-4 VC-4#N 5
#N
Nx9

6.4

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 6.4


6 High Rate Multiplexing
STM-N Section Overhead
N * 9 bytes
N
* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 J0 Z0

RSOH
B1 E1 F1

D1 D2 D3

N * AU-4 pointers
9 rows

B2 B2 B2 K1 K2
B2 B2 B2
D4 D5 D6

MSOH
D7 D8 D9
D D D
10 11 12
S1 E2

M1
position (9, 4, 3) row, block, byte
Bytes reserved for national use. max (9, 9,16)

* Unscrambled bytes. Their contents should therefore be monitored.

NOTE: All unmarked bytes are reserved for future international normalization
(medium dependent, additional national use and other purposes).

6.5

 N = 1, 4, 16, 64

 All OH-Bytes are related to section.


Most of them therefore exists only once.

Exception:
- A1, A2 to keep accuracy of frame detection
- B2 to keep accuracy of block check for the increased block size

 Z0: reserved for future international normalization;


to be used in the event of interoperation with a remote equipment using the module identifier
function STM (C1) and with the equipment using the regeneration section trace function.

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 6.5


6 High Rate Multiplexing
Contiguous Concatenation
270 x 4 = 1080

9 x 4 = 36 261 x 4 = 1044

RSOH

STM-4
4 * AU-PTR
9
J1

MSOH

Payload VC-4-4c

stuffing

VC-4 POH N1

6.6

 Contiguous Concatenation is a procedure associating several virtual containers, which allows their combined capacity to be used
as a single container.

 Contiguous Concatenation is defined for TU-2 and AU-4 (SONET: also for AU-3)

 This technique has the advantage of optimizing the frame filling relative to the mapping of a higher rate container.

 STM-4 / STM-16 is used to transport a VC-4-Xc signal (SONET: STM-1 for VC-3-3c)

 Application:
 for bit streams which can not be contained in a VC-4
 typical: ATM signals with a bandwidth of 600 Mbit/s

 Procedure:
 the first AU-pointer indicates the J1-byte (POH VC-4), the other 3 pointers indicate Concatenation Indication (CI): three
columns with stuffing bytes
 H1*+H2**: 1001SS11 11111111 Concatenation Indication (CI):

SS: 00 SDH-SONET inter-working


01 SDH

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 6.6


6 High Rate Multiplexing
Evaluation

 Objective: to be able to describe the


multiplexing of STM-1 frames

Thank you for answering


the self-assessment
of the objectives sheet

6.7

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 6.7


7 Usage of SDH Networks

7.1
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VT ZZA Ed.01

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 7.1


7 Usage of SDH Networks
Session presentation

 Objective: to be able to describe the layering of SDH Networks


 program:
 7.1 Example of SDH Network
 7.2 Principle of Partitioning & Layering
 7.3 Partitioning of Layer Networks & Sub-Networks
 7.4 SDH Layer Networks
 7.5 Example : Layers used by a Low Order Path
 7.6 Definition of reference Points
 7.7 Relation between Reference Points & Transport Entities

7.2

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 7.2


7 Usage of SDH Networks
Example SDH Network

ATM-Equipment
ATM VP
PDH Equipment

2 Mbit/s
SDH-Network

-4
PDH Equipment

M
ST
ST
M-

ST
6
4

-1

M
M

-1
ST

6
STM-1 34 Mbit/s

-4 ST
M
M
ST

ST

6
-4

-1
M

M
-1
1

ST
M-
ST 6
140 Mbit/s 45 Mbit/s

STM-4

ATM VP
PDH Equipment
PDH Equipment
ATM Equipment
7.3

 SDH networks are used to transport


 PDH signals
 ATM signals

 ATM VP: Virtual Path of the Asynchronous Transfer Mode

 An SDH network can be seen as a set of different network layers (path layers, section layers, physical layers) and can also be
divided into different sub-networks.

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 7.3


7 Usage of SDH Networks
Principles of Partitioning and Layering
Sub-networks Links

Path
layer network

Section
layer network

Physical
layer network

Layering view Partitioning view


(client/server association)

Layering concept Partitioning concept


Orthogonal views of layering and partitioning

7.4

 Application of the partitioning concept

The partitioning concept is important as a framework for defining:


 the network structure within a layer network
 administrative boundaries between network operators jointly providing connections within a single layer network
 domain boundaries within a layer network of a single operator to allow the apportioning of performance objectives to the
architectural components
 routing domain boundaries within the layer network of a single operator
 the part of a layer network or sub-network that is under the control of a third party for routing purposes (e. g. customer
network management)

 Application of the layering concept

The layering concept of the transport network allows:


 each layer network to be described using similar functions
 the independent design and operation of each layer network
 each layer network to have its own operations, diagnostic and automatic failure recovery capability
 the possibility of adding or modifying a layer network without affecting other layer networks from the architectural viewpoint
 simple modeling of networks that contain multiple transport technologies

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 7.4


7 Usage of SDH Networks
Partitioning of layer networks and sub-networks

National part sub-network International part sub-network

Local part sub-network in a Transit part sub-network in a


national part sub-network national part sub-network

7.5

 Partitioning concept

In general a sub-network is constructed by representing the physical implementation as links and sub-networks, starting from the
matrix that is the smallest (indivisible) sub-network. A set of sub-networks and links may be abstracted as a higher (containing)
sub-network. The way in which the contained sub-networks are interconnected by links describes the topology of the containing
sub-network. The ports at the boundary of the containing sub-network and the interconnection capability must fully represent, but
not extend, the connectivity supported by the contained sub-networks and links. Therefore a higher level sub-network may be
partitioned to show the level of detail required.

Thus in general, any sub-network may be partitioned into a number of smaller (contained) sub-networks interconnected by links.

The partitioning of a sub-network cannot extend or restrict its


connectivity i.e.:
 The ports on the boundary of the containing sub-network and the interconnection capability must be represented by the
contained sub-networks and links.
 The contained sub-networks and links cannot provide connectivity that is not available in the containing sub-network.

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 7.5


7 Usage of SDH Networks
SDH Layer Networks

PDH or ATM VP layer network

Lower-order path VC-11 VC-12 VC-2 VC-2-mc VC-3


layer network
Path
layer
Higher-order path
layer network VC-4 VC-4-Xc

Section Multiplex section


layer

Regenerator section

7.6

 The transport network can be decomposed into a number of independent layer networks with a client/server relationship between
adjacent layer networks.

A layer network describes the generation, transport and termination of a particular characteristic information.

 Client/server relationship
Any two adjacent network layers are associated in a client/server relationship.
Each transport network layer provides transport to the layer above and uses transport from the layer below.
The layer providing transport is termed a server.
The layer using transport is termed a client.

 VC-n path layer


The VC-n path layers can be divided into High Order Path layer and Low Order Path layer. They handle the termination of
the high- or low order paths. This includes the termination and generation of the POH. Alarms and anomalies transmitted
in this part of the signal arise at this layer. On the other direction a new overhead is created and overhead bytes can be
added to it. Additionally the incoming signals are mapped into containers and the TUG structure (if necessary) is created.

 Regenerator section layer/ Multiplex section layer


The regenerator/multiplex section layer handles the RSOH/MSOH of the SDH signal. At multiplex section layer
also the AU-pointer is processed.

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 7.6


7 Usage of SDH Networks
Example: Layers used by a Low Order Path

LO PATH / TRAIL

LO LINK CONNECTION LO LINK CONNECTION

HO PATH / TRAIL HO PATH / TRAIL

HO LINK CONNECTION HO LINK CONNECTION HO LINK CONNECTION

MS TRAIL MS TRAIL MS TRAIL

PHYSICAL PHYSICAL PHYSICAL


CONNECTION CONNECTION CONNECTION

NE NE NE NE

7.7

 Client/server relationship between adjacent layers is one where a link connection in the client layer is supported by a trail in the
server layer network.

Client
link connection

Server
trail
Example: MS trail supports HO Link Connection
HO trail supports LO Link Connection

 Link Connection: represents a pair of adaptation functions and a trail in the server layer.
 A complete example of Layering is given in appendix C1

 A Trail defines a section inside an SDH network between two basic functions where any kind of overhead information
(POH+SOH) is generated or analyzed. The trail definition exists for
several transmission layers:
 RS Trail (RS layer) / MS Trail (MS layer)
 VC-4 Trail (HO path layer)
 VC-3 / VC-12 Trail (LO path layer)

 A Path is a specific kind of trail inside an SDH network between two basic functions that generate and analyze the Path
Overhead (POH) of a Virtual Container. The path definition exists for the
following transmission layers:
 VC-4 path (HO path layer)
 VC-3 / VC-12 path (LO path layer)

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 7.7


7 Usage of SDH Networks
Definition of Reference points

AP AP
trail

CTP CTP CTP CTP CTP CTP

connection connection connection

7.8

 Every trail is terminated by an AP: Access Point The information at the AP is called AI:
Adapted Information, the payload and some parts of the path/section overhead.

 Every connection is terminated by a CTP: Connection Termination Point

 Two CTPs are combined to a CP: Connection Point, if they are connected in the same layer

 If the information in a CTP is given to/got from a termination function, the related reference is called a TCP: Termination
Connection Point

 ITU-T definition:
A bi-directional TCP consists of a pair of collocated unidirectional TCPs.

A unidirectional TCP is the binding of an output of a trail termination source to an input of a unidirectional connection or the output
of a unidirectional connection to the input of a trail termination sink.

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 7.8


7 Usage of SDH Networks
Relation between Reference Points and Transport Entities

NE 1 NE 2
LOPA source LOPA sink
LOP trail LOP layer
LOP AP LOP AP
LOPT source LOPT sink
LOP LC
LOP TCP LOP TCP

HOPA source HOPA sink


HOP trail
HOP AP HOP AP
HOP layer
HOPT source HOPT sink
HOP LC
HOP TCP HOP TCP

MSA source MSA sink


MS trail
MS AP MS AP
MS layer
MST source MST sink
MS TCP MS LC
MS TCP

RSA source RSA sink


RS trail
RS AP RS AP
RS layer
RST source RST sink
RS LC
RS TCP RS TCP

7.9

 LC : Link Connection

 : Adaptation

 : Termination

 : Bi-directional Trail Connection

 The complete functional model (G.805) is given in Appendix C2.

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 7.9


7 Usage of SDH Networks
Evaluation

 Objective: to be able to describe the


layering of SDH Networks

Thank you for answering


the self-assessment
of the objectives sheet

7.10

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 7.10


8 The Functional Model

8.1
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VT ZZA Ed.01

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 8.1


8 The Functional Model
Session presentation

 Objective: to be able to describe the functional model in SDH


 program:
 8.1 Layer Function : Adaptation
 8.2 Layer Function : Termination
 8.3 Layer Function : Connection
 8.4 Atomic & Basic Functions in a Network Element

8.2

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 8.2


8 The Functional Model
Layer Function: Adaptation

Layer Z

Y/Z Y/Z

Y Y

Layer Y
Client

Server Layer X
Sink Source

8.3

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 8.3


8 The Functional Model
Layer Function: Termination

Layer Z

Y/Z Y/Z

Y Y

Layer Y
Client

Server Layer X
Sink Source

8.4

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 8.4


8 The Functional Model
Layer Function: Connection

Layer Z

Y/Z Y/Z

Y Y

Layer Y
Client

Server Layer X
Sink Source

8.5

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 8.5


8 The Functional Model
Atomic and Basic Functions in a Network Element

LPA
Sm/Pq
LTCA
Sm SmD/Sm
Sms LPT
LSUT Low
Order
SmD Path
LTCT
Layer
Sms Smm Sm
LPC
LPOM
LTCM SmDm

LPA HPA HTCA


Sn/Pq Sn/Sm
SnD/Sn
Sns High
Sn
HSUT HPT
Order
SnD
HTCT Path
Sn Layer
Sns Snm
HPC SnDn
HPOM
HTCM

MSA MSn/Sn

MSP MSnP
Multiplex
Section
MSnPC
Layer
MSn/MSnP

MSn
MST

RSn/MSn Regenerator
RST RSn Section
Layer

OSn/RSn or ESn/RSn
Eq/Pqs or Eq/Pqx Physical
OSn or ESn Layer
SPI
PPI Eq

8.6

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 8.6


8 The Functional Model
Evaluation

 Objective: to be able to describe the


functional model in SDH

Thank you for answering


the self-assessment
of the objectives sheet

8.7

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 8.7


9 Alarm and Error Handling

9.1
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VT ZZA Ed.01

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 9.1


9 Alarm and Error Handling
Session presentation

 Objective: to be able to describe the way the alarms are


managed in an SDH network
 program:
 9.1 Communication Alarms
 9.2 Alarm Indication Signal : AIS
 9.3 Remote Defect Indication : RDI
 9.4 Alarm and Error Processing within an NE
 9.5 Explanation of Alarm and Error Codes
 9.6 Alarm and Error Processing
 9.7 Performance Monitoring : PM
 9.8 Tandem Connections

9.2

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 9.2


9 Alarm and Error Handling
Communication Alarms

SDH-Network
PDH PDH
140Mbit/s 2 Mbit/s
ADM ADM ADM
MSN MSN Regenerator MSN
DXC DXC DXC

9.3

 Communication alarms can be subdivided in primary and secondary alarms and alarms which have to be send in reversed
direction.

 The most common primary alarms are:

 LOS Loss of Signal


 LOF Loss of Frame

 Secondary alarms in forward direction are:

 AIS Alarm Indication Signal


 SSF Server Signal Failure: Alarm detected in a Client Layer indicating that in a
Server Layer another Alarm has been detected before

 Secondary alarms in reversed direction are:

 RDI Remote Defect Indication

 Errors are bit errors of PM: Performance Monitoring

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 9.3


9 Alarm and Error Handling
Alarm Indication Signal - AIS

RSOH 1
1
1 1 1 1 MS - AIS
1 1 1
1

RSOH 1
1
1 1 1 1
AU - AIS
MSOH 1
1

RSOH 1
P 1
AU-Pointer 1
O TU – AIS
H 1
MSOH
1

9.4

 AIS: Alarm Indication Signal, means the signal is adapted to all ONES

 It is generated to replace the normal SDH signal when it contains a defect condition

 In this way it prevents consequential failures or alarms in the following NEs

 The AIS alarm is send to the following NE in forward direction

 AIS can be identified as:


 MS-AIS: Multiplex Section Alarm Indication Signal
 the MS-AIS is generated as a consequence of a LOS or LOF
 on the receiving side of a regenerator element
 complete payload and MSOH are set to one
 AU-AIS: Administrative Unit Alarm Indication Signal
 AU-AIS is characterized by all ones in the complete Administrative Unit
 all bits of AU-pointer and payload are set to one
 TU-AIS: Tributary Unit Alarm Indication Signal
 a port that detects a serious alarm on the receiving side generates a TU-AIS
 all bits of TU-pointer and TU-payload are set to one

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 9.4


9 Alarm and Error Handling
Remote Defect Indication - RDI

1 ... 8

1 1 0 K2-Byte
K2

MS-RDI

1 ... 8
G1
1 G1-Byte

HP-RDI

V5
1 ... 8

1 V5-Byte

LP-RDI

9.5

 RDI: Remote Defect Indication, signal which is returned to the transmitting NE upon detecting a LOS, LOF or AIS

 RDI was previously known as FERF (Far End Receiver Failure)

 RDI can be identified as:


 MS-RDI: Multiplex Section Remote Defect Indication
 transmitted via the K2-Byte in the MSOH
 HP-RDI: High-order Path Remote Defect Indication
 transmitted via the G1-Byte in the HP-POH
 LP-RDI: Low-order Path Remote Defect Indication
 transmitted via the V5-Byte in the LP-POH

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 9.5


 Alarm and Error Processing within an NE

Physical Regenerator Multiplex Higher Order Lower Order


Section Layer Section Layer Section Layer Path Layer Path Layer
Sm/PG

Sm
Sm

Sn/Sm
Sn

Sn

MSn/Sn
MSn

OSr/ESr RSn

LOS
Detection
A1/A2 LOF
RS-TIM Generation
J0 MS-AIS
RS-BIP
B1
MS-AIS
K2
MS-BIP
B2 AU-AIS
MS-REI
M1
MS-RDI
K2
AU-AIS
AU-LOP
HP-UNEQ
C2
HP-TIM
J1
HP-BIP
B3 TU-AIS
HP-REI
G1
HP-RDI
G1
TU-AIS
TU-LOP
TU-LOM TU-AIS
H4
TU-PLM
C2
LP-UNEQ
V5
LP-TIM
J2
LP-BIP TU-AIS
V5
LP-REI
V5
LP-RDI
V5 PDH-AIS
LP-PLM
V5
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 9.6
 Explanation of Alarm and Error Codes

Alarm / Error Detection criteria


LOS Loss of Signal Drop of incoming optical power level causes high bit error
rate
OOF Out of Frame A1, A2 incorrect for ³ 625 µs
LOF Loss of Frame If OOF persists for ³ 3ms (to be defined)
RS BIP Regenerator Section Mismatch of the recovered and computed BlP-8 Covers the
Error BIP Error (B1) whole STM-N frame
RS-TIM Regenerator Section
Mismatch of the accepted and expected Trace Identifier in
Trace identifier
byte J0
Mismatch
MS BIP Multiplex Section BIP Mismatch of the recovered and computed N x BIP-24 covers
Error Error (B2) the whole frame, except RSOH
MS-AIS Multiplex Section AIS K2 (bits 6, 7, 8) = 111 for ³ 3 frames
MS-REl Multiplex Section Number of detected B2 errors in the sink side encoded in
Remote Error Indication byte M1 of the source side
MS-RDI Multiplex Section
K2 (bits 6, 7, 8) = 110 for ³ z frames (z = 3-5)
Remote Defect
Indication
AU-AIS Administrative Unit AIS All "1" in the AU pointer bytes H1, H2
AU-LOP Administrative Unit Loss
8 to10 NDF enable, 8 to 10 invalid pointers
of Pointer
HP BIP HO Path BIP Error (B3) Mismatch of the recovered and computed BIP-8
Error Covers entire VC-3
HP-UNEQ HO Path Unequipped C2 = "0" for ³ 5 frames
HP-TIM HO Path Trace Identifier Mismatch of the accepted and expected Trace Identifier in
Mismatch byte J1
HP-REI HO Path Remote Error Number of detected B3 errors in the sink side
Indication encoded in byte G1 (bits 1, 2, 3, 4) of the source side
HP-RDI HO Path Remote Defect G1 (bit 5) = 1 for ³ z frames (z = 3, 5 or 10)
Indication
HP-PLM HO Path Payload Label Mismatch of the accepted and expected Payload Label
Mismatch in byte C2
TU-LOM Tributary Unit H4 (bits 7, 8) multiframe not recovered for X ms
Loss of Multiframe X = 1 to 5 ms
TU-AIS Tributary Unit AIS All "1" in the TU pointer bytes V1, V2
TU-PLM Tributary Unit Mismatch of the accepted and expected Payload Label
Payload Table Mismatch in byte V5
TU-LOP Tributary Unit 8 -10 NDF enable, 8-10 Invalid pointers
Loss of Pointer
LP BIP LO Path BIP Error Mismatch of the recovered and computed BIP-8 (B3) or
Error BIP-2 (V5 bits 1, 2). Covers entire VC-n
LP-UNEQ LO Path Unequipped VC-3: C2 = "0" for >= 5 frames, VC-m (m = 2, 11, 12):
V5 (bits 5, 6, 7) = 000 for ³ 5 multiframes
LP-TIM LO Path Trace Identifier Mismatch of the accepted and expected Trace Identifier
Mismatch in byte J1 (VC-3) or J2
LP-REI LO Path Remote Error VC-3: Number of detected B3 errors in the sink side
Indication encoded in byte G1 (bits 1, 2, 3, 4) of the source side,
VC-m (m = 2, 11, 12): If one or more BIP-2 errors
detected in the sink side, byte V5 (bits 3) = 1 on the
source side
LP-RDI LO Path Remote Defect VC-3: G1 (bit 5) = 1 for ³ z frames,
Indication VC-m (m = 2, 11, 12):
V5 (bit 8) = 1 for ³ z multiframes (z = 3, 5 or 10)
LP-PLM LO Path Payload Label Mismatch of the accepted and expected Payload Label
Mismatch in byte C2 or V5 (bits 5, 6, 7)

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 9.7


9 Alarm and Error Handling
Example Network

SDH-Network
PDH PDH
140Mbit/s 2 Mbit/s
ADM ADM ADM
MSN MSN Regenerator MSN
DXC DXC DXC

Regenerator Section Regenerator Section Regenerator Section

Multiplex Section Multiplex Section

Trail / Path

9.8

 Regenerator Section: between regenerators

 Multiplex Section: between multiplexers

 Trail / Path: End to End connection

 Examples for errors:


 Interruption of a line
 No input signal
 Failure of a NE

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 9.8


9 Alarm and Error Handling
Alarm and Error Processing in a Regenerator

RS1 / MS1

RS1 / MS1
OS1 / RS1

OS1 / RS1

OS1
OS1

RS1
RS1
MS-AIS
LOS
RSOH 1
LOF MS-AIS 1
1 1 1 1
RS-TIM
RS-BIP(PM) 1 1 1
1

Detection

Generation

9.9

 MS1 Multiplex Section layer, level STM-1


 OS1 Optical Section layer, level STM-1
 PM Performance Monitoring
 RS1 Regenerator Section layer, level STM-1

 The regenerator is the only NE which can cause the MS-AIS alarm because the RSOH is built completely new.

 In a multiplexer also the MSOH is rebuilt and the output then is an AU-AIS.

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 9.9


9 Alarm and Error Handling
Alarm and Error Processing in a Multiplexer: VC-4 Passthrough

RS1 / MS1
RS1 / MS1
OS1 / RS1

OS1 / RS1
MS1 / S4

MS1 / S4
MS1

MS1
OS1

OS1
RS1

RS1
S4

LOS

LOF MS-AIS
AU-AIS
RS-TIM
RSOH 1
RS-BIP(PM) 1
AU-AIS 1 1 1 1
MS-AIS
MSOH 1
1
MS-BIP (PM)
MS-REI (PM)
MS-RDI

Detection

Generation
9.10

 MS1 Multiplex Section layer, level STM-1


 OS1 Optical Section layer, level STM-1
 PM Performance Monitoring
 RS1 Regenerator Section layer, level STM-1
 S4 VC-4 path layer

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 9.10


9 Alarm and Error Handling
Alarm and Error Processing in a Multiplexer: VC-4 Termination

MS1 / S4

S4 / S12
MS1

S4
S4 S12

AU-AIS

AU-AIS TU-AIS
AU-LOP

HP-UNEQ TU-AIS
HP-TIM TU-AIS
HP-BIP (PM)
HP-REI (PM) 1
RSOH
HP-RDI P 1
AU-Pointer 1
O
H 1
MSOH
1
Detection

Generation
9.11

 MS1 Multiplex Section layer, level STM-1


 PM Performance Monitoring
 S4 VC-4 path layer

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 9.11


9 Alarm and Error Handling
Alarm Processing via a complete Network: Path fault

2Mbit/s

NE A NE B NE C

LO-passthrough HO-passthrough

Reg. F Reg. E
LOS
NE D

9.12

 Assumptions:
 Bi-directional 2Mbit/s-Path between NE C and NE D via NE B, A, F, E
 Path fault: Unidirectional interruption (C → D) in section A-F

 Alarms in direction C → D :
 NE F: detection: LOS
generation: MS-AIS
 NE E: -
 NE D: detection: MS-AIS, AU-AIS, TU-AIS, generation: PDH-AIS

 Alarms in direction D → C :
 NE D: generation: MS-RDI, HP-RDI, LP-RDI
 NE E: -
 NE F: -
 NE A: detection: MS-RDI, HP-RDI
 NE B: -
 NE C: detection: LP-RDI

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 9.12


9 Alarm and Error Handling
Alarm Processing via a complete Network: Reference fault

2Mbit/s

LOS

NE A NE B NE C

LO-passthrough HO-passthrough

Reg. F Reg. E

NE D

9.13

 Assumptions
 Unidirectional 2Mbit/s-Path between NE C and NE D via NE B, A, F, E
 Reference fault: Loss of input signal

 Alarms in direction C → D :
 NE C: detection: LOS
 NE D: generation: PDH-AIS

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 9.13


9 Alarm and Error Handling
PM Basics

max. number of
Error checksum Block size
block errors per second

B1 (RSOH) STM-N 8.000

B2 (MSOH) 801 bits * N 192.000 * N


(STM-N)

B3 (HP-POH) VC-4 8.000


VC-3

V5 (LP-POH) VC-12 Multiframe 2.000


8.000

9.14

 Performance Monitoring (PM) is used to monitor the signal quality


 The signal quality depends on the occurrence of:

Bit Errors = Anomalies

Alarms = Defects

 The performance parameters are based upon the measurement of Blocks:


a set of consecutive bits associated with the path and the section

 Each block is monitored by calculating a checksum e.g. Bit Interleaved Parity (BIP).
These block errors can be monitored on several layers inside each NE:

B1 = BIP8 for a regeneration section

B2 = N*BIP24 for a multiplex section (N= 1, 4, 16, 64)


BIP24 STM-1
BIP96 STM-4
BIP384 STM-16
BIP1536 STM-64

B3 = BIP8 for VC-4 or VC-3 path (HP)

V5 = 2 bits perform a BIP2 of VC-2, VC-12 or VC-11 path (LP)

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 9.14


9 Alarm and Error Handling
Principles of data collection
Monitored seconds

Yes
Defects ?

No

No
Anomalies ?

Yes

Yes
% EB >= 30 ?

No

cES = cES + 1 cES = cES + 1

cBBE = cBBE + EB(s) cSES = cSES + 1

Extracted End
from G 826
9.15

 Errored Block (EB) Block containing one or more errored bits.

 Errored Second (ES) A second containing one or more errored blocks.

 Severely Errored Second (SES) A second containing at least 30% of errored blocks
or at least one defect.

 Background Block Errors (BBE) Errored block (EB) occurring outside a severely
errored second (SES).

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 9.15


9 Alarm and Error Handling
Definition of Unavailability

x t in sec

10 sec < 10 sec < 10 sec 10 sec

Unavailable Time (UAT) Available Time

Begin of detection: End of detection:

ES := ES - 10 ES := ES + x
SES := SES - 10 SES := SES
UAS := UAS + 10 UAS := UAS - 10

Inhibition of counters:
SES
ES / SES / (BBE)
ES which is not a SES
Non errored second

9.16

 Unavailable Time (UAT) A period of unavailable time (UAT) begins at the onset of 10 consecutive SES events.
These 10 seconds are considered to be part of unavailable
time. A new period of
available time begins at the onset of 10 consecutive non-SES events.

 Unavailable Second (UAS) An unavailable second (UAS) is a second which is part of the Unavailable
Time (UAT).

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 9.16


9 Alarm and Error Handling
Near End / Far End counters

STM-N with errors

NE A NE B

STM-N with REI

Far End Counters: Near End Counters:


FEBBE BBE
FEES ES
FESES SES
FEUAS UAS

9.17

 Near End counters are incremented if in the received STM-N frame anomalies (bit errors) or defects (alarms) have been
detected.

 Far End counters are incremented if the transmitted STM-N frame was erroneous: anomalies (bit errors) or defects (alarms).

 The Network Element which is transmitting an errored signal, is informed about the bit errors by receiving Remote Error
Indications (REI)

 MS-REI: M1-Byte inside MSOH contains the number of erroneous blocks detected in B2

 HP-REI: G1-Byte (Bits 1 to 4) of HP-POH contains the number of erroneous blocks


detected in B3
 LP-REI: V5-Byte (Bit 5) of LO-POH: there is the indication if BIP2 errors are detected (<>0)

 The transmitting Network Element is informed about the alarms by receiving Remote Defect Indications (RDI)

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 9.17


9 Alarm and Error Handling
Why Tandem Connections

VCn-Path

Path Path
Source Sink

Domain 1 Domain 2
[total biterrors] Inter Domain
Link

Bit errors added in


domain 2

Bit errors added between domain 1 and domain 2

Bit errors added in domain 1

Bit errors added before domain 1

Near end bit errors counted by path monitor (PM)


[location]

9.18

 In transmission networks it is normal that signals are transported over multiple domains managed by different network operators

 The signal is entering the network at the Path Source (SDH POH is added) and leaves the network at the Path Sink (SDH POH is
terminated)

 Statistic models assume that within each domain and inter-domain link equally distributed bit errors are inserted into the signal

 Problem:
 It is not possible to check the performance of domain1 and domain 2 or the link between the two domains
 Usage of the Performance Monitoring counters on path basis would indicate only the overall bit errors without any hint
where and how many bit errors are introduced

 Solution:
 Tandem Connection Monitoring is the solution for this problem
 The TCM standards were approved by the ITU-T in 2000 (G.783), in 1996 (G.707)

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 9.18


9 Alarm and Error Handling
Function of Tandem Connections

VCn-Path

TC 1 TC 12 TC 2

Path Path
Source Sink

Domain 1 Domain 2
Inter Domain
Link
so sk so sk so sk
[total biterrors]

so: source
sk: sink

Near end bit errors counted by Tandem Connections (TC) [location]

9.19

 The complete VCn path is virtually split into fragments, where an independent monitor considers only effects on this fragment.
Tandem Connection (TC) monitors the performance (bit errors and alarms) on a configurable fragment of the path.

 TCs are independent from each other. Each operator can decide where and when to use a TC.

 Full PM is supported

 TCs are applicable for VC12 / VC3 / VC4 / VC4-nc signals

 In the example above the operator created three Tandem Connections for supervising the performance of the signal in a specific
domain
 TC1 counts only bit errors that have been added in Domain1.
 TC12 counts only bit errors that have been added on the Inter Domain Link
 TC2 counts only bit errors that have been added in Domain2.
 The function TC12 sk (sink) is created before matrix, therefore this TC is called “TC Before Matrix”, “Ingressing TC”or
“TCT RX” .
This TC supervises a domain external signal arriving at the domain ingress (e.g. a inter domain link)
 The functions TC1 sk and TC2 sk are created behind matrix, therefore they are called “TC After Matrix”, “Egressing TC”
or “TCT TX”.
This type of TCs allow to supervise a domain internal signal shortly before the domain egress.

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 9.19


9 Alarm and Error Handling
Overhead Bytes used for Tandem Connections
Virtual Container (VC-4, VC-3)

J1
B3
C2
G1
F2 Payload
H4
N1 used for TCs F3
K3
N1

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

frame 1-8: FAS


Number of bit errors detected by frame 9-72: 64*2 Bit= 16Byte TC-TI
TC source frame 73: TC-RDI
frame 74: ODI
REI OEI frame 75,76: all ‘0’

9.20

 Existing path is not affected by the TC, which is transparent for the path layer

 For a working TC it´s necessary that the start and end point exchanges management information in a bidirectional way. Therefore
TC uses a part of the already existing Path Overhead (POH)

 For the VC4 or the VC3 path the N1 byte is used (see figure above), for the VC12 path the N2 byte of the VC12 multiframe is
used

 Every modification of the N1 byte has to be compensated so that no BIP failure occurs because of this modification

 N1byte:
 Bit 1 - 4 contains number of errors in the signal before the TC starts (range=0-8) calculated via 8
bits of BIP8 (B3 byte)
 Bit 5: Remote Error Indication (REI) is used to indicate block errors to the TC-source, necessary for Far End
PM
 Bit 6: Outgoing Error Indication (OEI) necessary for counting of outgoing Far End PM data
 Bit 7 - 8 contains several information in a multi frame (consisting of 76 frames)
 FAS Frame Alignment Signal
 TC-TI Tandem Connection - Trail Identification
 TC-RDI Tandem Connection- Remote Defect Indication
 ODI Outgoing Defect Indication

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 9.20


9 Alarm and Error Handling
Tandem Connection Termination: TCT

TC 1 (Egressing Tandem Connection)

BBE = 6
BBE = 2 N1 = 2
N1:=2 NE_BBE := 6 - 2 =4

SDH port SDH port

N1=0 SPI SPI N1=0


RST RST
MST MST
MSA
Path MSA
TC after TC after
Matrix Matrix

SPI SPI
Path RST RST
MST MST
MSA MSA
N1=0 N1=0

NE 1 NE x

Domain 1

9.21

 Example:
In NE 1 and NE x of Domain 1 a “TC after Matrix” is configured, to find out how many bit errors happened inside Domain 1 on the
VC-4 path

 TC Source of NE 1 calculates arriving bit errors (BBE = 2) and inserts the number into Bit1-4 of the N1 byte

 Between NE 1 and NE x 4 additional bit errors occur

 TC Sink of NE x calculates the current bit errors: 2+4=6 of the signal (using BIP). These are called “outgoing bit errors”
because they’re in the outgoing signal of the TC Sink

 TC Sink of NE x calculates the bit errors on TC segment: (bit errors detected) - (N1 value);
NE_BBE: 6 - 2 =4

 As for the path we have signaling information to do Far End PM on bidirectional TCs:
 NE_BBE sent in backward direction as REI (Remote Error Indication)
 Alarms on the TC Segment sent in backward direction as RDI (Remote Defect Indication)

 Outside an TC the N1 byte is set to 0 to indicate that no TC is created on this path segment

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 9.21


9 Alarm and Error Handling
Tandem Connection Monitoring: TCM

Before Matrix After Matrix


TCm TCm
RX TX

TC SPI SPI
RST RST
MST MST
MSA MSA
Path

SDH Port SDH Port

9.22

 Additional to the Tandem Connection Termination (Source and Sink function) a Monitor function can be used for:
 TCM before Matrix (TCm RX) to supervise for example the TC of a inter domain link

 TCM after Matrix (TCm TX) to supervise for example the TC of a domain

 Creation of TC terminations without failures. The following creation rules have to be fulfilled:

 NO “Nesting” allowed

 NO “Overlapping” allowed

 “Cascading” is allowed

 The TC Monitor function (same as the TC sink) is able to detect:


 Bit errors
 Alarms
 SSF: Server Signal Failure, (consequence of a Loss of Pointer (LOP))
 UNEQ: Unequipped, (N1 == 0, no TC info received)
 LTC: Loss of Tandem Connection, (N1 <> 0 and no multi frame detected)
 TC-TIM: Tandem Connection Trail Identifier Mismatch (difference between expected and
received TC-identifier)
 DEG: Degraded Signal, (TC bit errors exceeds the degraded threshold)

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 9.22


9 Alarm and Error Handling
Evaluation

 Objective: to be able to describe the


way the alarms are managed in an SDH
network

Thank you for answering


the self-assessment
of the objectives sheet

9.23

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 9.23


10 Protection and Restoration

10.1
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VT ZZA Ed.01

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 10.1


10 Protection and Restoration
Session presentation

 Objective: to be able to describe the different kinds of protection


in SDH
 program:
 10.1 Equipment Protection : EPS
 10.2 Network Protection
 10.3 Network Restoration

10.2

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 10.2


10 Protection and Restoration
Equipment Protection: EPS

Equipment Protection Switching Multiplex Section Protection


(EPS) Linear Trail (MSP)

W
W
W 2 W W
W
2

P P P P

1+1 1:N 1+1

Protection against equipment failure Protection against equipment failure


and line failure

10.3

 Equipment Protection Switching (EPS):


 The Matrix, Clock, Control and Power Conversion Part System is protected via EPS (1+1)
 All electrical I/O boards are optionally protected via EPS (1:N)

 Multiplex Section Protection - Linear Trail (MSP)


 Contains two kinds of protection
 Equipment protection inside the NE
 Line protection between two adjacent multiplex elements
(further information is provided in Chapter "Network Protection")
 All optical I/O boards inside the NE are optionally protected via MSP (1+1)

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 10.3


10 Protection and Restoration
EPS 1+1

Equipment 1

Equipment 2

10.4

 The 1+1 EPS protection type means that one working equipment is protected by one redundant equivalent.

 The EPS mechanism ensures that transmission is continued and the faulty equipment can be exchanged should equipment
failure occur.

 The mode of 1+1 EPS protection is non revertive.

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 10.4


10 Protection and Restoration
EPS 1:N

Equipment 1
Line 1

Equipment 2
Line 2

Equipment N
Line N

Equipment P

10.5

 The 1:N EPS protection type means that N working pieces of equipment are protected by just 1 protecting equivalent.

 During normal operation without equipment failure the protecting equipment is inactive.

 The mode of 1:N EPS protection is revertive.

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 10.5


10 Protection and Restoration
Protection Mechanisms against Network Faults

Protection Protection
Item to be protected
architecture mechanism

SNCP/I

connection dedicated Linear structure


to a Path
SNCP/N

Linear structure Linear MSP

Section

Ring structure MS-SPRING

10.6

 MSP Multiplex Section Protection (linear)


MS-SPRING Multiplex Section Shared Protection in a Ring
SNCP/N Sub Network Connection Protection with non intrusive monitoring
SNCP/I Sub Network Connection Protection with inherent monitoring

 The protection mechanisms are defined by ETSI and ITU-T at section or path level.

 Section protection mechanisms on a


 linear network: Linear MSP redundancy at section level between two nodes.
 ring network: MS-SPRING loopback to bypass the section declared faulty.

 Protection mechanisms at path level:


SNCP/N, SNCP/I broadcast of the signal to be transported, selection of the best signal.

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 10.6


10 Protection and Restoration
Sub Network Connection Protection: SNCP

Sub Network

selection broadcast

VC-n VC-n

broadcast selection

Sub Network

_____ working path


----- protecting path

10.7

 SNCP: Sub Network Connection Protection is performed on the path (VC-n) level

 Dedicated protection mechanism: 1+1.

 Signal is broadcasted on the working and protecting path, and selected upon reception.

 SNCP is also called PPS: Path Protection Switching

 2 operating modes:
 revertive: traffic is switched back to the working channel when the fault has
disappeared, once the wait-to-restore time (5 to 12 minutes)
has elapsed.
 non revertive: no switch back.

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 10.7


10 Protection and Restoration
SNCP: switch criteria

Sub Network

Switching criteria Switching criteria


(external commands) (automatic)

Sub Network

_____ working path


----- protecting path

10.8

 SNCP/I: Sub Network Connection Protection with inherent monitoring.

 SNCP/N: Sub Network Connection Protection with non intrusive monitoring.

 Switching criteria - Automatic:

SNCP-I: SNCP-N:
LOS LOS
LOF LOF
LOP LOP
AU-/TU-AIS AU-/TU-AIS
HP-/LP-UNEQ
HP-/LP-E-BER
HP-/LP-DEG
HP-/LP-TIM
B3-/BIP-2-SD

 Switching criteria - External commands:


 protection mechanism lock
 forced protection switching
 manual protection switching
 forced switching to the normal channel
 manual switching to the normal channel

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 10.8


10 Protection and Restoration
Section Protection on a Linear Network: MSP
NE A Multiplex Section NE B

Working
T RX 1+1 protection
X Protecting

High priority line


T Working RX 1:1 protection
X Low priority line
T Protecting RX
X

T Working RX 1:N protection


X
T Working RX
X
X
Protecting

10.9

 Protection called MSP: Multiplex Section Protection

 MSP (linear) is also called APS: Automatic Protection Switching


 Protection strategies

 1+1 = 1 plus 1 dedicated to protection capacity can be used, non revertive

 1: N = 1 for N protection for low priority purpose which


is suspended in case of protection event, revertive
 The configuration as 1:1 protection is used in the case of

 APS: Automatic Protection Switching

 EPS: Equipment Protection Switching

 Switching criteria:
 MS-AIS
 LOS
 LOF

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 10.9


10 Protection and Restoration
MSP 1+1

broadcast selection

TX Line A RX

Multiplex section

RX Line B TX

selection broadcast

10.10

 The signal is transmitted simultaneously on both lines: broadcast

 The receiving signal is selected on reception.

 Maximal useful rate: rate of a single line

 1 + 1 protection may be single ended without using protocol K1 K2

 1 + 1 protection is a dual ended protection when protocol K1 K2 (MSOH) is used:


used for spare connection for both directions

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 10.10


10 Protection and Restoration
MSP 1:1

TX RX
TX RX
High priority line
RX RX TX TX

Multiplex section

TX RX
TX RX
extra traffic Low priority line extra traffic
RX RX TX TX

10.11

 When the protected/working line operates normally, the protecting line may be used for “extra traffic”: low priority line

 Maximal useful rate = sum of both lines’ rates.

 EPS: a spare unit/board fully replaces a faulty unit/board

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 10.11


10 Protection and Restoration
Section Protection on a Ring Network: MS-SPRING (2 fiber)

Overview of the ring Node A Node B

Node D Node C

Node A Transmission direction Node B

Section overhead
Normal traffic channels
Detailed view of the ring Protection channels

Section overhead
Normal traffic channels
STM-16 fiber:
Protection channels
Normal channel: AU4 #1-8
Protection channel: AU4 #9-16

10.12

 Protection called MS-SPRING: Multiplex Section Shared Protection in a Ring it enables a larger flow of traffic to be processed
than with other resources

 Shared Protection: protection architecture in which m protection entities are shared between n traffic
entities (m:n).
Protection entities may be used to transport additional traffic.

 The ring protection switching protocol is performed by the K1 and K2 bytes in the protection channels MSOH.

 The communication protocol must enable the installation of up to 16 nodes in a ring.

 Principle: LOOPBACK to bypass the sections declared faulty

 Purpose: Share the same protection among different resources

 Two types of ring with MS-SPRING: 2-fiber ring and 4-fiber ring for STM-16 fiber

 Two-fiber rings with shared protection:


 Each fiber simultaneously carries both, normal channels and protection channels:
8 working AU4 #1-8 and 8 protection AU4 #9-16 for STM-16 fiber
 When ring switching is invoked, the VCs which carry the normal channels are switched over to the VCs carrying the
normal or the protection channels going in the opposite direction.

 Switching criteria: MS-AIS / LOS / LOF

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 10.12


10 Protection and Restoration
Two fiber MS-SPRING: failure study
PROTECTED SWITCH BRIDGE SWITCH BRIDGE
SIGNAL

Failure

1 2 3

6 5 4

(*) (*) (*)

WORKING CHANNELS 1 fiber carries both


PROTECTING CHANNELS type of channels PROTECTED
SIGNAL
(*) All protecting AU-4 are put in passthrough in the 1st, 4th, 5th and 6th NE

10.13

 Signal flow through NEs:


without failure: NE1, NE2, NE3, NE4
with failure in NE 2: NE1, NE2, NE1, NE6, NE5, NE4, NE 3, NE4

 BRIDGE: sends the traffic of the working channel additionally to the opposite port via the protecting channel (broadcast
function)

 SWITCH: uses for receiving traffic the protecting channels of the opposite port (selection function)

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 10.13


10 Protection and Restoration
Span Protection on a Ring Network: MS-SPRING (4 fiber)

Overview of the ring Node A Node B

Node D Node C

Fiber carrying the normal traffic


Fiber carrying the protection traffic

Node A Transmission direction Node B


Section overhead
Normal traffic channels
Section overhead
Detailed view of the ring Protection channels
Section overhead
Normal traffic channels
Section overhead
Protection channels

10.14

 Four fibers for each ring span.

 The normal and the protection channels are materialized on different fibers.

 Four-fiber rings enable ring switching for protection purposes, as well as span switching, but not both simultaneously.

 4f-MS-SPRING supports:
 span switching
 ring switching

 A fault condition present only on the working link determines a SPAN PROTECTION:
High Priority traffic is restored by switching to the protection channels of the same span.

 A fault condition present on both working and protection links determines a RING PROTECTION:
The High Priority traffic travelling the failed span is restored by switching to the protection channels travelling in the opposite
direction (away from the failure).

 Switching criteria: MS-AIS / LOS / LOF

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 10.14


10 Protection and Restoration
Four fiber MS-SPRING: failure study
Failure

1 2 3

6 5 4

Working channel 1 fiber carries one Normal path


type of channel
Protection channel Path after span failure

10.15

 SPAN switching: the protection channels of the affected span are used to carry the working channels. The corresponding low
priority connections (protection channel) crossing the span are preempted (AU-AIS insertion on LP paths).

 When the working channel operates normally, the protecting channel may be used for “extra traffic”: low priority line / traffic

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 10.15


10 Protection and Restoration
Network Restoration

Failure
VC-n
A B C
VC-n
D

F E

A few seconds later

Failure
VC-n
A B C
VC-n
D

F E
DXC

any NE

10.16

 An alternative approach to the network protection is the network restoration.


 The networks contains extra capacity which can be used for the recovery of any failed traffic.
 The spare capacity can be reduced drastically compared to the 1+1 protection scenarios.

 DXC supports together with SDH Network Manager a restorable network providing:
 Path restoration on VC-n level
 MSP and SNCP
 SNCP protection and restoration combined

 All the VC-n connections of the network are configured and supervised by the SDH Network Manager. With its knowledge about
the routes and bearers of the network as well as of the current interconnections it can recalculate alternative routings for possible
network failures.

 In case of a failure, reported from one (or several) DXC, the SDH Network Manager analyses the location of the failure and
initiates the relevant restoration scenario:
 Working circuit path: ABCD
 Failure on section: BC
 NMS decides optimum routing: e.g. AFECD
 The recalculated cross connection commands are sent to the relevant DXC which immediately performs them.

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 10.16


10 Protection and Restoration
Evaluation

 Objective: to be able to describe the


different kinds of protection in SDH

Thank you for answering


the self-assessment
of the objectives sheet

10.17

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 10.17


11 Network Synchronisation

11.1
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VT ZZA Ed.01

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 11.1


11 Network Synchronisation
Session presentation

 Objective: to be able to describe the principles of


synchronisation of SDH networks
 program:
 11.1 Synchronisation Distribution
 11.2 Clocks Types and Distribution in the Network
 11.3 Synchronisation Diagram
 11.4 Synchronous Equipment Timing
 11.5 Synchronisation Signals : Quality and Priority
 11.6 Linear Networks without SSM
 11.7 Linear Network with SSM

11.2

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 11.2


11 Network Synchronisation
Synchronization Distribution

PRC

SSU SSU SSU

11.3

 PRC: Primary Reference Clock


SSU: Synchronization Supply Unit

 The synchronization networks architecture must accept faults (path cutoffs, equipment failures) providing auxiliary paths and
spare clock systems.

 A synchronization plan must be set up to ensure that synchronous NEs in a network really run synchronously. This plan indicates
the way each NE is synchronized.

 Strictly forbidden are synchronization loops: i.e. an NE receives a sync signal it has generated, via a sequence of slave clocks.

 Master-Slave synchronization:
 The PRC provides synchronization to the first node hierarchical level
 These nodes provide synchronization to the next hierarchical level
 Stability and precision level defined for each level, 4 levels maximum

 The PRC is doubled (tripled in some countries) on different sites (for safety), one acting as the master and the others as slaves.

 Degradation of the PRC due to the justification during multiplexing of a higher-order signal (jitter).

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 11.3


11 Network Synchronisation
Clock types and distribution in the Network

Primary Reference Clock (G.811):


PRC
Rubidium-clock or GPS: 10-11 / day frequency drift (1 slip in 145 days)
(Cesium-clock: 10-13 / day frequency drift)

SSU Synchronization Supply Unit (G.812):


Transit node: G.812T (SSU A): 10-9 / day frequency drift
Local node: G.812L (SSU B): 2*10-8 / day frequency drift

SEC Synchronous Equipment Clock (G.813):


10-8 / day frequency drift (1 slip in 3,46 h)

1 60
1 10
PRC SEC SEC SSU SEC SEC SEC SSU SEC SEC SEC SEC
1 20

11.4

 Do not exceed 60 network elements in total

 SSU is used for refreshing synchronization signals after 20 network elements

 No more than 10 SSU in a chain

 The PRC provides the best clock accuracy, which decreases via the SSU up to the SEC

 The SSUs are located at strategic nodes: they are designed to filter the accumulated jitter and wander and have good stability in
holdover mode.

 Holdover Mode: If the NE looses its reference clock, it enters the Holdover Mode to provide
synchronization at the last average of the phase locked frequency
 Free running Mode: The NE operates at the frequency of its own generator/oscillator without any
timing reference

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 11.4


11 Network Synchronisation
Synchronization Diagram

PRC PRC
PRC level

SSU SSU
SSU SSU

SSU
SSU level SSU

SSU SSU

SEC level

NE
MSP
NE containing SSU

11.5

 The lines of the SSU level represent the synchronization links carried by the STM-N signals.

 A synchronization link has three parts:


 The 2-MHz link between the SSU and SEC (T3 access).
 The 2-MHz link between the last SEC (T4 access) and the SSU.
 SDH sections transmitting the synchronization and the SSM: Synchronization Status
Message (indicates quality of transmitted clock)

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 11.5


11 Network Synchronisation
Synchronous Equipment Timing
optional
SSU

Squelch
Selector Selector
T4
A C

reference Squelch
inputs T1

T2 Selector
SETG T0
T3 B

Oscillator

11.6

 Depending on specific NE more reference inputs (T1, T2, T3) are possible.
 T0 SDH equipment internal clock
synchronization
 T1 2 MHz signal derived from an STM-N port (SDH)
source,
 T2 2 MHz signal derived from a 2 Mbit/s port (PDH)
 T3 2 MHz signal of external clock reference inputs
(coming from: separate clock network / SSU / PRC)
 T4 Sync output of an SDH equipment, clock signal send to another NE

 SETG Synchronous Equipment Timing Generator (PLL)

 Squelch Function used to inhibit a clock below a certain quality level


(e. g. in case of signal faults of the reference signal)
upon detection of signal faults (LOS, LOF, MS-AIS,
degraded errors rate)

 Selector Selection of timing reference according SSM algorithm


(manual selection by operator is also possible)

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 11.6


11 Network Synchronisation
Synchronization Signals: Quality and Priority

NE A

S1:SEC T1A NE B
S1:PRC T1 *
S1:PRC Quality Priority S1:Don‘t use
S1:PRC T1B T1A S1-Byte 1 (highest)
*
S1:Don‘t use T1B S1-Byte 2 * T2 SEC
S1:PRC T1C
T1C S1-Byte 3
S1:PRC T2 SSU 4
S1:PRC T1
PDH: 2 Mbit/s T2 T3 PRC 5 S1:PRC NE C
internal SEC 0 (lowest)
T3 T1 *
2 MHz signal,
external clock (PRC) SEC

SEC

* : Selected Clock, selection via Quality and Priority

11.7

 Selection criteria:
 SSM indicates quality level (QL) of each T1 reference.
 priority table: each reference input is given a certain priority (by operator)

 If the SSM (Synchronization Status Message) is not managed, only the priority table is taken into account and the transmitted
qualities have QL6: not to be used for synchronization.

 If a port is selected as the synchronization reference, its output carries an S1-byte


whose quality is QL6: value is ‘1111’ (don’t use) to avoid sync loops.

 Quality Levels:

S1-byte Clock
 QL2: 0000 ---  Quality unknown (invalid)
 QL1: 0010 PRC  STM-N signals with a G.811 source
 QL3: 0100 SSU-Transit  STM-N signals with a G.812T source
 QL4: 1000 SSU-Local  STM-N signals with a G.812L source
 QL5: 1011 SEC  STM-N signals with a G.813 source
 QL6: 1111 ---  Not to be used for synchronization

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 11.7


11 Network Synchronisation
Linear Networks without SSM

W E W E W E
Without faults

W E W E W E

Correct

Equipment in holdover mode

W E W E W E

Incorrect

Sync loop

11.8

 Correct NE configuration / Without faults:


In a linear network, all NE extract their synchronization from the West (or East) STM and switch to holdover mode if the link is
lost (no sync loops).

 Incorrect NE configuration:
T1 from W, priority 1
T1 from E, priority 2 : Sync-loops in case of failure

 Ring Networks without SSM: see Appendix B1

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 11.8


11 Network Synchronisation
Linear Networks with SSM

PRC PRC PRC PRC PRC

1 1 1 1 1
E E E E E
PRC 1111 SEC SEC SEC SSU
W 2 W 2 W 2 W 2 W 2
E E E E E
PRC 1111 SEC 1111 SEC 1111 SEC 1111 1111 SSU
W W W W W
3 3 3 3 3
E E E E E
PRC 1111 PRC 1111 SEC 1111 SEC SSU 1111 SSU
W 4 W 4 W 4 W 4 W 4

SSU SSU SSU SSU SSU

phase 1 phase 2 phase 4 phase 5 phase 7

Equipment in holdover mode

11.9

 Initially W (West) ports have the highest quality level

 Configuration of Network elements:

NE synchronization source, Prio Quality


reference input taken from Level

1 T3 from PRC 1 PRC

T1 from E 2 S1-Byte

2...3 T1 from W 1 S1-Byte

T1 from E 2 S1-Byte

4 T1 from W 1 S1-Byte

T3 from SSU 2 SSU

 Ring Networks with SSM: see appendix B2

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 11.9


11 Network Synchronisation
Evaluation

 Objective: to be able to describe the


principles of synchronisation of SDH
networks

Thank you for answering


the self-assessment
of the objectives sheet

11.10

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 11.10


12 Optical Interfaces

12.1
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VT ZZA Ed.01

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 12.1


12 Optical Interfaces
Session presentation

 Objective: to be able to list the optical interfaces used in SDH


 program:
 12.1 Classification of Optical Interfaces
 12.2 Laser Safety
 12.3 Automatic laser Shutdown : ALS
 12.4 Laser Operation Actions

12.2

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 12.2


12 Optical Interfaces
Classification of Optical Interfaces

Inter-station
Intra-
Application Joint
station Short-haul Long-haul
Engineering

Rated source
1310 1310 1550 1310 1550 1550
wavelength (nm)

Fiber type G.652


G.652 G.652 G.652 G.652 G.653
recommendation G.654

Distance (max. km) <2 ~ 15 ~ 40 ~ 80 ~ 90

STM-1 I-1 S-1.1 S.1-2 L-1.1 L-1.2 L-1.3 L-1.2 JE

STM-4 I-4 S-4.1 S.4-2 L-4.1 L-4.2 L-4.3 L-4.2 JE


STM level
STM-16 I-16 S-16.1 S.16-2 L-16.1 L-16.2 L-16.3 L-16.2 JE

STM-64 I-64 S-64.1 S.64-2 L-64.1 L-64.2 L-64.3 L-64.2 JE

12.3

 Classification of optical interfaces according to G.957

 Application code: X-Y.Z


X: Application I, S, L
Y: STM level 1, 4, 16, 64
Z: Suffix number1 or blank: 1310 nm (G.652)
2: 1550 nm (G.652 / G.654)
3: 1550 nm (G.653)

 Three main application categories:


 Intra-station (I): distances of less than approximately 2 km
 Inter-station (S: Short-haul): distances of approximately 15 km
 Inter-station (L: Long-haul): distances of approximately 40 km with 1310 nm
distances of approximately 80 km with 1550 nm

 If these categories are inadequate, Inter-station Joint Engineering (JE) shall be used: distances of approximately 90 km with
1550 nm

 The distances are used for classification and NOT specification purposes.

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 12.3


12 Optical Interfaces
Laser Safety
Laser classifications complying with IEC 69825-2
Board Application Code Hazard Level Laser Classification
complying with ITU-T REC. G.957 complying with IEC 60825-2 complying with IEC 60825-1

STM-1 optical S-1.1 (Short Haul 1310 nm) 1 1


L-1.1 (Long Haul 1310 nm) 1 3A
STM-16 S-16.1 (Short Haul 1310 nm) 1 3A
L-16.1 (Long Haul 1310 nm) 1 3A
L-16.2 (Long Haul 1550 nm) 1 3A
L-16.2JE1 (Long Haul 1550 nm) 1 3A
L-16.2JE2 (Long Haul 1550 nm) 1 3A
OA: Optical Amplifier OA-10 / OA-13 / OA-15 1 (if ALS is activated) 3A

Hazard level limits for single mode fibers with 11 µm mode field diameter
Wavelength Hazard Level 1 Hazard Level 3A
1310 nm 8.85 mW (+9.5 dBm) 24 mW (+13.8 dBm)
1550 nm 10 mW (+10 dBm) 50 mW (+17 dBm)

12.4

 They might be different from laser classifications complying with IEC 60825-1:
The reason is that hazard levels are assigned under consideration of reasonable events whereas laser classification is made
under consideration of one single fault.

 The optical transmitters and amplifiers used in the system emit optical power in the invisible infra-red spectrum range. Under
normal operating conditions, the optical power is transferred in the fibers and is not accessible. The hazard levels of optical
transmitters and optical amplifiers in the system are classified according to IEC 60825-1, without optical fibers connected to the
output and taking one single component failure into account.

 X dBm = 10 x/10 mW
 0 dBm = 1 mW

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 12.4


12 Optical Interfaces
Automatic Laser Shutdown: ALS

NE 1 NE 2
Port A LOS 1 Port B
Cutoff
Laser1

A.L.S. A.L.S.
command command

Laser2

LOS 2

12.5

 ALS: Automatic Laser Shutdown

 A cut-off which triggers a Loss of Signal (LOS) causes the laser in the opposite direction to be turned off automatically.

 Timing:
1. cut-off
2. LOS 1 (detected in NE2)
3. ALS (command sent to Laser2 in NE2)
4. LOS 2 (detected in NE1)
5. ALS (command sent to Laser1 in NE1)

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 12.5


12 Optical Interfaces
Laser restart management

Start

Automatic laser shutdown

Section in
normal operation
ALS in service Automatic Manual Manual restart
Restart restart for testing

Yes Signal received Timeout


from remote end ? (60-300)s
No

No Loss of transmitted Laser in Laser in Laser in


signal for operation for operation for operation for
(2 ± 0.25) s (2 ± 0.25) s (90 ± 10) s
t > = (550 ± 50) ms ?

Yes

12.6

 The following working practices are strongly recommended:


 Where possible, optical transmission or test equipment should be shut down, put into a low power state or disconnected
before any work is started on exposed fiber, connectors, etc.
 Check the optical power in a fiber only by using a calibrated optical power meter.
 Do not stare directly into the beam or use any unapproved collimating device to view the fiber ends or connector faces or
point them at other people.
 Use only approved filtered or attenuating viewing aids.
 Any single or multiple fiber ends or ends found not to be terminated shall be individually or collectively covered when not
being worked on.
They shall not be readily visible and sharp ends shall not be exposed.
 Always attach end caps to unmated connectors.
 When using optical test cords, the optical power source shall be the last to be connected and the first to be disconnected.
 Do not make any unauthorized modifications to any optical fiber system or associated equipment.
 Replace damaged optical safety labels or attach new labels if labels are missing.
 Use test equipment of the lowest class necessary and practical for the task.
 Do not use test equipment of a higher class than the location hazard level.

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 12.6


12 Optical Interfaces
Evaluation

 Objective: to be able to list the optical


interfaces used in SDH

Thank you for answering


the self-assessment
of the objectives sheet

12.7

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 12.7


13 Appendices

13.1
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VT ZZA Ed.01

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 13.1


List of abbreviations
ADM Add-Drop Multiplexer (NE)
AI Adapted Information
AIS Alarm Indication Signal
ALS Automatic Laser Shutdown
AP Access Point
APS Automatic Protection Switching
ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode
AU Administrative Unit
AU-n Administrative Unit, level n (n = 3, 4)
AUG Administrative Unit Group

BBE Background Block Error


BBER Background Block Error Ratio
BER Bit Error Ratio
BIP Bit Interleaved Parity

C-n Container, level n (n= 11, 12, 2, 3, 4)


CI Characteristic Information
CMI Coded Mark Inverted (electrical signal, G.783)
CP Connection Point
CT Craft Terminal
CTP Connection Termination Point

DCC Data Communication Channel


DCN Data Communication Network
DEC Decrement
DEG Degraded
DQDB Distributed Queue Dual Bus
DXC Digital Cross-Connect (NE)

E0 Electrical interface signal 64 kbit/s


E11/ E12 Electrical interface signal 1544 / 2048 kbit/s
E22 Electrical interface signal 8448 kbit/s
E31/ E32 Electrical interface signal 34368 / 44736 kbit/s
E4 Electrical interface signal 139264 kbit/s
EB Errored Block
E-BER Excessive Bit Error Ratio
ECC Embedded Communication Channel
EOW Engineering Order Wire
EPS Equipment Protection Switching
EQ Equipment
Eq G.703 type electrical signal, bit rate order q (q=11,12,21,22,31,32,4)
ES Errored Second
ES Electrical Section
ESR Error Second Ratio
ETSI European Telecommunication Standard Institute
ETX Electrical Transmit

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 13.2


List of abbreviations
FAW Frame Alignment Word
F_B Far-end Block
F_DS Far-end Defect Second
F_EBC Far-end Errored Block Count
FEBE Far End Block Error (now REI)
FERF Far End Receive Failure (now RDI)
FDDI Fibre Distributed Data Int
FM Fault Management

G.abc Recommendation abc according ITU-T

HCS Higher order Connection Supervision


HDLC High level Data Link Control
HO Higher Order
HOA Higher Order Assembler
HOI Higher Order Interface
HOP High Order Path
HOPA High Order Path Adaptation
HOPT High Order Path Termination
HOVC Higher Order Virtual Container
HP Higher order Path
HPA Higher order Path Adaptation
HPC Higher order Path Connection
HPI Higher order Path termination Interface
HPOM Higher order Path Overhead Monitor
HPP Higher order Path Protection
HPT Higher order Path Termination
HSUT Higher order path Supervisory Unequipped Termination
HTCA Higher order path Tandem Connection Adaptation
HTCM Higher order path Tandem Connection Monitor
HTCT Higher order path Tandem Connection Termination
HUG Higher order path Unequipped Generator

ID IDentifier
INC INCrement
IP Internet Protocol
ISO International Standards Organization
ITU-T International Telecommunication Union - Telecommunication sector

JE Joint Engineering
LASER Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation
LC Link Connection
LED Light Emitting Diode
LO Lower Order
LOF Loss Of Frame
LOM Loss Of Multiframe
LOP Loss Of Pointer
LOP Low Order Path
LOPA Low Order Path Adaptation
LOPT Low Order Path Termination
LOS Loss Of Signal
LOVC Lower Order Virtual Container
LP Lower order Path
LPA Lower order0551
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 Path VH
Adaptation
ZZA Ed.01 Page 13.3
List of abbreviations
LPC Lower order Path Connection
LPOM Lower order Path Overhead Monitor
LPP Lower order Path Protection
LPT Lower order Path Termination
LSUT Lower order path Supervisory Unequipped Termination
LTCA Lower order path Tandem Connection Adaptation
LTCT Lower order path Tandem Connection Termination
LTCM Lower order path Tandem Connection Monitor
LUG Lower order Unequipped Generator

MAN Metropolitan Area Network


MSA Multiplex Section Adaptation
MS-AIS Multiplex Section Alarm Indication Signal
MS-FERF Multiplex Section Far End Receive Failure
MSN Multiple Service Node (NE)
MSn Multiplex Section layer, level n (n=1, 4, 16, 64)
MSOH Multiplex Section OverHead
MSP Multiplex Section Protection
MS-RDI Multiplex Section Remote Defect Indication
MS-REI Multiplex Section Remote Error Indication
MS-SPRING Multiplex Section Shared Protection in a Ring
MST Multiplex Section Termination

NA Not Applicable
NC Network Connection
NDF New Data Flag
NE Network Element
NPI Null Pointer Indication
NRZ Non Return to Zero (optical signal, G.783)
NSAP Network Service Access Point
NU National Use

OAB Optical Amplifier Board


OAM&P Operations, Administration, Maintenance and Provisioning
OAM Operations, Administration, and Maintenance
OFS Out of Frame Second
OOF Out Of Frame
ORX Optical Receiver
OS Operation System
OSn Optical Section layer, level n (n=1, 4, 16, 64)
OSI Open Systems Interconnection
OTx Optical Transmit
OW Order Wire

P-AIS Path Alarm Indication Signal


P0x 64 kbit/s layer (transparent)
P11x / P12x 1544 / 2048 kbit/s layer (transparent)
P12s 2048 kbit/s PDH path layer with synchronous 125µs frame structure
P21x/P22x 6312 / 8448 kbit/s layer (transparent)
P22e 8448 kbit/s PDH path layer with 4 plesiochronous 2048 kbit/s

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 13.4


List of abbreviations
P31e 34368 kbit/s PDH path layer with 4 plesiochronous 8448 kbit/s
P31s 34368 kbit/s PDH path layer with synchronous 125µs frame structure
P31x/P32x 34368 / 44736 kbit/s layer (transparent)
P4a 139264 kbit/s PDH path layer with 3 plesiochronous 44736 kbit/s
P4e 139264 kbit/s PDH path layer with 4 plesiochronous 34368 kbit/s
P4s 139264 kbit/s PDH path layer with synch. 125µs frame structure
P4x 139264 kbit/s layer (transparent)
PDH Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy
PI Physical Interface
PJ Pointer Justification
PLL Phase Lock Loop
PLM Payload Label Mismatch (= SLM)
PM Performance Monitoring
POH Path OverHead
PPI Plesiochronous Physical Interface
PPS Path Protection Switching (SNCP)
Pq Plesiochronous path layer, bit rate order q (q=11, 12, 21, 22, 31, 32, 4)
PRC Primary Reference Clock
PTR PoinTeR

QECC Embedded Control Channel


QL Quality Level

RDI Remote Defect Indication (former FERF)


REI Remote Error Indication (former FEBE)
RM Regional Manager
RSn Regenerator Section layer, level n (n=1, 4, 16, 64)
RSOH Regenerator Section OverHead
RST Regenerator Section Termination
RxSL Received Signal Label
RxTI Received Trace Identifier

S11/S12 VC-11 / VC-12 path layer


S11D/S12D VC-11 / VC-12 tandem connection sub-layer
S11P/S12D VC-11 / VC-12 path protection sub-layer
S2 / S3 / S4 VC-2 / VC-3 / VC-4 path layer
S2D / S3D VC-2 / VC-3 tandem connection sub-layer
S2P/S3P/S4P VC-2 / VC-3 path Protection sub-layer
S3T / S4T VC-3 / VC-4 tandem connection sub-layer using TCM definition according annex C/G.707 (option 1)
S4D VC-4 tandem connection sub-layer using TCM definition according annex D/G.707 (option 2)
SA Section Adaptation
SD Signal Degrade
SDH Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
SEC Synchronous Equipment Clock
SEMF Synchronous Equipment Management Function
SES Severely Errored Second
SETG Synchronous Equipment Timing Generator
SETPI Synchronous Equipment Timing Physical Interface
SETS Synchronous Equipment Timing Source
SF Signal Failure
SLM Signal Label Mismatch (= PLM)

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 13.5


List of abbreviations
Sm lower order VC-m layer (m=11, 12, 2, 3)
SmD VC-m (m=11, 12, 2, 3) tandem connection sub-layer
Smm VC-m (m=11, 12, 2, 3) path layer non-intrusive monitor
SmP VC-m (m=11, 12, 2, 3) path protection sub-layer
Sms VC-m (m=11, 12, 2, 3) path layer supervisory-unequipped
SMN SDH Management Network
SMS SDH Management Sub-network
Sn higher order VC-n layer (n=3, 4)
SnD VC-n layer (n=3, 4) tandem connection sub-layer using TCM definition according annex G.707
Snm VC-n (n=3, 4) path layer non-intrusive monitor
Snp VC-n (n=3, 4) path protection sub-layer
Sns VC-n (n=3, 4) path layer supervisory-unequipped
SnT VC-n (n=3, 4) tandem connection sub-layer using TCM definition according annex G.707
SNCP Sub Network Connection Protection (PPS)
SNCP/I Sub Network Connection Protection with Inherent Monitoring
SNCP/N Sub Network Connection Protection with Non-intrusive monitoring
SOH Section OverHead
SONET Synchronous Optical NETwork
SPI Synchronous Physical Interface
SSD Server Signal Degrade
SSF Server Signal Fail
SSM Synchronization Status Message
SSU Synchronization Supply Unit
ST Section Termination
STM-N Synchronous Transport Module N (N*155 Mbit/s, N= 1, 4, 16, 64)
STS Synchronous Transport Signal (SONET levels)

TCM Tandem Connection Monitor


TCP Termination Connection Point
TI Timing Information
TIF Timing Input Fail
TIM Trace Identifier Mismatch
TMN Telecommunication Management Network
TP Timing Point
TP Termination Point
TT Trail Termination function
TTF Transport Terminal Function
TTI Trail Trace Identifier
TTP Trail Termination Point
TU-n Tributary Unit, level n (n= 11, 12, 2, 3)
TUG-k Tributary Unit Group, level k (k= 2, 3)
TxSL Transmitted Signal Label
TxTI Transmitted Trace Identifier

UAS UnAvailable Second


UAT UnAvailable Time
UNEQ UNEQuipped (signal)

VC-n Virtual Container, level n (n= 11, 12, 2, 3, 4)


VC-n-Xc Concatenation of X virtual containers of level n

WDM Wavelength Division Multiplexer (NE)

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 13.6


Appendix A1 Management Hierarchy

Service Manager SML

SDH Network Manager NML

SDH NE Manager EML

CT CT CT CT CT ECT

DXC ADM WDM Microwave Submarine EL

13.7

 EL: Element Layer


 All the different kinds of Network Elements (NE) are located in this layer

 ECT: Equipment Craft Terminal


 All different kinds of Network Elements can be managed locally, depending on the type of NE and the type of local
management interface operation.

 EML: Element Management Layer


 Handles the physical configuration of the network resources
 Collects and processes the alarms emitted by the NEs to inform the operator
 Collects performance data of the NEs to allow preventive maintenance
 Ensures the availability of the network resources

 NML: Network Management Layer


 Sets up end-to-end paths using the network resources available
 Optimizes the use of the network resources
 Correlates performance data to paths and provides statistics of the quality to paths.

 SML: Service Management Layer


 Handles the setup of services in the network and ensures their availability

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 13.7


Appendix A2 SDH-SONET Compatibility

SDH SONET
4 x 9 bytes
STS-12 622.08 Mbit/s
STM-4
resp.
STS-12

3 x 3 bytes

9 bytes
Same frame structure STS-3
155.52 Mbit/s

STM-1
synchronous

STS-1 STS-1 STS-1 51.84 Mbit/s


(STM-0)

Plesiochronous origin
Plesiochronous origin signals
(European standard) signals
(US standard)

13.8

 Low-or medium-rate systems using radio or satellite technologies in the SDH hierarchy have not been designed to use STM-1
signals:
They operate with a 51.840 Mbit/s binary rate: STM-0

SONET FRAME RATE (Mbit/s) SDH FRAME RATE (Mbit/s)

STS-1 51.840 STM-0 51.84

STS-3 155.520 STM-1 155.520

STS-9 466.560

STS-12 622.080 STM-4 622.080

STS-48 2488.320 STM-16 2488.320

STS192 STM-64 9953.280

 SONET: Synchronous Optical NETwork

 SDH: Synchronous Digital Hierarchy

 STS: Synchronous Transport Signal (SONET levels)

 STM: Synchronous Transport Module (SDH levels)

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 13.8


Appendix A2 SDH-SONET Compatibility (continuation

9 bytes 3 bytes 9 bytes

A1 A1 A1 A2 A2 A2 J0 X X A1 A2 C1 A1 A1 A1 A2 A2 A2 C1 C1 C1
B1 D D E1 D F1 X X RSOH B1 E1 F1 B1 B1 B1 E1 E1 E1 F1 F1 F1 SOH
D1 D D D2 D D3 D1 D2 D3 D1 D1 D1 D2 D2 D2 D3 D3 D3
AU-4 Pointer H1 H2 H3 H1 H1 H1 H2 H2 H2 H3 H3 H3 Pointer
9 rows

B2 B2 B2 K1 K2 B2 K1 K2 B2 B2 B2 K1 K1 K1 K2 K2 K2
D4 D5 D6 D4 D5 D6 D4 D4 D4 D5 D5 D5 D6 D6 D6
D7 D8 D9 MSOH D7 D8 D9 D7 D7 D7 D8 D8 D8 D9 D9 D9 Line
OH
D10 D11 D12 D10 D11 D12 D10 D10 D10 D11 D11 D11 D12 D12 D12
S1 Z1 Z1 Z2 Z2 M1 E2 X X Z1 Z2 E2 Z1 Z1 Z1 Z2 Z2 Z2 E2 E2 E2

#1
#2 STS-1
#3
Section overhead : byte assignment

13.9

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 13.9


Appendix A3 STM-0 Interface at 51.840 Mbit/s, Frame Structure

1 90
1 A1 A2 C1 STM-0 Frame

B1 E1 F1
D1 D2 D3
VC-3
H1 H2 H3 J1
B3
B2 K1 K2
D4 D5 D6 C2

fixed stuff

fixed stuff
G1
D7 D8 D9
D10 D11 D12 F2

9 S1 M1 E2 H4

F3
K3
N1

29 30 31 58 59 60

VC-3 POH

13.10

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 13.10


Appendix B1 Ring Networks without SSM

6 5 4

No fault 1 2 3
Switch to holdover mode
Path fault
Correct 6 5 4

1 2 3
Sync loop

Incorrect 6 5 4

1 2 3
Switch to holdover mode
Reference fault
6 5 4
Correct
holdover
1 2 3
Sync loop

6 5 4
Incorrect

13.11

 Correct / No fault
 NE1 configuration: T3 (from PRC), priority 1
no second reference
 NE other configuration: T1 from W, priority 1
no second reference

 Incorrect
 NE1 configuration: T3 (from PRC), priority 1
T1 from E, priority 2
 NE other configuration: T1 from W, priority 1
T1 from E, priority 2: sync loops in case of line failure
or PRC failure

 No SSU available

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 13.11


Appendix B2 Ring Networks with SSM
PRC E W PRC E W PRC E W

PRC 6 "1111" 5 "1111" 4


PRC "1111" "1111"
phase 1
W E PRC W E PRC W E
1 2 3
PRC PRC SEC
holdover
PRC 6 "1111" 5 "1111" 4
phase 2 PRC
"1111" "1111"

1 PRC 2 PRC 3
PRC SEC SEC
holdover
PRC 6 "1111" 5 "1111" 4
phase 3 PRC
"1111" "1111"

1 PRC 2 PRC 3
"1111" SEC SEC
holdover
phase 4 PRC 6 PRC 5 "1111" 4
PRC
"1111" "1111"

1 PRC 2 PRC 3

"1111" "1111" "1111"


phase 5 PRC PRC PRC
6 5 4
PRC
"1111" "1111"

13.12

 Initially W (West) ports have the highest quality level

 No SSU available

 Configuration of Network elements:

NE Synchronization source Prio Quality


reference input take from Level

1 T3 (PCR) 1 PCR

2...6 T1 from W 1 S1-Byte

T1 from E 2 S1-Byte

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 13.12


Appendix C1 Example of Layering in RM Systems

13.13

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 13.13


Appendix C2 Functional Model G.805
G.702 G.702
path link path link
connection G.702 path link connection connection
IOSA LOPA LOPA IOSA
AP LOP trail AP
intra-office intra-office
section trail LOPSN LOPSN section trail
LOPT LOP link LOPT
IOST connection IOST
TCP connection LOP link connection TCP
G.703 TCP TCP G.703
interface HOPA HOPA HOPA HOPA interface
HOP trail HOP trail HOPSN
AP AP AP AP
HOPT HOP link HOPT HOP link HOPSN HOP link HOPT
HOPT
connection connection connection connection
TCP TCP TCP TCP
SA STM-N SA SA STM-N SA SA STM-N SA
AP section trail section trail section trail AP
AP AP AP AP
ST ST ST ST ST ST
STM-N section STM-N section STM-N section
TCP link connection TCP TCP link connection TCP TCP link connection TCP

AP Access Point LOP Lower-order path e.g. VC-12 HOP Higher-order path e.g. VC-4
CP Connection Point LOPA Lower-order path adaptation HOPA Higher-order path adaptation
TCP Termination Connection Point LOPT Lower-order path termination HOPT Higher-order path termination
IOST Intra-Office section termination LOPSN Lower-order path sub-network HOPSN Higher-order path sub-network
IOSA Intra-Office section adaptation SA STM-N section adaptation
ST STM-N section termination
Application of the functional architecture of the case of PDH supported on SDH

13.14

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 13.14


 Appendix C3 General Functional Block Diagram G.783

Ppx_CP Pps_CP Ppx_CP Pps_CP Lower order


path layer
TO_TP Sm/Pqx Sm/Pqs Sm/Pqx Sm/Pqs

TSF TSF
SmD/Sm SmD/Sm TSD TSD
SmD_AP SmDm Sm Sm Smm Sms Sms
SmD SmD TSF Sm_RI Sm_RI
SD
Sm_RI
Sm

Sm_CP Ppx_CP User_CP Sm_CP Ppx_CP User_CP Higher order


path layer
Sn/Sm Sn/Pqx Sn/User Sn/Sm Sn/Pqx Sn/User

TSF TSF
SnD/Sn SnD/Sn TSD TSD
SnD_AP SnDm Sn Sn Snm Sns SnS
SnD SnD TSF Sn_RI Sn_RI
Sn_RI SD

Sn

Sn_CP Sn_CP Multiplex section layer


D4-D12 E2 S1[5-8] S1[5-8] E2 D4-D12

MSn/DCC MSn/OW MSn/SD MSn/Sn MSn/Sn MSn/SD MSn/OW MSn/DCC

MSn MSn
MSn_RI

MSn

MSn_CP MSn_CP Regenerator section layer


D1-D3 E1 F1 F1 E1 D1-D3

RSn/DCC RSn/OW RSn/SD RSn/Sn RSn/Sn RSn/SD RSn/OW RSn/DCC

RSn RSn

RSn

SDH physical layers

OSn/RSn OSn/RSn ESl/RSl ESl/RSl

OSn OSn ESl ESl

OSn ESl
OSn_CP ESl_CP

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 13.15


Appendix D ITU-T recommendations

G.652 Characteristics of a single-mode optical fiber cable


G.653 Characteristics of a dispersion-shifted single-mode optical fiber cable
G.654 Characteristics of a cut-off shifted single-mode optical fiber cable
G.702 Digital hierarchy bit rates
G.703 Physical/electrical characteristics of hierarchical digital interfaces
G.707 Synchronous Digital Hierarchy bit rates
G.783 Characteristics of Synchronous Digital Hierarchy multiplexing equipment
G.805 Generic functional architecture of transport networks
G.811 Timing characteristics of primary reference clocks
G.812 Timing requirements of slave clocks suitable for use as node clocks in
synchronization networks
G.813 Timing characteristics of SDH equipment slave clocks (SEC)
G.826 Error performance parameters and objectives for international, constant bit
rate digital paths at or above the primary rate (Performance Monitoring)
G.957 Optical interfaces for equipment and systems relating to the
synchronous digital hierarchy
13.16

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 13.16


 Appendix E Alarm scheme
SPI RST MST MSA HPOM/HSUT HPC HPT HPA LPOM/LSUT LPC LPT LPA
(no system clock) SSF Detection
Generation
LOS "1" Insertion of all ones (AIS) Signal
LOF "1" AU Administration Unit
DS Degraded Signal
HOVC Higher Order Virtual Container
RS- BIP Error (B1) HP Higher Order Path
HPA Higher Order Path Adaption
Regenerated signal ”1" SSF HPC Higher Order Path Connection
passed through "1" HPOM Higher Order Path Overhead
(K2) MS-AIS Monitor
(B2) MS-Exc.
. Error HPT Higher Order Path Termination
HSUT Higher Order Supervisory
(B2) MS-DS Unequipped Generator

(M1) MS-REI LOF Loss of Frame


AU-AIS LOM Loss of Multiframe
(K2) MS-RDI LOP Loss of Pointer
LOS Loss of Signal
(K2) MS-RDI LOVC Lower Order Virtual Container
LP Lower Order Path
(M1) MS-REI
LPA Lower Order Path Adaption
AU-AIS "1" SSF TU-AIS LPC Lower Order Path Connection
LPOM Lower Order Path Overhead
AU-LOP Monitor
Unused HPC
"1" Output LPT Lower Order Path Termination
HO path signal passed through
LSUT Lower Order Supervisory
HOVC with POH and unequipped payload signal HP-UNEQ Unequipped Generator
MSA Multiplex Section Adaption
HO unequipped signal
MST Multiplex Section Termination
HP-UNEQ PLTM Payload Type Mismatch
"1" PTM Path Trace Mismatch
(J1) HP-PTM
OOF Out of Frame
(C2) HP-PLTM RDI Remote Defect Indication (FERF)
REI Remote Error Indication (FEBE)
(B3) HP-Exc. Error
RST Regenerator Section Termination
(B3) HP-DS SPI Physical Section Interface
(G1) HP-REI SSF Server Signal Fail
TU - Unit
Tributary
(G1) HP-RDI UNEQ Unequipped Signal per G.709
(G1) HP-RDI VC Virtual Container
(G1) HP-REI
TU-AIS "1" SSF
HP-LOM/TU -LOP Unused LPC
Output
LO path signal passed through "1"
LP -UNEQ
LOVC with POH and unspecified payload signal
LO unequipped signal
LP- UNEQ
(J2) LP- PTM "1"

(V5) LP- PLTM


(V5) LP-Exc. Error
(V5) LP-DS
(V5) LP- REI
(V5) LP- RDI
(V5) LP- RDI
(V5) LP- REI

LOS - % MS-AIS W% HP-UNEQ - - TU-AIS - % LP-UNEQ - -


LOF - % B2 errors W% HP- PTM W% HP-LOM - - LP-TIM W%
OOF W - MS-RDI W% HP- PLTM W% HP-LOP - % LP-SLM W%
B1 errors W - MS-REI W - B3 errors W% LP-BIP errors W%
HP-RDI W% LP-RDI W%
AU-AIS - % HP-REI W - LP-REI W -
AU-LOP - %
forward direction backward direction optional

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 13.17