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# EXPERIMENT 3A: FM Generation using IC555

PRELAB REPORT
Group #8

Objective:
To implement an FM modulator using IC555 configured as Voltage Controlled Oscillator.

## FM MODULATOR WITH IC555 CONFIGURED AS VCO

IC555 has 2 comparators within based on their outputs the R-S flip flop is controlled. When
message signal m(t) is applied at pin 5 of the IC555 timer, it gets divided between the two equal
valued resistances (R) connected to the comparators. So the voltages developed are m(t) and
m(t)/2 for upper and lower comparators respectively. The capacitor C is charged by Vcc
through Ra and Rb , so the voltage across capacitor Vc keeps increasing. But as soon as Vc
reaches m(t), the upper comparator triggers R input of the flip flop forcing Q=0 (LOW) and this
makes = 1 (HIGH). This turns the transistor ON and the capacitor starts discharging through
this discharge circuit till Vc falls down to Vc=m(t)/2. At this time, S is triggered by lower
comparator and Q=1 (HIGH) and in turn = 0 (LOW). Transistor is OFF at this time and the
capacitor starts charging again soon after. The process of alternate charging and discharging goes
on.If m(t) is lowered, the range between m(t) and m(t)/2 is reduced in magnitude and as a result
charging and discharging time reduces . This makes output frequency to increase with decrease in
|m(t)|and vice-versa. Since frequency of output varies with message signal m(t), the output wave
is an FM wave.
Ans 2:

CHARGING EQUATION:

## The capacitor charges through resistances Ra and Rb .

+ =

+ =

=
+

Assuming !" # \$
,

ln =
/2 +

) * /
= + ln ) *
Ans 3:

DISCHARGING EQUATION:

The capacitor charges through resistance Rb only and since transistor is ON, we replace the circuit
as follows:

From KVL,
,)
+ ,
-=0

,
=

= ./2

Ans 4:

## Instantaneous frequency f of output waveform approximately is,

0 1 1=
" ,

From discharging equation analysis, we observe that tdc is independent of m(t) i.e. is constant.
Whereas, from charging equation analysis, we observe that tc is dependent on message signal
m(t) such that,

When m(t) is high in magnitude, time period is high i.e. frequency is small. On the other hand,
frequency of output increases with lower magnitudes of m(t).
Ans 5:

When pulse waveform is replaced with sinusoidal signal with the same voltage range, the output
waveform will be something as follows where the frequency of output decreases with increase in
magnitude of sine wave and then increases as sine wave falls .Then the frequency of output
decreases as sine wave goes in negative cycle as the magnitude is increasing and then increases as
sine wave completes the last quarter and it goes on like this. So, output frequency will be varying
in accordance to the amplitude of message signal m(t) and will also depend on instantaneous
frequency of carrier waveform.
Calculating Free running ASTABLE frequency:

1.42
2344 =
27 !+2 #

! = 18
# = 228
= 0.33/;

2344 =
27 1 + 44 0.33

2344 = 15.2 8?@