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Universitatea Bucuresti

Facultatea de Stiinte Politice


Fascism and Holocaust in Romania

Government and Politics in Romania

Lect.Dr. Cristina Petrescu

Georgescu Ema-Elena
Eremia Laura-Diana
Craciun Andreea
Bursuc Andrada
Berheci Catalin
Florea Andreea
Ecobici Bogdan
Constantin Tiberiu

Grupa 3- Topic 6



The twentieth century was one of the great disasters. Military and ideological conflicts,
massacres, genocide, all have made this the bloodiest century of mankind lived by. The world has
been dominated by leaders who stood at the forefront of totalitarian regimes. Leaders who,
through tremendous leverage they had, led a brutal policy in promoting the ideas.

Between 1920-1930 a new political movement has appeared on the scene of Europe. Fascist
movement, supported by its strong leaders and characterized by aggressive nationalism, seemed
invincible at one time.

World War I between the years 1914-1918 appeared firstly as a triumph of democracy, since
the great European traditionalist and military empires have collapsed, being replaced by
parliamentary republic. But new forces were generated by the consequences of the war, and later
of the Great Depression, which caused a worldwide decline since 1929. One of these forces was
communism, which, inspired of the Russian Revolution of 1917, was following the removal of
government in favor of a dictatorship of the proletariat (working class), the other one was fascism.

The doctrines of the fascist movement were strongly opposed to the communist and
democratic ones. Traditionalists and great owners often leaned on it, as if it was an important
protection of communism, but this was more than just a conservative movement. Like the
communist states, fascist states were dictatorships, which are led by one party that does not accept
an opposition leader and the powerful chaired.

The first definition of fascism developed by its promoters by Mussolini with the help of
Giovanni Gentile, published in the Encyclopedia Italiana in 1932, does not tell us much about the
project of latecomers in European politics, but enough to be able to sustain the image of a
permanent revolution, but with no clear forms. It offers rather an anti-phenomenon image,
structured primarily on denial, identifiable by what it rejects rather than by goals. Anti-pacifist,
anti-Marxist, anti-liberal and anti-conservative, Mussolinis fascism let to suspect something
which now is generally accepted as a component of it: vitalist philosophy, based on the idea of
fighting, of exaltation of masculinity and war, of imperialism as a sign of vitality and expansion of
a nation, as opposed to decay, dismiss of Marxist socialism, the decision to destroy the myth of
political equality of individuals. In other words, the same pragmatic and emotional vision from the
1920 program, based on action and not theory, anti-ideological, devoid of any milleniary size and
claim to be formed an answer or solution to this last feature is one of many differences between
Italian fascism and Nazism.For Eugene Webber fascism reprezents a product of the decay of
liberal democracy.

Since 1922, when he had for the first time the power over the Italian government in Rome,
until 1927, Benito Mussolinis dictatorship has gradually strengthened, giving form to the Italian
fascist state. State and party have become monolithic tools in the hands of Mussolini, who was
capo di guverno (head of government), the leader of the state and Duce, party leader.
Legge fascistissime (most fascist laws), made by the fascist leader, lawyer Alfredo Rocco,
transformed the Parliament into a party congress and practically fused legislative and executive
power and made an instrument of the Fascist Grand Council of the Duke, which could single call
him to determine the agenda.
With this success Mussolini began thinking on the future. Until 1930 he started the heavy
process of forced modernization of the country by a strong and effective leadership that
communicates with a new vitality and energy of all the people.

On 25 October 1932, Mussolini held a speech in Milan, with which was placing fascist Italy
among the world leaders: Today, with absolute confidence, I say that the twentieth century will
be the century of fascism, the Italian power century, the century in which Italy will be for the third
time the leader of mankind.

In 1934, Mussolini said that fascism in 1929 became not only an Italian phenomenon, but
worldwide. Order to finish what he started, Mussolini requires Italys transformation in a
natzione militarista e guerriera. In fulfilling this objective, he managed even less than he
succeeded in modernizing Italy.

In its first phases, Mussolini watched at Fascism as a development concern of Western

civilization and watched in disbelief on Germany and especially on the National Socialism
promoted by Hitler, in which he saw a hundred percent racism: against anyone: yesterday against
Christianity today against latinity and tomorrow, who knows, against the whole civilization. But
imperialism and the overstatement of fascism led Mussolini into the arms of the German National
Socialist Party.
2. Fascism in Romania

A)Charles II's authoritarian regime

The reigm of Charles II was a new stage in the evolution of the monarchy. King was a man with a
solid intellectual training, skilful and ambitious. He actually supported cultural institutions, has
shown a constant concern for modernization of Romanian society. In political plan, he followed
the effective takeover of power in the state, seeking replacement regime based on political parties.

Policy of Charles II in view to establishing personal regime (1930-1937):


Phase I 1930-1934:

appointment of some governments as national unity that depend on the king;

impose of camaralieias a powerhouse;
compromised political parties.

Phase II 1934-1938:
Government imposed Tatarescu Gh;
compromising the fundamental institution of democratic regime-Parliament;
prodictatoriale organizations and support actions aiming at undermining the democratic system.


Phase I 1930-1934:

Government-Argetoianu Iorga (April 1931-May 1932)

The press campaign against multi-party system;
encouraging desidenti and divisions;
breach of parliamentary usage;

Phase II 1934-1938:

limiting the activity of opposition parties;

economic consolidation of banking and industrial grouping led by Charles II
The use of the system of government by decree-laws;
creation of right-wing parties: the Romanian front, Christian National Party;
significant support for the Iron Guard.

The 1937 elections were a difficult time for democracy. During the campaign, Iuliu Maniu
assumed leadership of the opposition. Its main objective was the overthrow of the government
Tatarescu. For this purpose, has signed an electoral pact with George Bratianu and Corneliu
Codreanu, leader of the liberal factions.

The election results showed the confuse of Liberal voters that, although it had the leadership of
the government, has not received appropriate percentage - 40% to win a majority in the House.

PNT came in second and in third place were placed Legionnaires, with 15.58% of the vote. Thus,
the extreme right has gained considerably.

In conclusion election result gave the king a large opportunity for achievement or political

On 28 December 1937, the king appointed Octavian Goga, president of the National Christian
Party, to form the new government. Bringing the weaker party in power, Charles II had sought to
buy time to prepare the last regime, actions aimed at personal


Change came quickly. On 10 and 11 February 1938, Charles II replaced the Goga government
with a consultative government headed by Patriarch Miron Cristea, which included several
former prime ministers too and Ion Antonescu, Minister of Defense. Dissolving the institutions of
parliamentary system, Carol has consolidated power in a short time.


introducing a state of siege and censorship (February 11, 1938)

prefects appointed from among senior officers;
Publication of the Constitution (February 20, 1938)
Council appointment as permanent body of the Crown (March 30, 1938)
The decree law dissolution of political parties (30 March 1938)
The decree-law in the state defense order (April 14, 1938);
administrative reform (August 14, 1938), which were created royal lands managed by the
Decree-law that were created guilds of workers (October 12, 1938)
The decree-law which was created "Straja Country" (December 1938);
Establishing the National Renaissance Front (December 16, 1938).


restoring order;
institutionalizing the new regime;
discourage opposition;
providing the legal basis of the system;
approval of the king in matters of state policy of major importance;
liquidation of a fundamental component of the democratic system.
the possibility of taking legal action against opposition especially the legionaries;
subordination and control of administration;
abolition of trade unions and professional organizations to ensure control over workers;
young peoples spiritual love for the monarchy;
ensuring political support for the regime;
attracting staff of the former parties.

Most items were identical to the 1923 Constitution. It has maintained the principle that all state
powers emanate from the nation, and the principle of separation of powers too. Provisions of the
Constitution concerning the powers of the king put him in a superior position to those granted by
the Constitution of 1923:

The political system established after February 10, 1938 was an anti-democratic character,
hybrid, in which the King was the dominant figure, intervening effectively in governance. It may
be called monarchy regime authority, or active monarchy. It was not authentic but a dictatorship
regime, in which the king was proclaimed capul statului, decides and ministers execute.

Charles II and Legionnaires

Charles has taken tough measures against the Iron Guard which it considered as its main
enemy. Some provisions of the Constitution in February 1938 were clearly directed against the
Legionaries. Right to vote for the Assembly of Deputies was not granted only to persons over 30
years , priests were forbidden to put their spiritual authority in the service of political propaganda,
including in places of worship. People who were not authorized by law are prohibited from
taking or oath. Charles II gave instructions to Armand Calinescu, interior minister, and later
prime minister, by all means to destroy the Legion. Guard members or sympathizers were arrested
in large numbers and interned in concentration camps. Force measures that Charles II took against
the Iron Guard in 1938 and then started initially from the fact that one perceived as an agenture
of Germany. The government began massive arrests of members of the guard shortly after
Germany annexed Austria, and the murder of Codreanu and thirteen Legionnaires still took place
immediately after the visit of Charles in Germany (November 1938). During this visit, Hitler
asked him to urge the release of the Legionaries and form a cabinet led by Corneliu Codreanu.
The Kings campaign destroyed the Guard as political movement. It remained only one nucleus,
which operate as a clandestine organization, engaged in acts of sabotage and asasinate. On
September 21, 1939 at the orders of Horia Sima, the new leader of the Iron Guard, a group of
legionaries assassinated Armand Calinescu. The extremely serious international situation at the
end of 1939 led Charles II to initiate a movement for national reconciliation in order to defend
the nation against external threats increasing. But only Legionnaire Movement showed itself
receptive to these callings. Recocilierea with the Legionary Movement marked a shift towards
dictatorship and totalitarianism of the entire system. But this maneuver could not ensure the
sustainability of the regime collapsed in the early days of September 1940.

Territorial losses in summer 1940

In the summer of 1940, Romania has suffered serious territorial losses, and thus was put in
front of the option to die or to surrender territories.
On 26 June 1940, Vyacheslav Molotov, Soviet foreign minister, summoned to Kremlin the
Romanian diplomat Davidescu Gheorghe and asked an ultimatum to surrender Bessarabia and
Northern Bukovina. Romanian government attempt to negotiate failed. A new Soviet ultimatum
given on the night of 27 to 28 June 1940, announced plans for Soviet troops to enter the second
day in Bessarabia. Romania was forced to evacuate the territory within 4 days. In these
circumstances, the Crown Council in Bucharest decided to give up hope of saving the Romanian
state. In addition, all European countries found - Germany, Italy, Yugoslavia and Greece - have
urged restraint and even the acceptance of Soviet demands. A withdrawal followed which
demoralized and humiliated the Romanians. In fact, many could not understand what happened in
reality. As the Soviet Union gave Romania: Bessarabia, Northern Bukovina and the Herta region.
The last two areas far exceeded the 1939 Soviet-German understanding, which led to the first
moment of crisis in German-Soviet relations following the cession of Bessarabia after 1939.
Because of the cession of Bessarabia, among political circles in Bucharest was felt the need for
reorientation in foreign policy. On 1 July 1940, Romania has dropped the Anglo-French
guarantees, and the next day Charles II asked Hitler to send a German military mission. It has also
formed a new government, led by engineer Gigurtu, near the German economic and political
circles. However, in mid-July 1940, Berlin has urged Romania on an imperative tone, to solve its
territorial problems with Hungary and Bulgaria. Event with the most serious implications in the
summer of 1940 was yielding northwestern Transylvania to Hungary.
Romania was for a negotiated solution to the problem, proposing an exchange of territories
instead of the population, sustained by the intensity of Hungary. Germany and Italy have proposed
an arbitration, being interested in strengthening their control in south-eastern Europe. In fact, the
Vienna arbitration dictated by Germany and Italy forced Romania in favor of Hungary . Under
great pressure, the Crown Council of the night of August 28 to 29 and those 29 to 30 August 1940
accepted the idea of arbitration and subsequent disposal of north-western Transylvania, in
exchange of Germany and Italys promise to guarantee the integrity of the Romanian state now
much reduced.
Therefore, Romania has lost the north-western Transylvania, with an area of 43,492 km and a
population of 2,667,000 inhabitants. In relations with Bulgaria, after talks in Craiova, Romania
ceded southern Dobrudja, meaning Kaliakra and Durostor counties. Romanian-Bulgarian border
is back on the alignment of 1913 and also proceeded to an exchange of population. In total,
Romania lost in the summer of 1940 about 100,000 km with a population of 6.8 million
inhabitants. Abandoning the national territory without a fight was considered a total solution for
proper ignominy political class, especially for the monarchy. In these circumstances, Charles II
was forced to abdicate.

a) Antonescus regime:

Antonescus regime period ,1940-1944, was one of the most dramatic phases of
Romania's contemporary.Faced with a serious international isolation, caused by the
collapse of our system of alliances, so painstakingly created and persistence in the
interwar period, following the breakup of Czechoslovakia and the outbreak of the Second
World War, the Romanian nation would be thrown, also a serious internal political crisis in
the summer of 1940.
Its cause endorsed by most researchers, were the territorial breaks imposed by the two
totalitarian powers, the USSR and Germany. Under these conditions, on 5 September,
subject to strong pressures, both internally and externally, King Charles II, still in 1938
instated a personal dictatorship in the country, suspended the constitution, dissolved the
legislative bodies and passed most of the royal prerogatives in the hands of General Ion
Antonescu, whom he appointed, by royal decree, President of the Council of Ministers,
having full powers.
A day later, Charles II was forced to abdicate and leave the country, entrusting his throne
to his son Mihai. Thus, in an atmosphere of deep dissatisfaction and revolt, triggered by
the acceptance, without any resistance of crippled borders, the Antonescu regime has
established in the country, a particulary political regime different from the parliamentary
regimes, but also by totaltari regimes, the type of fascist or communist dictatorships.
The character of the new regime introduced in September 1940 led the country into one
of the most difficult periods, which for more than three years in conditions of war, had
been paid attention to historical research, both before and especially after 1989.
Approaches of all kinds, from "the Antonescu dictatorship" or "personal dictatorship" to
"fascist dictatorship", "military dictatorship" or "military-fascist dictatorship" was the focus
of historiography, in different periods of the history of Romania after August 23 1944. The
study of a large part of the history books devoted to the period 1940-1944, with its epoch-
making event - the Second World War, allowed us the finding that the political regime in
Romania in the period, has specific features, which it undeniably post pattern of
totalitarian regimes, which have been operating in the absolutist era.

Antonescu was the person that, in those serious moments for the army and country,
mastered cold-blooded the situation and assured the support of liberal and peasant
parties (which, although officially banned, they kept an important influence in society),
and so won the sympathies of Germany and was also Britain's acquiescence. Known in
Britain as the Anglo-French supporter, Antonescu guaranteed the conditions of those
times, maintaining a degree of influence allies in Bucharest. Taking political power,
General Antonescu renewed on 7 September 1940, the request made by Charles II
before his abdication, to strengthen cooperation between German and Romanian armies.
By the presence of German troops in Romania, Antonescu sought to achieve certainty in
respect of territorial guarantees given by Germany after the Vienna Dictate, providing the
army with modern weapons and combat equipment, and training them on the basis of the
doctrine of the Wehrmacht. Simultaneously, the Bucharest regime considered German
military presence as a counterweight to a possible Soviet aggression in the west of the
German territorial guarantees were not enough yet for Romania. The hope of recovery of
the unitary state, the Soviet pressures and harassment from Hungary, determined it to
rush the joining to the Tripartite Pact, ready to be signed between Germany, Italy and
Japan. A note is necessary: adherence to the pact was made by following an invitation
from Germany, which occurred in mid-October 1940, on the other hand, in September,
Antonescu paid a visit to Italy, probing possibilities trends support the Axis in Russia to
establish Soviet control over the mouth of the Danube and to revise the Vienna Dictate.
Antonescu signed the Tripartite Pact membership on 23 November 1941. On this
occasion it obtained assurances from Hitler: that German army will defend Romania in
the event of Soviet aggression, that Germany will support Romania in order to rebuild the
old borders, that Germany will support the reorganization of the army and the Romanian
economy. Ion Antonescu's visit to Berlin and the signing of the accession to the Tripartite
Pact (November 23) marked the completion of the remodeling of our state's opposition to
an external context changed radically compared to the period 1919-1939. Politico-military
survival of the Romanian state at the time was guaranteed even by the Axis powers,
which directly and indirectly were patronizing its dismantling. Diplomacy in Bucharest
was a second victory, the acquisition of military assistance in the event of Soviet
aggression. A third victory of Germany's commitment is that the weapons will prohibit any
invasion operation of Hungary direction. At the same time, Romania will maintain the
relations with Britain and the U.S., and greatly strengthen the regime of General
Antonescu inside. However, taking into account that the Axis had exceptional power in
Europe, and that Russia and Hungary in their expansionist attitude that vanished as a
force for mainland France, that England could not help in any way the countries of
southeastern Europe, results politico-diplomatic November 1940 appear to us in another
light. Otherwise, more than that could not get , than the survival of the nation state, with a
fairly high degree of autonomy. Without the signature of the Tripartite Pact Antonescu,
maybe legionary rebellion would have their successes, and who knows, would be
favored as a pretext, a Soviet military intervention in Moldova and the Danube.
Supported by the Romanian army, by the state administrative structures, by the main
internal political forces by the Chancellor of the Reich and Wehrmacht, Antonescu was
able to eliminate the Legionnaires on the country's political scene. It is the only case in
Nazi-dominated Europe, the harsh repression of a movement of their satellites. A victory
of the spirit of order and the subtlety of the Romanian diplomacy, which we should assign
to the team of marshal collaborators. So in November 1940 the balance can be built in
this perspective: the creation of external premises of two dangerous opponents that
counter Romania: Hungary and Soviet Russia and the elimination of the main factor of
domestic instability - Legion.
Along with the arrangements established with Germany and the strengthen of
internal political situation, General Antonescu has accelerated measures to restructure
the army. In this respect he advised Hitler on 14 January 1941, that in April the Romanian
army will be reorganized, "ready for mobilization and ready to cope with all situations that
might arise."
It can be concluded that the Antonescu regime, regime oriented close to Nazi Germany,
was established in the summer - autumn of 1940 in an international context and was in a
deep internal crisis, burdened by the resounding military success of the Third Reich in
the first months of the war unleashed against Poland and Western European
democracies and international discontent whole Romanian society, the inability of
governments to personal dictatorship of Carol II and before disposals revisionist territorial
claims in the summer of 1940 inside.
The events on the European front of World War II in the summer of 1941, were
approaching more and more the military operations to the borders of Romania, the
country's entry into the war becoming a major topic of communication power - opposition.
It became more insistent, the Romanian Army's imminent engagement in the conflict,
leaving only the issue in question when and to whom the country will be committed. On
this subject opinions were divided. The majority of Romanian society was aware that the
goal of national reunification can be achieved only by force, persuasion and the political
power exercised, but the main opposition forces.

After defeat at Stalingrad, the Romanian political forces, both power and opposition
parties have understood that Germany would lose the war and that, therefore, should be
increased efforts to rid Germany and national salvation.
Among the consequences of Stalingrad, the situation was worsening at the heart of
relations between Germany and Romania. Manifested in all areas, especially in the
military and economic tensions in 1943 reached levels of alarm.
We would expect that under these conditions, the marshal to come to the ramp with a
new orientation to the German ally, amid the country's catastrophic situation as a present
Mihai Antonescu, to observe a possible shift to the allied powers. Unfortunately, at least
at this time, Antonescu reaffirms its determination to go further to end the war with the
Axis: "Either the German defeat, or perish with it" was the motto of the Chief of the State.
Positive was that understanding the seriousness of continuing war in the East, Antonescu
decided to act simultaneously on the path of diplomatic negotiations, trying to prevent
the collapse of Romania with crushing the Nazi war machine.
All materials investigated by us reveal the truth beyond any doubt that disengagement
from the Axis of Romania was the result of close cooperation and communication
between state power and the opposition, particularly the Democratic one.
In this context, the communication power - the opposition has intensified over the next
period, and following the consensus achieved by a national political climate favorable to
fulfill such a national goal.
In the new conjuncture, both Ion and Mihai Antonescu (power) and Iuliu Maniu and Dinu
George Bratianu closest collaborators (the opposition) have failed to overcome
differences of views on domestic policy and understand that the game Romania was
made very existence.
As regarding the democratic opposition, that was mostly in the attention of government,
its leaders being often contacted. Maniu's conclusion following discussions with the
deputy prime minister was that the Government itself no longer believed in the victory of
the Axis and that we are on the verge of total mobilization, as Berlin does not waive the
Romanian oil and other reserves.
In addition, he understood that the Romanian government by Mihai Antonescu, the
Marshal's tacit consent, passed since 1943 when the prospects pan leaving the country
in the war led the Axis preparing her presence at the Paris Conference.
Weighted to some extent by other persons responsible for management of the
National Peasant Party - Ion Mihalache, in its anti-german actions Maniu accepts in
principle that "the Antonescu regime corresponds to a national need all the time that the
German force will be exerted in this part of Europe and that it is preferable to any other
government that could be established by the Germans, "outlined in a report by the SSI in
The events of summer 1943, definitely unfavorable for theAxis: Anglo-American landings
in Italy, followed by the overthrow of Mussolini (25 July 1943), especially the third failure
of the summer offensive Wehrmacht on the Eastern Front (Battle of Kursk - July 5 to
August 23, 1943 resulting in permanent loss of strategic initiative by the German army)
were determined from both the power and the opposition, the undertaking of new
approaches in order to intensify contacts with their Western allies. Ion Antonescu
Encourages the resumption of diplomatic initiatives of Mihai Antonescu's near neutral
capitals, and the opposition begins to engage directly in establishing their own channels
to contact commitment of Western powers in negotiations for removing the country from
war. We appreciate such that between power and opposition had been made a deal more
or less overt, to pave the way for government to undertake bold action to remove the
country from the deadlock. To achieve the desired goals, the leaders of democratic
opposition continue to communicate with power, now becoming traditional, by new
letters and memos, while taking action sounding diplomatic allies for removing the
country from the war, under favorable conditions.
Being under Irreconcilable positions in power, left-wing forces have not established at
this stage no direct communication with the Antonescu regime. Center of gravity of this
segment of the Romanian society was still constituted by Communists, which with a
more experienced clandestinity managed to raise around them a mosaic of social and
political positions in big trouble to cast close to Romania after the turn of fate that made
Following the defeat at Stalingrad. Housed in a position of enmity towards total state
power, the communist movement and then all patriotic forces joined the campaigning, as
seen from programmatic documents produced since the previous period, to remove the
country from war and Romania's joining the anti-Hitler coalition, the removal of the
Antonescu regime and the fascist German domination, the establishment of a system
involving all national patriotic forces, the release of the north-western Transylvania
occupation, restore rights and liberties, economic and cultural improvement of the
working people and others.
Unlike the democratic opposition, which had close communication with the Antonescu
regime in order to jointly found ways to save the country, showing tolerance and
compromise in the hope that Ion Antonescu and Mihai will be able to get the country out
of war , appealing in particular to support the allied Anglo-American powers, the
Communists and other leftist forces that have rejected any direct communication with
those who were guilty of engaging the country in war, their forms of address were not
aimed more radical than cooperation, but removing the regime priorities.
In this context, noting that leaders of "historic" - PNT. and P.N.L. - have refused
numerous proposals of communists on the implementation of the United National Front,
Communist Party proposes patriotic parties and organizations forming a national
committee for the country's liberation struggle. " The National Committee is responsible
to mobilize and unite all national forces in the country, irrespective of party and religion in
the anti-Hitler patriotic united front of people. "
If by the spring of 1944 power-opposition communication recorded significant levels,
resulting in major theme common approach to saving the country inf front of the grave
dangers threatened by the defeats suffered by German and Romanian troops on the
Eastern Front and the Red Army near national borders, once they reach the failure line
with Prut and talks with Western allies engaged in a power-opposition consensus for
removing the country from the war by the signing and joining the United Nations
Coalition, now almost all channels of opposition- Power get closed.
On August 23, 1944, to avoid a war in Romania, King Mihai has launched the coup
against Antonescu passing allies. King Mihai has shortened World War II with a few
months and saved the lives of hundreds of thousands of people. He allowed also to
increase the speed with which the Red Army advanced in Romania and offered at the
same time to the Romanian Army the opportunity to release the country from German
occupation. In the absence of a truce signed, Soviet troops continued to treat the
Romans as enemies. The truce was signed three weeks later, on September 12, 1944,
in terms dictated by Moscow. Coup led virtually unconditional surrender to the Allies.
The power was enthroned to a new coalition government formed the National
Democratic Bloc, which were part of the Peasants, liberals, social democrats and
23 August 1944 meant for Romania a misfortune: the entrance of the country into the
Soviet sphere of influence, with consequences known.
What few people know is that on 23 August 1944 King Mihai knowingly lied. In the In the
"Proclamation to the country" broadcasted on the evening of that day, sovereign claimed
that weapons return was the result of negotiations and that Romania has benefited of
acceptable conditions. This is not true.
Instead, in early 1944, Ion Antonescu had begun exploratory and diplomatic allies
both near Western, and the enemy number one, USSR. Mihai Antonescu treated
Romania's exit from the war in Ankara, Berne, Madrid and Lisbon. Also, the Romanian
Ambassador in Sweden, Frederic Nanu, the envoy of Ion Antonescu, held direct talks
with Alexandra Kollontay Soviet counterpart in Stockholm. Two other diplomats, Prince
Barbu Stirbeiand Constantin Visoianu negociated at Cairo with Western allies, being sent
by Iuliu Maniu, leader of the country with the knowledge and consent.
King Mihai although he knew all this, prefered to engage unilaterally Romania in a truce-
which was in effect a surrender. He did not treat anything. Moreover, the armistice was
signed only on 12 September 1944, and the king refused to ride the Romanian army in
the path delay of the Bolsheviks on the actual provisions of the act, a gesture that led to
the fall in Soviet captivity, between 23 August and September 12, an estimated 130,000
Roman soldiers, then deported to Siberia.
After the war, Stalin gave the king the highest democracy King Soviet "Pobeda Order",
but I do not think as a sign of gratitude, but perhaps ironically, in mockery. Also as a
"reward" left him on the throne until the last minute before forcing his abdication, to
admire the new path that allowed the country "engaged" with his help.
C) Legionnaire Movement
Legionary Movement is a national Romanian and anti-communist movement, born in
interwar Romania. The movement started in Iasi and it is promoted among Romanian
students dissatisfied that the overwhelming majority abituriens are Jews, and they have a
novel right to education.
Current Romanian national ideas become more acute after the First World War and the
creation of Greater Romania (1918). Bolshevik ideas were actively promoted by both
Jews (Jews today) in the former tsarist Bessarabia Romania recently re-bound as well as
other cities of Romania, where Jews are already organized, step by step starting with
sec. XIX.
Legionnaire movement ideology may well be told by a national statement for its time:
"The Romania of Romanians, only of the Romanians and only all Romanians" (N. Iorga).
Promoters were several young legionary movement led by Corneliu Codreanu, the
movement which began at the bottom (from a few people) to the national level which
shows that there was broad support of the masses.
Legion of the Archangel Michael
Appearing in Iasi in 1927, the Legion was meant to be the opposite of '20s leftist
Romania. Legionnaire movement and founder of "vacarasteni" as they were called, I
remember: CZCodreanu, I. Garneata, C. Georgescu, T. Smith and I. Mota.
Being the most representative movement of the right extreme in the interwar period it
bore other names such as the Iron Guard and All the Country Party.
In opposition along its entire existence, the Iron Guard Movement was in power for a
relatively short period, between September 1940 and January 1941 and even then under
the supervision of General Ion Antonescu.
Legionary Doctrine
Legion leader or captain, as it was called Corneliu Codreanu, was fighting fiercely
against doctrinal or programmatic area "land destroyed for lack of people, not lack of
programs." Programmes were considered to be somewhat superficial and made
exclusively to deceive "stupid." They were considered tools of political beliefs against
which allegedly emanated from the heart and soul.
Legionnaires proposed themselves a fundamental change, even revolutionary Romanian
society. They were unhappy with the "poor" promoting traditionalism. The Romanian
extremism came during the entire movement.
Legionary Movement was meant to be "a great shock the moral consciousness, will be
able to build a new character education, to be as ready to resist corruption, fraud and
cunning political classes. Legionnaires were encouraging heroism, abnegation and
disregard material. It sought "the man again." It had to be young, because "only the
young and unimpaired could understand this new way of being."
This approach was a youth argument coming from the Legionaries who were accused of
terrorism by some political groups and a large part of the press.
One of exhortation guiding the Legionnaires action was "actually not-Make it, do not talk!"

Such camps have been created through which the work deserved a better image in the
eyes of the public.

Legionnaires and people

The promoting of the Primacy of community by legionnaires in Romania was successful
because the state, nation and the church played an important role among individuals.
The three themes were some "central axis" of the Legion programs. Of all the detached
"faith in God" that was prevalent in almost all writings Legion nature.
After a time they have also appeared some doctrinal components belonging to extreme
right: anti, anti-democratic, anti-Semitism and xenophobia. With their help was wanted
the cohesion of the group by the members and tilt united action and self-sacrifice if
necessary. In time the political behavior got away from the doctrine, so they started to
engage in political assassination and murder, or unjustifiable things.
Arrived in government by the help of General Ion Antonescu, they staged a rebellion with
which they hoped to overtake the sole power in the state. But this action was the
decline because the army was repressed and thus it came to arrest further dissolution
and Legionnaire movement execution of some members.
Dissolution occurred on 11 June 1941.
Legionnaires arrive so to be outlawed. Under these conditions the movement changed
its name to the Group as a sign Corneliu Codreanu election with prison bars.
Finally aggressiveness and political murder have made most people hate the Guard.

The portrait of Corneliu Codreanu

CZC was born on 13 September 1899 in Iasi in a modest house being the first of seven
children of John and Eliza.
Biographies legionnaires tried as much as they could to hide the fact that their leader
would be born on the 13th, a figure regarded by many as an unfortunate.
Only Mihai Eminescu origins were more controversial than those of CZCodreanu.
Eminovici was born first and the second Zelinski.
So it was considered allogeneic-Polish, German, Hungarian or a Jew and because he
wanted his exclusion being considered a stain on our nation.
In October 1919 Codreanu joins the Faculty of Law University of Iasi.
Fizical characterization: He had prominent cheeks, short head, small eyes and bask.
Physical characterization: conceited, brutal enough inferiors and great will to possess
Apparently the environment from which Codreanu came was a morally and spiritually
flawed. He never did hide his sympathy for King Ferdinand.
As a Christian-nationalist MP has campaigned for religious instruction in schools for the
emancipation of the church and for the protection of peasant property. He knew to create
and maintain certain collective moods.
The leader is arrested and executed along with 13 other camarades on 30 November
1938. Even today nobody knows for sure where the earthly of Corneliu Codreanu

Curiosity about legionnaires ...

1 Then-Prime Minister Armand Calinescu was traveling in an armored Cadillac limousine

2 The mother of the Legion leader was Jewish

3 CZCodreanu was for a short period of time German language teacher at the
gymnasium of Husi
4 The Guard Captain liked the game thieves and poterasii (thieves and vardistii today)
5 I.G.Duca is assassinated on the platform of a railway station
6 On July 16, 1936 Mihai Stelescu , the Roman Crusade leader, is assassinated and his
body found in: in a first version of 38 rounds, 160 in a second and more than 200 in a
7 Over the bodies of Legionnaire leader and 13 others of his comrades to shed more
Carboys with sulfuric acid after which sits above the ground and pour a thick layer of
8 To this day nobody knows exactly where are relics of former Legionary leader
Through a series of Romanian governmental actions, Iron Guard was massacred head
up to 90% by the year 1939. Very Corneliu Codreanu was arrested and subsequently
murdered in 1938. Legionary Movement leadership was taken in dubious circumstances,
by Horia Sima. Legion, already beheaded, has come to remove himself from the
government of Romania's King Carol II (1940) facilitating the establishment of
Antonescu's government which took the name Legion. Same Antonescu decides at
some point to annihilate the leadership activities and Legion and succeeds in January
1) The Holocaust in Romania
The Holocaust was the systematic persecution backed by the state and annihilation of
the European Jews by Nazi Germany and by its allies and collaborators in the
perioad1933-1945. Not only Jews were victimized during this period. Persecution and
mass arrests have taken place against other ethnic groups as well, such as Sinti and
Rromes, people with mental disabilities, political opponents, homosexuals and others. A
significant proportion of Romania's Jewish community was destroyed during the second
World War. Systematic deportation and murder were applied on Jews in Bessarabia,
Bukovina and Dorohoi county. Transnistria, the part of occupied Ukraine under Romanian
administration, was used as a huge space for the murder of Jews. Romanian authorities
carried the main responsability, both for planning and implementing the Holocaust. This
includes the systematic deportation and extermination of the majority of Jews in
Bessarabia and Bukovina, as well as some Hebrew in other areas of Romania to
Transnistria, mass killings of Romanian Jews and in the local Transnistria, the massive
execution of Jews during the Iasi pogram, discrimination and systematic degradation
applied to Romanian Jews during the Antonescu administration, including the
expropriation of property, dismissal from jobs, forced displacement of rural areas and
concentration and the county capitals and camps and massive use of Jewish men as
forced laborers under the same administration. The Jews were degraded simply because
they were Hebrew, they lost the protection of state and became its victims. Part of the
Rroman population in Romania was also subjected to deportation and death in
* Roots of Romanian Antisemitism

Jewish Community of Great Romania was diverse and numerous, with roots in the
histories and civilizations of the Old Kingdom, Habsburg Austria, prewar Hungary and
Tsarist Empire. According to the 1930 census,in the country were at that time 756,930
Hebrews, or 4.2% of the total population and in the next decade this number has
undoubtedly increased. Jews constituted 13.6% of urban population, to 3.632.000
approximate population and only 1.6% of the rural population, approximated to
14,421,000 inhabitants. Over two thirds of Romania's Jews lived in towns and cities and
less than a third in rural areas
Although sharing many common interests and concerns in the new state, the Jewish
population was made up of distinct communities, marked by the political history of the
region they lived in, due to differences in living, degree of assimilation of Romanian
culture and language, degree and visibility of their strict observance of jewish tradition
and religious practice and other factors.
Roots of Romanian anti-Semitism are intertwined with the origins of modern
Romania.The Antisemithism manifested in Romania between the two world wars has
grown directly from seeds planted at major moments, of turning in the country's
development, from the mid 19th century. Strong antisemitic currents were present in
various forms and
varying intensity in the political, cultural and spiritual Romanian society in most of the
century that preceded the rise of Christian National Party to power in 1937, installation of
the Royal Dictatorship in 1938 and of the Royal National Legionary State led by Ion
Antonescu and the Iron Guard in 1940 - in other words, the century that culminated in
anti-Semitic Holocaust. The antisemite policy of the Goga government, the Royal
Dictatorship and the National Legionary State has prepared the ground for more serious
developments that were to follow under the Antonescu regime during the war. Antonescu
wanted to eliminate the Jews of Romania through Romanization (deprivation of property
and livelihoods), deportation and, in the end, murder. This change was sustained - or at
least accepted by the majority of the countrys political, cultural and religious elite. Even
this change in policy was part of a fundamental continuity of the ideas that were part of
the whole political, intellectual and spiritual discourse that characterized period that
lasted from the 19th century struggle for creation of an independent Romanian state till
the establishment of Greater Romania, which Antonescu and his cohorts attempted to
One of the problems that caused a significant manifestation of antisemitism from the mid
19th century until the mid 20th century and was the legal status of Jews in the new
Romanian state. The leaders of the revolutions of 1848 in Wallachia and Moldavia had
Jewish emancipation and equality policy. But after
revolts were crushed and the status of the principalities became the subject of diplomatic
negotiations between the European powers, improving the status of Jews in the
principalities became a matter of international interest.
Thus, in the first decades of the development of modern Romania, there was a strong
anti-Semitic current in the political and intellectual life of the country, which was not on
the marginal segments of society, but it was right in its center. Moreover, the language
used to discuss Hebrew was extreme, even in those early years. It was the language of
separation, dehumanization and crime. In fact, this extreme antisemitic language echoed
over the next decades up to, and even after, the Holocaust.
While the Romanian political and intellectual elites were employed to produce anti-
Semitic sentiments and to utter an anti-Semitic rhetoric decades in a row, it is not
surprising that the two main parties of the Greater Romania (Romania after WWI),
National Liberal Party and National Peasants Party were, at the best, indifferent to the
the country's Jewish minority. Although neither party had no open antisemite position
,they did nothing to ensure equal rights, equal status and safety of Jews. Granting mass
citizenship to Jews, which was imposed on Romania, has infuriated many of the leaders
of both parties, and that anger often revealed in parliamentary discourse and in the
media. Some leaders of the Liberal National Party and National Peasant Party were
determined to promote anti-Semitic policies whenever possible, especially in the
economic sphere and education. While these parties were in power, Jews received little
effective protection and the Jewish community was always on the defensive, fighting to
not lose rights that they recently obtained. When Jews in Romania appealed for help
from Jewish communities and organizations abroad or foreign governments, this only
strengthened the position of those who portrayed them as anti-Romanian.
In 1930, the National Christian Party (NCP) - and, before 1935, Goga's National Agrarian
Party - was the principal Romanian party that was sustained by the German National
Socialist Party, despite the greater ideological affinity of the Iron Guard to Nazism .
Although PNC's time in power was short, anti-Semitic policy exercised considerable
influence over government policies that have followed. A significant number of PNC
partisans served in the governments of the royal dictatorship and reappeared in the civil
biocratia of the Ion Antonescu dictatorship during the war. they sought to guarantee a
"national character" to the press and all cultural activities. Jews were to impose a
numerus clausus.
PNC and its predecessors wanted to expel the Hebrew if they or their ancestors entered
the country "by fraud" or "after signing the peace treaty," and those who remained were
to be excluded from all public functions and services.
Governing through decree-laws, without parliamentary sanction, the PNC and directed its
first administrative measures against the Jewish minority. Significantly, in accordance
with PNC platform in 1935, the Government issued Decree Law 169 of 22 January 1938,
calling for the review of the status of Jewish citizens. The law, in fact , took back the
citizenship offered to Jews after the beginning of WWI. It required that within 40 days
from the publication of lists of citizenship, all Jews should submit papers and documents
confirming citizenship specified for "verification." Jews who did not comply or whose
documents were considered deficient would be declared "foreigners." Besides the loss of
political rights, for many this has meant, in addition, loss of employment and professional
rights and possible deportation at the discretion of the government.
C.Z. Codreanu founded the Legion of Archangel Michael in 1923 and its militant branch,
the Iron Guard, in 1930. Antisemitism was a central element of the Iron Guard ideology.
All of the traditional themes were absorbed by the Legion: citizenship, over-population of
the Hebrew in Romanian cities, exploitation of peasants by alcohol, tobacco and other
vices, control of media, denationalization of the Romanian culture, the stay in the direct
service of Romania's enemies and representation of foreign interests. Guardist
Antisemitism contained new elements, however. It was not directed only against Jews
but also against the jewed Romanians - especially politicians who had been corrupted
by Hebrews and permited them to take over Romania. It promoted dictatorship as an
organizational principle and violence as a mean to combat the Jewish threat The
Hebrew State "- which was organized around the Talmud and the Kehillah, and, more
recently, in the form of Bolshevism and Communism. In addition, praise and spiritual
warfare based morality mystical images of the Romanian Orthodox Church.
Since 1923, the Legion began identifying "traitors," with the intent to kill them. In the next
18 years, the Legion was responsible for incidents of street violence, directed especially
against Jews, the assassination of two prime ministers (Ion Duca in 1933 and Armand
Calinescu 1939), killing some government ministers and other local and national
personalities, both in the political sphere as well as in the cultural one. The Iron Guard
violence culminated on November 26-27 ,1940 with the killing of 64 leading personalities
and defenders of the interwar political order (including a former prime minister) in Jilava
prison, in addition to killing six police prefects;the brutal murder of Nicolae Iorga, another
former prime minister, and Virgil Madgearu, former Minister of National Peasant Party,
and the pogrom in Bucharest, with its 121 Jewish victims.

* Romanian-German relations before and during the Holocaust

The beginnings of approchement between Germany and Romania date from 1936.
German revisionist policy, becoming more aggressive, was interested not only in a
reorientation of Romanian foreign policy, but also in a change in its internal affairs. That
is why Germany sustained, ideologically and financially, the radical right and antisemitic
groups, which helped to undermine the democratic order from within Romania.
The fact that anti-Semitism became an official state doctrine in Germany - one of the
major European powers - has encouraged anti-Semitism in other
parts as well, including Romania. This increase in anti-Semitism influenced by Germany,
which led to the intensification of Romanian antisemitism, occurred even before German
efforts to draw Romania away from its former allies began to take effect.
When Romania joined the Axis Powers on 23 November 1940, Ion Antonescu showed an
untroubled attachment to "the German option." The vision of Antonescu regime was that
Romania will be able to regain lost territories and to participate in the new international
order , planned by the Tripartite Pact. The subsequent arrival in Romania of SS-
Hauptsturmfhrer Gustav Richter at the end of April 1941, was to have serious
implications for the fate of Romanian Jews. Richter, special envoy of the RSHA
(Reichssicherheitshauptamt), was an "expert" on "Jewish issues." On May 16, 1941,
Richter reported to Ambassador von Killinger that Romanian authorities have permission
to engage in the process of Romanization, overseeing Jewish Center and the future
On 7 August 1941, Mihai Antonescu asked Hittler to send Gustav Richter back to
Bucharest, who returned to Berlin in July. Antonescu praised Richter's work, saying he
hopes to work with him again, "because the jewish problem requires an international
solution, radical and final, especially by using the German experience in this field." At
Richter's advice and as a result of the pressure from the German Embassy, the
Romanian authorities have already founded the Jewish Central Romania, banned all
Zionist activity, have organized a census of" persons of Hebrew blood "and began
preparations for the deportation of Jews from Romania in the death camp Belzec, in
southeastern Poland. Moreover, large-scale massacres against the Jews and
Antonescu's tenacity in implementing the Final Solution in the territories of issued, and
later in Transnistria atrasesera admiration of the Nazis and especially Hitler.n June 1942,
under the impact of German victories in the USSR and thus advance Romanian Army
the Caucasus and its crossing of the Don, Antonescu agreed to the "Final Solution of the
Jews in Romania, which involved their deportation to German-controlled areas. During
July / October 1942, plans were developed for the deportation of Romanian Jews to
extermination camps in the General Government (Poland located in
German occupation). Gustav Richter and Lecca, the Romanian Government
Commissioner for Jewish Affairs, have developed detailed plans as to the deportation of
250,000 Romanian Hebrew in the Belzec camp in Poland for extermination, enumerating
the principal elements of the process:
instructions for implementation, including logistics and operational planning, measures of
concealment and deceit in order to allay the fears of the Jewish population, settlement of
legal issues between Romania and Germany and use the local Judenrat. According to
the Richter plan, the deportees would lose their Romanian citizenship upon crossing the
border, and those "unable" to work would be subjected to "special treatment." According
to directives issued by the RSHA, Richter received a written commitment from Mihai
Antonescu, expressing his consent to deportation. However, the deportation of Jews from
Romania has not happened. Ambassador von Killinger, accompanied by Richter, Mihai
Antonescu visited on November 26, 1942, to demand an explanation and Romanian
Foreign Minister replied that Marshal Antonescu had "decided only to have the possibility
of an deportation from Transylvania, but implementation was delayed. "After Stalingrad,
the Romanian government officially informed Berlin that" the only solution to the Jewish
problem in Romania is emigration. "Antonescu did not yield to the Nazis despite intense
pressure - initially through Ambassador German and later in April 1943 meetings with
Hitler and Ribbentrop - to fulfill his commitment to deporting Jews from Romania, thus
sparing the Jews from the Old Kingdom and southern Transylvania from the Nazis and
the Final Solution.

* Jews of Bukovina and Bessarabia

One of the dominant myths in Romanian historiography about the period 28 June to 3
July 1940, was that the Jews of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina behaved with a lack
of loyalty to the Romanian troops and civil administration in retreat. This belief, though
false, was used to justify further action against Romanian Jews.
Many civil military records and documents indicate that indeed some Hebrew from
Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina participated in anti-Romanian/pro-Soviet activities.
And some historians argue that the large number of such incriminating documents reflect
a historical reality: that the Jews of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina were anti-
A critical examination of the documents, however, shows something else. Firstly, many of
the so-called incriminating documents contained generic evaluations and accusations of
collective entities such as "Jews from Bukovina," "Jews from Chisinau," the Jewish
population of Balti "and" Hebrew and communists in Romania. " Secondly, given the
dramatic circumstances in which these documents were written, countless cases have
been rumours and exaggerations, since many of the retreating army and civilian
population saw "communists," "Hebrew" and "communists Hebrew" everywhere. These
distortions have been used to disguise the poor organization of the withdrawal. If Jews
had been disloyal to Romania,they would not have followed Romanian troops, as did
many of them. Fear of Soviet occupation was as high amongRomanians and Hebrews
alike, but Hebrews have been prevented from joining the evacuation columns by
Romanian authorities.
However, Romanian authorities have promoted the myth of collective Jewish guilt, which
led to a series of attacks against Jews during the withdrawal from Bessarabia and
Northern Bukovina. These attacks took place both in the territories ceded to the
provinces as Moldova and the Old Kingdom. There were no orders from the Romanian
General Staff or other military commanders to assault or murder of Jews. The situation
began to resolve rather bottom-up, from the small units and individuals. They were
usually the expression of anti-Semitic feelings, anger at the humiliation endured during
removal or
search for a scapegoat. But the brutality did not have a specific reason. There were
outbursts of rage against ordinary citizens Hebrew along with the retreating Romanian
troops and civilian authorities.
There is no evidence that the Hebrew officers abandoned their units during the
withdrawal from Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina and the percentage of Hebrew
soldiers who deserted during the retreat was not higher than the Romanians. However,
evidence shows that soldiers in the Romanian army beat and killed many Romanian
Hebrew, not even Hebrew soldiers were spared. Moreover, until mid-July 1940, soldiers
and civilians have physically brutalized Jews traveling by train in Moldova. Violence area
was so large that the government sent armed soldiers to patrol trains and stations and to
arrest stray soldiers. The Romanian militars also looted and destroyed Jewish property.
But the worst anti-Jewish actions of the Romanian army were the Dorohoi killings, which
had a significant Jewish population, and Galati.
Attacks against Jews in Dorohoi began on 1 July 1940, in Dorohoi cemetery, where
Romanian soldiers have killed ten soldiers who attended the funerals. The carnage
continued with soldiers killing and wounding many Hebrew civilians (the official death
toll was Hebrew, 53 killed) in the entire city. Investigations showed that the perpetrators
have deliberately invented stories about Jews by attacking the Romanian army at
Dorohoi and spread rumors of a Soviet attack panic the troops. But none of the
perpetrators was sent to the martial court. Romanian Army was responsible for an even
greater number of civilian deaths on June 30, 1940, in Galati, a major center escape
during the withdrawal from Bessarabia. More than 10,000 evacuees of various ethnicities
were crowded into the city retreating Romanian army soldiers that just opened fire on a
crowd of civilians, killing about 300citizans, most Hebrew. The exact number of Hebrew
killed in Moldova during the withdrawal from Bessarabia and Bukovina ranges between
136 (in which corpses have been identified 99) and a few hundred.
The surrender of Bessarabia, Northern Bukovina and the Herta region, rushed Romania
to near Germany and the Royal Dictatorship had chosen to receive the Legion into the
government. At the same time, the absurd argument that Jews were responsible for the
surrender became a popular myth between Romanians. These two developments have
accentuated the reactionary and anti-Hebrew character of the Royal Dictatorship
On 4 July 1940 Gigurtu government was established, which immediately began to take
discriminatory measures against Jews, beginning with a law proposed by Charles II on
"the legal status of Jews residing in Romania." That bill divided the Jews
into categories and deprive them of their rights and obligations which before had been
allowed. The obligation of military service, for example, was replaced by an obligation to
pay additional taxes and to provide community work. As Germany was preparing to force
Romania to cede Northern Transylvania to Hungary, the Royal Dictatorship had further
weaken the national solidarity by waging a war against the citizens of Romanian Hebrew.
The collapse of the regime in early September 1940 led to even harsher dictatorship and
dictatorship, to a diminution of the few civil liberties that still existed under the Royal
Dictatorship and a state organized genocide against the Jews. The beginnings of this
genocide can be identified in the events that occurred during the withdrawal from
Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina in the summer of 1940.

* The Holocaust in Romania

National Legionary government came to power on September 14, 1940 with 15 ministers
appointed by the Iron Guard. September 20, 1940, Iron Guard members held the key
positions of prefects in 45 counties. According to Antonescu's leadership Legion had
three goals in what he regarded Hebrew: to get revenge, to instill terror and to obtain
properties. Legionnaires started abusing Hebrew - physically, economically,
professionally immediately after they entered the government.
In autumn 1940, between Antonescu and the Iron Guard broke a power struggle that
culminated in the Iron Guard rebellion and Bucharest pogrom in January 1941. Earlier
that month, Antonescu met with Hitler and had obtained his consent to get rid of the
Legion. Days before the Iron Guard rebellion against Antonescu and the pogrom
Bucharest, which took place simultaneously, have been marked by extremely virulent
anti-Semitic statements of the Legion's propaganda apparatus. During the pogrom,
nearly 2,000 Hebrew were abusively detained and then taken to a torture cell in 14 of the
Legion. In total, 121 Hebrew were killed during the Bucharest pogrom. Besides murder,
the Legionnaires attacked synagogues and Jewish homes were demolished to destroy
1274 reaching commercial and residential buildings.
But Antonescu triumphed, quashing the rebellion of the legionary army. The following
Regim, full of ideological contradictions and considerably different from other fascist
regimes in Europe, remains difficult to classify. Like other fascist governments, dissolved
Parliament, joined the Axis powers, enacted legislation and adopted anti-Semitic and
racist "Final Solution" in some parts of the country. At the same time, Antonescu brutally
crushed the Romanian Iron Guard movement and denounced their terrorist
methods.Neither without the Legionnaires of Antonescus regim did not negate the legacy
of anti-Semitic Iron Guard and has not stopped the onslaught against Jewish or human
Until 31 July 1941, the number of evacuees had reached 40,000 people, thus
"cleansing" of 441 villages and towns.
Jews were forced to wear a distinctive patch beginning in July / August, though
Antonescu repealed the measure on 9 September 1941. Revocation did not apply for the
Jews of Bessarabia, Bukovina, and Transnistria, which has been issued with a special
Physical destruction of Jews from Romania - "clean land" - began with the Iasi pogrom.
Cleaning of land was the Romanian equivalent of the Final Solution and dropping aim
Bessarabia, Bukovina and Moldova Hebrew.
In June 1941, 45,000 Hebrew were leaving in Iasi . Ion Antonescu gave the order to
cleanse Iasi of Hebrew and decreed that any Jew who opened fire on Romanian or
German soldiers had to be removed. Romanian Army and the Special Intelligence
Service (SSI) laid the groundwork for the Iasi pogrom and supplied the pretext for
punishing the city's Jewish population, and German army units stationed in the city
helping the Romanian authorities. Romanian official documents showed the jews from
Iasi as collaborators with "the Soviet enemy," justifying thus the documents of
repressives..Those who participated in the hunt against the Jews launched on the night
of June 28/29 were primarily Iasi police, backed by police and units gendarmerie from
Bessarabia. But there were also soldiers and civilians who took part in murders and
The organization of the Iasi pogrom was based on five elements: spreading rumors that
Jews would be held in the army, providing people with security forces collaboration,
marking Christian homes and, finally, encouraging insurgents to murder, rape and
robbery. During the pogrom, Romanian authorities lost control of events and the city has
become a huge area in which Romanian and German soldiers, gendarmes and
policemen, and Romanian civilians - organized and unorganized were hunting, robbing
and killing Hebrew. German soldiers from Iasi were sent to arrest Hebrew, but they
committed the same kind of atrocities as their Romanian colleagues.
After the massacres, the Jews were forced onto two trains bound for other parts of the
country. Until 150 (many already wounded) were packed into train cars with a capacity of
only 40 people. The death train that left from Iasi for Calarasi, where there were probably
about 5,000 Hebrew, only 1011 have reached their destination alive. (The Romanian
Police counted 1,258 bodies, but hundreds of dead were thrown from the train on the
way.) The death train to Podu Iloaiei had up to 2,700 Hebrew, of which only 700
disembarked alive. In the official account, Romanian authorities reported that 1,900
Hebrew boarded the train and "only" 1,194 died. After the pogrom, the Jewish community
organized a census which determined that 14,850 Hebrew had died. Although SBS has
confirmed the deaths of only 13,266 Hebrew, the recruiting labor service in Iasi Army
reported in August 1942 he failed
o find 13,868 Hebrew.
After the pogrom in Iasi, Marshal Antonescu ordered the extermination of a part of the
Jews from Bessarabia and Bukovina and the deportation of others. He chose the
gendarmerie and the army to carry out this task. Implementation of the order began on
July 9. The Romanian gendarmes were ordered to "cleanse the land" a few days before
21 June 1941 at three sites in Moldavia: Roman, Falticeni and Galati. In Roman the
genereal inspector of the constabulary, General Constantin (Piki) Vasiliu, informed the
policemen that their mission was to exterminate all Jews held in rural areas and to
imprison all those in urban areas.
Romanian army and constabulary subsequently executed thousands of Hebrew in
Czernowitz Bukovina, Herta, Siren, Dorneti, weird, Strojinet, Ropcea, Iordanesti, Patrauti,
Panca, Broscauti, Stanestii Upper Stanestii the Netherlands, New Jadova, Jadova Old
Costesti hline, Budinet, Cherry and Vijnitsa
Rostochi-Vijnitsa, Zonlachie, and Cotmani Rapujinet. They have also been involved in
mass murder of Jews in Bessarabia Hotin, New Spear, Edineti Parlita, Balti, Briceni
Lipcani Falesti, Marculesti Floresti, Kamenca Gura, Gura-Cainari, Lincauti, Cepelauti-
Climauti-Soroca, White City, Comova, Griforiefca, Strojinet and Chisinau. Meanwhile,
mobile killing units of Einsatzgruppe D murdered Jews of Chisinau and Balti.
In late July, the Romanian authorities began to deport tens of thousands of Hebrew to the
area across the river that would soon be called Transnistria. At the end of the month, the
Romanian army units concentrated about 25,000 Hebrew from Northern Bukovina,
Bessarabia Coslov village near the Dniester. On July 24, shortly after the German-
Romanian forces had entered Ukraine, those Hebrew were sent across the river. German
military authorities, however, began to push back the return of Bessarabia Hebrew
In response, the Romanian Fourth Army has trained units and the gendarmerie to send
back all the Jews identified as returning from Ukraine. This conflict between the
Romanian and German army has reached the leaderships of both countries, but the
Germans prevailed. Hebrew Around 32,000 have died during these deportations hurry
and between 8,000 and 20,000 were killed on the Ukrainian side of the Dniester, most
survivors were imprisoned in the camp Vertujeni. As a result, the Romanian War
Headquarters concluded that until the status of the Ukrainian territory would be ceded to
Romania, had to stop deportations.
Therefore, Ion Antonescu ordered the establishment of temporary camps and ghettos in
Bessarabia. In anticipation of the resumption of deportations, the Romanian authorities
have established dozens of concentration camps and ghettos, where Jews were
evacuated in seven larger camps and in the ghetto of Chisinau. By the end of August, in
these ghettos were already about 80,000 Hebrew: Secureni 10.356, 11.762 to Edineti,
2634 at Limbienii Noi, 3072 at Rascani, 3253 at Rautel; to Vertujeni 22,969, 11,000 to
Marculesti; 11,525 in Chisinau 5,000-6,000 in small ghettos in southern Bessarabia.
After these deportations and executions, Ion and Mihai Antonescu made the decision to
deport Jews from southern Bukovina. Transcripts of government meetings from June 25,
1941 and October 6, 1941, are proof of that decision, which resulted the deportation of
21,229 Hebrew in 1941 and 1942. Despite promising Wilhelm Filderman on September
8, 1941, that will help Jews in the Kingdom from de jews outside the Kingdom,
Antonescu nevertheless ordered the deportation of Jews from Dorohoi immediately
afterwards, followed by Jews in the counties of Campulung, Suceava and Radauti,
sending waves shock in the bosom of the Jewish community.
On August 30, Transnistria's status was finally resolved: the province was transferred to
Romanian government, under Hitler's promise to Antonescu, and German authorities left
the army and the Transnistria on 19 September 1941. However, the Germans informed
Romanians that neither Jews in Transnistria, nor those in the camps and ghettos
Bessarabia and Bukovina Bug could not be deported at that time. Consequently, the
German insisted, "They should therefore be concentrated in labor camps and used to
work until after completion of the evacuation to the East will be possible." The agreement
thus confirmed that the ultimate goal was to "cleanse" Bessarabia, Bukovina and
Transnistria from Hebrew.
At the end of August, Antonescu met with the governors of Bessarabia, Bukovina and
Transnistria to discuss future deportations. Antonescu made itself responsible for the
deportations and the General Staff decided that there will be no administrative
formalities, no list of deportees, only "strictly numerical groups." Thus, Jewss documents
were burned crossing over the River. Furthermore, the gendarmerie had received
instructions from the General Staff to execute any Jew who could not keep up with the
convoys, whether this is due to fatigue or illness. The deportations began on September
16 with the Jews in the camp from Vertujeni and ended up at the end of December. There
was no German involvement in this operation. Hebrew Columns crossed the Dniester at
Atachi Mogilev-Podolsky, Cosauti-Iampol, Rezina-Rabnita, Bender, Tiraspol and Olanesti
On October 6, Ion Antonescu made known with the government its plans for ethnic
cleansing in Bessarabia: "As for the Hebrew, I have decided to remove them from these
regions. I have about 40,000 Hebrew in Bessarabia, which in a few days will passed over
the river and if circumstances permit, shall be transferred beyond the Urals. "During the
deportation, hundreds of Hebrew have died of hunger, thirst, beatings and torture,
women and girls were raped and those who resisted were killed. Many Hebrew were
killed while they were looted valuables. According to the romanian reports 91,845
Hubrew were deported from Bukovina, and 55,867 from Bessarabia ,9367 Dorohoi.
According to the 1939 Soviet census, Transnistria's population exceeded three million
inhabitants and consisted mostly of Ukrainians and Russians, about 300,000 Moldovan
(Romanian) 331,000 germans and 125,000 Hebrew. George Alexianu known antisemite,
ran the administration of Transnistria. Initially, the Romanian army was responsible for
retaliation, imprisonment and persecution of Romanian and local Jews, but later this task
was taken over by the Romanian gendarmes and Ukrainian Police. Of the at least
150,000 Romanian Hebrew deported to Transnistria only 47,000 were still alive in the fall
of 1943. Interned sometimes in the ghettos and camps (for example Peciora infamous
death camp), they fell victim to epidemics, especially typhus, or executions. The
Romanian authorities took no responsibility for the subsistence of the Jews, either during
the deportation and the camps or ghettos.
Hunger, maltreatment, humiliation and forced labor made up the everyday life of these
deported Jews. According to the Romanian government reports, of the 331,000 Ukrainian
Hebrew census count in 1939, at least 150,000 and perhaps over 200,000 were still alive
in Transnistria after the Red Army withdrawal including up to 90,000 in the county
Odessa. The local Jews were also identified for closure in the ghettos and camps.
In early October 1941, Ion Antonescu ordered the deportation and robing of local Jews
as well as some Romanian Jews across the Bug. Gendarmes ransacked each convoy
and raped the women and girls. The transfer of Jews to the Bug in convoys of thousands
of people continued to rush in October, November and December 1941 in total disarray.
Thousands of Hebrew were left in towns and villages that had not been designated to
house ghettos or temporary camps. On 9 November, the General Chief inspector of
Gendarmeril reported that the first stage of the deportations from Bessarabia and
Bukovina were over: 108,002 Hebrew had been moved in three areas near the Bug:
47,545 north to Mitki, and Rogozna Peciora, 30,981 in center, and 29,476 Obodovca and
Balanovka to Bobric, and Bogdanovka Krivoie-Ozero.
Since the end of December 1941 until May 1942, thousands of Romanian and local
Hebrew were killed in Golta County, near the Bug, the location of the three largest
extermination camps-Bogdanovka, Domanovka and Akmechetka, as well as a dozen
smaller camps.
About 10,000 local Hebrew, 30,000 from Bessarabia (particularly in Chisinau ghetto) and
65,000-70,000 from Odessa and the counties in southern Transnistria were imprisoned in
these camps. Lt.
Col. Modest Isopescu Golta prefect, estimated that 52,000 Hebrew lived in
Bogdanovka and about 20,000 in Domanovka. Some crowded into stables (there were
more than 50 stalls), pigsties and shacks, while others stayed outside, spread over three
kilometers along the west bank of the Bug. The silos were full of bodies, the living and
the dead ones were packed into the stables and barracks in the deadly cold of winter.
Antonescu allowed the killing more than 70,000 survivors Hebrew in Bogdanovka, and
then in Domanovka. At the Government meeting from 16 December, Alexianu Hebrew
informed that 85,000 jews had typhus and explained that if they are not disinfected they
will infect everyone.

Antonescu's recommendation was short: "Let them die." Fearing turn a typhus epidemic,
the Nazi authorities across the Bug clearly wanted the Romanians to solve the Jewish
question "and encouraged executions. Thus, Ukrainian policemen brought Golta County,
helped by local gendarmes and they have shot about 48,000 Hebrew in Bogdanovka.
Then a team of 200 young Hebrew who had been selected for this task (most were later
shot as well), they burnt the bodies. In Domanovka they were about 20,000 Hebrew of
Odessa and the surrounding area. Between January 10 and March 18, 1942, local
Ukrainian police and the Romanian gendarmes killed 18,000 of them. Akmechetka was
actually a large pig farm near the Bug, chosen in early March 1942 to accommodate
Jews who could not work or perform any other function, including the elderly and
children. The main purpose of the camp was extermination via isolation. Food was
extremely rare, but hunger was not the only killer in Akmechetka. Most prisoners have
contracted typhoid fever, dysentery, tetanus and malaria. It has not been given any
medical treatment. Of the approximately 4,000 Hebrew originally sent to the camp, only
several hundred were still alive in May 1942.
Romanian troops entered Odessa on 16 October 1941. From October 18, 1941 until mid-
March 1942, Romanian troops from Odessa, aided by gendarmes and police have killed
at least 25,000 Hebrew and deported over 35,000. On the evening of October 22, the
central and the right wing of the Romanian army headquarters exploded, killing 16
Romanian officers, four German naval officers, 46 other members of the Romanian army
and a few civilians. Antonescu's order, which demanded "immediate retaliatory action,
including the liquidation of the 18,000 Hebrew of the ghettos and
hanging in the town squares of at least 100 Hebrew to each regimental sector "Jews
were rounded up and brought to the place of execution by the Romanian army,
gendarmerie and police.
Approximately 22,000 Hebrew of all ages were crammed into nine stores in Dalnic, a
suburb of Odessa, an operation which continued during the night of October 23. Jews
were machine gunned, burned alive or thrown into the air. Most survivors were deported.
Huge columns of Hebrew deportees were sent down to Berezovka and Bogdanovka. In
early 1942, 35,000 Hebrew were deported to Berezovka and Veselinovo by train in very
heavy conditions. Both Veselinovo and Berezovka, Romanian gendarmes were re-
directed to makeshift camps in the German villages in the region Berezovka.
Transnistria had the largest concentration of Volksdeutsche, or ethnic Germans in
Ukraine, with over 40 German villages whose people each overcome 1,000. Statute of
the German community in Transnistria was negotiated in Bucharest and Odessa. Finally,
the Romanian government recognized the autonomy Volksdeutsche who lived in german
villages in Transnistria in the Bug. In early April 1942, in Odessa were transported
28,000 Hebrew from German villages in Transnistria by the Romanian gendarmes had
been exterminated by Selbstschutz, ethnic Germans killing units organized by the SS.
Antonescu was informed about these massacres: in 1942 the Army Headquarters asked
the leader if the German police is allowed to shoot thousands of Hebrew in the
Berezovka county corpses and burn them. Antonescu responded: "its not the Army that
has to deal with such problems." In another example of cooperation, the Romanian
authorities have taught thousands of local and Romanian Hebrew Bug Germans to build
roads. Most of these Hebrew were shot.
Except for 17,000 Hebrew considered "useful" to the national economy or having special
privileges, the Antonescu regime agreed in the summer of 1942 to deport the entire
Jewish minority from Romania - 292,149 people, according to a census from 1942- to the
death camp of Belzec.
Besides the Jews of Bessarabia, Bukovina, Moldavia and local Jews in Transnistria,
Romanian Jews living abroad had suffered also from the policies of Antonescu.
Under international conventions, consulates were expected to protect Romanian citizens
abroad, regardless of their "nationality. In May 1941 this protection was withdrawn from
Jews, whose citizenship had been "revised" and also from those born in Bessarabia and
Northern Bukovina (then part of USSR).In the summer of 1942 Romania backtracked
and once again treated Jews born in Bessarabia and Bukovina as its citizens.
The direct result of the approval was the deportation of nearly 1,600 Romanian citizens
of Jewish origin living in Germany and Austria; of an unknown number of Bohemia,
Moravia, Poland and Holland and 3000 in France. Most perished in concentration camps.
Romanian government policy on the protection of Romanian Jews abroad has changed
in the late spring of 1943. Romania began to protect Romanian Jews living abroad. It is
estimated that over 4,000 Romanian French Hebrew survived as a result of such
diplomatic interventions.
Another aspect of the Holocaust in Romania was forced labor. In total, 84,042 Hebrews,
aged between 18 and 50 years were registered to perform forced labor. Some were
ordered to work in their cities, while others had to work in construction sites and labor
camps under military supervision in the field. Working conditions and life in these camps
were horrendous, health care was scarce and poor hygiene. The sick and crippled were
sometimes forced to work, and the "mobilization" was done in haste and with little
bureaucratic organization, many workers had to wear summer clothes until December
1941, when the labor camps were temporarily closed. In some camps, Jews were forced
to buy their own tools and pay their own food. Many were seriously ill or crippled and
dozens, even hundreds, perished.

Statistical data.
In 1930, 756,930 hebrews lived in Greater Romania. They represented 4.2% of the 18
million inhabitants. By 1940 slightly fewer than 800,000 Hebrew lived in Romania,
according to the general director of the Central Institute of Statistics of Romania. At the
end of August 1941, the Romanian gendarmerie calculated that there were 55,887
hebrews remaining in Bessarabia and
Bukovina. But there were other Hebrews that were not included in the calculation.
A report by the committee to investigate "irregularities" in the ghetto in Chisinau in
December 1941 confirmed the number of Jews in Bessarabia (55,867 Hebrew without
Hotin County) and 25,000 other Hebrews "who died a natural death, have escaped or
have been shot . The total number of Jews who were there, then, is about 80,000.
By the end of July 1941, before the official surrender of Transnistria to the Romanian
administration, Romanian soldiers and gendarmes concentrated tens of thousands of
Hebrews in northern Bessarabia and began forcing them to leave Bessarabia by crossing
the Dniester River, shooting hundreds of them and throwing their bodies into the stream.
Over 32,000 hebrews were forced
to cross the Dniester by late July / early August 1941. This figure is derived from various
reports and orders the gendarmes were given to prevent the return of jews in
Bessarabia. Of the approximately 32,000, only 12,600 survived; they were later pushed
back in Bessarabia from Ukraine via Cosauti and interned in the camp Vertujeni. At least
8,000 and up to 20,000 hebrews were killed on the Ukrainian side of the Dniester by
German and Romanian soldiers. Thus, 32,000 need to be added to the roughly 80,000
Hebrew found in Bessarabia by the Romanian Army. That means that 112,000 were living
in Bessarabia at the moment of its establishment. But this figure is incomplete. In
Ukraine, on 16 August 1941,the German army captured at least 11,000 Hebrew who tried
to flee to Russia. It turns out that at the beginning of the Romanian occupation of
Bessarabia, there were at least 122,000 Hebrew.
According to a report made on April 9, 1942 of the governor of Bukovina, 103,172
hebrews lived there before the deportations, and 11,923 were in Dorohoi. In total,
170,962 lived in the Bukovina and Bessarabia at the beginning of deportations and after
implementation of the order to cleanse the land.
The exact number of Jews killed in the transit camps in Bessarabia and Bukovina, and
during the deportations to Transnistria from the beginning of July and the end of August
1941 remains unknown, as does the number of Jews who managed to flee the Soviet
What is known from government documents is that most Jews from villages and towns in
southern Bukovina and Bessarabia were murdered by the Romanian army units and by a
significant part of the local population. Similarly, we know that Einsatzgruppe D killed
thousands of Hebrew
in Chernivtsi and Bessarabia. The only figures on the number of murdered Jews are
mentioned in Romanian documents: up to 25,000 in Bessarabia and up to 20,000 during
the "deportations
hurry. More than 45,000 and probably closer to 60,000 Hebrew were killed in
Bessarabia and Bukovina.
147,712 hebrews were deported in 1941, according to reports by the governors of
Bukovina and Bessarabia to the Ministry of Administration of Bukovina, Bessarabia and
Transnistria (CBBT). Of them, 91,845 were from Bukovina (including the regions and
Dorohoi Hotin) and 55,867 from Bessarabia. It is possible that the actual number is
higher. These two reports suggest that in
December 1941 there were at least 164,000 Romanian Hebrew in Transnistria. Hebrew
Total number of deportees from Bessarabia, Bukovina, and Dorohoi Kingdom was
between 154,449 (147,712 plus 6,737) and 170,737 (164,000 plus 6,737) people.
On 15 November 1943, an official report sent to the Council of Ministers of the Romanian
government indicated that 49,927 Hebrew were still alive in Transnistria, of which 6,425
were from the Kingdom. The conclusion that can be drawn here is that by November 15,
1943, between 104,522 and 120,810 Romanian citizens of Jewish origin, died in
According to German documents, testimonies of survivors and the Romanian trial
records, 75,000 Hebrew, most of them locals, were killed Bogdanovka, and Akmechetka
Domanovka in late 1941 and early 1942. In September 1942, the secretary general of the
Transnistrian government has acknowledged that 65,000 local Hebrew "disappeared"
(Code for "had been killed") in the district of Odessa.
On November 1, 1943, Staff of the Army's III recorded a total of 70,770 of Hebrew living
in Transnistria, of which 20,029 were local. Based on these figures one can conclude that
between 115,000 and 180,000 local Hebrew were killed or perished in Transnistria. At the
end of the Romanian occupation, only 20,000 remained in Transnistria local Hebrew. At
least 15,000 of the Hebrew kingdom perished during the Holocaust.
Thus, the total number of Romanian and Ukrainian Jews who perished in territories
under Romanian subadministratie is between 280,000 and 380,000 Hebrew.