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P0468

Overmatching Superalloy Consumable Inco-weld


686CPT Broadens its Applications to Include Welding
Super Austenitic and Super Duplex Stainless Steels
Authors:
Ph.D C. Thornton,
Abstract
B.Sc C. Cooper The concept of using a more highly alloyed welding product to weld corrosion
Special Metals Welding Products resistant alloys is not new. Early examples are 317LMN and 904L being welded

Company, UK with INCONEL FM 625 and INCONEL WE 112. There are more than five well-
known pit and crevice-corrosion resisting nickel alloys that benefit from being

Keywords: welded with the superalloy INCO-WELD 686CPT . In addition, there is a
Crevice corrosion, nickel alloy filler greater number of super austenitic and super duplex stainless steels, that may
metals, over-matching, pitting be used to their maximum capabilities when welded with the overmatching fully
corossion, super austenitic austenitic, INCO-WELD 686CPT products.
stainless steel, super duplex
stainless steel. Typical applications and performance criteria include the fabrication of flue gas
desulfurisation (FGD) equipment where extreme pitting and crevice corrosion
environments are generated by scrubbing high concentrations of sulfur and
halogens from coal-fired boilers. These environments often include chloride
1. Introduction concentrations beyond 100,000 ppm and pH levels of less than 1. Super
austenitic and super duplex stainless steels are continuing to find wide
acceptance in handling aggressive fluids in pulp and paper applications. Bleach
Corrosion resistant materials such plant piping and vessels are often specified in stainless steels that need much
as alloys 625 (UNS N06625) and C- better welds than matching composition can supply.
276 (UNS N10276) have provided
excellent corrosion resistance for It is no small task to meet the weld requirements of nickel superalloys and the
equipment in the oil and gas, stainless super austenitic and duplex alloys, but INCO-WELD 686CPT meets
chemical, petrochemical, pollution the challenge.
control and similar industries. New
nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloys The INCO-WELD welding products 686CPT may be deposited by a variety of

(INCONEL Alloy 686, HASTELLOY processes including SMAW, GMAW, GTAW, PAW and SAW. Surfacing can also
C-2000 and alloy 59) have been be undertaken with the electroslag and submerged arc processes. In the case of
developed, which provide increased welding super austenitic and super duplex stainless steels, careful adherence to
resistance to corrosion beyond the tightly prescribed welding procedures can be performed easily with INCO-WELD
capability of both stainless steels FM 686CPT because it is fully austenitic and produces optimum corrosion-
and existing nickel based alloys. The resistance at all cooling rates from a wide range of welding parameters.
use of these new alloys can provide
a number of benefits to operators [1]
including improved reliability, estimate of the relative pitting .
increased product life cycle, lower resistance of alloys can be made
using the Pitting Resistance
maintenance and repair costs and
Equivalent Number (PREN) which is
2. Selection of
reduced down time.
calculated using the chemical Welding Filler Metal
The chemical compositions of composition of the alloy. The
several nickel-chromium- calculated PREN values for a range The selection of consumables for
molybdenum (Ni-Cr-Mo) alloys are of Ni-Cr-Mo alloys are shown in welding high nickel alloys (Ni-Cr-
detailed in Table 1. Substantial Table 1. The standard PREN Mo), super duplex stainless steels
additions of the major alloying calculation used for stainless steels and super austenitic stainless steels
elements provide a high level of cannot be used for nickel alloys, with requires consideration of both the
general corrosion resistance whilst the equation which most closely mechanical properties and the
the combination of chromium and represents the performance of Ni-Cr- corrosive environments to be
molybdenum improves resistance to Mo alloys in various media being: experienced by the welded joint. As
both pitting and crevice corrosion. deposited weld metal has a dendritic
Additions of tungsten also provide PREN = % Cr + 1.5 (%Mo + %W + structure with micro segregation of
improved resistance to localized %Nb) alloying elements through the
corrosion. structure. It has been shown that
It has been demonstrated that alloys autogeneous welds completed in
with the highest PREN values have 316L and 317L plate have a reduced
1.1 Localized Corrosion the highest critical pitting and critical resistance to pitting corrosion in
Resistance crevice corrosion temperatures when oxidizing acid chloride environments
[2]
evaluated using standard test compared to the parent plate . The
One of the most commonly observed methods (ASTM G48 acidified FeCl3 decreased pitting resistance of the
failure mechanisms in stainless solution). Corrosion tests undertaken weld metal is due to micro
steels and Ni-Cr-Mo alloys is pitting with Ni-Cr-Mo alloys in flowing sea segregation of alloying elements
or crevice corrosion. These forms of water and elevated temperature within the dendrites. Electron
corrosive attack are less predictable stagnant sea water have also shown microprobe measurements of the
than general corrosion and may limit a correlation between the PREN chromium and molybdenum contents
the performance of the material. An value and the depth of crevice attack showed that the centers of the
[1]

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austenitic dendrite were depleted in (Ni-Cr-Mo) alloy filler metals have %W)
chromium and especially been shown to exhibit pitting
molybdenum. In contrast, the performance superior to that of the This formula provides equal
[6]
interdendritic regions which were the stainless steel base material . weighting to the beneficial effects of
last to solidify, were enriched in molybdenum and tungsten in
molybdenum and chromium. The use of over-matching nickel providing resistance to localized
Autogeneous welds in a 316L type alloy filler metals has also been corrosive attack. The comparative
stainless steel containing 2.8% Mo employed for the welding of resistance of weld deposits to attack
exhibited a variation in Mo content of corrosion resistant nickel alloys used in oxidizing chloride environments is
between 1.8% and 5.7%. in the construction of flue gas reflected by this formula.
[7]
Preferential corrosion of the dendrite desulphurisation (FGD) plant .
cores was observed in the regions Pitting and crevice corrosion testing
which had suffered pitting attack. of both alloys and weld deposits has
3. Welding of Super
been undertaken in an oxidising Austenitic Stainless
In high nickel alloy weld deposits Mo chloride solution (11.9%
and Nb and sometimes Cr are H2SO4+1.3%HCl+1%FeCl3+1%CuCl
Steels
enriched at the dendrite boundaries 2 for 72 hours at 103C). It has been
in the interdendritic regions
[3, 4]
. found that the composition of this The super austenitic range of
During solidification of the weld solution is similar to the environment stainless steels containing 6-7% Mo
metal these elements become experienced in some areas of FGD have a high resistance to pitting and
enriched in the liquid phase. This
[5]
plant . Welds made in a number of crevice corrosion due to the high
segregation within the dendritic alloy base materials including C- molybdenum and nitrogen contents
structure results in reduced 2000, alloy 59, C-22 and C-276 with (Table 2). The addition of nitrogen
corrosion resistance compared to matching filler metals have been improves both the mechanical
the homogeneous alloy. Additionally, found to pit severely whilst welds properties and pitting resistance of
there is an enhanced risk of made with the overmatching filler these alloys. The super austenitic
intermetallic phase precipitation due metal INCO-WELD 686CPT (AWS stainless steels exhibit higher PREN
to the local enrichment of Mo, Cr and A5.14 ERNiCrMo-14) showed no values (PREN = %Cr + 3.3 (%Mo) +
Nb in the interdendritic regions. attack. The 686CPT alloy filler metal 16 (%N)) than the duplex grades of
Work undertaken with Ni-Cr-Mo alloy is based on the Ni-20%Cr-16%Mo stainless steel. The super austenitic
filler metals, that have additions of chemistry with an addition of 4% W. steels are used in environments
tungsten, has shown that tungsten is In nickel alloys tungsten acts in a where aqueous corrosion by chloride
enriched in the core of the dendrite similar manner to that of (and other halides) is a concern (e.g.
and is depleted in the interdenritic molybdenum in providing resistance sea water, paper and pulp bleaching,
regions
[4, 5]
. As both molybdenum to pitting and crevice corrosion. flue gas desulphurisation plant etc).
and tungsten provide increased Welds made in the same materials However, super austenitic stainless
resistance to localised corrosion the but with the over matching alloy steels can exhibit susceptibility to
difference in segregation behaviour 686CPT filler metal were found to be chloride ion stress corrosion
of tungsten acts to support that of resistant to attack (Figure 1). cracking in hot chloride solutions.
molybdenum. Optimum pitting resistance is However, these steels offer
obtained when the over alloyed filler resistance to crevice corrosion in
metal 686CPT is employed to sea water at elevated temperatures.
2.1 Over Alloyed Filler Alloy 27-7Mo (UNS No. S31277)
complete the welds.
Metals offers corrosion resistance superior
In a hot bypass duct in FGD plant in to that of the 6%Mo super austenitic
The concept of using an over the Seminole Electric System severe steels (UNS N08926, S31254) and
alloyed filler metal has been corrosion of welds in C-276 base in some instances has corrosion
developed in order to counteract the material completed with C-276 filler resistance approaching that of nickel
effects of segregation across the [8]
metal was observed . The weld based alloys such as 625 and C-276
[10]
dendritic structure. The selection of were repaired using the 686CPT .
an appropriate filler metal, which is alloy filler metal in order to provide
over alloyed compared to the base an over alloyed weld deposit The 6% Mo super austenitic
metal, ensures that the compared to the base material. stainless steels are welded with high
concentrations of the major alloying Replacement welds made with the nickel alloy welding consumables of
elements across the segregated over matched 686CPT filler metal the Ni-Cr-Mo type (eg. 625, 622 and
dentritic regions are sufficient to showed no corrosion whilst the C- 686CPT). Welds completed in 6%Mo
provide superior corrosion resistance 276 plate corroded. The over alloyed super austenitic steels with 625 type
to that of the base material. When 686CPT filler metal has been consumables have been found to
such an approach to the selection of successfully used for joining C-276 exhibit pitting in ASTM G48A tests at
welding consumables is used it has plate in other FGD plant .
[9] 40-50C, compared to the base
been shown that the critical pitting material, which exhibits pitting at 55-
[11]
temperature of the weld metal On the basis of the results of 60C . Autogeneous welds in
[5]
exceeds that of the base material . comparative pitting and crevice these steels show a loss in corrosion
In order to produce welds, in high corrosion performance of a number performance due to the effects of
alloy stainless steels, which exhibit of nickel alloy filler metals a Pitting segregation in the as deposited weld
corrosion resistance superior to that Resistance Equivalent Number metal. When welding super
of the stainless steel base material it (PREN) has been proposed to austenitic stainless steel it is not
has proved necessary to select predict the relative performance of necessary to impose the same heat
nickel alloy filler metals based on the [9]
the alloys . input controls as are applied to
Ni-Cr-Mo chemistry. Welds duplex stainless steels as there is no
completed in 904L and 254SMo PREN = %Cr-0.8%Cu+1.5 (%Mo + requirement to obtain the ferrite-
stainless steel using 625 and C-276 austenite balance needed in duplex

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stainless steels for mechanical -50C (-58F). depends on the cooling rate during
properties and corrosion behaviour. Pitting corrosion testing of the welds welding with high cooling rates
completed in 25-6Mo plate (UNS resulting in higher levels of ferrite
In order to determine the suitability N08926) showed that no pitting was when welding is undertaken with
of high nickel alloy (Ni-Cr-Mo) filler observed at a temperature of +50C duplex stainless steel filler metals.
metal for welding super austenitic with both 622 and 686CPT filler Nitrogen acts to aid the reformation
[12]
steel the mechanical properties and metals (Figure 3). However, at of austenite in the weld region by
corrosion behaviour of weld deposits +60C pitting occurred in the HAZ at promoting austenite reformation at
have been assessed. Welds were the weld root location. For the weld higher temperatures. Nitrogen also
completed in super austenitic completed in 27-7Mo plate (UNS improves the corrosion resistance,
stainless steel using the TIG process S31277) with 686CPT filler metal no especially of the austenite phase.
in accordance with the procedure pitting was observed at +60C. At a Practically, heat inputs in the range
detailed below temperature of +70C pitting was of 0.5-1.5kJ/mm for super duplex,
observed to occur in the HAZ at the and 0.52.0kJ/mm for standard
Weld preparation: root of the weld. There was no pitting duplex stainless steels are employed
Single V 60 included angle in the weld deposit in either the cap in conjunction with maximum
Base Material: or root locations at +70C, however interpass temperatures of 100C and
12.7 mm thickness there was some evidence of slight 150C respectively dependent upon
Position: corrosive attack in the cap of the wall thickness. Interpass
Vertical up weld. The high alloyed Ni-Cr-Mo temperature is often restricted on
weld deposits (625, 622 and thin wall super duplex materials to
Fill Current: 180 A 686CPT) were found to exhibit prevent the precipitation of third
Fill Voltage: 14 V, DC superior pitting corrosion resistance phase intermetallics. Welding
Fill Speed: 115 mm/min to that of the HAZ of the base consumables for duplex stainless
(4.5/min) material. In all instances pitting was steels are similar in composition to
Fill Heat Input: 1.3 kJ/mm found to occur preferentially in the that of the base material but with
(33kJ/inch) HAZ at the root of the weld. higher levels of nickel to ensure an
appropriate phase balance (30-60%
Welds in 25-6 Mo plate (UNS The 686CPT filler metal has been ferrite) in the deposited weld metal.
N08926) were completed using 622 used successfully in a production
and 625 filler metals whilst welds in environment for welding 4.5%Mo Many fabrication specifications in the
27-7 Mo plate (UNS S31277) were and 6%Mo super austenitic stainless oil and gas industry require ASTM
completed using 686CPT filler metal. steels. During welding procedure G48A pitting corrosion testing of the
A macro section from one of these qualification good levels of impact deposited weld metal to be
single sided welds is shown in toughness have been recorded at undertaken at +25C and +40C for
Figure 2 and the compositions of the temperatures down to -196C and duplex and super duplex stainless
filler metals are listed in Table 4. tensile properties exceeding the steels respectively. In many
specified minimum values have been instances super duplex filler metal is
The tensile properties of the welds achieved. Pitting corrosion tests in used for welding standard duplex
were determined from both weld accordance with ASTM G48A for 24 stainless steels. The use of such an
metal tensile and cross weld tensile hours showed no evidence of pitting over alloyed filler metal (super
specimens. The Charpy V-notch with weight loss values of <3glm duplex stainless steel) in these
impact toughness of the weld being recorded. circumstances produces weld
deposits was evaluated at -50C deposits with enhanced pitting
using specimens located at the weld corrosion resistance compared to
center line. Pitting corrosion testing
4. Welding of Duplex standard duplex stainless steel weld
of the weld metal was undertaken Stainless Steels deposits.
using the acidified FeCl3 solution in
ASTM G48 for 24 hours. Duplex and super duplex stainless Nickel alloy filler metals have been
steels provide good resistance to used in some applications to
The weld metal yield and tensile stress corrosion cracking together complete welds between duplex
strengths (Table 5) for the Ni-Cr-Mo with higher strength levels compared stainless steels and other alloy
alloy filler metals were 520-527MPa to both standard austenitic and materials (eg. Cr-Mo steels, nickel
(75.4-76.4ksi) and 797-802MPa super austenitic stainless steels based alloys etc.). The use of a fully
(115.6-116.3ksi) respectively. These (Table 3). These steels are austenitic high nickel Ni-Cr-Mo alloy
strength values exceed the specified characterized by a microstructure filler metal for welding duplex and
minimum values for the grades of containing both ferrite and austenite. super duplex stainless steels
super austenitic steels. All the cross Duplex stainless steels are sensitive provides potential advantages in
weld tensile specimens exhibited to variation in chemical composition, terms of welding procedural
ductile fracture in the base plate which will influence the approach and improved pitting
away from the weld (Table 6). For all microstructure and phase balance in corrosion resistance compared to
three nickel alloy filler metals the the weld region. Super duplex the use of super duplex stainless
weld metal toughness values at - stainless steels are characterized as steel filler metals. The use of a fully
50C (-58F) exceeded 70J (52ft.lbs). containing higher levels of Ni, Cr, Mo austenitic nickel alloy weld deposit
The impact toughness performance and N compared to standard duplex removes the requirement which
of 622 and 686CPT was similar with stainless steels. Some super duplex exists with duplex stainless steel
impact toughness values at -50C (- stainless steels are also alloyed with filler metals to produce welds with
58F) lying in the range 72-88J (53- tungsten (Table 2). balanced quantities of austenite and
65ft.lbs). The toughness of the 625 ferrite.
weld deposit was higher with 100- The amount of ferrite and austenite
104J (74-77ft.lbs) being achieved at in the weld deposit and HAZ The variation in weld metal

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mechanical properties for INCONEL mechanical properties specified for Alloying, Stainless Steel
FM 686CPT with heat input has these super austenitic steels to be World, May 2004, p 52-57.
been determined by depositing all readily achieved. [5] S.D. Kiser and C. Cooper,
weld metal test plates with the TIG Nickel alloy filler metals provide Selection of Nickel Alloy
welding process in the flat position. enhanced pitting and corrosion Welding Products to Provide
The variation in 0.2% proof strength resistance compared to that Maximum Performance in
and tensile strength with heat input obtained by duplex and super duplex Severe Pitting and Crevice
is shown in Fig.4 which shows that stainless steel filler metals. Corrosion Environments,
0.2% proof strength levels in excess For welding duplex and super duplex Stainless Steel World
of the 550 MPa specified for super stainless steels the deposition of a Conference, The Hague,
duplex stainless steels are achieved fully austenitic weld deposit removes 1999, Paper No. SSW99-076.
in the weld deposit at a heat input of the requirement to produce welds [6] A. Garner. Materials
less than 1.5kJ/mm. The impact with balanced quantities of ferrite Selection for Bleached Pulp
toughness of welds completed with and austenite. Washers Pulp & Paper
686CPT filler metal shows little Canada 82, 1982, p.109-120.
variation with heat input with values [7] J.R. Crum, L. E. Shoemaker
in excess of 95J and 65J being
achieved at -50C and -196C
Acknowledgements: and S. D. Kiser, Special
Alloys and Overmatching
respectively (Figure 5). Welding Products Solve FGD
The authors wish to thank Special
Corrosion Problems,
Metals Welding Products Company
These mechanical property results Corrosion 2000 Conference
for permission to publish this paper.
for the 686CPT wire, combined with Paper 00573.
The opinions expressed in this paper
the pitting corrosion performance of [8] S. D. Kiser, Selection of Weld
are those of the authors and are not
this alloy, clearly demonstrate its Metals and corrosion
necessarily those of the
suitability for welding both standard Resisting Alloys for FGD use
organization, which they represent.
and super duplex grades of stainless with Corrosion Data and
steel. To ensure that the weld metal Application History.
strength and other mechanical [9] S. D. Kiser, Preventing Weld
properties exceed the minimum Trademark Corrosion, Advanced
requirements for super duplex Materials and Processes,
stainless steels appropriate control
Recognition: March 2002, p32-35.
of welding parameters will be [10] N. C. Eisinger, J. R. Crum and
required. INCONEL, INCO-WELD and L. E. Shoemaker An
686CPT are trademarks of the Enhanced Super Austenitic
Special Metals group of companies. Stainless Steel Offers
5. Conclusions Resistance to Aggressive
HASTELLOY, C2000 and C-22 are Media. Corrosion 2003,
The selection of a welding trademarks of Haynes International NACE.
consumable must be based on Inc. [11] M. Liljas, A Ulander B.
anticipated service requirements and Holmberg, Welding a High
specified weld metal mechanical 254 SMO is a trademark of Molybdenum Austenitic
property requirements. The as Outokumpu. Stainless Steel , Metal
deposited weld metal microstructure, Construction, Nov 1985,
exhibits some variation in chemical p743-747.
composition of the main alloying
elements due to the effects of
References: [12] U. Ekstrom and S.A. Fager
Choice of Welding
segregation during solidification. The [1] S. A. McCoy, L. G. Consumables for Joint
selection of an over alloyed welding Shoemaker and J. R. Crum Welding of Duplex Stainless
consumable compensates for these Corrosion Performance and Steels.
segregation effects. There are many Fabricability of the New
applications where highly alloyed Ni- Generation of Highly
Cr-Mo filler metals, including Corrosion Resistant Nickel-
686CPT filler metal, provide Chromium-Molybdenum
enhanced resistance to pitting and Alloys.
crevice corrosion compared to the [2] A. Garner, The Effect of
base material being welded. Autogenous Welding on
Examples of the applications for Chloride Pitting Corrosion in
these alloys include: Austenitic Stainless Steels,
Corrosion, Vol 35, No.3,
Welding of C-276 material in flue gas March 1979, p108-114.
desulphurisation (FGD) plant using [3] J.N. Dupont, Microstructural
686CPT filler metal provides welds Development and
with enhanced corrosion resistance Solidification Cracking
compared to the base material. Susceptibility of a Stabilized
Welding of super austenitic stainless Stainless Steel, Welding
steels with Ni-Cr-Mo filler metals Journal, Vol 78, July 1999,
(625, 622 and 686CPT) enables 253s-263s.
welds to be produced with enhanced [4] M. Thuvander, L. Karlsson
critical pitting temperatures and and B. Munir, Controlling
superior performance to that of the Segregation in Nickel-Base
base steel. The use of these nickel Weld Metals by Balanced
alloy filler metals enables weld metal

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Tables

Alloy UNS Number Ni Cr Fe Mo W Nb Cu Total Cr+Mo+W PREN*


686 N06686 Bal 20.5 <1.0 16.3 3.9 - - 40.8 50.8
C-2000 N06200 Bal 22.5 1.0 16.5 - - 1.5 40.5 47.3
59 N06059 Bal 23.0 <1.5 16.0 - - - 39.0 47.0
622 N06022 Bal 20.5 2.5 14.2 3.2 - - 37.9 46.6
C-22 N06022 Bal 21.4 4.0 13.4 3.1 - - 37.9 46.2
C-276 N10276 Bal 15.5 5.5 16.0 4.0 - - 35.5 45.5
625 N06625 Bal 21.5 3.0 9.0 - 3.5 - 30.5 40.3
C-4 N06455 Bal 16.0 2.0 16.0 - - - 32.0 40.0
G N06007 Bal 22.0 20.0 6.5 0.6 - 2.0 29.1 32.7
*PREN = %Cr+1.5%(Mo+W+Nb)

Table 1: Chemical composition of a range of Ni-Cr-Mo alloys

UNS
Ni Cr Mo N Cu W PREN
Number
27-7Mo S31277 27 22 7.2 0.34 0.9 - 51.2
25-6Mo N08926 25 20 6.5 0.20 0.9 - 44.7
254SMo S31254 18 20 6.1 0.20 0.7 - 41.5
Super Duplex S32750 7.0 25 4.0 0.27 - - 42.5
Super Duplex S32760 7.5 25 3.8 0.25 - - 41.5
Standard Duplex S31803 5.5 22 3.1 0.17 - 0.7 35.0
PREN = %Cr + 3.3(%Mo) + 16 (%N).

Table 2: Duplex and super austenitic stainless steel compositions.

UNS 0.2% Proof Strength Tensile Strength Elogation


Material
Number (MPa) (MPa) (%)
27-7Mo S31277 >360 >770 >40

25-6 Mo N08926 >295 >650 >42

Super Duplex S32750 >550 >800 >25

Super Duplex S32760 >550 750-895 >25

Standard Duplex S31803 >450 >620 >25


Table 3: Duplex and super duplex austenitic stainless steel mechanical property requirements.

Total
Alloy AWS A5.14 Ni Cr Fe Mo W Nb PREN*
Cr+Mo+W
686 ERNiCrMo-14 59.5 20.1 0.10 16.1 3.9 - 40.1 50.1
622 ERNiCrMo-10 57.3 22.2 2.33 14.2 3.4 39.8 48.6
625 ERNiCrMo-3 Bal 22.1 0.61 9.0 - 3.5 31.1 40.9
*PREN = %Cr-0.8%Cu+1.5(%Mo+%W)

Table 4. Chemical composition of TIG welding wires.

0.2% Proof Strength Tensile Strength Charpy V-Notch


Base Alloy Filler Metal Elongation (%)
(MPa) (Mpa) (J@ - 50C)
27-7 Mo 686CPT 527 802 26.5 72-86
25-6 Mo 622 520 797 39.0 76-88
25-6 Mo 625 N/D N/D N/D 100-104
N/D Not determined.

Table 5: Mechanical Properties of Welds completed in Super Austenitic Stainless Steel

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0.2% Proof Tensile Strength


Base Alloy Filler Metal Location of Fracture
Strength (Mpa) (Mpa)
27-7 Mo 686CPT 423 811 Ductile fracture in 27-7Mo plate
406 811 Ductile fracture in 27-7Mo plate
25-6 Mo 622 386 787 Ductile fracture in 25-6Mo plate
388 776 Ductile fracture in 25-6Mo plate
25-6 Mo 625 420 776 Ductile fracture in 25-6Mo plate
403 784 Ductile fracture in 25-6Mo plate
Table 6: Cross Weld Tensile Data for Welds in Super Austenitic Stainless Steels.

Base Alloy Filler Metal Pitting Corrosion Weight Loss


No visible pitting at +60 1.05 glm
27-7 Mo 686CPT
Pitting in HAZ at weld root at +70C -
No pitting at +50C 0.16glm
25-6 Mo 622
Pitting in HAZ at weld root at +60C -
No pitting at +50C 0.51glm
25-6Mo 625 Pitting in HAZ at weld root at +60C -

ASTM G48C for 24 hours

Table 7: Pitting corrosion behaviour of super austenitic stainless steel welds.

Figures

Figure 1a: INCONEL 622 welded with INCONEL 622 filler metal (pitting resistance of various base metal and weld metal
combinations).

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Figure 1b: INCONEL 622 welded with INCO-WELD 686CPT filler metal (pitting resistance of various base metal and weld
metal combinations).

Figure 1c: INCONEL C-276 welded with INCO-WELD C-276 filler metal (pitting resistance of various base metal and weld
metal combinations).

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Figure 1d: INCONEL C-276 welded with INCO-WELD 686CPT filler metal (pitting resistance of various base metal and weld
metal combinations).

Figure 2: Macro section from a TIG weld in super austenitic stainless steel.

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Figure 3a: Root of weld in 27-7Mo plate showing pitting in HAZ (G48C at +70C for 24hours) - Pitting resistance of welds in
super austenitic steels.

Figure 3b: Root of weld in 25-6Mo plate welded with 625 filler metal (G48A at +50C for 24 hours) - Pitting resistance of welds
in super austenitic steels.

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Figure 4: Variation in weld metal tensile properties for INCO-WELD 686CPT.

Figure 5: Variation in weld impact toughness properties for INCO-WELD 686CPT.

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