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Manual

A. Installation manual
B. User manual
C. Technical manual
D. Tutorial manual

AMRETAIN is a software developed for ArcelorMittal by

Mr Fahd CUIRA
Mr Christophe GRISSELIN
Mrs Valrie BERNHARDT
A Installation manual AMRetain

A. INSTALLATION MANUAL

A.1. Minimum hardware requirements and required settings ........................................................ 3


A.2. AMRetain installation .................................................................................................................. 4
A.3. Activation of your AMRetain license ......................................................................................... 9
A.4. AMRetain updates ..................................................................................................................... 11
A.5. AMRetain uninstallation ........................................................................................................... 12

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A Installation manual AMRetain

A.1. Minimum hardware requirements and required settings


A.1.1. Minimum hardware requirements

AMRetain installation file was designed and is distributed by TERRASOL. It works in the following
environments: Microsoft Windows XP, Vista, and 7. Intellectual property laws are fully applicable to
the information included in the installation file.

AMRetain program works on any computer equipped at least with:


512 Mb RAM;
A screen device with resolution 1024x768 pixels and 32 000 colours;
Microsoft Windows XP / Vista / 7 (32 or 64 bits);
100 Mb available hard disk space.

A.1.2. Requirements for AMRetain installation


The user should be connected on his computer in administrator mode in order to be
able to perform AMRetain installation.
An Internet connection is required in order to activate the AMRetain license. In case your
system is protected with a firewall or proxy, please make sure that port 443 is open (see
section A.3).

A.1.3. Requirements for AMRetain use


An Internet connection is not compulsory when using AMRetain. However, AMRetain is
provided with an updater tool (cf section A.4 and part B of the manual), and it is advised to
use it with an Internet connection from time to time in order to get the latest updates
through this updater tool.
The user should have full control (read, write, etc) on AMRetain installation directory and of
course also on the working directory (where AMRetain project files are saved). Otherwise,
AMRetain will not work properly.

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A.2. AMRetain installation


When you request an AMRetain license through the relevant website, you receive an email including a
link to the AMRetain installation file.
When you have downloaded and copied this file onto your hard disk, please follow this installation
procedure:

Run file Install_AMRetain.exe. This window shows up:

Figure 1: AMRetain installation welcome screen

Click on Next >. The next window is then displayed:

Figure 2: Liability clauses

Please read the liability clauses. If you accept them, select "I accept the terms in the license
agreement" and click on Next>.

The following window appears. Please fill in the requested information and click on Next >.

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A Installation manual AMRetain

Figure 3: Information to be provided by the user

Select the installation directory in the next window:

Figure 4: Installation directory

By default, the installation directory is: C:\Program Files\AMRetain

It is advised not to change the default installation directory (this makes the diagnostic
easier in case a problem occurs during installation).

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A Installation manual AMRetain

Click on Next >. A confirmation screen appears (Figure 5).

Figure 5: Confirmation before installation

Check the installation settings and click on Install. The installation itself starts (Figure 6).

Figure 6: Installation in progress

At the end of AMRetain installation, click on Finish. The installation of the Sentinel HASP driver
then starts:

Figure 7: Sentinel Hasp driver installation

The following message confirms the driver installation:

Figure 8: Sentinel Hasp driver installation confirmation

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A Installation manual AMRetain

Click on OK to close this window.

Figure 9: Confirmation that AMRetain installation is finished

Click on Finish.

IMPORTANT: additional settings:


The user should have full control (read, write, etc) on AMRetain installation directory and of
course also on the working directory (where AMRetain project files are saved). Otherwise,
AMRetain will not work properly.
If your computer is equipped with Windows Vista or Windows 7: by default, these systems
install software with setting Read only . Deactivate this setting for the installation directory
and its sub-directories:
Right-click on the AMRetain installation directory (using the file explorer) and select
Properties .
Deactivate Read only and click on OK .
A window appears in order to confirm the new settings.
Select Apply changes to this folder, subfolders and files and click on OK .

AMRetain installation is now complete.

Note: the large range of materials and systems available on the market makes it impossible to detail
all cases. In case the installation is interrupted, please answer carefully to the questions displayed by
the system. The buttons Next" or "Ignore" usually enable to complete the installation successfully.

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Additional information:
AMRetain program is provided with a tool called Updater, which enables to get automatically
new updates of AMRetain itself and of the ArcelorMittal sheet pile catalogue included in
AMRetain. Please refer to part B of the manual for more information about the Updater tool.
Note: if your computer is equipped with Windows 7: for the Updater to work properly, it is
advised to use it in Administrator mode, otherwise it may not be allowed to copy the
update files into AMRetain installation folder:
Right-click on the AMRetain (Updater) shortcut and select Properties .
Select the tab Compatibility .
Activate Execute this program as an administrator .
Validate with OK .
After AMRetain installation, one shortcut for AMRetain (via the Updater) is available on the
computer desktop, and 2 shortcuts are available from a new AMRETAIN item in the
Menu/Start/All programs (one for AMRetain directly, and one for AMRetain via the Updater).
Example files are provided with AMRetain. They are stored in the Examples folder
(installation directory). For more details about these examples, please check part D of the
manual.
AMRetain manual (French and English versions) is provided in pdf format in the Manuals
folder (installation directory).

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A.3. Activation of your AMRetain license


In order to be able to use AMRetain, it is necessary to activate your license when running
AMRetain for the first time. Indeed, the program is protected with a software dongle (Sentinel HASP),
which should be activated.
For this activation:
An Internet connection is compulsory when using AMRetain for the first time, in order to be
able to activate your license. It is not compulsory later on.
The license activation tool uses communication port 443. It may happen in some cases (use of
a company proxy or firewall) that your company network prevents communications through
this port. In such a case, the message Your license could not be activated. Please check
your internet connection and the Product Key. will be displayed when attempting to activate
your license. Please contact your IT department to open this port.
The activation procedure is the following:
When running AMRetain for the first time, the following window appears:

Figure 10: AMRetain welcome screen

When clicking on Start AMRetain, the following window is displayed:

Figure 11: Providing the product code (i.e. serial code)

Please fill in the product code (also named serial code, which was provided to you by email after
your requested an AMRetain license), and click on Activate.

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The following message confirmss that the activation was successful:

Figure 12: License activation confirmation

Note: each license is assigned to the computer on which it has been activated. So it is not possible to
use the same product code (or serial code) to activate AMRetain on another computer. But the code
remains valid if you need to uninstall/reinstall AMRetain on the same computer.

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A Installation manual AMRetain

A.4. AMRetain updates


AMRetain program is provided with a tool called Updater, which enables to get automatically new
updates of AMRetain itself and of the ArcelorMittal sheet pile catalogue included in AMRetain
(provided the computer is equipped with an Internet connection when running AMRetain).

The Updater tool automatically connects to an updates server and checks whether a new AMRetain
update is available or not. If it is, it proposes to install this update: the user may then either accept or
not.

It is thus advised to use the shortcut to run AMRetain through the Updater, in order to ensure that you
use at all times the latest version of AMRetain and of the ArcelorMittal sheet pile catalogue.

Please refer to part B of the manual (section B.2.6) for more detailed information about the Updater
tool.

Figure 13: Updater Tool

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A Installation manual AMRetain

A.5. AMRetain uninstallation


The AMRetain uninstallation procedure was designed so that the program can be completely removed
from your computer.

Please follow this procedure only if you decided to completely remove AMRetain from your computer.
You will be able to install AMRetain again later on if necessary.

Uninstallation procedure:

Run AMRetain installation program.

The following window is displayed:

Figure 14: AMRetain uninstallation

Click on Next > in order to display all available options. The following screen appears. Select the
option Remove to uninstall AMRetain.

Figure 15: Full AMRetain uninstallation

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A Installation manual AMRetain

When you click on Next >, the following screen is displayed:

Figure 16: AMRetain uninstallation confirmation

To proceed with the uninstallation, click on Remove and the following screens will be displayed:

Figure 17: Uninstallation in progress

Figure 18: Uninstallation complete

Wait until all AMRetain files have been removed, and click on Finish.

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In case you have changed or added manually some files in the Examples folder, the installation
directory and some files will not be removed.
It is then advised to manually delete the AMRetain installation directory (by default C:\Program
Files\AMRetain ) and its content using the files explorer. You may also remove the AMRetain
shortcuts from the Desktop and Start/Programs list, if any.
Uninstallation is now complete.

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B User manual AMRetain

B. USER MANUAL

B.1. Introduction .................................................................................................................. 7


B.1.1. AMRetain presentation ..........................................................................................7
B.1.2. Conventions ..........................................................................................................9
B.1.2.1. Units ...............................................................................................................9
B.1.2.2. Double wall projects........................................................................................9
B.1.2.3. Sign conventions ............................................................................................9
B.1.2.4. AMRetain data files.........................................................................................9
B.2. General presentation of the user interface ...............................................................10
B.2.1. The first screen ...................................................................................................10
B.2.2. The main screen .................................................................................................11
B.2.3. Menus .................................................................................................................12
B.2.3.1. File Menu ......................................................................................................12
B.2.3.2. Data Menu ....................................................................................................13
B.2.3.3. Wizards ........................................................................................................13
B.2.3.4. Staged construction menu ............................................................................ 14
B.2.3.5. Double wall Menu .........................................................................................15
B.2.3.6. Calculation/Results menu .............................................................................15
B.2.3.7. Help Menu ....................................................................................................16
B.2.3.8. Keyboard shortcuts .......................................................................................16
B.2.3.9. Popup menus ...............................................................................................17
B.2.4. Buttons bar..........................................................................................................18
B.2.5. Global procedure for defininf a new project in AMRetain ..................................... 20
B.2.6. AMRetain updater ...............................................................................................22
B.3. Data ..............................................................................................................................23
B.3.1. Title and Options .................................................................................................23
B.3.1.1. Main options .................................................................................................23
B.3.1.2. Dialogue box for the definition of partial factors ............................................ 25
B.3.2. Definition of soil properties ..................................................................................27
B.3.2.1. Dialogue box for the definition of soil properties............................................ 27
B.3.2.2. Wizards for the active and passive earth pressure coefficients ..................... 29
B.3.2.3. Subgrade reaction coefficient wizard ............................................................ 31
B.3.2.4. Colours of layers ...........................................................................................35
B.3.3. Definition of the wall properties ........................................................................... 36
B.3.4. Data input for double wall projects ...................................................................... 39
B.3.4.1. Title and options ...........................................................................................39
B.3.4.2. Soil properties for both walls ......................................................................... 40
B.3.4.3. Retaining wall properties for both walls ......................................................... 41

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B.4. Definition of phases....................................................................................................42


B.4.1. User interface features relating to staged construction ........................................ 42
B.4.1.1. Staged construction management zone ........................................................ 43
B.4.1.2. Action selection zone ....................................................................................44
B.4.1.3. Action parameters zone ................................................................................ 47
B.4.1.4. Validation / Calculation / Results................................................................... 47
B.4.2. Definition of calculation phases for a single wall project ...................................... 48
B.4.2.1. Projects without ULS checks ........................................................................ 48
B.4.2.2. Projects with ULS checks .............................................................................50
B.4.3. Definition of calculation phases for a double wall project ..................................... 51
B.4.4. Description des actions disponibles .................................................................... 52
B.4.4.1. Caquot surcharge (initial phase) ................................................................... 53
B.4.4.2. Reduced pressure (initial phase) .................................................................. 54
B.4.4.3. Maximal pressure (initial phase) ................................................................... 55
B.4.4.4. Boussinesq surcharge ..................................................................................56
B.4.4.5. Graux surcharge ...........................................................................................57
B.4.4.6. External moment ..........................................................................................58
B.4.4.7. Horizontal trapezodal load on the wall ......................................................... 59
B.4.4.8. Linear force ..................................................................................................60
B.4.4.9. Excavation-Water .........................................................................................62
B.4.4.10. Fill action ....................................................................................................63
B.4.4.11. Berm ...........................................................................................................65
B.4.4.12. Struts ..........................................................................................................66
B.4.4.13. Anchors ......................................................................................................68
B.4.4.14. Rotation spring (rotation stiffness) .............................................................. 70
B.4.4.15. Modification of factor beta.D ....................................................................... 71
B.4.4.16. Linking anchors ..........................................................................................72
B.4.4.17. Modification of soil properties ..................................................................... 74
B.4.4.18. LEM coefficients .........................................................................................75
B.5. Calculation and results...............................................................................................76
B.5.1. Calculations ........................................................................................................76
B.5.2. The different types of results available after calculations ..................................... 77
B.5.2.1. Single wall projects .......................................................................................77
B.5.2.2. Double wall projects......................................................................................79
B.5.3. Presentation of SSIM resultats for single wall projects without ULS checks ........ 79
B.5.3.1. Presentation of results on AMRetain main window ....................................... 79
B.5.3.2. Results window / Data tab ............................................................................ 80
B.5.3.3. Results window / Phases tabs ...................................................................... 80
B.5.3.4. Results window / Results synthesis tab ........................................................ 84
B.5.3.5. Results window / Envelope(s) tab(s) ............................................................. 85
B.5.4. Presentation of results for single wall projects with ULS checks .......................... 86
B.5.4.1. Presentation of results on AMRetain main window ....................................... 86
B.5.4.2. Results window.............................................................................................87
B.5.5. Presentation of the results of ULS checks for single wall projects ....................... 92
B.5.5.1. Check with respect to failure on the passive side .......................................... 93
B.5.5.1.1. Anchored phase (SSIM calculation) ........................................................ 93
B.5.5.1.2. Cantilever phase (LEM calculation) ......................................................... 94
B.5.5.2. Balance of vertical forces (or check of vertical equilibrium) ........................... 95
B.5.5.2.1. Anchored phases (SSIM calculation)....................................................... 95
B.5.5.2.2. Cantilever phases (LEM calculation) ....................................................... 96
B.5.5.3. Kranz check (or check of the stability of the anchoring block) ....................... 97
B.5.6. Presentation of SSIM results for double wall projects .......................................... 99

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B.5.6.1. Presentation of results on AMRetain main window ....................................... 99


B.5.6.2. Results window........................................................................................... 100
B.5.6.3. Double walls and ULS checks .................................................................... 101
B.6. Printing ......................................................................................................................102
B.6.1. Printing wizard .................................................................................................. 102
B.6.1.1. Single wall projects without ULS checks ..................................................... 102
B.6.1.2. Single wall projects with ULS checks .......................................................... 103
B.6.1.3. Double wall projects.................................................................................... 105
B.7. Limits and recommendations for the best use of AMRetain..................................107
B.7.1. Definition of phases and action of anchors ........................................................ 107
B.7.2. ULS checks ....................................................................................................... 107
B.7.2.1. LEM calculation (cantilever phases) ........................................................... 107
B.7.2.2. Balance of vertical forces ............................................................................ 109
B.7.2.3. Kranz check ................................................................................................ 109
B.7.3. Doublewalls ..................................................................................................... 110
B.7.3.1. Interaction between both walls .................................................................... 110
B.7.3.2. ULS checks ................................................................................................ 110
B.7.3.3. ULS checks / Kranz .................................................................................... 111

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B User manual AMRetain

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure B 1: Examples of single retaining wall projects ..........................................................7


Figure B 2: Examples of double sheet pile walls projects .....................................................7
Figure B 3: AMRetain first screen .........................................................................................10
Figure B 4: Main window ......................................................................................................11
Figure B 5: Main menu .........................................................................................................12
Figure B 6: File Menu ...........................................................................................................12
Figure B 7: Data menu .........................................................................................................13
Figure B 8: Wizards menu ....................................................................................................13
Figure B 9: Staged construction menu..................................................................................14
Figure B 10: Double wall Menu.............................................................................................15
Figure B 11: Calculation/Results menu................................................................................. 15
Figure B 12: Help Menu........................................................................................................16
Figure B 13: Popup dialogue box for the graphical display in the main window .................... 17
Figure B 14: Additional examples of the popup dialogue box ............................................... 17
Figure B 15: Popup menu for a results table......................................................................... 18
Figure B 16: Title and Options dialogue box ......................................................................... 23
Figure B 17: Dialogue box for the definition of partial factors ................................................ 25
Figure B 18: Soil layers dialogue box ...................................................................................27
Figure B 19: Tables for active and passive earth pressures by Kerisel and Absi .................. 29
Figure B 20: Calculation using the Coulomb method ............................................................ 30
Figure B 21: Calculation using the Rankine method ............................................................. 31
Figure B 22: Calculation of the subgrade reaction coefficients, using the Balay method ....... 32
Figure B 23: Determination of rheological parameter ........................................................ 32
Figure B 24: Help picture for the definition of dimensional parameter a ................................ 33
Figure B 25: Calculation of the subgrade reaction coefficients, using the Schmitt
method ........................................................................................................33
Figure B 26: Chadeisson curves...........................................................................................34
Figure B 27: Colour wizard for the soil layers ....................................................................... 35
Figure B 28: Dialogue box for wall definition (selection of a sheet pile in the
ArcelorMittal catalogue) ............................................................................... 36
Figure B 29: Typical picture of a Standard Z sheet pile ................................................... 36
Figure B 30: Typical picture of a Standard U sheet pile ................................................. 37
Figure B 31: Definition of reduction factor betaD for a Standard U sheet pile ...................... 37
Figure B 32: Typical picture of a Combined wall ............................................................. 37
Figure B 33: Typical picture of a Jagged wall .................................................................. 38
Figure B 34: Message displayed when trying to use a sheet pile reference that is not
available in the catalogue anymore ............................................................. 38
Figure B 35: Dialogue box Title and Options (double wall project) .................................. 39
Figure B 36: Soil properties dialogue box Wall 1 ............................................................... 40
Figure B 37: Main window Phases.....................................................................................42
Figure B 38: Frame for phases handling ............................................................................... 43
Figure B 39: Frame for actions selection for a given phase .................................................. 44
Figure B 40: Selection of the Struts action ............................................................................ 45
Figure B 41: Actions selection for a cantilever phase (project with ULS checks).................. 46
Figure B 42: Action parameters zone (example of an excavation with modification of
the water level) ............................................................................................47
Figure B 43: Initial phase ......................................................................................................48
Figure B 44: Creation and display of phase 1 for a given project .......................................... 49
Figure B 45: Example of additional data for projects with ULS checks.................................. 50
Figure B 46: Caquot surcharge.............................................................................................53
Figure B 47: Caquot surcharge properties ............................................................................ 53
Figure B 48: Reduced pressure ............................................................................................54

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Figure B 49: Properties for Reduced pressure...................................................................... 54


Figure B 50: Maximal pressure PMAX.....................................................................................55
Figure B 51: Maximal pressure .............................................................................................55
Figure B 52: Boussinesq surcharge ......................................................................................56
Figure B 53: Boussinesq surcharge ......................................................................................56
Figure B 54: Graux surcharge ..............................................................................................57
Figure B 55: Graux surcharge ..............................................................................................58
Figure B 56: Moment load Sign convention ....................................................................... 58
Figure B 57: Moment load ....................................................................................................58
Figure B 58: Activation/Deactivation of a moment ................................................................ 59
Figure B 59: Horizontal load .................................................................................................59
Figure B 60: Horizontal load on the wall ...............................................................................60
Figure B 61: Linear force ......................................................................................................60
Figure B 62: Linear force ......................................................................................................61
Figure B 63: Activation/Deactivation of a linear force ............................................................ 61
Figure B 64: Excavation-Water .............................................................................................62
Figure B 65: Excavation-Water .............................................................................................62
Figure B 66: Fill 63
Figure B 67: Fill 64
Figure B 68: Copying the properties of an existing soil layer ................................................ 64
Figure B 69: Berm ................................................................................................................65
Figure B 70: Struts ...............................................................................................................66
Figure B 71: Struts - Parameters and wizard ........................................................................ 66
Figure B 72: Deactivation of an existing strut........................................................................ 67
Figure B 73: Creep of an existing strut .................................................................................67
Figure B 74: Definition of an anchor .....................................................................................68
Figure B 75: Anchors -Parameters and wizard ..................................................................... 68
Figure B 76: Deactivation of an existing anchor .................................................................... 69
Figure B 77: Rotation spring (rotation stiffness) .................................................................... 70
Figure B 78: Rotation spring definition zone ......................................................................... 70
Figure B 79: Deactivation of an existing rotation spring ........................................................ 71
Figure B 80: Modification of betaD coefficient (Standard U sheet piles only) ........................ 71
Figure B 81: Linking anchor Parameters and wizard ......................................................... 72
Figure B 82: Deactivation of an existing linking anchor ......................................................... 73
Figure B 83: Modification of soil properties ........................................................................... 74
Figure B 84: LEM coefficients ...............................................................................................75
Figure B 85: Calculation window for double wall projects ..................................................... 76
Figure B 86: Calculation flowchart and results obtained for each calculation type ................ 77
Figure B 87: Presentation of SSIM results on the main window ............................................ 79
Figure B 88: Results window, Data tab ................................................................................. 80
Figure B 89: Results of a phase Graphical display (single wall, without ULS checks) ........ 81
Figure B 90: Results of a phase Table display (single wall, without ULS checks) .............. 81
Figure B 91: Example of differential earth/water pressures (left chart) and equivalent
decomposed displays (right chart) ............................................................... 82
Figure B 92: Non-convergence indication ............................................................................. 83
Figure B 93: Results synthesis (simple wall, without ULS checks)........................................ 84
Figure B 94: Display of partial envelope for phases 1 to 5 .................................................... 85
Figure B 95: ULS results in the main window for a cantilever phase (LEM calculation) ........ 86
Figure B 96: ULS results in the main window for an anchored phase (SSIM calculation)...... 87
Figure B 97: SLS results in the results window ..................................................................... 88
Figure B 98: Results window ULS results for a cantilever phase (LEM calculation) -
Curves .........................................................................................................89
Figure B 99: Results window ULS results for a cantilever phase (LEM calculation) -
Table ...........................................................................................................89
Figure B 100: Results window ULS results synthesis with cantilever phases only ............. 90

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Figure B 101: Results window - ULS results for an anchored phase (SSIM calculation) -
Curves .........................................................................................................90
Figure B 102: Results window - ULS results for an anchored phase (SSIM calculation) -
Table ...........................................................................................................91
Figure B 103: Results window ULS results synthesis with both cantilever and
anchored phases .........................................................................................91
Figure B 104: ULS checks results window ............................................................................ 92
Figure B 105: ULS checks Results of the check of failure on the passive side
Anchored phase (SSIM calculation)............................................................. 93
Figure B 106: ULS checks Results of the check of failure on the passive side
Cantilever phase (LEM calculation) ............................................................. 94
Figure B 107: ULS checks Balance of vertical forces Anchored phase (SSIM
calculation) ..................................................................................................95
Figure B 108: ULS checks Balance of vertical forces Cantilever phase (LEM
calculation) ..................................................................................................96
Figure B 109: ULS checks Kranz check.............................................................................97
Figure B 110: ULS checks Calculation details for Kranz check .......................................... 98
Figure B 111: Main window Results of a double wall calculation ....................................... 99
Figure B 112: Main window Double wall calculation Grouped display ...................... 100
Figure B 113: Results window Double wall project ........................................................... 100
Figure B 114: Printing wizard for a single wall project without ULS checks ......................... 102
Figure B 115: Example of printing of the graphical synthesis .............................................. 103
Figure B 116: Printing wizard for a single wall project with ULS checks, selection of
SLS results ................................................................................................ 104
Figure B 117: Printing wizard for a single wall project with ULS checks, selection of
ULS results................................................................................................ 104
Figure B 118: Printing wizard for a double wall project ....................................................... 105
Figure B 119: Example of the printing of a graphical synthesis for a double wall project..... 106
Figure B 120: Example of cantilever geometry with a long embedment ..................... 108
Figure B 121: Check of the failure on the passive side LEM calculation Automatic
switch from approach D to approach F ...................................................... 108
Figure B 122: Kranz check Case of multiple anchor levels .............................................. 109
Figure B 123: Principle of interaction between both walls ................................................... 110

LIST OF TABLES

Table B 1: Table of equivalences between metric and imperial units ..................................... 9


Table B 2: Table of actions available for the definition of phases..........................................52

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B User manual AMRetain

B.1. Introduction

B.1.1. AMRetain presentation

AMRetain is intended to study the behaviour of ArcelorMittal sheet pile retaining walls
subjected to a series of construction phases.

AMRetain allows analysing two different types of projects:

Single wall projects: including a single plane wall;

or
Figure B 1: Examples of single retaining wall projects

Double wall projects: including two plane walls, linked to each other (or not) by
means of one or two linking anchors.
Note: in this manual, the term double walls designates projects with either 2 walls
with approximately the same length (cofferdams for instance), or a main wall
anchored on a smaller rear wall.

or or
Figure B 2: Examples of double sheet pile walls projects

AMRetain works in the Windows environment, which makes it a user-friendly and easy-to-
use program. The graphical user interface enables to check the input data and calculation
results live.

The main steps or features available when using AMRetain are the following:

Definition of general settings: this is where you define the project type (single wall
or double wall), the units system (metric or imperial), the activation or not of ULS
checks for single walls, etc.
Definition of soil properties (various wizards are available).
Selection of the sheet piles, within the ArcelorMittal sheet piles catalogue.
Definition of the calculation phases: creation of phases, and for each phase,
selection of the actions to be applied (excavations, installation of anchors, etc).

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Calculation.
Analysis of results.

All these features, as well as the detailed description of data and results, are presented in
this part B on the manual (for single and double walls).

Part C of the manual is focused on the technical description of the calculation methods used
in AMRetain.

Tutorial examples are detailed in part D of the manual.

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B User manual AMRetain

B.1.2. Conventions

B.1.2.1. Units
Two units systems are available in AMRetain: the metric system and the imperial system.
The choice between these systems is to be made for each project, in the menu Data, Title
and Options.

In AMRetain, calculations are performed for a unit length of the wall, therefore
the data and results also concern this unit length. The unit, /ml (per linear meter) or /Ft
(per Foot), is not reminded in the results screens but is always implicit.

The next table provides the equivalences for each data type between both units systems:

Unit Unit
Data type
in metric system in imperial system
Distances or levels m Ft
Displacements mm In
Forces kN Kips
Pressures kN/m KsF
Weights kN/m3 KcF
Products of inertia kN.m Kip.Ft
Stiffnesses kN/m Kips/Ft
Moments kN.m Kips.Ft
Table B 1: Table of equivalences between metric and imperial units

B.1.2.2. Double wall projects


For double wall projects, AMRetain uses notations Wall 1 for the left wall, and Wall 2 for the
right wall.
It is recommended to define as Wall 1 the wall that has the longer series of phases. This is
not compulsory. It is a recommendation, in order to optimise the handling of phases when
creating the project in AMRetain.

Also, by convention, each side of a wall is identified with:


Left or Right/B.2W for wall 1 (left wall)
Left/B.2W or Right for wall 2 (right wall)

B.1.2.3. Sign conventions


The sign conventions are detailed in section C.1.3.

B.1.2.4. AMRetain data files


The AMRetain data files have the extension .KPJ. Only the .KPJ file is needed when you
wish to send your AMRetain data to another AMRetain user.

In the case of double wall projects, 2 additional files are used: P2D and P2G, which should
be sent together with the .KPJ file.

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B.2. General presentation of the user interface

B.2.1. The first screen

Figure B 3: AMRetain first screen

This first screen enables to:


select the language used for AMRetain user interface;
run AMRetain main program;
send an email to ArcelorMittal hotline;
reach ArcelorMittal and Terrasol websites.

This screen also displays the version of AMRetain currently used.

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B.2.2. The main screen

The main window in AMRetain enables to reach all features necessary to set up a project.
The secondary windows are the data input dialogue boxes, the wizards windows, and the
results window.

Figure B 4: Main window

The main window includes:


The title bar, where the current filename is displayed;
The main menu, described in section B.2.3;
The buttons bar, described in section B.2.4;
The staged construction management zone, described in section B.4.1;
The status bar, which displays the level (or depth) corresponding to the mouse
position when the mouse is placed over the cross-section picture.

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B.2.3. Menus

Figure B 5: Main menu

The main menu options are available by left-clicking on their label.

B.2.3.1. File Menu


This menu enables to reach different options related to file management and printing. It also
enables to quit the program.

Figure B 6: File Menu

The sub-menus are described hereafter:

New: enables to start a new AMRetain project and display the AMRetain dialogue box
(Title and Options 1/3).

Open: enables to open a file explorer and select an existing project. AMRetain data
files are .KPJ files.

Save: saves the project data into the active file (selected at first by the user). The
names given to AMRetain project files should be compatible with the Windows
writing formats.

Save as: saves the project data into another file (the user is requested to provide a
new filename).

TUpdater: this option, when activated (TUpdater: ON), enables to automatically


download and install AMRetain updates (please refer to section B.2.6).

Print: opens the printing dialogue box.

Copy to clipboard: copies a screenshot of the data or of the results in order to paste
them afterwards into another Windows file.

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Recent files: this part of the file menu displays shortcuts to the last four files opened
in AMRetain. These recent files are available only if they have not been moved or
erased.

Quit: enables to quit AMRetain.

B.2.3.2. Data Menu

Figure B 7: Data menu

This menu enables to display the project data dialogue boxes. These data include: the
general options for the project (project type for instance), the soil layers properties, and those
of the wall. Section B.3 provides detailed explanations about the AMRetain data.

Title and Options: enables to select the project type, to type in a title for the project,
and to set its general options (units, calculation step, number of iterations per phase,
buckling option, ULS checks, etc.).

Soil layers: enables to set the soil properties (weights, specific properties, subgrade
reaction coefficients, etc.).

Retaining wall: enables to set the wall properties (levels, properties, etc).

In the case of a double wall project, the soil layers or wall displayed correspond to the wall
currently selected in the main screen.

B.2.3.3. Wizards

Figure B 8: Wizards menu

This menu enables to display the different dialogue boxes for wizards. They provide help to
define the active/passive earth pressure coefficients or subgrade reaction coefficients. The
use and contents of the wizards dialogue boxes are described in section B.3.2.

Tables for active and passive earth pressure by KERISEL and ABSI: enables to
calculate the active/passive earth pressure coefficients as a function of the soil friction
angle and additional data requested when reading the J. Krisel and E. Absi charts
(cf section B.3.2.2 and part C of the manual).

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COULOMB Active and passive earth pressure formula: calculates the active and
passive earth pressure coefficients using the Coulomb formula (cf section B.3.2.2 and
part C of the manual).

RANKINE Active and passive earth pressure formula: calculates the active and
passive earth pressure coefficients using the Rankine formula taking into account the
groundlevel inclination (cf section B.3.2.2 and part C of the manual).

Subgrade reaction coefficients: enables to calculate the subgrade reaction


coefficients using the Balay or Schmitt formulae, or the Chadeisson charts (cf section
B.3.2.3 and part C of the manual).

Layers colours: opens the soil properties dialogue box. Double-click on the colour
rectangle for a given soil layer in order to open the dialogue box for layers colours (cf
section B.3.2.4).

B.2.3.4. Staged construction menu

Figure B 9: Staged construction menu

This menu enables to manage the phases of the project, and the actions for each stage.

PHASES: for double wall projects, these options are available only when Wall 1 is selected.

Add: creates a new calculation phase after the existing ones.

Insert:: inserts a new calculation phase before the selected phase.

Delete: deletes the selected calculation phase.

Move forward: enables to change the phases order by moving the selected phase
forward.

Move backward: enables to change the phases order by moving the selected phase
backward.

These changes appear in the staged construction management zone (refer to section B.4.1).

ACTIONS

Delete: deletes the selected action in the current phase.

These modifications appear in the action selection zone (refer to section B.4.1).

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B.2.3.5. Double wall Menu

Figure B 10: Double wall Menu

This menu, available only for double wall projects, enables to select one of the walls and to
edit the calculation settings for double wall projects. The selection of walls is also possible
from the action definition zone, and the double wall calculation settings can be edited from
the Title and Options dialogue box as well.

Wall 1: select wall 1. The picture, the actions selection and properties, as well as the
output curves, are updated accordingly (those relating to wall 1 are displayed after
this selection).

Wall 2: select wall 2 and updates the picture, displayed data and output curves
accordingly (those relating to wall 2 are displayed after this selection).

Options: enables to define the calculation settings that are specific to double wall
calculations (maximum number of iterations and convergence tolerance).

B.2.3.6. Calculation/Results menu

Figure B 11: Calculation/Results menu

This menu enables to manage the calculations and results display.

Validate: saves the current values for the input data in the action parameters window
and displays the data on the graphical representation.

Calculate: runs the calculation.

Stop calculation: stops the calculation.

Phases synthesis: opens the Printing wizard with the Graphical synthesis option
pre-activated, which enables to print the graphical representation of all phases as well
as a summary of the actions parameters for each project phase (for one or for both
walls in the case of a double wall project).

Latest calculation results: displays the latest calculation results, if they still exist (in
the same directory). Beware: if the project data have been modified since the latest
calculation, the displayed results will not correspond to the new data anymore.

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Results: opens a window with the detailed results per phase (curves or tables) as
well as the envelope curves and the data summary.

Please refer to section B.5 for more details.

B.2.3.7. Help Menu

Figure B 12: Help Menu

This last menu enables to reach the help sub-menus and the software information.

About: provides software information (for example the version of the software).

ArcelorMittal website: this is a link to the ArcelorMittal website

Terrasol website: this is a link to the Terrasol website.

B.2.3.8. Keyboard shortcuts

Keyboard shortcuts are another way to reach the features of AMRetain directly. Here is the
list of the keyboard shortcuts (they are also displayed in the menus).

Ctrl+N: Creates a new project;

Ctrl+O: Opens an existing file using the file explorer;

Ctrl+S: Saves the current file;

Ctrl+P: Opens the printing wizard dialogue box;

Ctrl+Q: Runs the calculation;

Ctrl+A: Stops the calculation;

Ctrl+R: Opens the results window.

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B.2.3.9. Popup menus


These menus are not permanently displayed in the main window of AMRetain. They can be
displayed by a right-click on some AMRetain objects or zones.

Popup dialogue box for the graphical display settings in the main window

This dialogue box appears after a right-click on the graphical representation in the main
window.

Figure B 13: Popup dialogue box for the graphical display in the main window

It enables to change the display settings: display of the levels of the soil layers interfaces, of
the anchors, surcharges, excavations, fills, etc. on the graphical representation of the project.
It also enables to display the values of the surcharges or the names of the soil layers.

The list box in the upper part of this dialogue box enables to select which display setting you
want to change.
Use the radio buttons to define your new display settings, and click on Validate and Quit.

Figure B 14: Additional examples of the popup dialogue box

Popup menu for results tables and curves

Each results table or curve (section B.5) is associated with a popup menu. This menu can be
reached by right-clicking on the relevant table or curve.

Right-clicking on a curve opens a popup menu enabling to copy the picture to the clipboard:

Copy picture: enables to copy the curve as a picture to the Windows clipboard,
and to paste it afterwards in another document (Microsoft Excel, Microsoft
Word, etc).

Right-clicking on a table (next figure) opens a popup menu enabling 2 options:

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Copy to clipboard: enables to copy the selected table to the Windows


clipboard, and to paste it afterwards in another document (Microsoft Excel,
Microsoft Word, etc).
Adjust columns width: enables to optimise the columns width.

Figure B 15: Popup menu for a results table

B.2.4. Buttons bar

The shortcut buttons are displayed on this bar. They enable to reach the features previously
described:

This buttons bar proposes shortcut buttons which enable to reach directly the main menu
features. They are described here:

File menu buttons:


creates a new project;

opens an existing file using the file explorer;

saves the changes in the current project;

opens the printing dialogue box;

copies to the clipboard.

Data menu buttons:


opens the Title and Options dialogue box;

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opens the Soil layers dialogue box;

opens the Retaining wall dialogue box.

Double wall menu buttons:


selects wall 1

selects wall 2

Wizards menu buttons:


wizard for KERISEL and ABSI active and passive earth pressure coefficients;

wizard for COULOMB active and passive earth pressure coefficients;

wizard for RANKINE active and passive earth pressure coefficients;

wizard for subgrade reaction coefficients.

Calculation/Results menu buttons:


performs the calculation;

stops the calculation;

displays the latest calculation results.

displays the results;

displays the ULS checks results.

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B.2.5. Global procedure for defininf a new project in AMRetain

This section summarises the main steps to be followed in order to define the data, perform
the calculation and analyse the output of an AMRetain project:

1. Start AMRetain by clicking either the Start menu shortcut or the desktop shortcut.

2. Click on Start AMRetain.

3. Click on I accept liability clauses.

4. Select New Project.

5. In the Title and Options dialogue box, check the project type (Simple or Double
wall), and fill in the project settings. Activate (or not) the ULS checks and define the
partial safety factors. Validate and quit.

In the case of a simple wall project:

6. Save the project.

7. In the dialogue box Characteristics of Soil layers, set the soil layers properties. It is
possible to import these soil data from the Soil database, or on the contrary, to save
your project soil data into the Soil database for further use. Validate and quit.

8. In the dialogue box Retaining wall, set the sheet pile wall properties by selecting the
sheet pile type in the ArcelorMittal catalogue provided with AMRetain. Validate and
quit.

9. Apply the actions for the initial phase if any: select them in the action selection zone,
define their properties, and Validate them so that they are displayed on the graphical
representation in the main window.

10. Click on Add in the staged construction management zone. Apply the actions for the
new calculation phase, define their properties using the action selection zone, and
Validate them. Please note that in the case of cantilever phases (i.e. phases without
anchors) for projects with ULS checks activated, AMRetain proposes by default to
perform a LEM calculation (instead of a SSIM calculation), as requested by the
French standard NF P 94-282, refer to part C of the manual).

11. Repeat this procedure until the final phase is reached.

12. Run the calculation by clicking on the Calculation button below the action selection
zone (the calculations can also be run after definition of each phase depending on the
user's preference).

13. Finally, click on the Results button in the action selection zone to open the detailed
results window. For each phase, all the calculation results are available (LEM or
SSIM depending on the project and phases). If ULS checks have been asked for, the
results for these checks are available too. Finally, results synthesis and envelopes
are proposed as well.

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In the case of a double wall project:

The procedure is mainly the same as for a simple wall, but some steps have to be performed
twice (once for each wall).

6. Save the project.

7. In the dialogue box Characteristics of Soil layers Wall 1, set the soil layers
properties. It is possible to import these soil data from the Soil database, or on the
contrary, to save your project soil data into the Soil database for further use.
Validate and quit.

8. Decide whether you want to copy these soil properties to Wall 2. Validate and quit.

9. In the dialogue box Retaining wall Wall 1, set the sheet pile wall properties by
selecting the sheet pile type in the ArcelorMittal catalogue provided with AMRetain.
Validate and quit.

10. Decide whether you want to copy these wall properties to Wall 2. Validate and quit.

11. Click on Wall 1 or Wall 2. For each wall, apply the actions for the initial phase if any:
select them in the action selection zone, define their properties, and Validate them
so that they are displayed on the graphical representation in the main window.

12. Click on Add in the staged construction management zone (Wall 1 should be
selected for this). Apply the actions for the new calculation phase for Wall 1, define
their properties using the action selection zone, and Validate them. Repeat this
procedure until the final phase is reached for Wall 1.

13. Select Wall 2 and define for each phase the actions relating to Wall 2.

14. Run the calculation by clicking on the Calculation button below the action selection
zone (the calculations can also be run after definition of each phase depending on
the user's preference).

15. Finally, click on the Results button in the action selection zone to open the detailed
results window. It is possible on each tab of the results window to switch from the
results of Wall 1 to the results of Wall 2 (and back).

This procedure is detailed in the present part of the manual, as well as through the tutorial
examples in part D of the manual.

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B.2.6. AMRetain updater

By default, the AMRetain shortcut resulting from the initial software installation runs
AMRetain (Updater).

The Updater tool enables to automatically update AMRetain. It automatically connects to an


updates server and checks whether a new AMRetain update is available or not. If it is, it
proposes to install this update: the user may then either accept or not.
If he accepts, the Updater tool downloads and installs the update, and then runs
AMRetain latest version.
If not, the Updater tool does not install the update and runs the version of AMRetain
that was previously available of the computer.

Finally, if no new update is available, the Updater tool directly runs AMRetain.

In the case of an old AMRetain that has not been updated for a long time, several updates
may be available. When running the Updater tool, all these updates will be proposed to the
user one after the other, and they should be validated and installed one by one. If the user
decides not to apply update number n, then following updates (n+1, etc) will not be available
for download, until update n is accepted and installed.

When no Internet connection is available, the Updater is not displayed and AMRetain is run
instead.

If the user does not want the Updater to check automatically for available updates, he can
deactivate the Updater using Menu File / TUpdater: OFF (the menu will then turn into
TUpdater: ON and will thus enable to turn it on later again).

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B.3. Data
The definition of data (except for staged construction data) is possible through 3 dialogue
boxes: Title and Options, Characteristics of soil layers, and Retaining wall, all of them
available from the Buttons bar or the main menu.

Sections B.3.1 to B.3.3 describe these dialogue boxes and the data that should be provided
in each of them for a single wall project.

Section B.3.4 details the specific aspects of data input relating to double wall projects.

B.3.1. Title and Options

B.3.1.1. Main options


This dialogue box can be displayed by clicking on the Data menu, then on Title and
options. It is used to define the general settings of each project.

Figure B 16: Title and Options dialogue box

The checkboxes, radio buttons and data input boxes are white and can be edited.

This dialogue box is divided into the following zones:

Title/Project number: this zone is used to type in a title for the project (the content of
this box has no impact on the calculation).

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Units: you may use the metric system or the imperial system (refer to section B.1.2).
The selected units system is valid for the whole project (data input and output). The
units display depends on the selected units system, but there is no data conversion,
except for the water weight, which is automatically converted. Default choices are:
metric system, and a water weight equal to 10kN/m3 (the water weight is set by
default to 0.0624 KcF when using the imperial unit system).

Definition of the project in: this option is used to select whether the vertical axis is
directed upwards (levels option) or downwards (depths option). This orientation is
valid for the whole project and cannot be changed. Levels is the default choice.

Calculation options: it is possible to ask for second order moments to be taken into
account (buckling, refer to section C.2.1.4), simply by checking the corresponding box
(Accounting for 2nd order moments). It is not the default option. It is also possible to
change the Number of iterations per phase (default value is 50), as well as the
Calculation step, equivalent to the elementary division along the wall for calculations
(default value is 0.5 m or 1 Ft).
Note: the suitable range for the calculation step is between the wall thickness and a
value that would limit the number of wall elements to 30.

Curves display: checking the box same scale for curves makes sure that curves
for all phases will have the same scale. This is the default option.

Language for output: this choice enables to select the language for printouts.

Project type: in this zone, it is possible to switch from a Simple wall project to a
Double wall project, by selecting the relevant picture. This section focuses on simple
wall projects. Please refer to section B.3.4 for data input relating to double wall
projects.

Additional checks: it is possible to activate ULS checks (failure on the passive side,
balance of vertical forces, Kranz check). The default set of partial safety factors is the
one provided in the French standard NF 94-282 but it is possible to define another set
of partial safety factors by clicking on the button [] next to the list (refer to section
B.3.1.2). Finally, you should make a choice between methods F and D (refer to
section C.3.1.3). Method D is the one activated by default.

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B.3.1.2. Dialogue box for the definition of partial factors

Figure B 17: Dialogue box for the definition of partial factors

This window enables to view, and if necessary edit, the partial factors used for ULS checks.
The default values are those provided in the French standard NF P 94-282. It is possible to
change these values in order to comply with other standards or recommendations.
The button Default values enables to reset all coefficients to the default values (i.e. those of
the French standard NF 94-282).
The button Unit values enables to set a value of 1.0 for all partial factors, in order to perform
the checks without applying partial factors.

Here is a description of each coefficient:

General case:
Weighting of loads onto the soil: these factors are applied to all types of loads
(Caquot, Graux, Boussinesq, linear forces, moments, trapezoidal surcharges) for the
ULS SSIM calculation (anchored phases).
Weighting of the effects of actions: these factors are applied for the check of
failure on the passive side for all phases where the wall is anchored (ULS SSIM
calculation).
mt: this factor is applied to characteristic values of moments and shear forces to get
the design values of moments and shear forces in phases where the wall is
anchored.

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Case of a cantilever wall:


Direct weighting of loads applied to the wall (q): this factor is applied to moments,
linear forces and trapezodal surcharges on the wall for cantilever phases (LEM
calculation). The factor value depends on each action type (permanent/variable,
favourable/unfavourable.
Weighting factor applied to earth/water pressures: these factors are applied to
passive earth pressures (b) and active earth pressures (a), as well as to the
differential water pressures (e) in the cantilever phases (LEM calculation).

Balance of vertical forces:


tv: this factor is applied to vertical forces due to anchors.
pv: this factor is applied to the vertical resultant of earth pressures for anchored
phases (SSIM calculation).

Kranz:
1: weighting factor applied to the reference anchor force when checking the
anchoring block stability.
2: safety factor applied to the destabilising anchor force when checking the anchoring
block stability.

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B.3.2. Definition of soil properties

B.3.2.1. Dialogue box for the definition of soil properties


This dialogue box is displayed when clicking on the Data menu and then Soil layers. It
enables to define all soil properties for each soil layer. All those properties are used in the
calculation.

Synthesis and
selection table

Data input zone

Figure B 18: Soil layers dialogue box

This dialogue box is divided into two parts. The upper part includes a synthesis table, which
displays the data and enables to select a layer. The bottom part is the input zone, which
enables to define or change the properties for the layer currently selected in the table, and to
display the Soil Database by clicking on the Show soil database button.

The soil database enables to store a soil layer with all its properties, so that it can be re-used
later to define another soil layer or a fill layer for instance. In order to save a soil layer: click
on the relevant line in the synthesis table, click on Show soil database, and then on the
orange arrow directed to the right. On the contrary, when you want to use a layer previously
stored in the database, click on Show soil database, then select the relevant layer in the
database list (right part of the window), and click on the orange arrow directed to the left. It is
possible to delete a soil layer from the database by selecting it, and then clicking on the
dustbin below the list.

When a soil layer has been completed, click on the synthesis table to validate it, and then
click on New in order to create one more soil layer, or on Validate and Quit when you are
finished with the definition of all soil layers. A soil layer may be deleted using Delete.

In the input zone, you should first define zw: groundwater level (m, Ft). This level is the same
for all soil layers.

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In the data input zone, the properties for each layer should then be fully defined, starting from
the upper layer:

The name of the soil layer;


The colour assigned to the layer: double-click on the colour rectangle in order to
display the dialogue box for the choice of colours (section B.3.2.4)
z: top level of the layer (m, Ft);
: soil weight (above water level) (kN/m3, KcF);
d: submerged soil weight (below water level) (kN/m3, KcF);
: internal friction angle ();
c: cohesion kN/m, KsF);
dc: variation of the cohesion per unit of depth (kN/m/m, KsF/Ft);
a/: active interface friction (obliquity);
p/: passive interface friction (obliquity);
k0: coefficient of earth pressure at rest;
ka: horizontal active earth pressure coefficient;
kp: horizontal passive earth pressure coefficient;
kd: unloading ratio;
kr: reloading ratio;
kac: coefficient of active pressure applied to cohesion;
kpc: coefficient of passive pressure applied to cohesion;
kh: subgrade reaction coefficient (kN/m3, KcF);
dkh: variation of the subgrade reaction coefficient per unit of depth (kN/m3/m,
KcF/Ft).

The last line of this dialogue box includes 2 buttons. The button Cancel enables to cancel all
changes made to the soil properties and close the dialogue box; the button Validate and
Quit saves all changes and then closes the dialogue box.

Beware: closing the dialogue box using the cross in the top right corner of the window will
cancel all changes made to the soil properties (same as Cancel).

Wizards are available to help determining the various coefficients. They can be called using
the buttons in the right part of the input zone.

These wizards are described in the following sections.

They can be used via:


the initial definition of soil properties,
the definition of soil properties for a fill action (section B.4.4.10),
the action of modification of soil properties (section B.4.4.17),
the action LEM coefficients (section B.4.4.18)
independantly from project data, using menu Wizards.

BEWARE: WIZARDS ARE ONLY A HELP FOR THE USER, THEY ARE NOT A
COMPULSORY STEP IN A PROJECT. THE USER IS RESPONSIBLE FOR THEIR USE.

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B.3.2.2. Wizards for the active and passive earth pressure coefficients
The ka/kp wizard calculates earth pressures coefficients using one of the following methods:
Kerisel & Absi tables,
Coulomb formula
Rankine formula (with or without groundlevel inclination).
Additional data are requested, like for instance earth pressure obliquities (interface friction):
they are usually automatically retrieved from the data already provided in the main dialogue
box.

The theoretical background for all these wizards is detailed in part C of the manual (section
C4). The following sections describe how to handle these wizards in the user interface.

a) Tables for active and passive earth pressure, according to KERISEL and ABSI

This wizard consists in a dialogue box as shown below:

2
1

Figure B 19: Tables for active and passive earth pressures by Kerisel and Absi

1) Select the table type you want to use in the list box in the upper right part of the window
Passive earth pressure, weighted cohesionless soil, no surcharge;
Active earth pressure, weighted cohesionless soil, no surcharge;
Weightless cohesionless soil, with surcharge.
2) Fill in the requested data in the data input zone located in the upper left corner of the
window:
: angle between the wall and the vertical (default value is 0);
: friction angle ();

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: angle between the ground surface and the horizontal line, defined using the
/ ratio suggested in the list ();
: angle between the lateral earth pressure and the normal to the wall, defined
using the / ratio suggested in the list ();
: angle between the surcharge and the ground surface ();

: angle between the ground surface and the wall ( = + ) ().
2

The value in the table corresponding to these data displayed below the input data (with an
additional value corresponding to its projection on the horizontal axis, which will be used
during the calculations).

This value can be transferred to the corresponding AMRetain edit boxes, using the Transfer
button. To close the wizard, click on Quit.

Note 1: In AMRetain, the transfer button works only for values calculated using vertical walls!
Values calculated with non-vertical walls can be viewed, but cannot be used in the
calculations.

Note 2: AMRetain uses a linear interpolation to determine values between those indicated in
the table cells.

Note 3: the wizard automatically retrieves the value of the friction angle from the soil layers
dialogue box. It also retrieves the values of interface angles from the soil layers dialogue box,
if these values are among:
{1,00;0,66;0,00;-0,66;-1,00} a/ for active pressures;
{0,66;0,5;0,33;0,00;-0,33;-0,5;-0,66;-1,00} p/ for passive pressures.

b) COULOMB active and passive earth pressures formulas

The wizard shows up in a dialogue box, as shown below:

1
Figure B 20: Calculation using the Coulomb method

1) Select the calculation type:


Active pressure;
Passive pressure.

2) Input the requested data:


: friction angle ();
: angle between the ground surface and the horizontal axis ();
: angle between the wall and the vertical axis (default value is 0) ();
/: interface friction ratio.

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The resulting values are displayed in the lower right corner of the window (inclined value and
horizontal projection).

These values can be transferred to AMRetain edit boxes by using the Transfer button. Click
on Quit to close the wizard.

Note 1: In AMRetain, the transfer button works only for values calculated using vertical walls!
Values calculated with non-vertical walls can be viewed, but cannot be used in the
calculations.

Note 2: the wizard automatically retrieves the value of the friction angle from the soil layers
dialogue box. It also retrieves the values of interface angles from the soil layers dialogue box,
if these values are included in the range from -1.00 to 1.00.

c) RANKINE active and passive earth pressures formulas

The screenshot below illustrates the wizard dialogue box:

Figure B 21: Calculation using the Rankine method

Input the inclination of the slope and the internal friction angle . Both passive and active
coefficients are immediately calculated and displayed in the boxes in the lower part of the
dialogue box.

Note: the wizard automatically retrieves the value of the friction angle from the soil layers
properties.

These values can also be transferred to the data input boxes, using the Transfer button.
Click on Quit to close the wizard.

B.3.2.3. Subgrade reaction coefficient wizard


This wizard proposes three different methods to estimate the subgrade reaction coefficient:
Balay formula, Schmitt formula, and Chadeisson curves.

The theoretical background for all these wizards is detailed in part C of the manual (section
C4). The following sections describe how to handle these wizards in the user interface.

The wizard consists in a dialogue box divided into three parts. Three radio buttons in the
upper part enable to choose one of the three available methods. The values calculated using
each of these methods are displayed under their title, in blue. The middle part of the window
is the data input zone. The lower part is used to display the results and comments.

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Figure B 22: Calculation of the subgrade reaction coefficients, using the Balay method

The display of values calculated using the different methods allows the user to decide which
value he wants to use for the calculations.

a) BALAY formula

The requested parameters are:


Em: pressuremeter deformation modulus of the considered layer (kN/m, KsF);
: rheological parameter of the considered layer;
Note: this parameter can also be calculated using a sub-wizard (click on the
Wizard button), based on fascicule 62 du LCPC SETRA.

Figure B 23: Determination of rheological parameter

a: dimensional parameter (m), depending on the wall embedment, the retained


height, and on the position of the layer with respect to the excavation level.
Note 1: a picture is available to help estimating this parameter (cf Figure B 24).
Note 2: in some specific cases (same layer above and below excavation level), the
determination of parameter a requires to dissociate 2 layers with the same
properties except for the kh value, kh being calculated on each side of the wall with
the relevant a value.

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Figure B 24: Help picture for the definition of dimensional parameter a

b) SCHMITT formula

The requested parameters are:


Em: pressuremeter deformation modulus of the considered layer (kN/m, KsF);
: rheological parameter of the considered layer;
Note: this parameter can also be calculated using a sub-wizard (click on the
Wizard button), based on fascicule 62 du LCPC SETRA. Its the same wizard
as for Balay wizard.
EI: average product of inertia of the wall.

Note: if you already filled in these parameters for Balay wizard, they are also available and
used for Schmitt wizard.

The main point in using this method is to account for variations of the subgrade reaction
coefficient depending on the wall stiffness: the more rigid the wall, the higher the subgrade
reaction coefficient (which is consistent with reality).

Figure B 25: Calculation of the subgrade reaction coefficients, using the Schmitt method

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c) CHADEISSON curves

The curves are displayed and the proper value is retrieved automatically depending on the
values input for the cohesion and the friction angle. It is also possible to check those values
directly on the curves.

Figure B 26: Chadeisson curves

Note: The curves have been reproduced approximately. There may be a slight difference
between the curves that appear in the wizard window and the Chadeisson curves that can be
found in papers.

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B.3.2.4. Colours of layers

This wizard can be opened by selecting the Wizard menu and then Layers colours. The soil
layers dialogue box appears. Double-click on the colour to be modified, in order to open the
colours wizard.

This wizard enables to change the default colour assigned to each soil layer. These new
colours will be considered as the new default settings for all projects with AMRetain.

Figure B 27: Colour wizard for the soil layers

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B.3.3. Definition of the wall properties

This dialogue box is displayed when clicking on the Data menu and then Retaining wall. It
enables to define the properties of the wall.

Figure B 28: Dialogue box for wall definition


(selection of a sheet pile in the ArcelorMittal catalogue)

Each wall is characterised by 3 parameters: Z0 (wall top level), Zf (wall bottom level) and EI
(product of inertia of the wall).

To define Z0 and Zf, fill in the relevant values in the corresponding white edit boxes.

To define EI, you should select a sheet pile in the ArcelorMittal catalogue, displayed in the
right part of the dialogue box. To do that, first select a sheet pile type (Standard Z, Standard
U, Combined wall or Jagged wall).

Depending on this selection:

Standard Z:

Figure B 29: Typical picture of a Standard Z sheet pile

Select the sheet pile reference in the list below, and click on the transfer arrow, which
will copy the value of the product of inertia in the relevant data box (left side of the
dialogue box). Click on Validate and Quit.

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Standard U:

Figure B 30: Typical picture of a Standard U sheet pile

Select the sheet pile reference in the list below, and click on the transfer arrow, which
will copy the value of the product of inertia in the relevant data box (left side of the
dialogue box).
In the case of Standard U sheet piles, it is then possible to activate a reduction
coefficient betaD, and to define betaD value (among the available values) which will
be applied to EI value (and which you will be able to modify during the staged
construction using a specific action, refer to section B.4.4.15).

The value of EI used in the calculations is then:

EImodified = betaD*EIcatalogue

For instance, if the value 0.50 has been checked, then the product of inertia used in
the calculation will be equal to 60% of the sheet pile catalogue value.

Figure B 31: Definition of reduction factor betaD


for a Standard U sheet pile

Click on Validate and Quit.

Combined walls:

Figure B 32: Typical picture of a Combined wall

Select the combined wall type and reference, using the available lists. Then click on
the transfer arrow, which will copy the value of the product of inertia in the relevant
data box (left side of the dialogue box). Click on Validate and Quit.

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Jagged walls:

Figure B 33: Typical picture of a Jagged wall

Select the jagged wall type and reference, using the available lists. Then click on the
transfer arrow, which will copy the value of the product of inertia in the relevant data
box (left side of the dialogue box). Click on Validate and Quit.

Note: The ArcelorMittal sheet pile catalogue will be regularly updated and will thus change
from time to time. The sheet pile types detailed here above may change, but the way to use
the catalogue will remain the same.

It may happen that after one of these updates, some projects require sheet pile references
that are not available anymore. In this case, AMRetain will display the following message:

Figure B 34: Message displayed when trying to use a sheet pile reference
that is not available in the catalogue anymore

It will then be necessary to select a new sheet pile reference in the updated catalogue, in
order to be able to perform calculations again.

The frame in the bottom right part of the window enables to view for the selected sheet pile
reference:
B: Sheet pile width (mm or in)
I: Sheet pile inertia (cm4/m or in4/ft)
W: Sheet pile modulus (cm3/m or in3/ft)
G: Sheet pile weight (kg/m or lb/ft))
H: Sheet pile height (mm or in)

The catalogue is available in the metric unit system only, but in the case of a project using
the imperial system, all values are converted and displayed in the imperial units (in addition
to metric values). The EI value will be converted into KipFt/Ft when clicking on the transfer
button.

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B.3.4. Data input for double wall projects

In the case of double wall projects, the input data are the same as those previously
described for single walls, but they should be provided for both walls.

The specific aspects corresponding to the double input are detailed here.

B.3.4.1. Title and options

Figure B 35: Dialogue box Title and Options (double wall project)

When selecting a double wall project, this dialogue box is a little different:

The additional checks cannot be activated. Indeed, in AMRetain, ULS checks are
available for single wall projects only. However, it is possible to perform the ULS
checks for double wall projects anyway by separating the double wall project file
(after calculation) into 2 single wall project files. The relevant procedure is detailed in
tutorial 5 (part D of the manual).

Double wall options: in this frame, you may edit:

The maximum number of iterations allowed for the convergence of the double
wall calculation (iterative calculation, refer to part C). By default, this number is
equal to 100;

The allowance of the convergence (kN, Kips). By default, this allowance is


equal to 0.1 kN (it is the maximum difference allowed, at the end of the iterative
process and for each linking anchor, between the 2 values of forces in the
linking anchor calculated for each wall; indeed, the convergence allowance is
calculated on the force in the linking anchor).

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Note: it is always possible to reset these values to default values using the button Default
values.

When defining a double wall project, data input often refers to Wall 1 (left wall) and Wall 2
(right wall). Please refer to section B.1.2.2 for the naming conventions, and for advice about
the choice of Wall 1 and Wall 2.

B.3.4.2. Soil properties for both walls


In the case of a double wall project, the data input for soil properties should be performed
twice (once for each wall, because soil properties are not always the same for both walls).

When creating such a project, AMRetain first requests the soil properties relating to Wall 1
(which is clearly stated in the dialogue box title bar).

This input should be done exactly in the same way as for a single wall (see section B.3.2).

Figure B 36: Soil properties dialogue box Wall 1

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When you are finished with the input of soil properties for Wall 1, click on Validate and Quit.
AMRetain will then ask the user whether he would like (or not) to copy to wall 2 the input data
relating to wall 1:

If you answer Yes , AMRetain will display the soil properties dialogue box for
Wall 2, with the same layers and data as for Wall 1. It is then possible to change
these data if necessary. When you are finished, Validate and Quit to move on to
the walls definition.
If you answer No , AMRetain will also display the soil properties dialogue box
for Wall 2, but it will be empty. You will have to define the layers for wall 2 from
scratch (indeed, soil layers for both walls may be completely different, especially
if the distance between both walls is important).

B.3.4.3. Retaining wall properties for both walls


This dialogue box behaves exactly in the same way as the soil properties dialogue box: you
have to define the data for Wall 1 first, and then those for Wall 2, with the choice to copy (or
not) Wall 1 data to Wall 2.

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B.4. Definition of phases


When the soil and the wall properties have been defined, the staged construction must be
described.

Each phase can include one or several actions. It is fully up to the user to decide and define
the actions for each phase, but be aware that the staged construction management can have
an influence on the results, due to the interactions between different actions. In order to
make sure that the actions combinations are correct, refer to part the sub-sections of this
chapter. Anyway, it is advised to define the calculation phases as realistically as possible,
to decompose the phases as much as possible, and to avoid applying in one given phase
several actions having opposed effects on the wall.

The section B.4.1 describes how to handle the phases in AMRetain user interface. Sections
B.4.2 and B.4.3 detail how to create the calculation phases for single wall and double wall
projects. Finally, section B.4.4 describes each action type individually.

B.4.1. User interface features relating to staged construction

The staged construction is handled through 3 different zones in the main window:
Handling of phases (creation, removal, browsing, etc);
Selection of actions for each phase;
Definition of the properties for each action.

Selection of actions

Handling of phases

Definition
of actions properties

Figure B 37: Main window Phases

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The following sections describe how these zones are working.

B.4.1.1. Staged construction management zone


The next figure illustrates the frame where phases are handled (left part of the main window).
In this frame, you can for instance create new phases, or browse through existing phases.

II

III

IV
Figure B 38: Frame for phases handling

In zone I, tabs will be added when creating new calculation phases. It is possible to browse
through the different phases of the project by clicking on the phase tabs.

In zone II, the soil layers, wall and all validated actions for the current phase will be displayed
on the graphical representation.

After the calculation, the main results are displayed as curves in zone III. These are the
displacements, shearing forces and moments for the selected phase (tab). The
limited/mobilised earth resistance ratio is also displayed.

The shortcuts buttons in zone IV (staged construction management zone) enable to:
create a new phase by clicking on

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insert a new calculation phase by clicking on


move a phase forward or backward by clicking on or
delete an existing phase by clicking on

Note 1: the curves can be enlarged by double-clicking them, so that they fill all the staged
construction management zone. It is then possible to click on a point of the curve to display
its properties. Right-clicking on these curves enables to reach the popup menu (refer to
chapter B.2.3.9). Double-clicking on the curve again enables to bring the curve back to its
initial size.

Note 2: in zone II, the graphical representation of the soil layers, wall and actions is scaled
only vertically, not horizontally. This is just a schematic sketch, not a true-scale cross-
section. Do not trust the length of an anchor, for example, or the wideness of a berm, that of
a surcharge, or the distance between both walls for double wall projects.

Zone V enables to define comments relating to the selected phase. These comments will be
displayed in the results window.

B.4.1.2. Action selection zone

II III

Figure B 39: Frame for actions selection for a given phase

The action selection zone appears in the upper-right corner of the main window. It enables to
define actions for the selected calculation phase.

The selected phase number is displayed in zone I (it is possible to rename each phase in
zone I).

Actions, in AMRetain, represent temporary or permanent loading on the soil or the wall and
enable to describe the staged construction that will be taken into account for the calculation.

These actions are grouped into different categories:

Initial phase: includes 3 types of actions available only in the initial phase:
Caquot surcharge, reduced pressure and maximal pressure. These actions can
be applied only once and remain valid during the whole project.

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Loads-Forces-Moments: includes 2 types of surcharges applied onto the ground


(Boussinesq and Graux surcharges), and 3 types of loads applied directly onto
the wall (moment, linear force and horizontal trapezoidal load).

Earthworks: includes the variations of the groundlevel due to simple excavations,


excavations with berms, and to fills.

Anchors-Wall: includes 4 types of anchors (struts, anchors, rotation springs and


linking anchors). Several anchors can be placed at the same point on the wall.
This category includes the modification of factor betaD as well (this action is
available only when a standard U sheet pile has been selected and when the
option Apply a reduction coefficient betaD has been activated in the wall initial
properties.

Soil layers: this category includes an action that enables to modify the properties
of the soil layers (each property can be changed individually in a phase).

The categories are displayed in red in zone II (action selection zone).

Zone II includes a list box for each category, so that you can browse through all actions
types available for each category.

A table presenting all available actions and the detailed data requested for each action are
provided in section B.4.4.

To select an action, click on the scrolling arrow of the desired list box, and select the proper
action.

Figure B 40: Selection of the Struts action

Then click on the transfer button next to the list box in order to transfer the action into the
list of applied actions for the current phase (zone III).

The corresponding action parameters zone is then displayed, right under the action selection
zone. The parameters for the selected action should be defined. This specific zone is
described in the next chapter.

All actions in a phase are listed in the order in which they have been defined, in zone III.

Note: the button in the frame of actions selection is a shortcut for Menu Staged
Construction, ACTIONS, Delete and enables to delete the selection action from the
selected phase.

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The mechanical properties of these actions are described in section B.4.4.

For a project with ULS checks, 2 additional selections should be made to characterise the
phase data:
Temporary / permanent phase: this choice will change the partial factors to be
used for ULS calculations for this phase.
Cantilever wall (LEM calculation): this choice is available only for phases
without anchors, and it is activated by default in such a case (but it can be
deactivated by the user if necessary).
If this box is checked, the wall will be considered as cantilever (embedded) for
the selected phase, and the ULS checks will be performed based on a LEM
calculation instead of a SSIM calculation (refer to part C of the manual).
Also, if the box is checked, AMRetain will automatically create an action LEM
coefficients (section B.4.4.18).

Figure B 41: Actions selection for a cantilever phase


(project with ULS checks)

In all cases (projects with or without ULS checks), the Envelope checkbox enables to
define the phases which will be used by the program to calculate the envelope curves. For
example:

If no Envelope box is checked in the phase tabs, only one envelope curve will
be shown. This default curve includes the maximal displacements, shear forces
and moments calculated for all phases.

If a project includes five phases plus the initial phase, and if the Envelope box is
checked in phase 3, two envelope curves will be available: one with the maximal
displacements, shear forces and moments for phases 1 to 3, and the other curve
with those maximal data for phases 4 to 5.

Note: The envelope check box can be activated neither in the initial phase, nor in phase 1
(results for phase 1 are their own envelope ).

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B.4.1.3. Action parameters zone


The action parameters zone appears in the lower right corner of the main window, right
under the action selection zone.

Figure B 42: Action parameters zone (example of an excavation with modification of the water level)

Each action in AMRetain is associated with a specific set of action parameters. In general,
the action parameters zone is divided into two parts. The left part enables for the data input
and the right part shows a schematic diagram that illustrates the action parameters.

Figure B 42 illustrates the definition of an action Excavation/Water: excavation on the left


side at level 172 m, with water level at 171 m. No surcharge is applied on the excavation
level.

Parameters for all actions are described in section B.4.4.

B.4.1.4. Validation / Calculation / Results

The buttons under the staged construction management zone are shortcuts for the Staged
construction menu: commands Validate, Calculate and Results (refer to section B.5).

saves the input data and displays the data on the graphical
representation.

performs the calculation.

opens the results window.

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B.4.2. Definition of calculation phases for a single wall project

B.4.2.1. Projects without ULS checks

By default, AMRetain always creates a first phase named Initial phase as illustrated on the
figure below:

Figure B 43: Initial phase

In this first phase, three actions are available. They can be applied only in this phase and
only once. Those are the actions: Caquot surcharge (uniformly distributed on both sides of
the wall), Reduced pressure and Maximal pressure. The use of the action selection zone
is described in section B.4.1 and the meaning of the actions is given in the following sections.
If actions are applied in the initial phase, they will be displayed on the graphical
representation of the staged construction management zone after their validation.

In order to create Phase 1, click on the button in the staged construction


management zone. This action creates a new tab named Phase 1 and the schematic profile
of the soil layers remains the same. Then define the actions for this phase: after each
validation of an action, the profile of the project is modified to take into account this action.

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Figure B 44: Creation and display of phase 1 for a given project

Then please proceed in the same way for next phases, until you have completed the
definition of all phases for the project.

Each time new phases will be added, corresponding tabs will appear next to the existing
tabs. The tabs of the staged construction management zone allow an easy and quick
browsing between the calculation phases of the project by a simple click on each tab (during
the definition of phases but also after calculation to check the results).

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B.4.2.2. Projects with ULS checks


In the case of a project with ULS checks, AMRetain will request the input of additional data
for the definition of phases and actions.

To start with, each phase should be defined either a temporary or permanent.

It should also be stated whether the wall in the selected phase should be considered as
cantilever (embedded, LEM calculation) or anchored (SSIM calculation). The option
Cantilever wall (LEM calculation) is automatically deactivated when an anchor or strut is
active in the selected phase (except in the case of a single anchor without prestress, which is
not active in the phase of its installation).

In the cantilever phases, AMRetain automatically creates an action LEM Coefficients. This
action enables to control (if necessary) the counter passive earth pressures properties for the
selected phase (refer to section B.4.4.18).

Figure B 45: Example of additional data for projects with ULS checks

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B.4.3. Definition of calculation phases for a double wall project

The way the phases are handled for a double wall project is the same as for a simple wall
project without ULS checks, except that relevant actions should be defined for each wall.

By default, AMRetain created a first phase which is the initial phase . In this first phase,
three actions are available for each wall and they can be applied only in this phase and only
once per wall. Those are the actions: Caquot surcharge (uniformly distributed on both sides
of the wall), Reduced pressure and Maximal pressure. These actions may be defined for
each wall: the buttons or Wall 1 / Wall 2 enable to switch from one wall to the other
whenever its necessary.

In order to create Phase 1, Wall 1 should be the active (selected wall): use buttons or
Wall 1 / Wall 2 to select Wall 1 if Wall 2 is currently selected.

Then there are 2 possible procedures:


Either going on with the definition of all phases for Wall 1 (following the single wall
instructions detailed in previous section), then click on phase 1, switch to Wall 2,
and browse all phases in order to add and define actions relating to Wall 2.
Or defining for each phase the actions relating to Walls 1 and 2, by permanently
switching from one wall to the other.

We recommend the first method because it enables to focus on each wall and thus the
risk of error is more limited. But both methods are of course applicable.

The creation, insertion, removal or move of a phase is possible only when Wall 1 is selected.

Each time new phases are added, the corresponding tabs will be created and will be named
after the phases number. These tabs allow for an easy browsing between the calculation
phases of the project by a simple click on each tab (during the definition of phases but also
after calculation to check the results). All the phases operations applied on Wall 1 (creation,
removal, ) are automatically applied to Wall 2 as well. The number of phases is thus
always the same for both walls. It should be mentioned that it is possible to create a phase
for which no action is applied on one wall or the other (and even on both).

Finally, both walls may be connected by means of one or 2 linking anchors. These linking
anchors can be either anchors or struts. The interaction between both walls is possible only
through these linking anchors: indeed, AMRetain does not account for any interaction
through the soil block between both walls (refer to part C).

To learn more about linking anchors, please refer to section B.4.4.16.

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B.4.4. Description des actions disponibles

AMRetain proposes 18 different action types that enable to simulate the construction phases
of any project or any load conditions. These actions are grouped into the following
categories:

Actions
Initial phase
Caquot surcharge
Reduced pressure
Maximal pressure
Loads-Forces-Moments
Boussinesq surcharge
Graux surcharge
Moment
Horizontal trapezoidal load on the wall
Linear force
Earthworks
Excavation-Water
Fill
Berm
Anchors-Wall
Struts
Anchors
Rotation spring
Modification of betaD (*)
Linking anchor (**)
Soil properties
Modification of the soil layers
LEM coefficients
Definition of LEM coefficients (***)

(*) This action is available for Standard U sheet piles only


(**) This action is available for double wall projects only
(***) This action is managed automatically by AMRetain (the user
does not need to create it, but should check its properties when
its created, i.e. for phases where the LEM calculation is active

Table B 2: Table of actions available for the definition of phases

These actions are selected using the action selection zone (as explained in section B.4.1).
Here are only presented the meaning and parameters for each action (using the screenshot
of the schematic representation for each action).

Here are also presented the possible interactions between several actions (addition or
compensation of surcharges for example) as well as the ways to remove the effect of an
action afterwards.

Three of the actions in the table above can only be applied in the initial phase, i.e. to the
initial state of the soil and wall. They are described in sections B.4.4.1 to B.4.4.3.

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These three actions can only be used once (per wall) and remain valid for the whole project,
unless another action happens to change them (for example, the Excavation or Fill action
cancels the Caquot surcharge on the same side of the wall).

Actions in the initial phase

B.4.4.1. Caquot surcharge (initial phase)


This action defines a uniform surcharge loading on the whole groundlevel (left and right
sides). It is taken into account during the calculation of the initial earth pressure.

Note: in order to define a Caquot surcharge in other phases, the Excavation-Water action
should be used. It is described more precisely in section B.4.4.9.

Left side Right side

Figure B 46: Caquot surcharge

The parameter requested to define such a surcharge is:

q: value of the surcharge (kN/m2 or KsF).

Figure B 47: Caquot surcharge properties

This surcharge is cancelled on one side of the wall as soon as an Excavation or Fill action is
defined on the same side later on during the staged construction.

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B.4.4.2. Reduced pressure (initial phase)


This action, especially when the wall is discontinuous (CombiWalls in particular), is used to
define that the earth and water active pressures will only be applied on part of the wall width
(0<R<1), for the height from zt to zb). At the same time, the passive pressures, applied on the
same height and width, can be multiplied with a coefficient C. The influence of the subgrade
reaction coefficient is also reduced.

zt

zb
Between zt and zb:
Earth active pressures multiplied by R
Earth passive pressures multiplied by R.C
Water pressures multiplied by R

Figure B 48: Reduced pressure

The properties requested for this action are:

zt: level from which the coefficients are applied (m or Ft);


zb: level from which the coefficients are no longer applied (m or Ft);
R: reduction coefficient applied on active pressures;
C: multiplying coefficient (with R) applied only to passive pressures.

Figure B 49: Properties for Reduced pressure

Additional information and an application example are provided in part C of the manual.

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B.4.4.3. Maximal pressure (initial phase)

With this action, the value of the maximal earth pressure is limited to a specified value PMAX.

Left side Right side

Figure B 50: Maximal pressure PMAX

The parameter requested for this action is:

Pmax: maximal active or passive pressure (kN/m2 or KsF).

Figure B 51: Maximal pressure

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Actions available for construction stages


These actions are presented in the same order as in the action selection zone.

Action category: Loads-Forces-Moments

B.4.4.4. Boussinesq surcharge


This action enables to apply a vertical Boussinesq surcharge onto a limited width of soil
(please refer to section C.4.2.2 for the technical background about Boussinesq surcharges).

Figure B 52: Boussinesq surcharge

The properties requested for this surcharge are:


Left or Right for a single wall project; Left or Right/B.2W (wall 1) or
Left/B.2W or Right (wall 2) for a double wall project: side of application of
the surcharge;
z: surcharge level (m or Ft);
x: distance to the wall >0 (m or Ft);
L: width of the surcharge (m or Ft);
q: surcharge value (kN/m2 or KsF);
Nature of the surcharge: when ULS checks have been requested, it is
required to define the nature of the surcharge: permanent or variable. This
choice will change the partial factor applied to the surcharge value (see
section B.3.1.2).

Figure B 53: Boussinesq surcharge

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Several Boussinesq surcharges applied onto the same side of the wall are added together,
whether they are applied in the same phase or not.

The Excavation-Water and Fill actions, whatever the depth may be, cancel the existing
Boussinesq surcharges located on the same side and defined previously. In order to keep
these surcharges active, it's necessary to define them again after each action Excavation-
Water or Fill located on the same side.

B.4.4.5. Graux surcharge


This action enables to apply a vertical Graux surcharge onto a limited width of soil (please
refer to section C.4.2.2 for the technical background about Graux surcharges).

Figure B 54: Graux surcharge

The properties requested for this action are:


Left or Right for a single wall project; Left or Right/B.2W (wall 1) or
Left/B.2W or Right (wall 2) for a double wall project: side of application of
the surcharge;
z: surcharge level (m or Ft);
x: distance to the wall >0 (m or Ft);
L: width of the surcharge (m or Ft);
: constant angle in the formula for the diffusion angle ();
: gradient for the friction angle tangent in the formula for the diffusion
angle ();
q: surcharge value (kN/m2 or KsF);
Nature of the surcharge: when ULS checks have been requested, it is
required to define the nature of the surcharge: permanent or variable. This
choice will change the partial factor applied to the surcharge value (see
section B.3.1.2).

Several Graux surcharges defined on the same side are added together, whether they
are defined in the same phase or not.

The Excavation-Water and Fill actions, whatever the depth may be, cancel the existing
Graux surcharges located on the same side and defined previously. In order to keep
these surcharges active, it's necessary to define them again after each action
Excavation-Water or Fill located on the same side.

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Figure B 55: Graux surcharge

B.4.4.6. External moment


This action enables to define an external moment load onto the wall or to deactivate an
existing one.

Figure B 56: Moment load Sign convention

The properties requested for this action are:

New moment: by default, the program assumes you want to define a new
moment load. You may also choose to deactivate an existing moment load
that was defined in previous phases;
z: moment level (m or Ft);
M: value of moment (kNm or KipsFt).
Nature of the moment: when ULS checks have been requested, it is required
to define the nature of the moment: permanent or variable, and favourable
or unfavourable. These choices will change the partial factor applied to the
moment value (see section B.3.1.2).

Figure B 57: Moment load

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The moment value does not change during the phases following its installation.

In order to deactivate an existing moment, check the option Deactivate a moment. The
parameters zone should then look like Figure B 58. Select the moment to be deactivated
(identified with its installation number, its level and its value).

Figure B 58: Activation/Deactivation of a moment

It is possible to apply several moment loads at the same level, in which case the values of
the moment loads are added together, whether they are all defined in the same phase or not.

Linear forces, struts, anchors or rotation springs can also be defined at the same level as a
moment in order to define combined actions.

B.4.4.7. Horizontal trapezodal load on the wall


This action enables to define a horizontal load onto the wall.

qht zt

qhb zb

Right side

Left side

Figure B 59: Horizontal load

The load (pressure) applies along the actual width of the wall.

The properties for this action are:

zt: top application level (m or Ft);


zb: bottom application level (m or Ft);
qht: value of the load at zt (kN/m or KsF);
qhb: value of the load at zb (kN/m or KsF);

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Nature of the load: when ULS checks have been requested, it is required to
define the nature of the load: permanent or variable, and favourable or
unfavourable. These choices will change the partial factor applied to the load
value (see section B.3.1.2).

Figure B 60: Horizontal load on the wall

qht and qhb are positive when loads are directed from the left side to the right side and
negative the other way. The loads values between qht and qhb are calculated using a linear
regression.

It is possible to define several horizontal loads. If they overlap each other (fully or partially)
and have the same direction, they will be added. On the contrary, if they have opposite
directions, they will compensate for each other (this can be used to cancel a horizontal load).
Such load combinations are valid whether all loads are defined in the same phase or not.

B.4.4.8. Linear force


This action enables to activate or deactivate a linear force on the wall.

Figure B 61: Linear force

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The properties for this action are:

New Force: by default, the program assumes you want to define a new force;
z: application level (m or Ft);
F: force value (kN or Kips);
: angle between the direction of the force and the horizontal axis. The angle
is positive clockwise () and should be defined in the range [-89, 89];
Nature of the load: when ULS checks have been requested, it is required to
define the nature of the load: permanent or variable, and favourable or
unfavourable. These choices will change the partial factor applied to the force
value (see section B.3.1.2).

Figure B 62: Linear force

The force value does not change during the phases following its installation.

In order to deactivate a linear force, check the option Deactivate a force. The parameters
zone should then look like Figure B 63. Select the force to be deactivated (identified with its
installation number, its level and its value).

Figure B 63: Activation/Deactivation of a linear force

It is possible to apply several forces at the same level, in which case the values of the forces
are added together, whether they are all defined in the same phase or not.

Struts, anchors, moment loads or rotation springs can also be defined at the same level as a
moment in order to define combined actions.

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Actions category: Earthworks

B.4.4.9. Excavation-Water
This action includes three actions in one.

It enables to define/change the excavation level, the water level and a Caquot surcharge
(uniform surcharge loading) simultaneously on the same side of the wall. For each new
action of this type, these 3 properties should be (re)defined.

Right side

Left side

Figure B 64: Excavation-Water

The properties requested for this action are:


Left or Right for a single wall project; Left or Right/B.2W (wall 1) or
Left/B.2W or Right (wall 2) for a double wall project: side of application of
the surcharge: side for the action;
zh: excavation level (m or Ft);
zw: water level (m or Ft);
q: value of the Caquot surcharge (uniform surcharge loading) to be applied
onto the bottom of the excavation (kN/m2 or KsF);
Nature of the surcharge: when ULS checks have been requested and q
value is not zero, it is required to define the nature of the surcharge:
permanent or variable. This choice will change the partial factor applied to
the surcharge value (see section B.3.1.2).

Figure B 65: Excavation-Water

The application of a new Caquot surcharge replaces the previous Caquot surcharge on the
same side. Caquot surcharges cannot be added one to the other.

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B.4.4.10. Fill action

This action enables to define a fill with the bottom level at the previous groundlevel.

q
zt

Left side Right side

Figure B 66: Fill

The properties for this action are:

The name of the fill layer;


Left or Right for a single wall project; Left or Right/B.2W (wall 1) or
Left/B.2W or Right (wall 2) for a double wall project: side of application of
the surcharge: side for the fill;
zt: top level of the fill (m or Ft);
zw: water level on this side when installing the fill (m or Ft);
q: value of the Caquot surcharge applied onto the fill (kN/m2 or KsF);
, d: soil weights (kN/m3 or KcF);
: internal friction angle ();
c and dc: cohesion and its variation with depth (kN/m2 and kN/m2/m or KsF
and KsF/Ft);
ki: active pressure coefficient used to calculate the initial pressure;
ka, kp, kac, kpc: coefficients for active and passive earth pressures;
kd and kr: unloading and reloading ratios for the fill;
kh and dkh: subgrade reaction coefficient and its variation with depth (kN/m3
and kN/m3/m or KcF and KcF/Ft).
Nature of the surcharge: when ULS checks have been requested and q
value is not zero, it is required to define the nature of the surcharge:
permanent or variable. This choice will change the partial factor applied to
the surcharge value (see section B.3.1.2)

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Figure B 67: Fill

Note: When setting the parameters for the fill layer, it is possible to import existing soil
properties by clicking on the button Import a soil from the soils DB. Then only zt and zw
have to be defined. It is also possible to save a fill layer into the soil database by clicking on
Add this fill to the soils DB. This fill layer can then be later used again.

ka/kp and kac/kpc wizards are also available in this window.

Figure B 68: Copying the properties of an existing soil layer

Note 1: please refer to part C f the manual (section C.4.2.3) for explanations about how a fill
layer is taken into account in the calculation, and about ki coefficient definition.
This ki coefficient should be chosen in the range [ka, k0]: k0 should be used for compacted
fills, whereas ka should be used for fills with gravity installation.

Note 2: it is possible to create several successive fills with different soil properties on the
same side of the wall (in successive phases).

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This action cancels Graux, Boussinesq or Caquot surcharges previously defined on the
same side as the fill. In order to keep these surcharges active, they should be defined again,
but in the next phase (it is impossible to define Graux or Boussinesq surcharges on the same
side and in the same phase as a fill action).

B.4.4.11. Berm
This action SHOULD ONLY BE USED after an Excavation-Water action in the same phase.
If there is no new excavation before the berm, the properties for the Excavation-Water action
should be the same as those for the latest Excavation-Water action.

Excavation-Water
Berm

Note: this Excavation-Water action before the Berm action also enables to activate a Caquot
surcharge on top of the berm and to define a new water level.

A berm, as for its action on the wall, is considered as a sequence of negative and semi-
infinite uniform surcharge loadings. These uniform surcharge loadings simulate the horizontal
slices of soil located between the infinite and the external envelope of the berm, and between
the berm upper level: z of the previous excavation and the berm bottom level: z of the
bottom of the berm). The resulting action is a decrease of the effective vertical stress at
level z in front of the wall.

The properties requested to define a berm are:


z: level of the bottom of the berm (m or Ft);
a: width of the top of the berm > 0 (m or Ft);
b: width of the bottom of the berm >0 (m or Ft).

Figure B 69: Berm

Note: No stability calculation is performed for the berm geometry. It is the users
responsibility to perform such a calculation separately.

If a Fill action is defined after a Berm action, the top of the berm will be considered as the
bottom of the fill.

A simple excavation action defined after a berm cancels the Berm action, even if the
excavation does not reach the bottom of the berm. In order to keep the berm active, it should
be defined again using its new width at the top and the former width at the bottom.

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Actions category: Anchors-Wall

B.4.4.12. Struts
This action enables to activate or deactivate a strut.

The horizontal compression Th in the strut is equal to:


Th = K* with = differential displacement at the given node.

Figure B 70: Struts

The properties requested to define a strut are:

Figure B 71: Struts - Parameters and wizard

Activate a new strut: default option, which enables to create a new strut;
Left or Right for a single wall project; Left or Right/B.2W (wall 1) or
Left/B.2W or Right (wall 2) for a double wall project: side of application of the
strut;
za: level of the strut (m or Ft);
K: stiffness of the strut (kN/m or Kips/Ft);
Unilateral mode: by default, this is not activated and the strut can take either
compression or traction forces. But if the unilateral mode is activated (checked),
then the strut can take only compression forces (if the strut takes traction forces,
then these forces will not be considered: no force in the strut at all).

All the data and results for anchors are provided per working unit along the wall.

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The Wizard for strut stiffness can de displayed by clicking on the Wizard button. It is
intended as a help to define the strut stiffness using the formula provided in part C of the
manual (section C.4.2.4).

In order to deactivate an existing strut, check the Deactivate box. The strut parameters zone
appears as shown on the figure below. Select the strut to be deactivated in the list box.
Struts are identified using their installation number, their level and their stiffness value.

Figure B 72: Deactivation of an existing strut

In order to change the stiffness of a strut in a given phase, you may use the Creep option
and define the new stiffness value, as illustrated below:

Figure B 73: Creep of an existing strut

It is possible to define any other force (linear force, anchor, moment, rotation spring) at the
same level as a strut, to simulate combined actions.

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B.4.4.13. Anchors
This action enables to activate and deactivate an anchor.

The traction T in an anchor is equal to: T = P + K**cos()


And the corresponding horizontal force is: Th = P*cos() + K**cos()
with = differential displacement at the given node.

Figure B 74: Definition of an anchor

The properties requested to define an anchor are:

Figure B 75: Anchors -Parameters and wizard

Activate a new anchor: default option, which enables to create a new anchor;
Left or Right for a single wall project; Left or Right/B.2W (wall 1) or
Left/B.2W or Right (wall 2) for a double wall project: side of application of the
anchor;
za: level of the head of the anchor (m or Ft);
P: prestress force for the anchor (kN or Kips);
K: anchor stiffness (kN/m or Kips/Ft);
: angle between the direction of the anchor and the horizontal axis. The angle is
positive clockwise ().
Lu: useful length of the anchor (m or Ft): its usually calculated as the distance
between the anchor head and the middle point of the grouted part of the anchor.

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Please also refer to Kranz check (part C) and to tutorial 5 in part D for more
information about Lu;
Unilateral mode: by default, this is not activated and the anchor can take either
compression or traction forces. But if the unilateral mode is activated (checked),
then the anchor can take only traction forces (if the anchor takes compression
forces, then these forces will not be considered: no force in the anchor at all).

All the data and results for anchors are provided per working unit along the wall.

The Wizard for anchor stiffness and prestress can de displayed by clicking on the Wizard
button. It is intended as a help to define the anchor stiffness and prestress using the formula
provided in part C of the manual (section C.4.2.5).

In order to deactivate an existing anchor, check the Deactivate box. The anchor parameters
zone appears as shown on the figure below. Select the anchor to be deactivated in the list
box. Anchors are identified using their installation number, their level, their stiffness, their
prestress and their angle.

Figure B 76: Deactivation of an existing anchor

When installing an anchor, only the prestress force is taken into account in the calculation of
the installation phase. The anchor stiffness is taken into account starting from the next phase
(the one after the installation) on. Please also refer to section B.7.1.

In order to change the prestress force or the stiffness of an anchor, first deactivate it, then
create a new anchor at the same level with the new prestress and stiffness values.

It is possible to define any other force at the same level as an anchor.

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B.4.4.14. Rotation spring (rotation stiffness)


This action enables to define a rotation stiffness R that creates a moment C, related to the
wall differential rotation i.

This moment is equal to: C = -R*i (i>0 anti-clockwise)

Figure B 77: Rotation spring (rotation stiffness)

The properties requested to define a rotation spring:

Figure B 78: Rotation spring definition zone

Activate a new rotation spring: default option, which enables to create a new
rotation spring;
z: level of the rotation spring (m or Ft);
Rr: rotation stiffness (kN.m/rad or Kips.Ft/rad).

In order to deactivate an existing rotation spring, check the Deactivate box. The spring
parameters zone appears as shown on Figure B 79. Select the spring to be deactivated in
the list box. Springs are identified using their installation number, their level, and their rotation
stiffness.

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Figure B 79: Deactivation of an existing rotation spring

This action, combined with the Moment action, enables to simulate the action of an external
structure (floor) embedded into the wall and subjected to an embedment moment.

B.4.4.15. Modification of factor beta.D


This action is available only for Standard U sheet pile walls and when the option Apply
reduction coefficient betaD has been checked in the initial definition of the wall (section
B.3.3).

This action enables to change in a given phase the value of the betaD coefficient, and thus
the EI value for the wall. This EI value is calculated by applying the new betaD value (to be
chosen by the user among the available values in the range [0.3; 1]:

EImodified = betaD*EIcatalogue

For instance, if the value 0.60 has been checked, then the modified EI value will be equal to
60% of the ArcelorMittal catalogue EI value.

Figure B 80: Modification of betaD coefficient (Standard U sheet piles only)

The previous EI value will be replaced with the new one in the equations and this change will
thus have an influence on the wall displacements.

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B.4.4.16. Linking anchors


This action is available for double wall projects only. It enables to activate or deactivate a
linking anchor.

The definition of a new linking anchor is possible only when Wall 1 is selected (but the linking
anchor is automatically copied to Wall 2 actions). When the linking anchor has been created,
it is possible to modify its properties or to deactivate it either from Wall 1 or from Wall 2.

For each project, no more than 2 linking anchors may be defined (even if they are
deactivated during the staged construction, a third linking anchor cannot be created).

AMRetain calculations are valid for subhorizontal linking anchors, i.e. for anchors
inclinations inferior to 15. Calculations for larger values of are possible but results may
not be realistic and using AMRetain is not recommended for anchors inclinations higher than
15.

The properties requested to define a linking anchor are:

Activate a new anchor: default option, which enables to create a new anchor;
Anchor or Strut: selection of the anchor type;
zaa: level of the head of the anchor on Wall 1 (m or Ft);
zab: level of the head of the anchor on Wall 2 (m or Ft);
K: anchor stiffness (kN/m or Kips/Ft);
Lu: useful length of the anchor (m or Ft);
: angle between the direction of the anchor and the horizontal axis. The angle is
positive clockwise (). This value is calculated automatically and provided for
information only. It enables to check that is indeed inferior to 15.
Unilateral mode: by default, this is not activated and the linking anchor can take
either compression or traction forces (whether its a strut or an anchor). But if the
unilateral mode is activated (checked), then a linking anchor can take only
traction forces (if the anchor takes compression forces, then these forces will not
be considered: no force in the anchor at all); and a linking strut can take only
compression forces (if the strut takes traction forces, then these forces will not be
considered: no force in the strut at all).

Figure B 81: Linking anchor Parameters and wizard

All the data and results for anchors are provided per working unit along the wall.

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The Wizard for linking anchor can de displayed by clicking on the Wizard button. It is
intended as a help to define the anchor stiffness using the formula provided in part C of the
manual (section C.4.2.6).

In order to deactivate an existing anchor, check the Deactivate box. The anchor parameters
zone appears as shown on the figure below. Select the anchor to be deactivated in the list
box. Anchors are identified using their installation number, their levels on both walls, and
their stiffness.

When a linking anchor is deactivated for one of the walls, it is automatically deactivated for
the other wall too.

Figure B 82: Deactivation of an existing linking anchor

In order to change the stiffness of an existing linking anchor, first deactivate it, then create a
new anchor at the same level with the new stiffness value.

It is not possible to define 2 linking anchors (active) at the same level. A minimum distance of
twice the calculation step should be kept between the heads of 2 linking anchors on the
same wall. But any other force may be applied at the same level as a linking anchor.

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Actions category: Soil properties

B.4.4.17. Modification of soil properties


This action enables to change the properties of an existing soil layer.

This change may be defined either on the left or on the right side of the wall. The requested
properties are:

Left or Right for a single wall project; Left or Right/B.2W (wall 1) or


Left/B.2W or Right (wall 2) for a double wall project: side of application of
the action;
The name of the layer to be changed: use the list box to select the layer;
, c: the new values for the shear properties ( and kN/m2 or and KsF);
k0, ka, kp, kd, kr, kac, kpc: the new values for active and passive earth
pressure coefficients;
kh and dkh: the new values for the horizontal subgrade reaction coefficient,
and its variation per unit of depth (kN/m3 and kN/m3/m or KcF and KcF/Ft).

Figure B 83: Modification of soil properties

This action enables to change either some of the properties of a soil layer, or all of them.

You can only change the properties for a given layer at a time. In order to change the
parameters of another layer, you need to define another action New soil properties in the
same phase, to select another layer to change and to input its new properties. This action
may be repeated as often as necessary.

In the zone New properties for the selected layer, the button Properties phase n-1 can be
used to fill in automatically the properties (then you just have to change the values which
indeed change). The button Properties Phase 0 enables to restore automatically the initial
properties of the same layer.

ka/kp and kac/kpc wizards are also available on this window.

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Actions category: LEM coefficients

B.4.4.18. LEM coefficients


This action enables to control the properties of counter passive earth pressures for ULS
calculations of cantilever phases (LEM calculations), i.e. for phases where the option
Cantilever wall (LEM calculation) has been checked.

The requested properties are:

dp(cb)/phi: obliquity of counter passive earth pressures,


kp(cb): passive earth pressure coefficient used for counter passive earth
pressure,
kp(cb): passive earth pressure coefficient used for cohesion component of
counter passive earth pressure.

Figure B 84: LEM coefficients

By default, for each soil layer, the properties of counter passive earth pressures (p(cb)/,
Kp(cb), and Kpc(cb)) are set as equal to those of passive earth pressures (same values as p/,
Kp, and Kpc).

In order to be able to check both the horizontal equilibrium and vertical equilibrium with
compatible pressures, you may have, if necessary, to change the inclination (obliquity) of
counter passive earth pressures p(cb)/ (please refer tutorial 2 in part D of the manual for
the detailed procedure).

These properties of counter passive earth pressures are used for ULS LEM calculations as
described in section C.3 of the manual.

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B.5. Calculation and results

In AMRetain, calculations are performed for a unit length of the wall, therefore
the data and results also concern this unit length. The unit, /ml (per linear meter) or /Ft
(per Foot), is not reminded in the results screens but is always implicit.

B.5.1. Calculations

In AMRetain, there are three different ways to run the calculation:

Click on the shortcut button located in the action selection zone;

Click on the calculation button in the buttons bar;


Or select the Calculation/Results menu and then Calculation.

The calculation can be performed at any time (in the initial phase, in the current phase, in the
final phase), as long as all the data for the soil layers and for the wall(s) have been fully
defined.

Calculations are quite quick, but may last a few seconds in the case of double wall projects.
For these projects, a calculation window is displayed during calculations:

Figure B 85: Calculation window for double wall projects

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B.5.2. The different types of results available after calculations

The results calculated and displayed by AMRetain depend on the type of calculation
performed (SLS/ULS, LEM/SSIM, ) and are detailed in the following sections.

B.5.2.1. Single wall projects


The results depend on the calculation type. The flowchart below summarises the available
calculation types and corresponding result types.

Please refer to part C of the manual for detailed explanations about the calculations
themselves.

Calculation wihout ULS


Calculation with ULS checks
checks

Basic
SLS calculation ULS calculation
calculation

Phases with anchor(s) Cantilver phases

SSIM" model SSIM model SSIM model Limit equilibrium


(without weighting (without weighting (with 1,11 applied to model LEM (with
factors) factors) variable loads) weighting factors)

Basic results SLS Results ULS results ULS results


- Mobilised pressures - Mobilised pressures - Mobilised pressure - Mobilised pressure
- Displacements - Displacements - Displacements - Design forces (Vd, Md)
- Forces (V, M) - Forces (V, M) - Charac. forces (Vk, Mk)
- Design forces(Vd, Md) ULS checks
- Faillure on the passive side
ULS checks - Vertical equilibirum
- Faillure on the passive side
- Vertical equilibrium
Kranz
- Anchoring block stablity
model

Figure B 86: Calculation flowchart and results obtained for each calculation type

Case of a calculation without ULS checks

All phases are processed using the basic SSIM model without weighting factors on soil
properties nor surcharges.

The results obtained include wall displacements, mobilised pressures as well as shear forces
and bending moments (V, M).

Please refer to section B.5.3 for a detailed presentation of basic SSIM results as
displayed in AMRetain.

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Case of a calculation with ULS checks

Two calculations are performed for each phase:


1) A SLS calculation based on a SSIM model, without weighting on soil and
surcharge properties. The results of this calculation are strictly identical to those of a
calculation without ULS checks : displacements, mobilised pressures and forces
(V, M);
Please refer to section B.5.4 for a detailed presentation of SLS results as displayed in
AMRetain (the display of SLS results is very similar to that of basic SSIM results).
2) A ULS calculation with a different model depending whether the wall is anchored
or not in the phase considered:
If the wall is anchored: the calculation uses a SSIM model applying an
intermediate weighting factor of 1.11 on variable surcharges. This model leads
to the following results:
o Displacements;
o Characteristic values of mobilised pressures;
o Characteristic values of forces in anchors;
o Characteristic values of forces (Vk, Mk);
o Design values of forces (Vd, Md) evaluated by applying a factor of 1.35 to
characteristic values.
Please refer to section B.5.4 for a detailed presentation of ULS SSIM results as
displayed in AMRetain.

The results of this model are used as input parameters in the following ULS
checks;
o Checking passive earth pressures;
o Checking vertical resultant;
o Checking stability of the anchoring block.
Please refer to section B.5.5 for a detailed presentation of ULS checks results as
displayed in AMRetain.
If the wall is embedded (cantilever): the calculation uses a limit equilibrium model
(LEM) in compliance with the NF P 94-282 standard. This model is produced by
applying partial weighting factors to the actions (active earth pressures,
surcharges) and resistances (passive earth pressures, counter-earth
resistance). It leads to the following results:
o Design values of mobilised pressures;
o Design values of forces (Vd, Md).
Please refer to section B.5.4 for a detailed presentation of ULS LEM results as
displayed in AMRetain.

These results are associated with the following checks:


o Failure on the passive side;
o Vertical equilibrium.
Please refer to section B.5.5 for a detailed presentation of ULS checks results as
displayed in AMRetain.

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B.5.2.2. Double wall projects


The ULS checks are not (directly) available for double wall projects and the results displayed
for each wall after a double wall calculation are those of the basic SSIM calculation.
Please refer to section B.5.6.

B.5.3. Presentation of SSIM resultats for single wall projects without ULS checks

B.5.3.1. Presentation of results on AMRetain main window


After the calculation, the curves for displacements, shear forces and moments (characteristic
values only because we deal here with calculations without ULS checks) appear in the
staged construction management zone, in the current phase tab.
The earth resistance ratio is also displayed on the main window.

An error message is displayed in cases of non-convergence of the calculations (this


message is displayed for all phases following a non-converged phase).

It is of course possible to view additional curves and tables when opening the results
window. The results window is a separate window, using the same tab-navigation system as
the main window.

There are three ways to open this window:

click on the button in the action selection zone;

click on the shortcut button in the buttons bar;


or select Calculation/Results and then the Results sub-menu.

Figure B 87: Presentation of SSIM results on the main window

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B.5.3.2. Results window / Data tab


By default, when opening the results window, the first tab is activated. This is the Data tab
(reminder of the input data):

Figure B 88: Results window, Data tab

This tab summarises all the data relating to the soil layers, the wall and the selected options
(like buckling for example), as well as the actions defined for the initial phase if any (reduced
pressure, Caquot surcharge or maximal pressure).

B.5.3.3. Results window / Phases tabs

In the phases tabs, the default display is the graphical display of phases results: curves for
displacements, moments, shear forces and earth/water pressures (Figure B 89).

It is possible to switch to the display of tables by clicking the Tables option (Figure B 90).

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I V

II

III

IV
Figure B 89: Results of a phase Graphical display
(single wall, without ULS checks)

II

Figure B 90: Results of a phase Table display


(single wall, without ULS checks)

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Each phases tab is divided into five zones:

Zone I. The first zone is the display selection zone. It enables to shift between curves and
tables.

Zone II. The second zone is devoted to the display of detailed results (curves or tables):

Graphical display:

wall displacements curve (mm or In);


moments curve (in the units system selected for the project);
shear forces curve (in the units system selected for the project);
earth/water pressures curves: in the case of a decomposed display, red curves
stand for earth pressures and blue dashed lines stand for water pressures. The
curves with negative values represent pressures on the left side of the wall. On the
contrary, positive values correspond to pressures on the right side of the wall.
It is possible to switch to the differential display mode (addition of passive/active
earth pressures and water pressures).

Figure B 91: Example of differential earth/water pressures (left chart)


and equivalent decomposed displays (right chart)

The minimal and maximal values for each curve are displayed below the charts.

Table display:

The title bar on top of the table includes information about the columns (results type, side of
the wall (left or right, units system).

A thorough description of the columns is given hereafter:

Depth or level: position of calculation points (nodes) along the wall, in depths or in
levels (depending on the choice for the project). The calculation step is the maximal
distance between two nodes. But the distance between two nodes can be smaller
than that, because the program includes nodes at the interfaces between soil layers

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and at the anchors heads (1 node for each anchor and 2 nodes for each soil
interface).

Rotation: rotation for the structure at the calculation node.

Displacement: displacement of the structure at the calculation node.

M,k: characteristic value of the bending moment in the wall.

V,k: characteristic value of the shear force in the wall.

Status: soil status at each node, according to the following rule:


Excavation: excavation on left or right side;
Separation: no more contact between the soil and the wall (please refer
to part C);
Active: active pressure on the wall;
Elastic: elastic soil facing the wall;
Passive: passive pressure on the wall.

ph,k: characteristic value of the horizontal mobilized effective pressure.

u,k: characteristic value of the water pressure calculated using the water weight.

v,k: characteristic value of the effective vertical pressure.

pa,k: characteristic value of the active effective pressure (limiting active pressure).

pb,k: characteristic value of the passive effective pressure (limiting passive pressure).

p,k: characteristic value of the differential pressure, calculated using:

p,k = ph,kright - ph,kleft + u,kright - u,kleft

Zone III. The earth resistance ratio is displayed in this zone.

Zone IV. This zone is located in the lower left corner of the window and includes a list box
which provides the axial forces in the anchors and struts that are active for the current phase.
The third zone is located in the lower left corner of the window, and contains two list boxes:

Zone V. This zone is dedicated to warning messages. Such messages appear when the
calculation did not converge.
The calculation convergence depends on the status of the wall elements (nodes). If the
status of all wall elements remains the same from one calculation step to the next one, then it
is assumed that convergence is reached. But if convergence has not been reached after the
maximum number of iterations (section B.3.1), the calculation stops anyway (in order not to
loop permanently), and a non-convergence warning message is displayed.

Figure B 92: Non-convergence indication

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B.5.3.4. Results window / Results synthesis tab


The synthesis table tab displays a table that summarises the maximum values of main
results obtained for the each phase, and the extreme values obtained for the whole series of
phases (last line in the table below):

Figure B 93: Results synthesis (simple wall, without ULS checks)

The types of results provided in the table are the following:

Head displacement: displacement of the top point of the wall (mm or In).

Maximal displacement: maximum displacement reached along the wall (mm or In).

Maximal moment: maximum moment reached along the wall (kNm or KipFt).

Maximal shear force: maximum shear force reached along the wall (kN or Kip).

Earth resistance ratio: ratio (limiting/mobilised earth resistance) Please note that the
extreme value provided on the last line for the earth resistance ratio is the minimum
value over all phases (and not the maximum value, like for the other columns).

Forces in anchors: axial forces in anchors (kN or Kip).

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B.5.3.5. Results window / Envelope(s) tab(s)


The last tabs of the results window enable to display envelope results for displacements,
moments and shear forces.

If no intermediate envelope has been asked for in the phases definition, one
single Envelope tab is available (example below). It corresponds to envelope
results covering all phases.

If intermediate envelopes have been asked for in the phases definition, several
envelope tabs are displayed and correspond to the requested partial sequences.

Figure B 94: Display of partial envelope for phases 1 to 5

On each Envelope tab, it is possible to switch between curves and table display.

Note: on all tabs of the results window, 2 buttons are available: Print to open the printing
dialogue box and Quit to close the results window.

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B.5.4. Presentation of results for single wall projects with ULS checks

For single wall projects with ULS checks, AMRetain enables to view SLS as well as ULS
results.

For each ULS result, the k index stands for characteristic values whereas the d index
stands for design values.

B.5.4.1. Presentation of results on AMRetain main window


On the main window, ULS results only are presented.

Cantilever phases

LEM calculation is used for cantilever phases, and:


Only design values (d index) of results are available (Figure B 95).
Displacements are not displayed because this is a limit equilibrium calculation.

Except for these 2 points, indications of section B.5.3.1 are valid here too.

Figure B 95: ULS results in the main window for a cantilever phase (LEM calculation)

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Anchored phases

SSIM calculation is used for anchored phases, and:


Both characteristic (k index) and design values (d index) of results are available
(Figure B 96).
Red curves correspond to characteristic values of results whereas black curves
correspond to design values of results.

Except for these 2 points, indications of section B.5.3.1 are valid here too.

Figure B 96: ULS results in the main window for an anchored phase (SSIM calculation)

B.5.4.2. Results window


In the top part of the window, AMRetain enables to switch at any moment between SLS and
ULS results (whether on phases tabs, on results synthesis tab or on envelopes tabs, Figure
B 97).

When ULS results are selected, 3 additional buttons are available and enable to reach the
results of the ULS checks (section B.5.5).

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SLS results

SLS results are identical to results of a basic SSIM calculation.


Indications of sections B.5.3.2 to B.5.3.5 are thus all valid here.

Figure B 97: SLS results in the results window

ULS results

Cantilever phases

LEM calculation is used for cantilever phases, and like for the main window:
Only design values (d index) of moments and shear forces are available on charts
and in tables (Figure B 98 and Figure B 99).
Displacements are not displayed (neither on charts nor in tables) because this is a
limit equilibrium calculation.

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Figure B 98: Results window ULS results for a cantilever phase (LEM calculation) - Curves

Figure B 99: Results window ULS results for a cantilever phase (LEM calculation) - Table

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Moreover, additional columns appear on the Results synthesis tab (Figure B 100):
Type: indicates the type of calculation used for each phase (LEM or SSIM);
Check Pass. press: provides the result of the check with respect to failure on the
passive side (OK or Not OK);
Check Vert. Eq.: provides the resultant of vertical forces (positive value if directed
downwards).

Figure B 100: Results window ULS results synthesis with cantilever phases only

Except for these points, indications of sections B.5.3.2 to B.5.3.5 are valid here.

Anchored phases

SSIM calculation is used for anchored phases, and:


Both characteristic (k index) and design values (d index) of results are available
(Figure B 96) on charts and in tables (Figure B 101 and Figure B 102).
Red curves correspond to characteristic values of results whereas black curves
correspond to design values of results.

Figure B 101: Results window - ULS results for an anchored phase (SSIM calculation) - Curves

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Figure B 102: Results window - ULS results for an anchored phase (SSIM calculation) - Table

Moreover, additional columns appear on the Results synthesis tab (Figure B 103):
Type: indicates the type of calculation used for each phase (LEM or SSIM);
Check Pass. press: provides the result of the check with respect to failure on the
passive side (OK or Not OK);
Check Vert. Eq.: provides the resultant of vertical forces (positive value if directed
downwards).
Kranz: provides the result of the Kranz check (OK or Not OK).

Figure B 103: Results window ULS results synthesis with both cantilever and anchored phases

Except for these points, indications of sections B.5.3.2 to B.5.3.5 are valid here.

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B.5.5. Presentation of the results of ULS checks for single wall projects

For projects with ULS checks, AMRetain proposes detailed results for each of the check type
(failure on the passive side, balance of vertical forces and Kranz) and for each phase.

These results are proposed in a separate window, which can be reached:


Either by clicking on the button .
Or by clicking on one of the buttons from
the results window (ULS mode).

The ULS checks results window (Figure B 104) opens, and the default tab corresponds to
the currently selected phase before opening this new window).

I II

III

Figure B 104: ULS checks results window

This window includes 3 different zones:

Zone I. Phases tabs enabling to browse through phases for checks results.

Zone II. Tabs corresponding to the 3 types of checks available in AMRetain:


Check with respect to failure on the passive side;
Balance of vertical forces;
Check of the stability of the anchoring block according to Kranz simplified method
(available only when at least one anchor is active in the considered phase).

Zone III. Display of results.

The following sub-sections detail the results displayed for each check type. These results,
their notations and the calculation methods (according to the French Standard NF P 94-282)
are further described in part C of the manual.

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B.5.5.1. Check with respect to failure on the passive side

B.5.5.1.1. Anchored phase (SSIM calculation)

Figure B 105: ULS checks Results of the check of failure on the passive side
Anchored phase (SSIM calculation)

The calculation performed by AMRetain to check the failure on the passive side for an
anchored wall is a SSIM calculation type, and the results provided are the following:

Bt,k: characteristic value of the resultant of mobilised passive earth pressures (kN or
Kip);
Bt,d: design value of the resultant of mobilised passive earth pressures (kN or Kip);
Bm,k: characteristic value of the resultant of limiting passive earth pressures (kN or
Kip);
Bm,d: design value of the resultant of limiting passive earth pressures (kN or Kip).

AMRetain compares the value of Bt,d with that of Bm,d, and a sign is provided for the
selected phase: green sign if the mobilised passive earth pressure is inferior to the limiting
passive earth pressure, or red sign if not.

For more details about this check, please refer to section C.3.2.1.

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B.5.5.1.2. Cantilever phase (LEM calculation)

Figure B 106: ULS checks Results of the check of failure on the passive side
Cantilever phase (LEM calculation)

The calculation performed by AMRetain to check the failure on the passive side for a
cantilever wall is a LEM calculation type, and the results provided are the following:

z0: level/depth of the null pressure point (m or Ft);


zc: level/depth of the null moment point (m or Ft);
zp: level/depth of the bottom of the wall (m or Ft);
f0: available embedment below null pressure point (m or Ft);
fb: minimum embedment, below null pressure point, required to ensure moments
equilibrium (m or Ft);
f0/fb: ratio of both embedment values;
Conclusion sign for the embedment check: green sign if the embedment check is
satisfactory (i.e. embedment ratio 1.2); red sign if not.

zn (only when method D has been selected; otherwise (method F), zn is assumed to
be the same level as zc): level/depth of the transition point (m or Ft);
Ct,d: design value of the resultant of counter passive earth pressure required to
ensure equilibrium of horizontal forces (kN or Kip);
Cm,d: design value of the resultant of limiting counter passive earth pressure below
transition point (kN or Kip);
: mobilisation factor (equal to ratio Ct,d / Cm,d);
Conclusion sign for the counter passive earth pressure check: green sign if the
embedment check is satisfactory (i.e. 1.0); red sign if not.

Reminder of the partial factors used in the calculation (values defined by the
user, section B.3.1)

For more details about this check, please refer to section C.3.2.2.

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B.5.5.2. Balance of vertical forces (or check of vertical equilibrium)

B.5.5.2.1. Anchored phases (SSIM calculation)

Figure B 107: ULS checks Balance of vertical forces Anchored phase (SSIM calculation)

The calculation performed by AMRetain to check the failure on the passive side for an
anchored wall is a SSIM calculation type, and the results provided are the following:
z: level/depth of calculation point (m or Ft);
p01: at-rest earth pressures on side 1 of the wall (kN/m or Kip/Ft);
p02: at-rest earth pressures on side 2 of the wall (kN/m or Kip/Ft);
pv1: mobilisable vertical earth pressures on side 1 of the wall (kN/m or Kip/Ft);
pv2: mobilisable vertical earth pressures on side 2 of the wall (kN/m or Kip/Ft);
Tv: vertical component of forces in inclined anchors connected to the wall (kN or Kip);
Fv: vertical component of inclined linear forces applied to the wall (kN or Kip).

Pv,d: design value of the vertical resultant of earth pressures along the wall (kN or
Kip);
Tv,d: design value of the vertical resultant of forces in inclined anchors connected to
the wall (kN or Kip);
Fv,d: design value of the vertical resultant of inclined linear forces applied to the wall
(kN or Kip);
P,d: weight of the wall (kN or Kip);

Rv,d: design value of the resultant of vertical forces (kN or Kip).

Reminder of the partial factors used in the calculation (values defined by the
user, section B.3.1)

The check is considered to be satisfactory if the resultant of vertical forces is positive, i.e.
directed downwards (AMRetain sign convention). A grey symbol with an arrow directed
downwards means that the resultant of vertical forces is positive. A red symbol with an arrow
directed upwards means that the resultant of vertical forces is negative.

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The user should use this resultant Rv,d (if indeed positive) as an input data to check the
bearing capacity at the bottom of the wall. This check of bearing capacity is not provided in
AMRetain.

For more details about this check, please refer to section C.3.2.2.

B.5.5.2.2. Cantilever phases (LEM calculation)

Figure B 108: ULS checks Balance of vertical forces Cantilever phase (LEM calculation)

The calculation performed by AMRetain to check the failure on the passive side for a
cantilever wall is a LEM calculation type, and the results provided are the following:
The first table provides intermediate results :

z: level/depth of calculation point (m or Ft);


p01: at-rest earth pressures on side 1 of the wall (kN/m or Kip/Ft);
p02: at-rest earth pressures on side 2 of the wall (kN/m or Kip/Ft);
pv1: mobilisable vertical earth pressures on side 1 of the wall (kN/m or Kip/Ft);
pv2: mobilisable vertical earth pressures on side 2 of the wall (kN/m or Kip/Ft);
Tv: vertical component of forces in inclined anchors connected to the wall (kN or Kip);
Fv: vertical component of inclined linear forces applied to the wall (kN or Kip).

When method D has been selected, the following values are available:
Pv1+,d and Pv2+,d: design value of the vertical resultant of earth pressures down to
transition point zn (kN or Kip);
Pv1-,d and Pv2-,d: design value of the vertical resultant of earth pressures below
transition point zn (kN or Kip).

The following final results are then displayed (for both methods D and F):
Pv,d: design value of the vertical resultant of earth pressures along the wall (kN or
Kip);
Tv,d: design value of the vertical resultant of forces in inclined anchors connected to
the wall (kN or Kip);

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Fv,d: design value of the vertical resultant of inclined linear forces applied to the wall
(kN or Kip);
P,d: weight of the wall (kN or Kip);

Rv,d: design value of the resultant of vertical forces (kN or Kip).

Reminder of the partial factors used in the calculation (values defined by the
user, section B.3.1)

The check is considered to be satisfactory if the resultant of vertical forces is positive, i.e.
directed downwards (AMRetain sign convention). A grey symbol with an arrow directed
downwards means that the resultant of vertical forces is positive. A red symbol with an arrow
directed upwards means that the resultant of vertical forces is negative.

The user should use this resultant Rv,d (if indeed positive) as an input data to check the
bearing capacity at the bottom of the wall. This check of bearing capacity is not provided in
AMRetain.

For more details about this check, please refer to section C.3.2.2.

B.5.5.3. Kranz check (or check of the stability of the anchoring block)

Figure B 109: ULS checks Kranz check

The Kranz check is available only for anchored phases.

The first table provides intermediate results :

Situation: number of each situation (the total number of situations corresponds to the
number of active anchors in the considered phase);
Nb of anchors: number of anchors taken into account for each situation;
Blocks nb: number of blocks after discretisation of the anchoring block (depending
on the number of soil layers interfaces intersecting the base line of the anchoring
block);
z(D): level/depth of the zero shear force point (m or Ft);

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x(B): distance between the vertical projection of point C and the top of the wall (m or
Ft);
z(B): level/depth of groundlevel (m or Ft);
z(C): level/depth of the effective anchor point (m or Ft), corresponding to the anchor
useful length Lu;
Aref: inclination of the anchor with respect to the horizontal line ();
Wtot: total weight of the anchoring block (kN or Kip);
P1H: horizontal component of the wall reaction against the anchoring block (kN or
Kip);
P1V: vertical component of the wall reaction against the anchoring block (kN or Kip);
P2H: horizontal component of the active earth pressure on the uphill side of the
anchoring block (kN or Kip);
P2V: vertical component of the active earth pressure on the uphill side of the
anchoring block (kN or Kip);
RH: horizontal component of the soil reaction below the anchoring block (kN or Kip);
RV: vertical component of the soil reaction below the anchoring block (kN or Kip);
Tdsb,k: characteristic value of the destabilising anchor force (kN or Kip).

The following final results are displayed in the second table:

Tdsb,k: characteristic value of the destabilising anchor force (kN or Kip) (same value
as in the last column of the first table);
Tref,k: characteristic value of the reference anchor force resulting from the ULS SSIM
calculation (kN or Kip);
Tdsb,d: design value of the destabilising anchor force (kN or Kip);
Tref,d: design value of the reference anchor force (kN or Kip).
OK (or not OK ): the last column provides the check conclusion for each
situation (i.e. each table line): the check is satisfactory if Tref,d is inferior to Tdsb,d.

In the bottom part of the window, a sign indicates whether the Kranz check is satisfactory for
all situations (the check is globally satisfactory only if it is satisfactory for each calculation
situation): if so, the sign is green.

For more details about this check, please refer to section C.3.2.2.

Note: you may view the detailed steps of the Kranz calculation by clicking on the button
Details. The result file provided by the calculation kernel is then displayed in a raw
format .

Figure B 110: ULS checks Calculation details for Kranz check

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B.5.6. Presentation of SSIM results for double wall projects

B.5.6.1. Presentation of results on AMRetain main window


For double wall projects, curves are displayed for the currently selected wall. In order to view
the curves for the other wall, you need to select it:
via menu Double Walls Wall 1 (or Wall 2),
via the buttons in the actions selection zone,
via the buttons in the buttons bar;
via the buttons below the results curves.

For each wall, the results displayed are the same as those of a single wall without ULS
checks.

Selection of the
active wall

Selection for
results display

Figure B 111: Main window Results of a double wall calculation

You may also display the superposed curves for both walls by clicking Grouped option
(below the curves). The curves for the selected wall are the thick red ones, and those for the
other wall are the thin ones. The earth resistance ratio is displayed for each wall
(Figure B 112).

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Figure B 112: Main window Double wall calculation Grouped display

B.5.6.2. Results window


Like for single wall projects, detailed results may be viewed in the Results window.

Figure B 113: Results window Double wall project

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The results provided for each wall correspond to the indications of section B.5.3 (results of a
single wall without ULS checks).

It is possible at any moment to switch from results of one wall to those of the other wall using
the selection buttons in the results window (Figure B 113). This is valid for all tabs in the
results window (Data, Phases, Results synthesis and envelopes).

B.5.6.3. Double walls and ULS checks


AMRetain does not allow for direct ULS checks of double wall projects.

However, it is possible to perform these checks anyway by converting manually the double
wall file into 2 single wall files. The detailed procedure is described in tutorial 5 of part D.

As for Kranz check, it is possible only for anchors of the anchor type. It is thus not
available for rear anchoring walls. But it is possible to perform this check anyway
manually :
First isolate wall 1 (in a single file project)
In the phase where the linking anchor between the main and rear walls is
installed, in order to get the destabilising force for all phases for which the rear
wall acts as an anchor
A fictitious anchor with its effective anchor point (defined by its useful length Lu)
is at the same point as the bottom of the rear wall, and with a very small stiffness
(in order not to perturbate the wall behaviour).

This procedure is also detailed in tutorial 5 (part D of the manual).

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B.6. Printing

B.6.1. Printing wizard

The printing wizard can be opened with the shortcut button or with the menu File, Print.

B.6.1.1. Single wall projects without ULS checks

Figure B 114: Printing wizard for a single wall project without ULS checks

The printing wizard enables to select which elements should be printed:

Data: prints the first tab of the results window.

Graphical synthesis: prints the phases synthesis. This printing includes for each
phase a cross-section picture, as well as all actions and parameters relating to this
phase (example on Figure B 115).

Results per phase: prints the output for the selected phases. All phases can also be
selected at once. It is possible to print tables (left column) and/or curves (right
column).

Envelopes: prints the envelope(s) curves and/or tables.

Results synthesis: prints the results synthesis.

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These elements can be copied into the clipboard (rather than printed), in order to paste them

later into another document. In that case, click on the button .

Figure B 115: Example of printing of the graphical synthesis

B.6.1.2. Single wall projects with ULS checks


When printing the results of a single wall project with ULS checks, you should select whether
you want to print:

SLS results: results for the SSIM calculation without partial factors.

ULS results: results of the ULS calculation using partial factors (LEM or SSIM
calculation).

This selection is possible thanks to a button in the top pat of the printing wizard.

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SLS results
If SLS is selected (figure below), the available printing options are the same as those for
a Single wall project without ULS checks (section B.6.1.1).

Figure B 116: Printing wizard for a single wall project with ULS checks,
selection of SLS results

Note: when considering SLS results, only characteristic values (k index) are printed.

ULS results

Figure B 117: Printing wizard for a single wall project with ULS checks,
selection of ULS results

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If ULS is selected (Figure B 117), the available printing options are a little different, in
order to match the ULS results:

Data: prints the first tab of the results window (same as before).

Graphical synthesis: prints the phases synthesis (same as before).

Results per phase: prints the output for the selected phases. All phases can also be
selected at once. It is possible to print tables (left column) and/or curves (right
column) (same as before).

Checks: prints the results of ULS checks for each phase (failure on the passive side,
balance of vertical forces and Kranz if available).

Detailed Kranz check: prints the detail of Kranz calculations (in addition to the
summary of Kranz results already provided if Checks is checked).

Results synthesis: prints the results synthesis.

Note: when considering ULS results, both characteristic values (k index) nd design values (d
index) of results are printed for anchored phases (SSIM calculation). For cantilever phases
(LEM calculation), only design values (d index) of results are printed (refer to section B.5.4
and to part C of the manual).

B.6.1.3. Double wall projects

Figure B 118: Printing wizard for a double wall project

The available printing options for double wall projects are mainly the same as for simple wall
projects without ULS checks, but they are proposed twice, once for each wall, so that you
may choose to print results either for Wall 1 and/or for Wall 2. By default, the wizard
proposes to print the results for both walls.

Moreover, for phases curves and envelopes curves, you may superpose curves for both
walls by clicking on the Grouped option.

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Figure B 119: Example of the printing of a graphical synthesis for a double wall project

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B.7. Limits and recommendations for the best use of AMRetain

B.7.1. Definition of phases and action of anchors

It is advised to define the calculation phases as close as possible to the real construction
stages, and to decompose them as much as possible. It should be avoided to define in one
given phase several actions having opposite effects on the wall.
We also draw your attention here on the behaviour of anchors and struts in AMRetain:
Struts are active with their stiffness as soon as they are installed (i.e. even in the
phase where they are installed). In the case of an excavation defined in the same
phase as a strut installation, the strut will thus act as a support to retain the
excavation from this very phase (please refer to tutorial 1 of part D).
Anchors are defined with both a stiffness and a prestress force, but: in the phase
where an anchor is installed, only the prestress is taken into account for the
calculation. The stiffness is taken into account from the following phase on only.
So when installing an anchor with no prestress force, it will have no effect on the
retaining wall in the installation phase. In particular, if no other action is applied in the
installation phase of an anchor without prestress force, nothing will happen in this
phase, and its results will be the same as those of the previous phase.
Consequently, for an anchor to be fully active (with its prestress force and its
stiffness) when taking into account a further action (a subsequent excavation for
instance), this further action should be defined in a separate phase after the one for
anchor installation. Please also refer to tutorial 3 in part D.
This is a major difference between anchors and struts behaviour in AMRetain.

B.7.2. ULS checks

B.7.2.1. LEM calculation (cantilever phases)

Lets remind you here that the LEM calculation method, to be used for cantilever phases,
doesnt account for the wall flexibility (wall assumed to be perfectly rigid), and does not allow
for calculation and display of wall displacements.
The LEM calculation may be performed according to either approach D or approach F (users
choice), as explained in part C of the manual. The default approach is approach D, but
approach F is also available and is sometimes necessary.
Here are a few important notes about both approaches:
Approach F:
It is based on the simplifying assumption that the transition level is in point C. This
assumption, which is on the safe side, is acceptable for common use of retaining
walls design in France. It is for instance presented in the book Techniques de
lingnieur n C244.
It overestimates the mobilization coefficient which means that it under-estimates the
available (limiting) counter passive earth pressure (thus the safe side). But as far as
forces in the wall are concerned, the moments range is usually not modified and the
moments maximum values are the same as those we would obtain with a more
advanced approach as approach D (see below).

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The ULS forces obtained with approach F are displayed only down to zc where the
moment gets to be null (by assumption). Below zc, the calculation proves to be
incompatible with the global equilibrium of the wall (zero moment at the bottom of the
wall).
Approach D:
This approach is more advanced and does not require the same simplifying
assumption about the transition level. It consists in searching automatically for the
transition point zn in order to ensure the global equilibrium of horizontal forces and
moments for all the wall height.
However, this approach may lead to unrealistic moments in the wall in the case of
a very long embedment, and may require in such cases to switch to approach F in
order to consider moments above zc only.
In the case where the automatic search of the transition point zn doesnt work out,
AMRetain automatically switches to approach F as illustrated here below with the
example of a cantilever wall 20 m deep and an excavation 1 m deep on the left side.
The check of failure on the passive side shows that AMRetain had to switch from
method D to method F.

Figure B 120: Example of cantilever geometry with a long embedment

Figure B 121: Check of the failure on the passive side LEM calculation
Automatic switch from approach D to approach F

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B.7.2.2. Balance of vertical forces


Let us remind here 2 specific aspects of this check in AMRetain:
This check is intended to check that the resultant of vertical forces is directed
downwards (i.e. the resultant should be positive).
If so, you should use the resultant value as an input value to check the bearing
capacity at the bottom of the wall (independently from AMRetain).
If not, its common use to adjust the counter passive earth pressures properties in
the case of a LEM calculation (cantilever phase, refer to tutorial 2 in part D), or
the properties of passive earth pressures (and maybe also active earth
pressures) in the case of a SSIM calculation (anchored phase, refer to tutorial 5
in part D).
For anchored phases (balance of vertical forces based on a SSIM calculation), the
evaluation of the vertical component of earth pressures along the wall is based on a
prorata approach (detailed in section C.3.3.2.1): for a horizontal component of
earth pressure which is intermediate (neither a limiting active pressure value nor a
limiting passive pressure value), the corresponding vertical component is calculated
as a prorata of the horizontal mobilisation, considering that the vertical component is
zero for zero displacement (reference point). Its important to point out that this
approach is valid only for layers that are initially horizontal.

B.7.2.3. Kranz check


This check is performed according to the Kranz simplified approach mentioned in
appendix G to the French standard NF P 94 -282. This method is considered as simplified
because the failure surface (CD) is assumed to be plane as shown on Figure B 122. This
assumption, although accepted for common practice of geotechnical design, overestimates
the available safety with respect to the anchoring block. A more advanced approach with
yield design calculation would lead strictly speaking to a failure surface with the shape of a
logarithmic spiral with concavity upwards.

For a given situation (i.e. the Kranz check relating to a given anchor, refer to part C of the
manual and to tutorial 3 in part D), the fact that an anchor is taken into account (or not)
depends on the position of the effective anchor point with respect to the boundaries of the
considered anchoring block.
When this effective anchoring point is located outside the anchoring block, but very close to
boundaries BC or CD, the influence of this anchor cannot be neglected, and it is necessary
to adjust its useful length Lu so that it is taken into account in the Kranz calculation (refer to
tutorial 3 in part D).
A B3

Situation 3
1

2
T2

C2
3
T3 C1

C3

Figure B 122: Kranz check Case of multiple anchor levels

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B.7.3. Doublewalls

B.7.3.1. Interaction between both walls


As mentioned in part C of the manual, the AMRetain calculation for double sheet pile walls
assumes that the only interaction between both walls is composed of the linking anchors if
any.

AMRetain thus does not account for any interaction between both walls through the soil
between the walls. AMRetain particularly does not check for any overlapping of earth
pressures corners associated with each wall, or for any interaction of earth pressure
corners with their opposite wall (figure below).
These interactions should be checked by the user apart from AMRetain.

Non-interaction between Interaction between


passive pressures zones passive pressures zones

Non-interaction between Interaction between


active/passive pressures zones active/passive pressures
zones and between one zone
with the opposite wall
Figure B 123: Principle of interaction between both walls

Note: it is possible to define a double wall project with no interaction at all between both
walls, i.e. with no linking anchor. This means calculating 2 single walls in one single project
file (but with no direct ULS checks available).

B.7.3.2. ULS checks


ULS checks are not available in AMRetain for double walls projects. But it is possible to
perform these checks manually by saving, after the double wall calculation, each wall into a
single wall project (file), and then activating the ULS checks and filling the missing data for
each single wall file. The procedure is detailed in part C, and illustrated in tutorial 5 (part D of
the manual).
However, please beware when dealing with unfavourable variable loads: in the ULS SSIM
calculation of the simple wall, these loads will be weighted by a partial factor of 1.11 (please
refer to part C of the manual). Consequently, the SSIM calculation of the simple wall will not
be fully compatible with the initial double wall calculation anymore. In particular, the forces in

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the linking anchors will not have been calculated to take this extra load generated by the
1.11 coefficient.
In such a case, you may for instance take into account the 1.11 coefficient in the first double
wall calculation (by manually weighting the unfavourable variable loads with this
coefficient). The forces in the linking anchors will thus be adapted and the SSIM ULS
calculation of the simple wall will be compatible with the initial double wall calculation.

B.7.3.3. ULS checks / Kranz


When considering a project with a main wall anchored to a short rear wall, the Kranz check
of the rear wall is not possible in AMRetain in an automatic way. Indeed, when calculating
the main wall as a single wall (after the initial double wall calculation), the Kranz check is not
available because the linking anchor is taken into account through linear forces (with the
same values as the forces in the linking anchor for each phase). Thus, the single wall project
of the main wall does not include any anchor and the Kranz check is not available.

Moreover, AMRetain does not allow for an accurate Kranz check of the rear wall
(assumed rigid and short) because point C (effective anchor point) should be at the
bottom of the rear wall, and this case is not accounted for in AMRetain yet.
A later update will probably include this feature.

Meanwhile, a possible way round to perform a Kranz check of the rear wall consists in
defining a fictitious anchor, with a very low stiffness and with such properties that the
associated anchor point is located at the bottom of the rear wall. The complete procedure is
described in tutorial 5 in the manual.

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C. TECHNICAL MANUAL

C.1. Introduction and basic principles ............................................................................4


C.1.1. Object and scope of the calculation ......................................................................4
C.1.2. Introduction to the calculation and checking methods proposed............................ 5
C.1.2.1. Short presentation of the SSIM basic calculation method ............................... 5
C.1.2.2. Short presentation of ULS checks as per the NF P 94-282 standard .............. 5
C.1.2.3. Articulation of the different calculation types ................................................... 6
C.1.3. Sign conventions ..................................................................................................8
C.2. SSIM basic calculation method ................................................................................9
C.2.1. Single Bulkhead project ........................................................................................9
C.2.1.1. Introduction ....................................................................................................9
C.2.1.2. Wall stiffness (inertia) .....................................................................................9
C.2.1.3. Soil behaviour law ........................................................................................10
C.2.1.4. Buckling (second order effects) .................................................................... 12
C.2.1.5. Calculation flowchart ....................................................................................13
C.2.2. Double sheet pile walls .......................................................................................15
C.2.2.1. General principle ..........................................................................................15
C.2.2.2. Formulation ..................................................................................................16
C.2.2.3. Calculation flowchart ....................................................................................17
C.2.2.4. Applications and limitations .......................................................................... 18
C.3. ULS check as per NF P 94282 standard ............................................................... 19
C.3.1. Checking passive earth pressure failure ............................................................. 19
C.3.1.1. General principle ..........................................................................................19
C.3.1.2. Phases with anchors ....................................................................................19
C.3.1.3. Phases without anchors (cantilever) ............................................................. 20
C.3.2. Calculating ULS forces .......................................................................................26
C.3.2.1. Phases with anchors ....................................................................................26
C.3.2.2. Phases without anchors (cantilever) ............................................................. 26
C.3.3. Checking vertical balance ...................................................................................27
C.3.3.1. General principle ..........................................................................................27
C.3.3.2. Calculating Pvd .............................................................................................27
C.3.3.3. Calculating Fvd .............................................................................................31
C.3.3.4. Calculating Tvd .............................................................................................31
C.3.4. Checking stability of the anchoring block ............................................................ 32
C.3.4.1. General principle ..........................................................................................32
C.3.4.2. Case of a single anchor ................................................................................ 33
C.3.4.3. Case of several anchors ............................................................................... 38
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C.4. Theoretical bases used for the various data wizards ........................................... 41
C.4.1. Wizards related to soil properties (see section B.3.2).......................................... 41
C.4.1.1. k0 coefficient .................................................................................................41
C.4.1.2. kd and kr coefficients .....................................................................................41
C.4.1.3. ka and kp coefficients ...................................................................................42
C.4.1.4. The kac and kpc ratios ....................................................................................43
C.4.1.5. The kh ratio ...................................................................................................43
C.4.2. Parameters defined during construction phases (see section B.4.4) ................... 45
C.4.2.1. The Reduced pressure action .................................................................... 45
C.4.2.2. The Boussinesq surcharge and Graux surcharge actions ........................ 46
C.4.2.3. Fill action ....................................................................................................47
C.4.2.4. Struts action Stiffness calculation wizard ................................................. 47
C.4.2.5. Anchor action Wizard for prestress and stiffness calculation ................... 48
C.4.2.6. Linking anchor action Stiffness calculation wizard ................................... 48

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TABLE OF FIGURES

Figure C 1: Examples of single retaining wall projects..........................................................4


Figure C 2: Examples of double sheet pile walls projects .....................................................4
Figure C 3: Calculation flowchart ............................................................................................6
Figure C 4: Sign conventions..................................................................................................8
Figure C 5: Sign conventions relating to internal forces ..........................................................8
Figure C 6: Wall made of U-shaped sheet piles ......................................................................9
Figure C 7: Soil behaviour law ..............................................................................................10
Figure C 8: Soil plastification ................................................................................................11
Figure C 9: Case of a separation between the wall and the soil............................................ 11
Figure C 10: Modification of the effective vertical stress ....................................................... 12
Figure C 11: Calculation engine operating flowchart ............................................................. 13
Figure C 12: Operation of the calculation sub-program......................................................... 14
Figure C 13: Principle of double-sheet pile walls calculation ................................................. 15
Figure C 14: Operating flowchart for double sheet pile walls calculations ............................. 17
Figure C 15: Principle of interaction between both walls ....................................................... 18
Figure C 16: Mobilised and limiting passive earth pressures for the equilibrium model of
an anchored wall ...........................................................................................19
Figure C 17: Conventional principle of the limit equilibrium model (LEM)............................. 21
Figure C 18: Approach (F) versus Approach (D)................................................................... 22
Figure C 19: Notions of minimum embedment f0 and available embedment fb according
to the LEM model ..........................................................................................23
Figure C 20: Checking the counter earth resistance according to approach F ...................... 24
Figure C 21: Checking the counter earth resistance according to approach D ...................... 25
Figure C 22: Orientation of vertical limiting pressure components ........................................ 28
Figure C 23: Principle of calculation of vertical pressure at an intermediate
mobilisation state ...........................................................................................29
Figure C 24: Assessment of forces for the case of a limit equilibrium model (LEM). ............. 30
Figure C 25: Simplified Kranz approach Schematic diagram ............................................. 32
Figure C 26: Assessment of forces applied to the anchoring block ....................................... 33
Figure C 27: Diagram of forces applied to the anchoring block ............................................. 34
Figure C 28: Discretising the anchoring block into several blocks......................................... 35
Figure C 29: Local equilibrium of a block assessment of forces......................................... 35
Figure C 30: Local equilibrium of blocks considering Bishops simplification assumption...... 36
Figure C 31: Example of forces assessment for a case with 3 blocks ................................... 37
Figure C 32: Generalisation to the case of several anchor levels ......................................... 38
Figure C 33: Example of application - Situation 01 ............................................................... 38
Figure C 34: Example of application - Situation 02 ............................................................... 39
Figure C 35: Example of application - Situation 03 ............................................................... 39
Figure C 36: Resultant of a dummy anchor .......................................................................... 40
Figure C 37: Assessment of forces for a given situation ....................................................... 40
Figure C 38: Data for Coulomb formula ................................................................................ 42
Figure C 39: Parameters for Balay formula........................................................................... 44
Figure C 40: Chadeisson curves ..........................................................................................44
Figure C 41: Reduced pressure............................................................................................45
Figure C 42: Example of a combined wall HZM .................................................................... 45
Figure C 43: Surcharges ......................................................................................................46
Figure C 44: Graux surcharge ..............................................................................................47

TABLE OF TABLES

Table C 1: Weighting coefficients a and b ...........................................................................20


Table C 2: Weighting coefficient q,1 applied to the surcharges .............................................20
Table C 3: Weighting coefficients q,2 applied to surcharges .................................................22

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C.1. Introduction and basic principles


C.1.1. Object and scope of the calculation
AMRetain is intended to study the behaviour of retaining walls (internal forces and
deformations) subjected to a series of construction phases.

The calculation method is the subgrade reaction calculation method (SSIM-K type, in
reference to the NF P 94-282 standard, designated by SSIM in this document for
simplification purposes). It is based on the model of a beam supported by elastic-plastic
springs.

AMRetain allows to analyse two different types of projects:

Single wall projects: including a single plane wall;

or
Figure C 1: Examples of single retaining wall projects

Double wall projects: including two plane walls, linked to each other (or not) by
means of one or two linking anchors.
Note: in this manual, the term double walls designates projects with either 2 walls
with approximately the same length (cofferdams for instance), or a main wall
anchored on a smaller rear wall.

or or
Figure C 2: Examples of double sheet pile walls projects

The series of construction phases includes the initial phase for wall(s) installation, followed
by different phases, each corresponding to a set of actions, such as the installation of a strut
or anchor, the variation of a soil or water level, the application of forces or the installation of a
linking anchor (in the case of a double sheet pile wall).

The SSIM calculation is presented and detailed in sections C.1.2.1 and C.2.

On the other hand, in addition to the SSIM calculation, AMRetain also allows to perform, for
single retaining walls, 3 types of ULS checks according to the French standard NF P 94-282,
i.e. the French standard applying Eurocode 7 for retaining walls structures (see sections
C.1.2.2 and C.3).
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The global articulation of the different types of calculations and checks is presented in the
form of a flowchart in section C.1.2.3.

C.1.2. Introduction to the calculation and checking methods proposed

C.1.2.1. Short presentation of the SSIM basic calculation method


For a single retaining wall project, the method consists in implementing a rigidity matrix
including the beam elements representing the wall, the springs modelling the soil in an
elastic phase, and the external linking elements. In the elastic phase, the corresponding soil
elements behave linearly with displacements, until reaching either a lower or an upper
threshold, beyond which the earth pressure value is constant.

For a double sheet pile wall project, the method consists in studying both walls
independently, with the method described above, by modelling the action of each linking
anchor on each wall by a force (two linking anchors maximum can be taken into account). An
iterative engine allows to determine the prescribed displacements corresponding to the
equilibrium between loads at anchoring points of linking anchors on both walls.

C.1.2.2. Short presentation of ULS checks as per the NF P 94-282 standard


The NF P 94-282 standard is the text of application of Eurocode 7 (NF EN 1997) to the
calculation of vertical retaining walls, whether these walls are (embedded) cantilever or
anchored.

This text sets the framework of ultimate limit state checks (ULS) to be performed with respect
to the main risks of retaining walls failure:
Check of passive earth pressure (1);
Check of resistance of the wall structure and of its supports (2);
Check of vertical equilibrium of the wall (3);
Check of hydraulic stability (4);
Check of stability of the anchoring block (5);
Check of overall stability (6);

The AMRetain software allows to perform, for each phase of a single retaining wall project,
checks (1), (3) and (5) in compliance with the NF P 94-282 standard. It also provides the
elements required for check (2). Checks (4) and (6) must be carried out using specific
calculation programs.

The general approach of the calculation is approach 2 of EN 1997-1, as specified in the NF


P 94-282 standard.

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C.1.2.3. Articulation of the different calculation types


The following figure presents the general flowchart of the calculations performed by
AMRetain and their articulation.

Calculation wihout ULS


Calculation with ULS checks
checks

Basic
SLS calculation ULS calculation
calculation

Phases with anchor(s) Cantilver phases

SSIM" model SSIM model SSIM model Limit equilibrium


(without weighting (without weighting (with 1,11 applied to model LEM (with
factors) factors) variable loads) weighting factors)

Basic results SLS Results ULS results ULS results


- Mobilised pressures - Mobilised pressures - Mobilised pressure - Mobilised pressure
- Displacements - Displacements - Displacements - Design forces (Vd, Md)
- Forces (V, M) - Forces (V, M) - Charac. forces (Vk, Mk)
- Design forces(Vd, Md) ULS checks
- Faillure on the passive side
ULS checks - Vertical equilibirum
- Faillure on the passive side
- Vertical equilibrium
Kranz
- Anchoring block stablity
model

Figure C 3: Calculation flowchart

In the case of a calculation led without ULS checks, all phases are processed using the
basic model, which is a displacements model based on the subgrade reaction
coefficients method (SSIM K, designated in this document by SSIM only), and performed
without weighting factors on soil properties nor surcharges. The results obtained include wall
displacements, mobilised pressures as well as shear forces and bending moments (V, M).

In the case of a calculation led with ULS checks, two calculations are made for each phase:
1) A SLS calculation based on a SSIM model, without weighting on soil and
surcharge properties. The results of this calculation are strictly identical to those of a
calculation without ULS checks : displacements, mobilised pressures and forces
(V, M);
2) A ULS calculation with a different model depending whether the wall is anchored
or not in the phase considered:
If the wall is anchored: the calculation uses a SSIM model applying an
intermediate weighting factor of 1.11 on variable surcharges. This model leads
to the following results:
o Displacements;
o Characteristic values of mobilised pressures;
o Characteristic values of forces in anchors;
o Characteristic values of forces (Vk, Mk);
o Design values of forces (Vd, Md) evaluated by applying a factor of 1.35 to
characteristic values.

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The results of this model are used as input parameters in the following ULS
checks;
o Checking passive earth pressures;
o Checking vertical resultant;
o Checking stability of the anchoring block.
If the wall is embedded (cantilever): the calculation uses a limit equilibrium model
(LEM) in compliance with the NF P 94-282 standard. This model is produced by
applying partial weighting factors to the actions (active earth pressures,
surcharges) and resistances (passive earth pressures, counter-earth
resistance). It leads to the following results:
o Design values of mobilised pressures;
o Design values of forces (Vd, Md).

These results are associated with the following checks:


o Failure on the passive side;
o Vertical equilibrium.

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C.1.3. Sign conventions


The soil profile is separated vertically into two parts: the part left to the wall is called the left
side); the part right to the wall is called the right side. Wall displacements and forces are
positive when directed to the right.

The z-coordinates are either oriented upwards when defining levels, or downwards when
defining depths. This option is set using menu Data, Titles and options.

As for the external forces applied onto the wall, the forces (F on Figure C 4) are positive
when directed to the right and the moments (M on Figure C 4) are positive when anti-
clockwise.

Support forces (anchors and struts) applied to the wall are positive when oriented from left to
right. In the case of double sheet pile walls, the linking anchor force acting in traction is
positive for the left wall and negative for the right wall (the other way round for compression).

Right side
Left side

Figure C 4: Sign conventions

As for the internal wall forces (M, V and N), the figure below illustrated the sign conventions
applied in AMRetain. The axial force N is positive for compression.

Figure C 5: Sign conventions relating to internal forces

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C.2. SSIM basic calculation method


C.2.1. Single Bulkhead project
This section describes projects composed of a single retaining wall, whether anchored or
cantilever (Figure C 1).

C.2.1.1. Introduction
K-REA calculates the internal forces and the deformations of a retaining wall through a
number of calculation phases, as well as the external forces including the soil reactions and
the external links. The height of the wall is a datum for the calculation, but the wall is
assumed to extend to infinity horizontally, so that the soil analysis complies with plane-strain
conditions.

Regardless of the wall type, the wall may be submitted to:


Earth and water pressures;
Horizontal surcharges onto the wall;
Forces of struts, anchors or linking anchors (in case of a double sheet pile wall);
Moment loads;
Rotation spring restraints.

The action of the soil and water on the wall is represented by horizontal pressures applied to
the left and to the right sides of the wall. The earth pressures are related to the wall
horizontal displacements using an elastic-plastic behaviour law. The parameters for this law
are the soil parameters for the relevant layer, and the vertical stress in the soil (which itself
depends on the excavation level, the water pressure and the surcharges if any).

C.2.1.2. Wall stiffness (inertia)


The wall is considered as having a constant stiffness over its entire height (from tip to top),
and during all phases of the project.
Stiffness is defined by the product E.I , where:
E : Young modulus
I : inertia of the sheet pile wall (depending on the selected sheet pile)

The wall is considered being made of steel sheet piles chosen in the ArcelorMittal catalogue
attached to AMRetain.

If Standard U-shaped sheet piles are used, the NF EN 1993-5 standard requires to consider
effective stiffness of the wall. In such a case, the user can consider stiffness reduced by a
reduction factor of D, which may be constant or even variable according to the phase.

Figure C 6: Wall made of U-shaped sheet piles

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C.2.1.3. Soil behaviour law


In a given calculation phase, the settings for the behaviour law at any level and for both sides
are the following:
kh: horizontal subgrade reaction coefficient;
pa: horizontal active limit pressure;
pp: horizontal passive limit pressure;
pi: horizontal initial pressure (for a zero displacement);
x: horizontal displacement, positive when directed to the uphill side.

The curve relating the horizontal pressure p to the displacement x consists in a linear part
(slope kh and Y-origin value pi), and of two horizontal levels pa and pp, as shown thereafter:

kh = slope of this segment

Displacement to right side

Figure C 7: Soil behaviour law

The subgrade reaction coefficient kh (at a given level) depends on two parameters defined
for each soil layer: the value for the coefficient at the top of the layer, and its linear variation
with depth.

The values of plasticity levels pa and pp depend on the following parameters (defined for
each soil layer):

: soil weight above water table;


d: submerged soil weight below water table;
: friction angle;
c: cohesion;
k0: earth pressure coefficient at rest;
ka: horizontal active earth pressure coefficient;
kp: horizontal passive earth pressure coefficient;
kac: coefficient of active pressure for cohesion c;
kpc: coefficient of passive pressure for cohesion c;
'v: soil effective vertical stress.

and are calculated by the program as explained below:

p a = k a . ' v -k ac .c (where p a = 0 if k a . ' v -k ac .c < 0 , which means that the wall is


separated from the soil)
p p = k p . ' v +k pc .c

The effective vertical stress v is calculated by the programme using the specific weights
and d, soil levels, water pressure and surcharges (if any).
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In the initial soil state, initial pressure pi for zero displacement calls upon the notion of at-rest
earth pressure characterised by at-rest earth pressure coefficient k0 of each soil layerc, in
which case:

p i = k 0 . ' v0 with v0 = effective vertical stress at rest

During an excavation phase, the initial pressure pi (for a zero displacement) can be modified
simultaneously by two phenomena:
the soil plastification in previous phases
the modification of the effective vertical stress v

The soil plastification in a given phase can actually shift the pressure/displacement curve
horizontally on the plasticity level, as shown below:

Displacement to right side

Figure C 8: Soil plastification

In the case of a separation between the wall and the soil, the curve for the "way back" is still
the same and so is the initial pressure.

pi

Displacement to right side

Figure C 9: Case of a separation between the wall and the soil

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A modification of the soil effective vertical stress in a given phase has two consequences:

first, it shifts the value of pi (for a zero displacement) either downwards in case of
unloading, or upwards in case of loading;
secondly, it updates the value of both plasticity levels, as shown below:

Displacement to right side

Figure C 10: Modification of the effective vertical stress

v is the symbol for the increase of the effective vertical stress. The shift of the initial
pressure pi is equal to:

p i = k r . ' v if v > 0 with kr = reloading ratio


p i = k d . ' v if v < 0 with kd = unloading ratio

The plasticity levels pa and pp are calculated using the new value of v, and the same
formula as before.

C.2.1.4. Buckling (second order effects)


The calculations can consider wall buckling (based on characteristic values, as opposed to
the design values, and presuming a horizontal groundlevel). This consists in considering
complementary forces (shear moments and forces) brought by the axial force N(z) in the
wall. The latter is calculated by considering the vertical components of linear loads and
forces in the anchors.

This axial force N(z) corresponds to a second order additional bending moment and shear
force depending directly on offcentering e(z) of the load at a given dimension (z):

dM (z ) de(z ) de(z )
= N (z ) V (z ) = N (z )
dz dz dz

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C.2.1.5. Calculation flowchart


The schematic calculation procedure is illustrated on the figure below.

Initialisation of variables and


pointers

Request of the input and


output filenames
Loading datafile

Organization of the data


Determination of the position
of the calculation nodes

Initialisation of initial parameters:


Excavation left side
Excavation right side
Earth pressure left side
Earth pressure right side
Water pressure

I_phase=1

Introduction of the phase


Calculation
Convergence criteria I_phase++

End

Figure C 11: Calculation engine operating flowchart

The calculation sub-program is based on the following principle:

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Review of the various actions:


1: external link
2: inside and outside excavations
3: modification of the wall inertia
4: modification of the soil layers properties
5: horizontal load
6: Graux surcharge
7: hydraulic gradient
8: Boussinesq surcharge
9: berm

update of the earth pressures left side


update of the earth pressures right side
update of the water pressures
addition of horizontal surcharges
update of the initial pressures
update of the soil stiffnesses

Iteration=1

Update of springs stiffnesses and plasticity


levels

Calculation of the beam, laying on the springs


and subjected to external forces (external
links, plasticity levels and water, as well as
possible moments due to the buckling option) Iteration++
If criterion =
Validation of the plasticity criteria false

Convergence criterion = true if the plasticity


levels remain unchanged compared to the
previous iteration.

Figure C 12: Operation of the calculation sub-program

It usually takes 3 or 4 iterations for the calculation to converge.

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C.2.2. Double sheet pile walls


This part concerns double sheet pile walls, made either of a main wall anchored on a smaller
rear wall, or of two parallel walls (cofferdams or open excavations for instance), and
connected to each other either by one or two levels of anchors or struts (Figure C 2).
As explained in section C.1.2, in a double sheet pile wall project, each wall is designed the
same way as a single retaining wall. The data presented in section C.2.1 hence remain valid.

C.2.2.1. General principle


The action of the linking anchors (which may be two maximum) is represented by an external
force (one force per anchor, for each wall). The aim of the study is to find a situation for
which forces at anchoring points are balanced between both walls, a situation reached
through an iterative process with a convergence criterion on the forces in each anchor (see
section C.2.2.1).

This principle is illustrated on the figure below, and detailed for its formulation in the next
section.
Elongations Forces
F1 1 = L1 F1

F2 2 = L2 F2

Left wall Right wall

Figure C 13: Principle of double-sheet pile walls calculation

We use for anchor i :


yi: absolute displacement of the left wall at the junction point (anchor head)
with anchor i ;
yi: absolute displacement of the right wall at the junction point (anchor
head) with anchor i ;

The static equilibirum of the system can be described with the following matrices:
F1 1 2 y1
Left wall: =
F2 2 3 y 2
F1 '1 '2 y '1
Right wall: =
F2 '2 '3 y '2

F1 K1 0 y1 y '1 K1 0 1
Anchors: = =
F2 0 K 2 y 2 y '2 0 K 2 2

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C.2.2.2. Formulation
All structures defining a double sheet pile wall are considered as an assembly of the
following simple mechanical systems, reduced to stiffness matrices linking forces applied at
the anchor heads levels to the displacements of these same anchor heads:

Left wall, reduced for the connection to 1 single spring (matrix 1x1) or 2 interactive
springs (matrix 2x2) corresponding to the anchor heads (1 or 2 of them);
Right wall, reduced for the connection to 1 or 2 interactive springs (matrix 2x2)
corresponding to the anchor heads (1 or 2 of them);
Anchors: diagonal matrix composed with anchors stiffnesses.

This presumes that the user has defined a left wall (called wall 1) and a right wall (called wall
2) in the user interface. As a general rule, it is recommended to define the longest wall as
being wall 1.

The single matrixes are assembled in a global matrix system linking the forces generated by
actions imposed in each phase and related with the anchor heads, and the displacements of
the same anchor heads.

As the walls behave neither in a linear elastic way (because of the presence of the soils,
which have an elasto-plastic behaviour) nor symmetrically (because of the soil conditions or
different actions), the problem is solved iteratively for each phase (see also the detailed
flowchart in section C.2.2.3).

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C.2.2.3. Calculation flowchart


The operating flowchart of the calculation engine is presented in the following figures.

Wall 1 Wall 2 Global


Single Wall initialisation Single wall initialisation initialisation

I_phase = i

Wall 1 Wall 2
Prescibed displacement Prescribed displacement
at anchor heads at anchor heads

Wall 1 Wall 2 Phase


Stiffness matrix calculation Stiffness matrix calculation initialisation

Resolution of the initial system


I_phase ++
Overall stiffness matrix
For each
phase
N_Initial displacements = n

Wall 1 Wall 2
Single wall iterative kernel Single wall iterative kernel
Double wall
N_Initial iterative
displacements++ kernel
Forces to equilibrate the system
Compression/traction test if
unilateral mode mode activated

No
Convergence criterion
respected

Yes
Phasing complete
No
Yes

End

Figure C 14: Operating flowchart for double sheet pile walls calculations

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C.2.2.4. Applications and limitations

C.2.2.4.1. Interaction between both walls


As mentionned previously, the AMRetain calculation for double sheet pile walls assumes that
the only interaction between both walls is composed of the linking anchors if any.

AMRetain thus does not account for any interaction between both walls through the soil
between the walls. AMRetain particularly doenst check for any overlapping of earth
pressures corners associated with each wall, or for any interaction of earth pressure
corners with their opposite wall (figure below).

These interactions should be checked by the user apart from AMRetain.

Non-interaction between Interaction between


passive pressures zones passive pressures zones

Non-interaction between Interaction between


active/passive pressures zones active/passive pressures
zones and between one zone
with the opposite wall
Figure C 15: Principle of interaction between both walls

C.2.2.4.2. ULS checks


ULS checks according to the French standard NF P 94-282 are available for single walls
only. In the case of double sheet pile walls, the procedure to apply ULS checks is the
following:
Double sheet pile wall calculation
Separation of the double wall into 2 single wall files: the double wall can
indeed be converted (after aumtomatic save with a new filename) into a single wall
(AMRetain then asks the user about which wall should be saved). This operation
should be performed twice (once for each wall.
Then, for each single wall file:
o activation of checks and definition of partial factors and additional data requested
for checks (actions nature, LEM phases, etc).
o definition of a linear force at the level of each linking anchor head, with the force
value equal to the force in each linking anchor resulting from the double sheet
pile wall calculation (beware to use the right force sign, for traction or
compression in the anchor depending on the double wall calculation results).
o Calculation and output review for ULS checks.
This procedure is illustrated in tutorial 5 from part D.
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C.3. ULS check as per NF P 94282 standard

PREAMBLE: ULS checks as per the NF P 94-282 standard are proposed in AMRetain for
single retaining walls. They are not available for double retaining walls.

The articulation of the ULS checks with the SSIM calculations is detailed in section C.1.2.3.
See more particularly the flowchart of Figure C 1.

C.3.1. Checking passive earth pressure failure

C.3.1.1. General principle


In compliance with the NF P 94-282 standard, checking passive earth pressure is based on:

The results of a SSIM calculation model with a factor of 1.11 on variable


surcharges, for phases in which the retaining wall is anchored (presence of one or
several anchors). In this case, this means checking that the passive earth pressure
mobilised remains lower, with sufficient safety, than the limiting passive earth
pressure.

The results of a limit equilibrium model (i.e. LEM model), for the phases in which
the retaining wall is cantilever ( embedded ), meaning to check that the available
embedment is larger, with sufficient safety, than the minimum embedment required to
equilibrate moments and forces.

C.3.1.2. Phases with anchors


For phases in which the retaining wall is anchored, checking passive earth pressure failure
consists in checking the following inequality:

B t,d Bm,d
Where:
Bt,d: design value of the resultant of the mobilised passive earth pressure;
Bm,d: design value of the resultant of the limiting (or mobilisable) passive earth
pressure;

Passive earth
pressure
Limiting earth
pressure Active earth
pressure

Figure C 16: Mobilised and limiting passive earth pressures for the equilibrium model of an anchored wall

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The design values of mobilised and limiting passive earth pressures are defined from the
following relations:
B
Bt,d = a .B t,k Bm ,d = m,k
b
Where:
Bt,k: characteristic value of the resultant of the mobilised passive eath pressure on the
downhill face of the retaining wall and necessary for its equilibrium;
Bm,k: characteristic value of the resultant of the limiting passive earth pressure on the
downhill face of the retaining wall;
The a and b coefficients depend on the nature of the phase examined and are
specified in the following table:

Nature of the phase a b


Temporary 1.35 1.10
Permanent 1.35 1.40
Table C 1: Weighting coefficients a and b

The characteristic values of mobilised and limiting passive earth pressures are obtained
using a calculation of the SSIM type (subgrade reaction coefficients), led without
weighting soil properties (approach 2), but applying a weighting coefficient q,1 to the
characteristic values of surcharges applied onto the soil and onto the wall. The values of q,1
change according to the nature of the surcharge applied, and are specified in the following
table:

Nature of the surcharge Favourable Unfavourable


Permanent 1.00 1.00
Variable 0.00 1.11 (*)
Table C 2: Weighting coefficient q,1 applied to the surcharges

(*): the 1.11 coefficient corresponds to the 1.50 / 1.35 ratio (weighting factor applicable to
permanent surcharges / weighting factor applicable to variable surcharges). It is applied in
compliance with the NF P 94-282 standard.

C.3.1.3. Phases without anchors (cantilever)

C.3.1.3.1. General principle


The NF P 94-282 standard imposes the use of the limit equilibrium model (LEM) for the ULS
calculation when the retaining wall is cantilever.

As suggested by its name, this model consists in studying the retaining walls equilibrium,
(the wall being assumed perfectly rigid - the calculation does not consider the wall flexibility)
by considering that the soil on both sides of the wall reaches the limiting earth pressure,
down to a certain point called transition point . Beyond this point, the soil is assumed to
reach the limiting counter active pressure resistance on the downhill side of the wall,
whereas on the uphill side, we check that the counter earth resistance (counter passive
pressures) necessary for horizontal equilibrium of the retaining wall is lower, with sufficient
safety, than the limiting counter earth resistance (counter passive pressures) available below
the transition point (see Figure C 17).

The transition point is defined in paragraphs C.3.1.3.3 and C.3.1.3.4 of this section.

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Active earth
pressure

Fa
Passive earth
pressure Fb U
zn zn : transition level

Fca .Fcb Counter passive


Counter active earth pressure
earth pressure requested
available
z
Figure C 17: Conventional principle of the limit equilibrium model (LEM)

With the notations in Figure C 17, the equilibrium of the retaining wall involves the following
force system:
Fa: horizontal resultant of the active earth pressures diagram pa,d
Fb: horizontal resultant of the passive earth pressures diagram pb,d
Fca: horizontal resultant of the counter active earth pressures diagram pca,d
Fcb: horizontal resultant of the diagram of available counter passive earth
pressures pcb,d
U: horizontal resultant of the differential water pressures diagram ua ub

The factor is called mobilisation factor of the counter earth resistance (passive
pressures), defined as being the ratio between the counter earth resistance necessary for the
horizontal equilibrium of the retaining wall and that available (or limiting).

The pressure diagrams introduced above are expressed in design values as per the
following weighting system:

For active pressures (pa) and counter active pressure (pca), the design values are
taken equal to the products of characteristic values by coefficient a (Table C 1), i.e.
p a,d = a .p a,k pc a,d = a .pc a,k
For passive pressures (pb) and counter earth resistance (pcb), the design values are
taken as equal to the products of characteristic values by 1/b (Table C 1), i.e.
p pc
pb,d = b,k pc b,d = b,k
b b
For water pressures applied on uphill (ua) and downhill (ub) sides of the retaining wall,
coefficient e = 1.00 is applied to the corresponding differential pressure (ua-ub).

The wall limit equilibrium also considers the surcharges applied directly to the retaining wall
(linear force, couple, trapezoidal surcharge), with design values obtained by applying to the
characteristic values the weighting coefficient q,2 specified in the next table.

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Nature of the surcharge Favourable Unfavourable


Permanent 1.00 1.35
Variable 0.00 1.50
Table C 3: Weighting coefficients q,2 applied to surcharges

Based on this model, and according to the provisions of the NF P 94-282 standard, stability
is checked with respect to passive side failure by performing the following tests:

Check of the embedment, which consists in ensuring that the available embedment
exceeds, with sufficient safety, the minimum embedment necessary for moment
equilibrium.

Check of the counter-earth resistance, which consists in verifying that the counter-
earth resistance available under the transition point is sufficient to equilibrate
horizontal forces. The application of this check requires determining the position of
the transition point. To do this, two calculation approaches are proposed in AMRetain:

o Approach F, consisting in setting the choice of the transition point to that


obtained for the equilibrium of the moments when checking the
embedment (safe assumption with respect to counter earth resistance and
shear force);

o Approach D, consisting in searching rigorously for the transition point to


ensure global equilibrium of forces and moments.

C*
C C
P P

Figure C 18: Approach (F) versus Approach (D)

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C.3.1.3.2. Checking the embedment


The check of the retaining wall embedment is based on the following condition (figure below):

fb 1,2 f0
Where:
fb: embedment available below the zero differential pressure point O;
f0: minimum embedment, below the zero differential pressure point O, required to
achieve moments equilibrium (above point C);

Differential
pressure

f0
RC fb
C

z
Figure C 19: Notions of minimum embedment f0 and available embedment fb according to the LEM model

According to the notations in the figure above, we have: fb = (zP zO) and f0 = (zC zO).

The differential pressure mentioned, noted pd, designates the resultant diagram obtained by
superposing the design values of the active earth pressures, passive earth pressures, and
water pressures diagrams. Therefore, we have the following, by definition and with the
notations of section C.3.1.3.1:
pd = pa,d pb,d + ua ub

Searching point C is consists in writing the general equation translating the moments
equilibrium with respect to this same point:
(pd ) C + (Sd ) C = 0
Where:
(p d ) C : moment with respect to point C, of the resultant of the differential pressures
diagram pd on the height between the top of the retaining wall and point C;
(S d ) C : moment with respect to point C, of the resultant of surcharges (if any)
applied (in design values) directly to the retaining wall between its top and point C;

This equation is resolved by a dichotomous search process with a relative stop criterion set
to 10-4.

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In Figure C 19, load RC designates the resultant (design value) of the horizontal forces
applied over the height between the top of retaining wall and point C:

RC = R(pd ) C R(Sd ) C

Where:
R(p d ) C : resultant of the differential pressures diagram pd over the height between the
top of the retaining wall and point C;
R(S d ) C : resultant of surcharges (in design values) applied directly on the wall
between its top and point C.

Checking the counter earth resistance aims at ensuring that the counter earth resistance
available is sufficient to take-up the RC load.

C.3.1.3.3. Checking failure on the passive side using approach F


Approach F is based on the simplifying assumption which consists in using for the transition
point the point C obtained in C.3.1.3.2. This assumption is acceptable for usual retaining
walls calculations. It is notably recognised in the Trait de Construction des Techniques de
lingnieur n C244 [3].

C = transition point
RC
C
Fca .Fcb
Uinf
P
requested
available

Figure C 20: Checking the counter earth resistance according to approach F

Hence, according to the notations in the figure above, the equilibrium of horizontal forces
results in the equality:
RC = .Fc b Fc a + Uinf + R(Sd ) P
C

Where:
R(S d ) P : is the resultant of surcharges (if any), applied directly on the retaining wall
C

below point C;

Uinf : is the resultant of differential water pressures applied to the retaining wall
below point C.

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The mobilisation factor is obtained by the equation:


RC + Fc a Uinf R(Sd ) P
C

=
Fc b

Counter earth resistance check can thus be translated by the condition: 1

Please note that this approach leads to overestimating the value of and does not allow, by
construction, to estimate the moment under point C.

C.3.1.3.4. Checking failure on the passive side with approach D


An alternate approach named approach D is also proposed in AMRetain. It ignores the
simplification assumption of approach F described in C.3.1.3.3, consisting in considering
point C obtained in the embedment check procedure (section C.3.1.3.2) as the transition
point.

This approach consists in searching for the transition point zn to ensure global equilibrium of
forces and moments over the entire height of the retaining wall (figure below).

Fa

Fb U
zn zn : transition level

.Fcb
Fca .Fcb

P
requested
available
z
Figure C 21: Checking the counter earth resistance according to approach D

The global equilibrium of the retaining wall can be translated into a system of two equations
with two parameters (, zn):

Forces equilibrium: Fa Fb + .Fc b Fc a + U + R(Sd ) = 0


Moments equilibrium: M(Fa ) M(Fb ) + .M(Fc b ) M(Fc a ) + M(U) + M(Sd ) = 0

Where:
Fa, Fb, Fca, Fcb are the resultants of the active pressures, passive pressures, counter
active pressures and counter passive pressures (counter earth resistance) diagrams
respectively, as defined in C.3.1.3.1. Their values change according to the position of
the transition point zn;

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M(Fa), M(Fb), M(Fca), M(Fcb) are the moments of the Fa, Fb, Fca, Fcb forces
respectively with respect to point P (bottom of the retaining wall). Their values also
change according to the position of zn.
U and M(U) the resultants of the differential water pressure diagram and
corresponding moment with respect to point P respectively. Their values are
independent from zn.

R(Sd) and M(Sd) respectively the resultant and moment with respect to P of
surcharges (if any) (design values), applied directly to the retaining wall.

This equation system is resolved by a dichotomous search process with a relative stop
criterion set to 10-4.

Using this approach allows to obtain simultaneously the transition level zn and factor
allowing to check the counter earth resistance through the condition: 1 .

C.3.2. Calculating ULS forces


According to the NF P 94-282 standard, evaluation of ULS forces must use the same model
as the one allowing to check the failure on the passive side. Therefore, in AMRetain, ULS
forces are evaluated differently between the phases in which the retaining wall is cantilever
(embedded) and those in which it is anchored with one or several levels of supports (struts,
anchors).
Please note that AMRetain calculates ULS forces to be used to check the forces, but does
not perform the check itself directly.

C.3.2.1. Phases with anchors


In this case, the design values of ULS forces (Md, Vd) are obtained by the relations:

Moment: Md = mt.Mk
Shear force: Vd = mt.Vk

The coefficient mt is equal to 1.35 when applying the French standard NF P 94282.

The characteristic values of the Mk, Vk forces are obtained with the model used to evaluate
the mobilised passive earth pressure as described in C.3.1.2. As a reminder, it is a model of
the SSIM type (basic model of AMRetain), led without weighting of the soil properties
(approach 2), and by applying a q,1 weighting coefficient (see Table C 2) to the
characteristic values of the surcharges applied onto the soil and onto the retaining wall.

C.3.2.2. Phases without anchors (cantilever)


In this case, the model used is that of limit equilibrium (LEM). The design values (Md, Vd) are
obtained by calculating directly, in each point, the moment and shear force by considering
the equilibrium of the retaining wall submitted to the pressures diagrams pa,d, pb,d, pca,d,
.pcb,d and (ua ub) (Figure C 17), and considering the design values of surcharges (if any)
applied directly onto the retaining wall.

Although the calculation principle is identical regardless of the calculation approach


chosen to evaluate the counter earth resistance (F or D), the representation of the diagrams
(Md, Td) depends on the approach chosen:
When approach F is used to evaluate the counter earth resistance, the forces (Md, Vd)
are represented only down to point C, where the moment Md gets to be zero. Beyond

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point C, the calculation, particularly of the moment, is incompatible with the global
wall equilibrium (non zero moment at the bottom);
However, when the counter earth resistance is checked using approach D, the forces
(Md, Td) are represented over the entire height of the retaining wall, and are
compatible with the global equilibrium and its boundary conditions.

C.3.3. Checking vertical balance

C.3.3.1. General principle


Checking vertical balance consists in estimating the vertical resultant of the forces applied to
the retaining wall, and checking whether this resultant is oriented upwards (negative value),
or downwards (positive value). The vertical resultant of the forces, if oriented downwards,
should then be used as an input parameter to check the bearing capacity of the retaining wall
(using specific calculation models not integrated to AMRetain).

This check notably allows to consider the relevance of the values considered for the
obliquities of active, passive and counter passive earth pressures.

The design value of the vertical resultant Rvd of the forces applied to the retaining wall is
given by the following general expression:
Rv d = P0 + Pv d + Fv d + Tv d
Where:
P0: total weight of the retaining wall;
Pvd: design value of the vertical resultant of earth pressures over the height of the
retaining wall;
Fvd: design value of the vertical resultant of the inclined linear forces applied to the
retaining wall;
Tvd: design value of the vertical resultant of forces due to inclined anchors
connected to the wall.

The vertical components of earth pressures are calculated from the horizontal forces ruling
the basic calculation model.

The weight of the retaining wall P0 is calculated by multiplying the surfacic weight of the
retaining wall specified in the ArcelorMittal catalogue by the total height of the retaining
wall. No weighting factor is applied to P0.

The calculation of Pvd, Fvd and Tvd is described in the following sections. These forces are
taken by convention positive when downwards.

C.3.3.2. Calculating Pvd


The calculation of Pvd depends on model used for the horizontal equilibrium calculation of the
screen.

C.3.3.2.1. Phases with anchors


In this case, the model used for the horizontal equilibrium is the basic model of AMRetain
(SSIM, with surcharges weighted by coefficient q,1). The value of Pvd is obtained by
integration, over the height of the retaining wall, of the vertical component of the diagram of
earth pressures applied on both sides of the retaining wall 1 and 2:

(p (z) + p (z ))dz
1 2
Pv d = pv v v

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With pv = 1.35 when applying the French standard NF P 94-282, and for each i side, the
vertical component p vi is estimated from mobilised horizontal pressure phi on the same side:

i pi0 pih
pav 1 1
si pia pih pi0
i p0 pa
pv =
i ph p0
i i
p
bv pi pi si pi0 pih pib
b 0

With, for each i side, the following characteristic values:


phi , pvi : mobilised horizontal and vertical pressures respectively;
pai , pbi : limiting horizontal active and passive earth pressures respectively;
i i
pav , p bv : limiting vertical active and passive earth pressures respectively;
p0i : at-rest horizontal pressure.

(+)
a=(+)

b=(-) (-)

Figure C 22: Orientation of vertical limiting pressure components

i
The values of pav i
and p bv are calculated from those of p ai and pbi using the relation:

( )
piav = tan ia .pia and ( )
pbi v = tan ib .pib

i i
Where, for each i side, a and b are the values of the obliquities (inclinations) of
limiting active and passive earth pressures with respect to horizontal.

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Horizontal
pressure

pb

ph
Mobilisation curve ph(y)
p0

pa
y (displacement )

Vertical
pressure

pav
y (displacement )
0

Mobilisation curve pv(y)


pv (assumed)

pbv

Figure C 23: Principle of calculation of vertical pressure at an intermediate mobilisation state

As shown in the diagram above, the approach used to evaluate the vertical component of
earth pressures allows to represent, in a simplified way, the fact that the obliquities of the
i i
active and passive pressures a / b are mobilised only when reaching limiting values. In an
intermediate mobilisation state phi , the vertical component pvi can be estimated at the
prorata of what is mobilised horizontally between the limiting state ( pai or pbi ) and the at-rest
state p0i , for which the vertical component is considered to be zero.

C.3.3.2.2. Phases with no anchors (cantilever)


In this case, the model used for horizontal equilibrium is a limit equilibrium model. Vertical
earth pressures are hence calculated directly from horizontal pressures while considering the
active/passive earth pressures inclinations. We use 1 to designate the side for
active/counter-passive pressures and 2 for the side of passive/counter active pressures.

The design value of the vertical resultant of earth pressures is obtained by the relation:
Pv d = Pv d+ + Pv d
With:
Pv d+ = Fav + Fbv : resultant of earth pressures applied above the zn transition
point, as defined in C.3.1.3.
Pv d = Fc av + .Fc bv : resultant of earth pressures applied below the zn transition
point, as described in C.3.1.3. The parameter is actually the coefficient of
mobilisation of the counter earth resistance defined in C.3.1.3.

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z1 : Ground level

Side 2 Side 1

z2 : Excavation level
Fav
Fbv
Fb Fa
zn zn : transition level

.Fcbv
Fcav
zP : wall bottom level
Fca .Fcb
P

z
Figure C 24: Assessment of forces for the case of a limit equilibrium model (LEM).

With the notations of the figure above and those of paragraph C.3.1.3, we have:
zn zn

( )tan a1 .pa,d (z )dz tan( ).p (z)dz


2
Fav = and Fbv = b b,d
z1 z2
zp zp

( )
tan a2 .pc a,d (z )dz tan( ).pc (z)dz
1
Fc av = and Fc bv = cb b,d
zn zn

Where:
i
a : characteristic value of the obliquity of active/counter active earth pressures;
b2 : characteristic value of the obliquity of passive earth pressures;
1
cb : characteristic value of the obliquity of counter earth resistance pressures.

We point out that for a given layer and level, there is a distinction between the obliquities
relating to passive earth pressures and those relating to counter earth resistance pressures.
But between active and counter active pressures, obliquities are assumed to be identical (for
a same layer and level).

To be able to ensure simultaneously the check of the vertical and horizontal forces
resultants, with compatible pressures, the user may, if applicable, modify the obliquity of the
counter earth resistance (this aspect is detailed in parts B and D of the manual).

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C.3.3.3. Calculating Fvd


The evaluation of Fvd is performed by vertical projection (downwards) of all linear forces
applied to the wall and active in the phase considered. This calculation takes into account the
design values of linear forces which are equal to the products of their characteristic values by
the weighting coefficient q,2 defined in Table C 3.

C.3.3.4. Calculating Tvd


The evaluation of Tvd is performed by vertical projection (downwards) of all forces taken up
by the anchors connected to the retaining wall and active in the phase considered. This
calculation takes into account the values of design forces in the anchors which are equal to
the products of their characteristic values by a weighting coefficient tv, equal to 1.35 when
applying the French standard NF P 94-282.

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C.3.4. Checking stability of the anchoring block

C.3.4.1. General principle

The general principle of the check is to ensure that the anchor forces (for active anchors
only) can be safely transferred to the ground, by checking the stability of the failure surface at
the bottom of the soil block, and thus to prove that the each anchors length is sufficient.

This check is led according to the simplified Kranz approach mentioned in appendix G of
the NF P 94 -282 standard. The method is said to be simplified as it uses a plane failure
surface (CD), as shown in Figure C 25.

As specified in the notations of Figure C 25, this check consists in justifying the stability of
the ABCDA block by ensuring that the anchor force remains inferior to a limit value
corresponding to the ultimate equilibirum of the block, called destabilising force . The
Kranz method offers an approach allowing to determine this destabilising force.

A B

E Anchor
tirant
Wall
cran

Figure C 25: Simplified Kranz approach Schematic diagram

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C.3.4.2. Case of a single anchor

C.3.4.2.1. Definition of the anchoring block


The ABCDA anchoring block that is to be checked is bordered by the following points:

A: top of the wall or intersection of the wall with the top level of the first layer;
D: zero shear force point;
C: effective anchoring point of the anchor corresponding to the useful length of the
anchor Lu;
B: vertical projection of point C on the axis (AX).

E designates the anchor head on the retaining wall and F the level of the phreatic line
assumed to be horizontal.

C.3.4.2.2. Assessment of external forces


Figure C 26 summarises the forces applied to the ABCDA block.

With (characteristic values):


T: force in the anchor;
P1: reaction of the retaining wall, taken equal to the resultant of earth pressures
on [AD];
P2: resultant of active pressures applied uphill the block on [BC];
W: weight of the block;
Fe: resultant of external surcharges applied to or in the block;
Rc: limit resistance due to cohesion mobilisable along [CD];
Rf: limit resistance due to friction mobilisable along [CD].

The limit equilibrium of the block is hence converted into the vectorial equation:


Rc + R f + W + Fe + P1+ P2 + T = 0

O X
A B

Fe P2
E
W 2

F
T

C
P1
1 Rc



D Rf

Z
Figure C 26: Assessment of forces applied to the anchoring block

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P2
Fe T

W Rf

Rc
P1

Figure C 27: Diagram of forces applied to the anchoring block

The previous figures call for several comments:

The friction force Rf is tilted at an angle equal to with respect to the normal to (CD).
In the case of a homogeneous soil block, this inclination is merely equal to the soil
friction angle;

The horizontal component of P1, noted P1H, is calculated directly by integration of


mobilised horizontal pressures, resulting from the horizontal equilibrium calculation of
the retaining wall (SSIM method with weighting of the surcharges by 1.11). Its vertical
component, noted P1V is calculated with the same process as the one considered
when checking vertical equilibrium of the retaining wall (see C.3.3.2.1);

The uphill resultant of active pressures P2 is assumed to be horizontal (P2V = 0). Its
horizontal component P2H is calculated directly from the properties of the layers
encountered between B and C, and considering the surcharges applied uphill the
anchoring block;

The force Rc is calculated by simple integration of soil cohesion along the [CD]
segment (taking into account the potential variation with depth).

In the next sections, Tdsb designates the value of T allowing to reach equilibrium of the block
(destabilising anchor force).

C.3.4.2.3. Discretisation of the anchoring block


We consider the general case in which the assumed failure surface [CD] intersects several
soil layers. In this case, the resolution of the limit equilibrium of the block requires discretising
the block (ABCDA) into as many blocks as there are layers crossed, so as to ensure that the
base of a given block is homogeneous . The point of this discretisation is to set the
inclination of the mobilisable friction force at the base of each block (see figure below).

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Block1 Block 2 ... Block n X


A
B
Layer 1

Layer 2

...
Layer i0
C

Layer i0 +1

...
D
Layer i0+n

Z
Figure C 28: Discretising the anchoring block into several blocks

As shown in the next figure, the local equilibrium of block k is governed by the following
force system:

H1(k) and V1(k) horizontal and vertical components respectively of the external reaction
along the left vertical border;
H2(k) and V2(k) horizontal and vertical components respectively of the external reaction
along the right vertical border;
W(k) submerged soil weight;
Fe(k) resultant of external surcharges applied in block k;
Rc(k) resistance due to cohesion mobilisable along segment D(k)C(k);
(k)
Rf resistance due to friction mobilisable along segment D(k)C(k).
Block k

Fe(k)

V2(k)
V1(k)
W(k) H2(k)

H1(k)
Ck
Rc (k)

k
Dk
Rf(k)

Figure C 29: Local equilibrium of a block assessment of forces


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In the figure above, k designates the friction angle of the soil layer encountered at the base
of block k .

For simplification purposes, the Bishop assumption is used, which consists in presuming that
interblock reactions are horizontal, which implies considering, according to the notations
of Figure C 29 that:
V1(k) = 0 and V2(k) = 0

This condition is valid only along the interblock borders, an exception must hence be
considered for the first (k = 1) and last blocks (k = n). Therefore, we end up with the general
diagram of the figure below:

Block k
1<k<n Block n
Block 1

Fe(k) Fe(n)
Fe(1)
P2V

P1H W(n) P2H

H1(k) W(k) H2(k) H1(n)


W(1) H2(1)
Tdsb
P1V
C(k) C
C(1)
Rc(1)
Rc (k)
Rc(n)

1 k n
D D(k) D(n)
Rf(1) Rf(k) Rf(n)

Figure C 30: Local equilibrium of blocks considering Bishops simplification assumption

Please note that because of successive cuttings, the anchor load Tdsb is considered only in
the equilibrium of the last block (n). Actually, as the action line is unique, assigning this force
to any block has no impact.

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C.3.4.2.4. Resolving the general equilibrium


For a discretisation into n blocks, the local equilibriums lead to a system with 3n 1
equations and 3n 1 unknowns. More precisely, the equation system is obtained by
projecting the local equilibrium of each block along Ox and Oz (i.e. 2 equations per block)
and writing the action/reaction principle between two jointive blocks, translated by:
H1(k) = H2(k-1).
P2
TTdst
dsb

Fe3+W3
Rc3+Rf3
H2/2=H1/3
Fe2+W2
Rc2+Rf2

H2/1=H1/2
Fe1+W1 Rc1+Rf1

P1

Figure C 31: Example of forces assessment for a case with 3 blocks

Resolving this equation system provides the values of H1(k), H2(k), Rf(k) and Tdsb.

C.3.4.2.5. Check
Obtaining the characteristic value of the destabilising force Tdsb,k allows to check the stability
of the anchoring block for ULS conditions:

We use Tdsb,d to designate the design value of the destabilising force taken equal to:
Tdsb,k
Tdsb,d =
2
The coefficient 2 is equal to 1.10 when applying the French standard NF P 94-282.

We use Tref,d to designate the design value of the anchor force Tref (issued from the
retaining wall horizontal equilibrium calculation) taken equal to:
Tref,d = 1. Tref
The coefficient 1 is equal to 1.35 when applying the French standard NF P 94-282.

The stability of the anchoring block is ensured if: Tref,d Tdsb,d .

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C.3.4.3. Case of several anchors

C.3.4.3.1. General principle


We consider the case of a retaining wall anchored with several levels of anchors, as shown
in the figure below. The stability of the anchoring block is checked by studying successively
the stability of blocks associated with each anchor (the way that was defined in the
previous section for the case of a single anchor). Hence, for each anchor j , we study the
stability of the ABjCjDA block taking into account the anchor forces of all anchors located
inside block j ,.
A B2 B3 B1

Wall

3 C2
C1

C3

Figure C 32: Generalisation to the case of several anchor levels

For example, for the case shown in the figure above, checking the stability of the anchoring
block consists in examining three situations:

Situation 1: we isolate the anchoring block AB1C1DA associated with anchor 1 .


The anchoring points C2 and C3 are located inside the block, therefore the three
anchors are taken into account;
A B1

1 Situation 1

2
T2
T1
3 C2
T3 C1

C3

Figure C 33: Example of application - Situation 01

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Situation 2: we isolate the anchoring block AB2C2DA associated with anchor 2 .


The anchoring points C1 and C3 are located outside the block, therefore only anchor
2 is taken into account;
A B2

1 Situation 2

2
T2

3 C2
C1

C3

Figure C 34: Example of application - Situation 02

Situation 3: we isolate the anchoring block AB3C3DA associated with anchor 3 .


The anchoring point C2 is located inside the block, whereas C3 is located outside.
Anchors 2 and 3 are hence taken into account.
A B3

Situation 3
1

2
T2

C2
3
T3 C1

C3

Figure C 35: Example of application - Situation 03

For a given situation, taking into account an anchor or not is decided depending on the
relative position of its anchoring point with respect to the corresponding block boundaries.
Attention is drawn to the case in which this anchoring point, although located geometrically
outside the block, is close to the borders BC or CD, and in which case its influence cannot be
neglected. Adapting the useful length of the anchors is necessary to allow them to be taken
into account (refer to tutorial 3 in part D in this manual).

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C.3.4.3.2. Assessment of forces


For a given situation, we calculate the equivalent resultant Teq of the forces Ti taken up by all
anchors taken into account in this situation. We designate by eq the inclination of this
resulting force with respect to horizontal. To study the stability of the anchoring block
associated with the situation considered, we thus use an equilibrium system similar to that
considered for a single anchor (figure below), with a dummy anchor inclined with eq with
respect to horizontal and taking up a force equal to Teq.

Teq
k T
k
eq
j Tj

Figure C 36: Resultant of a dummy anchor


O X
A B

Fe P2
W 2

F
Teq
eq

C
P1
1 Rc



D Rf

Z
Figure C 37: Assessment of forces for a given situation

C.3.4.3.3. Resolution
For each situation, the equation is defined according to a process identical to that applied for
the single anchor. For a given situation, the solving of the equilibrium system provides the
characteristic value of the Tdsb,k destabilising force of the associated anchoring block. Its
design value Tdsb,d taken equal to Tdsb / 2 is then compared with the calculation value of the
equivalent reference anchoring force Tref,d = 1 x Teq.

The stability of the anchoring block is ensured if for all situations, we have: Tref,d Tdsb,d .

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C.4. Theoretical bases used for the various data wizards

This section describes the theoretical bases used for the different wizards proposed to the
user. Handling of these wizards is described in part B of the manual (user manual).

IMPORTANT: WIZARDS ARE ONLY A HELP FOR THE USER, THEY ARE NOT A
COMPULSORY STEP IN A PROJECT. THE USER IS RESPONSIBLE FOR THEIR USE.

C.4.1. Wizards related to soil properties (see section B.3.2)

C.4.1.1. k0 coefficient
The k0 Jaky wizard calculates the value of k0 using the following formula:

k 0 = (1 sin )(1 sin ) OCR


With:
( ): slope inclination
( ): friction angle
OCR: overconsolidation ratio

C.4.1.2. kd and kr coefficients


The unloading and reloading ratios enable to account for the variations of horizontal stresses
applied by the soil on the wall due to the loading and unloading of this soil, by modifying the
zero displacement initial pressure and the values of plasticity thresholds (see section
C.2.1.2).

If not considering soil consolidation, define kd = kr = k0.

Otherwise, we can use for example one of the following methods:



If the soil is perfectly elastic, then k d = with = Poisson ratio
1
If the material is incompressible, then = 0.5 and kd = 1. It is the case when
sollicitations are too fast to allow drainage or for highly consolidated soils.
The paper referenced in [6] proposes a calculation formula for the kd ratio
according to the value of the OCR parameter.

Usually, by symmetry, we use kr = kd.

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C.4.1.3. ka and kp coefficients


3 wizards are proposed in AMRetain to determine ka and kp for active and passive earth
pressures.
Kerisel and Absi tables wizard
This wizard is the accurate reproduction of the tables defined by Kerisel and Absi,
published by Presses de lEcole Nationale des Ponts et Chausses, under the title
Tables de pousse et bute des terres de Kerisel et Absi [1].

Coulomb active and passive earth pressures formula wizard


This wizard displays the result of the calculation of Coulomb formulas (from
Techniques de lingnieur; Construction; C242; Ouvrages de soutnement, pousse
et bute written by F. Schlosser [2]):

cos 2 ( )
k a , = 2
sin( + ) * sin( )
cos( + ) 1 +
cos( + ) * cos( )

cos 2 ( + )
k p , = 2
sin( ) * sin( + )
cos( + ) 1
cos( + ) * cos( )
with:
o : friction angle ();
o : angle between the soil surface and the horizontal axis ();
o : angle between the wall and the vertical axis (default value is 0) ();
o /: interface friction ratio.

Figure C 38: Data for Coulomb formula


The ka, and kp, ratios correspond to the values tilted by a and p. The wizard then
provides the ka and kp values of the horizontal active and passive ratios.

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Rankine active and passive earth pressures formula wizard


This wizard is available under 2 different forms:
o The simplified Rankine wizard corresponding to the Rankine button in the main
soil properties dialogue box: this wizard calculates the values of ka and kp by
Rankines formula with a free horizontal surface and transfers automatically the
values to the corresponding box, such as:

k a = tan 2 and k p = tan 2 + .
4 2 4 2
with:
: friction angle ().

o The Rankine wizard allows to consider the slope inclination. It may be reached by
the ka/kp button in the soil properties dialogue, then the Rankine choice:
this wizard displays the result of Rankines formulas for a retaining wall with a
inclined embankment extracted from Techniques de lingnieur; Construction;
C242; Ouvrages de soutnement, pousse et bute written by F. Schlosser [2]
and reminded below:
cos cos 2 cos 2
k a = cos
cos + cos 2 cos 2

cos + cos 2 cos 2
k p = cos
cos cos 2 cos 2

with:
: friction angle ();
: angle between the soil surface and the horizontal axis ().

C.4.1.4. The kac and kpc ratios

1 cos a sin cos ( a ) tan


k ac = e cos a 1 and
tan 1 + sin

1 cos p + sin cos ( + p ) tan sin


k pc = e cos p 1 with sin =
tan 1 sin sin

C.4.1.5. The kh ratio


3 wizards are proposed in AMRetain to determine the reaction ratio kh.
C.4.1.5.1. Balay formula
Balay formula [4] is the following:
Em
kh =
.a
+ 0.133 * (9.a )


2
with:
Em: pressuremeter modulus (kN/m2 ou KsF);
: rheological parameter (see also section B.3.2.3);
a: dimensional parameter (m) (see Figure C 39, see also section B.3.2.3).

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Figure C 39: Parameters for Balay formula

C.4.1.5.2. Schmitt formula


Schmitts calculation method [5] relies on the following formula:
4
E 3
2,1. m
kh =
1
(EI )3
with:
Em: pressuremeter modulus (kN/m2 ou KsF);
: rheological parameter (see also section B.3.2.3).

C.4.1.5.3. Chadeisson curves


Chadeisson curves [6] provide the value of kh according to the soil friction angle and
cohesion.

Figure C 40: Chadeisson curves

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C.4.2. Parameters defined during construction phases (see section B.4.4)

C.4.2.1. The Reduced pressure action


This action requires the definition of the parameters R and C, with:
o R: width of the retaining element / distance (axis to axis) between 2 consecutive
elements
o C: effective passive pressure width of the retaining element / width of the retaining
element

zt

zb
Between zt and zb:
Earth active pressures multiplied by R
Earth passive pressures multiplied by R.C
Water pressures multiplied by R

Figure C 41: Reduced pressure

It seems obvious that the product R.C cannot exceed 1 (100% width of the wall).

Application example for a project with a combined wall:


Lets consider a combined wall HZM 1080 B - s.24 / AZ 18-700 (see figure below), with:
System length = 2.40 m
Length of the main element = 1.00 m.
Distance between axes = 2.4 m

1.0 m
Figure C 42: Example of a combined wall HZM

There are 2 ways to define such a wall in AMRetain in this case:

1. Either you define it as a combined wall in AMRetain. In this case, the calculation
takes into account the average properties of the system, and theres no reason to use
reduced pressure : the retaining is assumed to be continuous, and all earth
pressures are taken up by the retaining wall.

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2. Or you define only the main elements (HZ piles), with their own properties. In this
case, you will design anc check only these piles, and the retaining wall is assumed to
be discontinuous (intermediate elements are not taken into account in the
calculation). Then reduced pressure should be considered with:
R = 1.0 / 2.4 = 0.42: this means that 42 % of the active pressures only is taken
up by the piles (the remaining 58% are assumed to go through the wall and
not to interfere with it.
C = 2: indeed, it is usually accepted that passive earth pressures can be
improved. For instance, one can suppose that in front of a pile of 1 m, the
mobilisation length for passive pressures is twice the element length (i.e. 2 m)
(considering the friction in addition to face passive pressures), in which case
the pultiplying factor C is equal to 2.

C.4.2.2. The Boussinesq surcharge and Graux surcharge actions


Both surcharges (Boussinesq and Graux types) correspond to localised vertical surcharges
applied to the soil or in depth.

For each surcharge, we calculate the additional vertical stress v generated in depth along
the wall (see figure below), which is then added directly to the soil stresses on the surcharge
application side. The additional horizontal stresses h applied to the wall are then equal to:

h = k.v

With k = ka, kp or k0 according to the soil state.

Figure C 43: Surcharges

The additional stress v generated depends on the distribution mode of the surcharge.
Boussinesq surcharge: the distribution is based on the integration of the stress profile
from the Boussinesq model. With the notations of the figure above, the expression of
v generated at a depth h under the surcharge is given by the following
relation (Terzaghi, 1943):

v =
2S
atg
hl
+
xh (x + l)h

x(x + l) + h 2
x + h (x + l)2 + h 2

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Graux surcharge: the distribution is performed according to a trapezoidal profile in


each layer, by assuming a uniform stress level at a given depth. The direction of the
distribution line depends on the friction angle of the layers crossed, as specified in
the figure below.

Figure C 44: Graux surcharge

C.4.2.3. Fill action


The Fill action requires the definition of coefficient ki corresponding to earth active pressure
at fill installation: earth pressure on the wall due to the construction of the fill equals initial
pressure, i.e. p i = k i . v' with k ay k i 1 .
This ki coefficient can be assigned different values:
ki = k0, to set the initial earth pressure state of the fill to the at-rest state;
ki > k0, to define compaction of the fill;
ki = ka, so set the initial earth pressure state of the fill to the active pressure state.

Note: as the fill lies directly on the bottom of the excavation, vertical stresses under the
embankment are modified by the increase in vertical stresses due to the weight of the fill.

C.4.2.4. Struts action Stiffness calculation wizard


The Wizard tab of the Struts action provides access to the Stiffness calculation wizard.
This wizard allows to calculate the stiffness K of the strut from the following formula:

EA 1
K= .
lu e h
With:
E = Young modulus of the material (kN/m2 or KsF);
A = section (mm2 or In2);
lu = useful length (m or Ft);
eh = horizontal spacing (m or Ft).

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C.4.2.5. Anchor action Wizard for prestress and stiffness calculation

The Wizard tab of the Anchors action provides access to the Preload and stiffness
calculation wizard. This wizard allows to calculate the prestress force of the anchor, and its
stiffness based on the following formulas:

- Anchor prestress force:


P
P=
eh
With:
eh = horizontal spacing (m or Ft)

- Anchor stiffness:
EA 1
K= .
lu e h
With:
E = Young modulus of the material (kN/m2 or KsF);
A = section (mm2 or In2);
lu = useful length (m or Ft);
eh = horizontal spacing (m or Ft).

C.4.2.6. Linking anchor action Stiffness calculation wizard


The Wizard tab of the Linking anchor action provides access to the Wizard: Linking
anchor, allowing to compute stiffness of the anchor based on the following formula:
ES 1
K= .
lu e h
With:
E = Young modulus of the material (kN/m2 or KsF);
A = section (mm2 or In2);
lu = useful length (m or Ft), equal to the distance between both walls in the case of a
horizontal anchor;
eh = horizontal spacing (m or Ft).

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

[1] J. Krisel et E. Absi. Tables de pousse et de bute des terres. Presses de lEcole
Nationale des Ponts et Chausse, last issue 2003.

[2] F. Schlosser. Ouvrages de soutnement, pousse et bute. Techniques de lingnieur;


Construction; C242.

[3] F. Schlosser. Ouvrages de soutnement - Techniques de lIngnieur Trait de


construction; C244

[4] J. Balay. Recommandations pour le choix des paramtres de calcul des crans de
soutnement par la mthode aux modules de raction. Note dinformation technique, LCPC,
1984.

[5] P. Schmitt. Mthode empirique dvaluation du coefficient de raction du sol vis--vis des
ouvrages de soutnement souple. Revue Franaise de Gotechnique n 71, 2me trimestre
1995.

[6] A. Monnet. Module de raction, coefficient de dcompression, au sujet des paramtres


utiliss dans la mthode de calcul lasto-plastique des soutnements. Revue Franaise de
Gotechnique n 65, 1st quarter 1994.

[7] Fascicule 62. LCPC-SETRA.

[8] Arcelor Mittal sheet pile catalogue.

[9] Eurocode 7 NF EN 1997 1 June 2005

[10] Calcul Gotechnique Ouvrages de soutnement French standard NF P 94-282


AFNOR March 2009

[11] Terzaghi K., Evaluation of coefficients of subgrade reaction, 1955

[12] Simpson B., Embedded retaining walls - Guidance for economic design, CIRIA Report
C580

[13] Smoltczyk U., Geotechnical engineering handbook, Ernst&Sohn, 2003

[14] Clayton C.R.I., Retaining structures, Institution of Civil Engineers, 1992

[15] EAB, Recommendations on excavations, Ernst&Sohn, 2009

[16] EAU, Recommendations of the committee for waterfront structures harbors and
waterways, Ernst&Sohn, 2004

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D AMRetain Tutorial Manual

D. TUTORIAL MANUAL

D.1. TUTORIAL 1: SINGLE SHEETPILE WALL WITH 2 STRUTS LEVELS ..................... 3


D.1.1. STEP 1: DATA INPUT ..........................................................................................4
D.1.2. STEP 2: DEFINITION OF PHASES AND ACTIONS ........................................... 10
D.1.3. STEP 3: CALCULATION AND OUTPUT ............................................................. 15
D.2. TUTORIAL 2: CANTILEVER WALL WITH ULS CHECKS ....................................... 21
D.2.1. STEP 1: DATA INPUT ........................................................................................22
D.2.2. STEP 2: DEFINITION OF PHASES AND ACTIONS ........................................... 27
D.2.3. STEP 3: CALCULATION AND OUTPUT ............................................................. 31
D.2.4. STEP 4: ADJUSTMENT OF THE PROJECT DATA IN ORDER TO
SATISFY THE ULS CHECKS CONDITIONS ................................................... 38
D.2.5. STEP 5: COMPARISON OF METHODS D AND F FOR LEM
CALCULATIONS .............................................................................................43
D.3. TUTORIAL 3: MULTI-ANCHORED SHEETPILE WALL WITH ULS CHECKS ......... 48
D.3.1. STEP 1: DATA INPUT ........................................................................................49
D.3.2. STEP 2: DEFINITION OF PHASES AND ACTIONS ........................................... 52
D.3.3. STEP 3: CALCULATION AND OUTPUT ............................................................. 56
D.3.4. STEP 4: ALTERNATIVE PROJECT WITH STANDARD U SHEETPILES ........... 66
D.4. TUTORIAL 4: TYPICAL CASE OF A DOUBLE SHEETPILE WALL
(COFFERDAM).........................................................................................................70
D.4.1. STEP 1: DATA INPUT ........................................................................................71
D.4.2. STEP 2: DEFINITION OF PHASES AND ACTIONS ........................................... 76
D.4.3. STEP 3: CALCULATION AND OUTPUT ............................................................. 83
D.5. TUTORIAL 5: MAIN WALL ANCHORED WITH A SHORTER REAR WALL............ 88
D.5.1. STEP 1: DATA INPUT ........................................................................................89
D.5.2. STEP 2: DEFINITION OF PHASES AND ACTIONS ........................................... 97
D.5.3. STEP 3: CALCULATION AND OUTPUT ........................................................... 103
D.5.4. STEP 4: ULS CHECKS ..................................................................................... 107

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D.1. TUTORIAL 1: SINGLE SHEETPILE WALL WITH 2 STRUTS


LEVELS

This example deals with the design of a single sheet pile wall with two levels of permanent
struts (floors). It will be checked here with respect to SSIM calculation only. Please refer to
tutorials 2 and 3 for details about ULS checks.
The wall is made of ArcelorMittal sheet piles of type AZ 12, 14 m long.
The figure below illustrates this project.

Boussinesq surcharge = 20 kPa


Caquot surcharge = 10 kPa

174
173.5

172

170
169.5

AZ 12

165

164

160

This is a first introductory example intended to illustrate the user interface and the main
features of AMRetain.

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D.1.1. STEP 1: DATA INPUT

D.1.1.1. TITLE AND OPTIONS

Click on Start, Programs, AMRetain.

Select English language, and click on Start AMRetain

Check I accept liability clauses.

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Select New project.

The dialogue box Title and Options is then displayed (and should be filled in with the
data mentioned on the screenshot).

Select Simple wall.

In the zone Title / Project Number, click on the Title blank line and define a title for
the project.

In the same, define a project number or reference.

We will use metric units.

The water weight default value is 10 kN/m3. Lets keep this value.

Select Definition of the project in Levels, which will direct the vertical axis upwards.

In the zone Calculation Options, keep the default settings, i.e., 50 iterations per
calculation phase and a calculation step of 0,5 m along the wall. We will not take into
account buckling here (2nd order moments).

Leave the box Perform the ULS checks unchecked for this example.

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D.1.1.2. DEFINITION OF SOIL PROPERTIES

The dialogue box Characteristics of soil layers is then displayed and should be
filled in to achieve the following screenshot.

We should input all soil properties for the 3 soil layers.

The bottom part of the dialogue box is intended for data input. Please fill in the
properties of the first soil layer (LAYER1). The soil properties are summarized in the
table below:

z zw d c dc
a/ p/
(m) (m) (kN/m3) (kN/m3) () (kN/m2) (kN/m2/m)
LAYER 1 174 164 20 10 15 5 0 0 -0.66
LAYER 2 172 164 20 10 15 10 0 0 -0.66
LAYER 3 170 164 20 10 35 0 0 0 -0.66

kh dkh
k0 ka kp kd kr kac kpc
(kN/m3) (kN/m3/m)
LAYER 1 0.741 0.589 2.019 0.741 0.741 1.53 3.71 14000 0
LAYER 2 0.741 0.589 2.019 0.741 0.741 1.53 3.71 15000 0
LAYER 3 0.426 0.271 7.359 0.426 0.426 0 0 40000 0

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The following wizards may be used:

k0: keep the default settings (here below for the first layer):

ka / kp: please use Tables by KERISEL and ABSI. Select Active earth
pressure (respectively Passive earth pressure ) and click on Transfer to
copy each value to the main soils dialogue box.

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kac / kpc: keep the default settings (here below for the first layer):

kd = k0 and kr = k0

For this example, the other soils data were provided with the project data and the use of
other wizards is not requested.

Click on New and fill in the properties for the second soil layer (LAYER 2).

Click in the upper part of the window (table) to validate the input data for the second
layer.

Click on New and fill in the properties for the third soil layer (LAYER 3).

Click in the upper part of the window (table) to validate the input data for the third
layer.

Click on Validate and Quit.

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D.1.1.3. DEFINITION OF WALL PROPERTIES

The dialogue box Retaining wall is then displayed and should be filled in to achieve
the screen shot below.

In the zone ArcelorMittal catalogue of steel sheet piles, check type Standard Z
(default selection). In the list Z Section, select AZ 12. Click on the button Transfer to
copy the sheet pile properties (name and EI value) to the project data (left part of the
window).

In the left part of the window, fill in the sheet pile wall top level Z0 and the wall bottom
level Zf, with the values provided in the next table.

Type EI (kN.m2) Z0 (m) Zf (m)


Wall AZ 12 38115 174 160

Click on Validate and Quit.

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D.1.2. STEP 2: DEFINITION OF PHASES AND ACTIONS

When data input has been completed, the main screen should be like on the screenshot
below.

The AMRetain main window displays the initial phase of the project with the drawing of the
wall and soil layers.

We should first define the actions for the initial phase (phase 0). In our case, we have to
define a Caquot uniform surcharge of 10 kPa.

Then we will define 3 construction phases.

The complete phasing for this example is illustrated in the following tables.

Phase Actions Properties


Initial phase
1. Caquot surcharge 1. Load = 10 kPa
Caquot surcharge
Phase 1 1. Left side, zh = 172.5 m, zw = 164 m,
1. Excavation - Water
Excavation on the left side q = 0 kN/m
Phase 2 1. Struts, za = 173.5 m, K = 400000 kN/m,
Installation of the first 1. Struts bilateral mode
struts level 2. Excavation - Water 2. Left side, zh = 168.5 m, zw = 164 m,
Excavation on the left side q = 0 kN/m
Phase 3 1. Struts, za = 169.5 m, K = 400000 kN/m,
Installation of the second bilateral mode
1. Struts
struts level 2. Left side, zh = 165.0 m, zw = 164 m,
2. Excavation Water
Excavation on the left side q = 0 kN/m
3. Boussinesq surcharge
Boussinesq load on ground 3. Boussinesq surcharge, z = 174 m, x = 1 m,
2
level L = 10 m, q = 20 kN/m

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D.1.2.1. DEFINITION OF INITIAL PHASE (PHASE 0)

Define the Caquot load to be added by selecting again Caquot surcharge in the
Initial phase list.

Click on the transfer button next to this list.

Input the requested property in the bottom part of the screen:

Surcharge q = 10 kN/m2

Validate by clicking on

When the definition of the initial phase is completed, the main screen should look like this:

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D.1.2.2. DEFINITION OF PHASE 1


First of all, we should create a new phase.

Click on in the bottom part of the main window.

A new tab is created for phase 1 (with the same settings as the initial stage at the
moment).

Now we have to define the first excavation action to be executed in phase 1: select
Excavation-Water in the Earthworks list.

Click on the transfer button next to it.

Input the requested properties in the right bottom part of the screen:
Left side
Excavation level zh = 172.5 m
Water level zw = 164 m (unchanged)
No surcharge (q = 0 kN/m2)

Validate by clicking (the drawing is then updated to account for the


excavation).

When the definition of this phase is completed, the main screen should look like this:

Note: the Excavation-Water action on the left side automatically removes the Caquot load
that had been previously defined on this side. Should we need to apply a load on the
excavated level, we should define a value for q in the Excavation-Water action.

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D.1.2.3. DEFINITION OF PHASE 2


The aim of the second phase is to install the first level of struts and to proceed with the next
excavation.

Click on in the bottom part of the main window.

Now we have to define the first level of struts: select Struts in the Anchors - Wall list.

Click on the transfer button next to it.

Input the requested properties in the right bottom part of the screen:
Activate a new anchor
Left side
Head level za = 173.5 m
Stiffness K = 400000 kN/m
No unilateral mode

Note 1: no unilateral mode implies that the strut will work in bilateral mode (it may
take traction forces as well as compression forces)

Note 2: the struts wizard may be used in order to define the strut stiffness K: click on
the Wizard button, and input the following properties, corresponding to a concrete
continuous floor: E = 20e6 kPa, S = 2e5 mm2 (S = 20 cm thickness x 1 m unit length),
Lu = 10 m, eh = 1 m (unit length). Then click on the Transfer button.

In addition to the Struts action, define an Excavation-Water with the following


properties:

Left side
Excavation level zh = 168.5 m
Water level zw = 164 m (unchanged)
No surcharge (q = 0 kN/m2)

Validate by clicking on .

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D.1.2.4. DEFINITION OF PHASE 3


The aim of the third phase is to install the second level of struts, to proceed with the next
excavation, and finally to add a Boussinesq load on ground level.

Click on in the bottom part of the main window.

Now we have to define the second level of struts, with the following properties:

Activate a new anchor


Left side
Head level za = 169.5 m
Stiffness K = 400000 kN/m
No unilateral mode

In addition to the Struts action, define an Excavation-Water with the following


properties:
Left side
Excavation level zh = 165.0 m
Water level zw = 164 m (unchanged)
No surcharge (q = 0 kN/m2)

Finally, define a Boussinesq surcharge (Loads Forces Moments list) with the
following properties:
Right side
Application level z = 174.0 m
x=1m
L = 10 m
q = 20 kN/m2

Validate by clicking on .

The main screen should now look like this:

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D.1.3. STEP 3: CALCULATION AND OUTPUT

To perform the calculation of the 3 phases, please click on the Calculate button.
The following screenshots illustrate the results obtained after calculation for the last
calculation phase.

To view the details of results (curves and tables), click on the button or .
The following screenshots illustrate the various results available in AMRetain for a calculation
without ULS checks.
The first tab that is displayed by default is a summary of the project data: soil and wall
properties, initial phase actions, etc.

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The next tabs enable to access the detailed results for each phase, as described in part B of
the manual.

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By default, the results are displayed as curves: displacements, moments, shear forces, and
earth/water pressures (differential pressure is proposed by default, but its possible to switch
to a display of decomposed pressures). The maximum values are provided for each curve.
When anchors (active anchors or struts) are active in a given phase, the axial forces in these
anchors are also available for each phase at the bottom of the screen.
Finally, the earth resistance ratio (available/mobilised passive earth pressures) is displayed
as well.

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For each phase, it is also possible to display more detailed results in tables (the content of
each column is detailed in part B of the manual):

In addition to these results by phase, 2 additional tabs are available: Results synthesis and
Envelope phases 1 to 5.

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Comments on the results of the calculation

The maximum displacement is 13 mm. It is reached in the last phase, at level


167.0 m. The shape of the displacement curves changes depending on the number of
supports (struts) along the wall. For instance, in the first phase (no strut), the
maximum displacement is reached at the top of the wall (4 mm).
The maximum moment is 88 kN.m/ml. It is reached in the last phase, at level
166.5 m.
The maximum shear force is 120 kN/ml. It is reached in the last phase, at the same
level as the second struts levels (169.5 m). The struts forces can be read directly on
the shear force curve:

Strut n 1 at level 173.5 m:


Force = 54.17-(-2.79) = 57 kN/ml

Phase 3
Strut n 2 at level 169.5 m:
Force = 109.77-(-119.86) = 230 kN/ml

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As mentioned before, they are also provided at the bottom of the screen (here for phase 3):

Finally, they are also included in the results synthesis.


The force in strut n 1 is maximum in the last phase, with 57 kN/ml.
The force in strut n 2 is available only for phase 3 (it is installed in the last phase =
phase 3): it is 230 kN/ml.
The second strut level takes a much higher force than the first level.

The earth resistance ratio decreases with each phase, from 13.6 in the first phase, to 3.2 in
the last phase: it decreases because the embedment of the wall is each time smaller, due to
the excavation on the left side. But the final value of 3.2 is largely acceptable.

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D.2. TUTORIAL 2: CANTILEVER WALL WITH ULS CHECKS

This example deals with the design of a permanent sheet pile cantilever (embedded) wall.
The wall is made of ArcelorMittal sheet piles of type AZ 26-700, 13 m long.
No anchor is installed, and the wall is thus cantilever (embedded).
The figure below illustrates this project.

AZ 26-700
L = 13m

-13.00

In this example, we will detail the ULS checks. The embedment of the wall is not long
enough with respect to these checks and thus we will have to make some changes to the
project: this procedure is detailed here.

At the end of this example, we will also compare the use of methods D and F for LEM
calculations.

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D.2.1. STEP 1: DATA INPUT

D.2.1.1. TITLE AND OPTIONS

Click on Start, Programs, AMRetain.

Select English language, and click on Start AMRetain

Check I accept liability clauses.

Select New project.

The dialogue box Title and Options is then displayed (and should be filled in with the
data mentioned on the screenshot).

Select Simple wall.

In the zone Title / Project Number, click on the Title blank line and define a title for
the project.

In the same, define a project number or reference.

We will use metric units.

The water soil weight may be changed and the default value 10 kN/m3 will here be
replaced with 9.81 kN/m3.

Select Definition of the project in Levels, which will direct the vertical axis upwards.

In the zone Calculation Options, keep the default settings, i.e., 50 iterations per
calculation phase and a calculation step of 0,5 m along the wall. We will not take into
account buckling here (2nd order moments).

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Check the box Perform the ULS checks, and keep the default safety factors NF 94-
282 (Eurocode 7). Select method D (default calculation method for LEM
calculations, please refer to part C of the manual for technical information, and to
section 2.5 of this tutorial for a comparison with method F).

You may display the set of partial factors by clicking the [] button.

Click on OK when you are finished with this screen.

Select English for the output language.

Click on Validate and Quit.

Save the project with the name and in the directory you wish to use.

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D.2.1.2. DEFINITION OF SOIL PROPERTIES

The dialogue box Characteristics of soil layers is then displayed and should be
filled in to achieve the following screenshot.

We should then input all soil properties for both soil layers.

The bottom part of the dialogue box is intended for data input. Please fill in the
properties of the first soil layer (SOIL1 SAND). The soil properties are summarised in
the table below:

z zw d c dc
a/ p/
(m) (m) (kN/m3) (kN/m3) () (kN/m2) (kN/m2/m)
SOIL1_SAND 0 -2 18 10 31 0 0 0.66 -0.33
SOIL2_SILT_STONE -11 -2 21 11 35 0 0 0.66 -0.33

kh dkh
k0 ka kp kd kr kac kpc
(kN/m3) (kN/m3/m)
SOIL1_SAND 0.485 0.271 4.212 0.485 0.485 0 0 30000 0
SOIL2_SILT_STONE 0.426 0.227 5.291 0.426 0.426 0 0 35000 0

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The following wizards may be used:

k0: keep the default settings (here below for the first layer):

ka / kp: please use Tables by KERISEL and ABSI. Select Active earth
pressure (respectively Passive earth pressure ) and click on Transfer to
copy each value to the main soils dialogue box.

kd = k0 and kr = k0

For this example, the other soils data were provided with the project data and the use of
other wizards is not requested.

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Click on New and fill in the properties for the second soil layer (SOIL2 SILT STONE).

Click in the upper part of the window (table) to validate the input data for the second
layer.

Click on Validate and Quit.

D.2.1.3. DEFINITION OF WALL PROPERTIES

The dialogue box Retaining wall is then displayed and should be filled in to achieve
the screen shot below.

In the zone ArcelorMittal catalogue of steel sheet piles, check type Standard Z
(default selection). In the list Z Section, select AZ 26-700. Click on the button
Transfer to copy the sheet pile properties (name and EI value) to the project data (left
part of the window).

In the left part of the window, fill in the sheet pile wall top level Z0 and the wall bottom
level Zf, with the values provided in the next table.

Type EI (kN.m2) Z0 (m) Zf (m)


Wall AZ 26-700 125412 0 -13

Click on Validate and Quit.

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D.2.2. STEP 2: DEFINITION OF PHASES AND ACTIONS

When data input has been completed, the main screen should be like on the screenshot
below.

The AMRetain main window displays the initial phase of the project with the drawing of the
wall and soil layers.

We should first define the actions for the initial phase (phase 0). But in our case, theres no
action to be defined for the initial stage.

We will thus start with the creation of phase 1, as indicated below.

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The complete phasing for this example is illustrated in the following tables.

Phase Actions Properties


Initial phase - -
Phase 1 (temporary)
Excavation on the left side
1. Left side, zh = -4.5 m, zw = -2 m, q = 0 kN/m
and surcharge on the 1. Excavation - Water
2. Right side, zh = 0 m, zw = -2 m, q = 10 kN/m
ground level on the right 2. Excavation - Water
(surcharge to be defined as variable)
side

Phase 2 (permanent)
Change of the water level 1. Excavation - Water 1. Left side, zh = -4.5 m, zw = -3 m, q = 0 kN/m
on the left side

D.2.2.1. DEFINITION OF PHASE 1


First of all, we should create a new phase.

Click on in the bottom part of the main window.

A new tab is created for phase 1 (with the same settings as the initial stage at the
moment).

This project (and thus this phase) includes no anchor, and the wall is cantilever.
Furthermore, we have activated the ULS checks earlier in the data input. So:
o The checkbox Cantilever wall (LEM calculation) has been automatically
checked.
o The action LEM coefficients (Limit Equilibrium Method) has been
automatically added: its intended to control the properties of counter-earth
resistance. By default, these parameters (counter-passive earth pressures) are
the same as those for passive earth pressures (values for dp/phi, kp and kpc
identical to those defined initially for each soil layer). In this example, we will
keep these values (see screenshot on next page). The cb notation in this
screen refers to counter-earth resistance.
Please note that the inclination of counter earth resistance should be checked
and adjusted if necessary in order to ensure the consistency of the vertical
forces check.
o Phase 1 should be marked as temporary (just above the actions list)

Now we have to add the first physical action to be executed in phase 1: select
Excavation-Water in the Earthworks list.

Click on the transfer button next to it.

Input the requested properties in the right bottom part of the screen:
Left side
Excavation level zh = -4.5 m
Water level zw = -2 m
No surcharge (q = 0 kN/m2)

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Validate by clicking (the drawing is then updated to account for the


excavation).

Define the extra action to be added in phase 1 by selecting again Excavation-Water


in the Earthworks list.

Click on the transfer button

Input the requested properties:

Right side
Excavation level zh = 0 m
Water level zw = -2 m
Surcharge q = 10 kN/m2 (to be defined as variable)

Note: The action Excavation-Water is intended here to change the uniform (Caquot)
surcharge on the right side (the excavation level and water level are unchanged).

Validate by clicking on

When the definition of this phase is completed, the main screen should look like this:

Properties for counter earth


resistance

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D.2.2.2. DEFINITION OF PHASE 2


The aim of the second phase is to change the water level on the left side of the wall.

Click on in the bottom part of the main window.

The wall is still cantilever, and the LEM calculation is thus automatically activated
again, with the creation of an action LEM coefficients. The properties relating to
counter-earth resistance for each layer are by default the same as for phase 1. We
can keep them unchanged.

Phase 2 should be marked as permanent (just above the actions list)

Define an Excavation-Water with the following properties:

Left side
Excavation level zh = -4.5 m
Water level zw = -3 m
No surcharge (q = 0 kN/m2)

Note: The action Excavation-Water is intended here to change the water level on the
left side.

Validate by clicking on .

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D.2.3. STEP 3: CALCULATION AND OUTPUT

To perform the calculation of both phases, please click on the Calculate button.

Note: calculations may be run at any moment as soon as all input data have been filled in.

The curves for shear forces and bending moments are displayed on each phase tab (phase
2 for instance on the screenshot below). In this case, these curves display the ULS design
values of the moments and shear forces in the wall. They should be used as input data for
the check of the internal resistance of the wall (the values of shear forces and moments will
be detailed later on, when checking detailed results).

The displacements are not displayed in this case (blank zone) because its a LEM
calculation.

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To view the details of results (curves and tables), click on the button or .

The following screen is displayed:

It includes all data and results in various tabs:


The Data tab displays all the project data: units system, water weight, soil
properties, wall properties, initial phase options, etc...
The tabs for Calculation phases include the detailed results. On each tab, it is
possible to switch from mode Curves mode to Tables mode (and back)
depending on what you wish to view, and to display the results of the ULS
checks.
The tab Results synthesis displays a summary of main SLS and ULS results.
The tab Envelope displays the envelope curves and tables for the project results
over all phases.

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The following screenshot illustrates the ULS curves for phase 1 of this example:

Earth
pressures
(active and
passive)

Transition
Counter level zn
earth
pressures
(active and
passive)

As explained in part C of the manual (and illustrated on the screenshot above):

Earth pressures are considered down to transition level zn; below this level,
counter earth pressures are considered.
This maximum shear force is reached at the transition level zn.

In this window, please click on buttons Pass. Press. and Vert. Eq. to get to the ULS checks
results.

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Check of the failure on the passive side

The figure below illustrates the various levels calculated and displayed in the screenshot, as
well as f0 (minimum requested embedment) and fb (available embedment). Please also refer
to part C of the manual to check the details about the calculation method, and the meaning of
these levels.

z0

f0
fb
zn

zc

zp zp

The screenshot here above illustrates that the check is composed of 2 parts:
Check of the embedment: AMRetain calculates the critical point C corresponding to
the minimum embedment ensuring moments equilibrium. It then checks that the
available embedment is superior to this minimum embedment with a sufficient safety
(1.20 according to the French Standard NF P 94-282). The safety obtained here is
1.65 > 1.20. The embedment check is thus satisfactory.

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Check of the failure on the passive side: we chose method D, so AMRetain calculates
the level of transition point zn. This transition point corresponds to the switch level
between the active/passive pressures zone to the counter-active/counter-passive
pressures zone, so that equilibrium of moments and horizontal forces is ensured. This
calculation enables to evaluate the mobilization factor equal to the ratio of counter
passive earth pressure requested to ensure forces equilibrium to counter passive
earth pressure available below point zn. Here, we have = 0.078 < 1.00. The check
of the failure on the passive side is thus satisfactory.

Check of the vertical equilibrium (vertical forces applied to the wall)

During this check, AMRetain calculates the balance of the vertical forces mobilised along the
wall height, including the weight of the wall itself. The vertical resultant of forces is directed
downwards and its value is 39.74 kN. This force should be checked by the user with respect
to bearing capacity (separately from AMRetain).

This check is also satisfactory: the resultant of vertical forces is positive (i.e. directed
downwards).

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The following screenshot illustrates the ULS curves for phase 2 of this example:

The maximum moment is 548 kNm/ml.


The maximum shear force is 289 kN/ml, and it is reached at the transition level.

In this window, please click on buttons Pass. Press. and Vert. Eq. to get to the ULS checks
results.

Check of the failure on the passive side

This check is not satisfactory anymore. The mobilization factor is higher than in phase 1
(0.33) but is still far inferior to 1.0. But the embedment ratio fb/f0 is equal to 1.16, and thus
inferior to 1.20, which is the minimum required value according to the French Standard
NF P 94-282): so the embedment is not satisfactory.

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Check of the vertical equilibrium (vertical forces applied to the wall)

This check is not satisfactory anymore either: the resultant of vertical forces is negative (i.e.
directed upwards), with a value of -31.64 kN.

The project should thus be modified in order to improve the results of the ULS checks for
phase 2. As the embedment is too short, we should first increase the depth of the sheet pile
wall (i.e. the available embedment), in order to get a ratio fb/f0 superior to 1.20.

This is described in the next section.

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D.2.4. STEP 4: ADJUSTMENT OF THE PROJECT DATA IN ORDER TO SATISFY


THE ULS CHECKS CONDITIONS

Close the ULS checks (button OK) window and then results window (button Quit).

Then Save as your file with a new file name.

D.2.4.1. FAILURE ON THE PASSIVE SIDE

As indicated in the analysis of the output, we need to increase the wall embedment and run
the calculation again.

We will thus change the level of the bottom of the wall from -13,0 to -13,5 m (i.e. increase of
50 cm of the available embedment).

In the main window, select menu Data / Retaining wall or click on the button in
the button bar to display the dialogue box for the wall definition.

Change level zf to -13,5 m (Figure below), and click on Validate and Quit.

Run the calculations again (using the button Calculate on the main window for
instance).

Click on the button Results, and on the tab Results synthesis. Select ULS results.

This is another way to check very quickly whether all checks are now satisfactory or not.
In this case, the check of failure on the passive side is now satisfactory for both phases,
meaning the embedment is now correct.

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But the resultant of vertical forces is still negative (although with a smaller value) in phase 2.

Lets click on the tab Phase 2, and on the button Pass. Pressure to check that in more
detail.

This check is indeed satisfactory: the embedment ratio fb/f0 is equal to 1.25 ( 1.20), and the
mobilisation factor is 0.207 ( 1.0).

This check is not satisfactory: the resultant of vertical forces is negative (i.e. directed
upwards), with a value of -10.29 kN.

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D.2.4.2. BALANCE OF VERTICAL FORCES


In AMRetain, the check of the balance of vertical forces is considered to be satisfactory if,
and only if, the vertical resultant of forces is directed downwards, in which case its up to the
user to check afterwards the bearing capacity at the bottom of the wall.

It is sometimes necessary to adjust the inclinations of active/passive/counter-passive earth


pressures in order to obtain a vertical resultant directed downwards (which is indeed the
case for our example here).
In the case of a cantilever wall, its common use to adjust the inclination of counter-passive
earth pressures only: its the only component which is only partially mobilised and which
should be adjusted strictly speaking in order to ensure both the horizontal equilibrium and
vertical equilibrium of the wall.

So in order to get a vertical resultant force directed downwards (i.e. positive value), we have
2 choices:

1. Either we change the inclination of the counter earth passive resistance as explained
here above.
In this case, we will adjust the inclination of the counter earth passive resistance, and
thus also the counter passive earth pressure coefficients. This adjustment will
guarantee that the checks of the failure on the passive side and of the vertical
resultant use compatible pressures and are both satisfactory.
This should be done by closing the Results window and then following this procedure:
Select phase 2 in the main window (the phase for which the vertical check is not
satisfactory).
Select the existing LEM Coefficients and then:
o Change the value of dp(cb)/phi for each layer to the value of 0 (next
typical value in the tables or curves after -0.33)
o Then click on the first layer (first line of the table) and on the button
Kp(cb) wizard. Keep the default selection (Kerisel and Absi tables).
Then just Transfer the proposed value (which takes into account the
friction angle and obliquity).
o Do the same for the second layer.
o Our layers here have no cohesion so theres no need to change the
kpc(cb) value.

Click on Validate and then on Calculate.

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The results we get for phase 2 are now the following:

All checks are now satisfactory. The vertical resultant force in phase 2 is positive
(47.58 kN).
Reminder: this force should be checked by the user with respect to bearing capacity
(separately from AMRetain).
Note: adjusting the counter earth pressure properties usually has no influence on the
maximum values of moments.
If you compare with the previous results obtained before the adjustment of the
inclination of the counter passive earth pressures, you can see that the values that
changed are those of Pv1+,d and Pv1-,d (which represent the vertical resultant of earth
pressures of the active/counter passive pressures side), and thus also the value of
Pv,d, leading to a global resultant Rv,d that is now positive, because the counter-earth
passive pressures inclination is lower.

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The change of the inclination of the counter passive earth pressure also lead to a
change of Cm,d (mobilisable counter earth resistance under zn): indeed, the check of
the failure on the passive side uses pressures that are compatible with those taken
into account the vertical check.
The mobilisation factor is thus also changed, and is now equal to 0.296 ( 1.0).

In fact, the results above are too favourable (for the vertical check) and the value of
the inclination of the counter passive earth pressures dp(cb)/phi could be further
adjusted by linear interpolation in the range [-0.33 ; 0] in order to obtain (for example)
a vertical resultant as close to 0 as possible. In this case, dp(cb)/phi wont have a
typical value anymore, and the corresponding values of kp(cb) should be
interpolated manually between the values corresponding to dp(cb)/phi = -0.33 and
dp(cb)/phi = 0.

Please save this file before trying the second solution below, as we will use this
configuration again in the next chapter.

2. Or we increase again the embedment depth, and define zf = -14.0 m for instance
(using the same procedure as described before in D.2.4.1, but using initial counter
passive earth pressures properties again, and not the ones that have just been
modified).
In this case, we get the following results:

All checks are now satisfactory. The vertical resultant force in phase 2 is positive
(6.64 kN).

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This solution is more simple et quicker, but it does not lead to an optimized design of
the wall (the sheet piles should be 0,5 m longer than with the optimized design here
above).

D.2.5. STEP 5: COMPARISON OF METHODS D AND F FOR LEM CALCULATIONS

We will here compare 2 calculations with the same parameters except for the LEM
calculation method which will be switched from method D to method F. Please check part C
of this manual for additional information about these calculation methods.

Close the ULS checks (button OK) window and then results window (button Quit).

Then Save your file and open the file for tutorial 2 corresponding to the first solution
considered in chapter D.2.4.2 (with zf = -13,5 m, and modified counter-passive earth
pressures properties).

Save as your file with another new name, and lets change the calculation method for
LEM calculations from method D (default method) to method F (French method):

Click on menu Data / Title and options, and switch to method F: Click on Validate
and Quit.

Leave all the other project settings unchanged. Click on Calculate and open the
results window. Heres the Results synthesis tab:

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The table below summarises the main relevant values in order to compare both calculations
with methods D and F:

Method D Method F
Moments -324 / 0 kNm/ml -324 / 0 kNm/ml
Shear forces -86 / 97 kN/ml -86 / 297 kN/ml
Transition level zn zn = -8.51 m zn = -9.96 m
zn = zc
Phase 1
Check of failure on the OK OK
passive side fb/f0 = 1,75 fb/f0 = 1,75
= 0.068 = 0.163
Vertical resultant OK (47 kN) Not OK (-22 kN)
Moments -548 / 0 kNm/ml -548 / 0 kNm/ml
Shear forces -120 / 248 kN/ml -120 / 439 kN/ml
Transition level zn zn = -11.11 m zn = -11.99 m
(zn = zc)
Phase 2
Check of failure on the OK OK
passive side fb/f0 = 1.246 fb/f0 = 1.246
= 0.296 = 0.745
Vertical resultant OK (48 kN) OK (7 kN)

We can check in the table that the difference between the levels of the transition points
calculated by both methods are 1.45 m in phase 1, and 0.88 m in phase 2.

The following figures illustrate the superposition of differential pressures, moments and
shear forces for calculations with methods D and F for phase 2.

Differential pressures: its visible that counter passive earth pressure is assumed to
be mobilised below zn for method D, and below zc for method F (zc being deeper
than zn). Thus the shape of differential pressures is the same for both methods down
to zn, and is different below zn.
Moments: the maximum moment has the same value for both calculations, but the
shape of the moments curve is different: with method F, the moment is calculated
down to zc only, whereas with method D, the moment is calculated down to the
bottom of the wall.
Shear forces: the shear forces are identical down to zn, but they are different below
zn. With method D, like for moments, shear forces are calculated down to the bottom
of the wall, whereas with method F, they are calculated down to zc. One important
difference to point out is that the maximum values for shear forces are this time
different for both methods. But it is usually of little influence on the wall design,
mainly controlled by moments.

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Please refer to part C of the manual for more details.

0.0
-0.5
-1.0
-1.5
-2.0 Method F
-2.5
-3.0 Method D
-3.5
-4.0
-4.5
-5.0
-5.5
-6.0
Levels

-6.5
-7.0
-7.5
-8.0
-8.5
-9.0
-9.5
-10.0
-10.5
-11.0
zn (method D)
-11.5
zn = zc (method F)
-12.0
-12.5
-13.0
-13.5
-300 -200 -100 0 100 200 300 400
Differential pressures (kN/m2)

0.0 0.0
-0.5 -0.5
-1.0 -1.0
-1.5 -1.5
-2.0 Method F -2.0
-2.5 -2.5
-3.0 Method D -3.0 Method F
-3.5 -3.5
-4.0 -4.0 Method D
-4.5 -4.5
-5.0 -5.0
-5.5 -5.5
-6.0 -6.0
Levels

Levels

-6.5 -6.5
-7.0 -7.0
-7.5 -7.5
-8.0 -8.0
-8.5 -8.5
-9.0 -9.0
-9.5 -9.5
-10.0 -10.0
-10.5 -10.5
-11.0 -11.0 zn
-11.5 -11.5
-12.0 zc -12.0
zc
-12.5 -12.5
-13.0 -13.0
-13.5 -13.5
-600 -500 -400 -300 -200 -100 0 -200 -100 0 100 200 300 400 500
Moments (kNm/ml) Shear forces (kN/ml)

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Check of the failure on the passive side: methods D and F correspond to different
approaches of the transition point.
Method F is a simplified method assuming that the transition point zn is the
same as the critical point zc and thus considering the counter passive earth
pressures available below zc. But strictly speaking, the counter passive earth
pressures should extend on both sides of zc, in order to ensure both the
equilibrium of moments and the equilibrium of horizontal forces.
Method D is a more rigorous approach determining the position of the
transition point which ensures both the equilibrium of moments and the
equilibrium of horizontal forces along the wall, as shown on the next figure.

Fa
zn = transition
Fb U
level
zc = zn = transition level
RC
C .Fcb
Fca .Fcb Fca .Fcb
Uinf
P P
requested requested
available available
z z

Approach F Approach D
As mentioned before, the difference between the levels of the transition points
calculated by both methods are 1.45 m in phase 1, and 0.88 m in phase 2.
The transition point is not taken into account when checking the embedment
depth. Thus fb/f0 ratios are identical for both calculations (for each phase).
But the transition point is taken into account in the calculation of Cm,d, which is
the mobilisable counter earth resistance under the transition point, and thus of
the mobilisation ratio . In this example, the conclusion for each phase
whether this check is satisfactory or not is the same for both methods, but the
differences in value are significant.
Check of the vertical resultant: the vertical resultant of earth pressures Pv,d also
depends on the position of the transition point and values of the vertical resultant
force on the wall calculated by both methods are very different from each other. Lets
consider for instance phase 1: method D concludes that the resultant is directed
downwards and method F concludes that the resultant is directed upwards.

So the choice between method D and method F may lead to quite different results
and conclusions.
Method F is a French method which is known to overestimate the value of
and which does not allow to estimate the moment under point C.

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On the contrary, method D is a more rigorous approach which allows for the
determination of the position of the transition point zn.
It is thus advised to use method D, but the use of method F may be necessary
in cases where the wall embedment is very long (temporary excavation
phases for instance): in these cases, method D leads to unrealistic moments
in the wall. Please also refer to part C, and to the last section of part B of the
manual.

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D.3. TUTORIAL 3: MULTI-ANCHORED SHEETPILE WALL WITH ULS


CHECKS

This project relates to the design of a retaining wall enabling the construction of a multiple
floor building.

The wall is made of ArcelorMittal sheet piles of type AZ 13-770, 17 m long; it is supported by
2 levels of anchors, inclined by 10. The anchors were optimized with respect to the
equilibrium of the anchoring block according to the simplified Kranz approach available in
AMRetain.

We will perform ULS checks on this project (with the Kranz checks of the anchoring block for
instance).

The project is illustrated on the figure below:

AZ 13-770
L = 17.00 m

At the end of this example, we will consider an alternative solution using a Standard U sheet
pile (AU 14), and illustrate the use of the beta.D coefficient.

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D.3.1. STEP 1: DATA INPUT

D.3.1.1. TITLE AND OPTIONS


In this example, we will work in depths (vertical axis directed downwards), and all other
default settings in the dialogue box Title and options are kept unchanged.

The following screenshot displays the relevant data:

The detailed NF P 94-282 partial safety factors may be viewed by clicking on the []:

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D.3.1.2. DEFINITION OF SOIL PROPERTIES

In the dialogue box Characteristics of soil layers, 5 soil layers have to be defined for this
example.

All the properties for the 5 layers are summarised in the table below:

zw d c dc
z (m) () a/ p/
(m) (kN/m3) (kN/m3) (kN/m2) (kN/m2/m)
SOIL_1 0 2 19 10 20 0 0 0.66 -0.33
SOIL_2 2 2 19 10 25 0 0 0.66 -0.33
SOIL_3 6 2 19 10 25 5 0 0.66 -0.33
SOIL_4 10 2 19 10 25 10 0 0.66 -0.33
SOIL_5 14 2 21 11 35 0 0 0.66 -0.33

kh dkh
k0 ka kp kd kr kac kpc
(kN/m3) (kN/m3/m)
SOIL_1 0.658 0.430 2.384 0.658 0.658 0 0 25000 0
SOIL_2 0.577 0.349 3.068 0.577 0.577 0 0 25000 0
SOIL_3 0.577 0.349 3.068 0.577 0.577 1.39 4.26 25000 0
SOIL_4 0.577 0.349 3.068 0.577 0.577 1.39 4.26 35000 0
SOIL_5 0.426 0.227 5.291 0.426 0.426 0 0 35000 0

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The following wizards may be used:

k0: keep the default settings (here below for the first layer):

ka / kp: please use Tables by KERISEL and ABSI. Select Active earth
pressure (respectively Passive earth pressure ) and click on Transfer to
copy each value to the main soils dialogue box (see tutorial 1).

kd = k0 and kr = k0

kac/kpc (for layers with cohesion): keep the default settings, as shown below
for SOIL_3:

For this example, the other soils data were provided with the project data and the use of
other wizards is not requested.

Note: it is possible to use the Soil database to export/import soil layers when they have
similar properties, rather than defining each soil layer from scratch.

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D.3.1.3. DEFINITION OF WALL PROPERTIES

The wall is made of sheet piles of type AZ 13-770, 17 m long.

D.3.2. STEP 2: DEFINITION OF PHASES AND ACTIONS

The complete phasing for this example is illustrated in the following tables.

Phase Actions Properties


Initial phase - -
Phase 1 (temporary) 1. Excav. left side, zh = 2 m, zw = 2 m,
1. Excavation - Water
Excavation on left side q = 0 kN/m
Phase 2 (temporary) 1. Anchor, right side, za = 1.5 m,
Installation of the first 1. Anchors K = 5000 kN/m, P = 200kN, = 10,
anchor level Lu = 20m.
Phase 3 (temporary)
Excavation with change 1. Excav. left side, zh = 6 m, zw = 6 m,
1. Excavation - Water
of the water level on the q = 0 kN/m
left side
Phase 4 (temporary) 1. Anchor, right side, za = 5.5 m,
Installation of the second 1. Anchors K = 5000 kN/m, P = 400kN, = 10,
anchor level Lu = 20m.
Phase 5 (permanent)
Excavation with change 1. Excav. left side, zh = 8 m, zw = 8 m,
1. Excavation - Water
of the water level on the q = 0 kN/m
left side

The illustrated summary of the stages is also provided in the next pages.

Comments about phases 1 and 2:


When defining phase 1, the wall is cantilever (no anchor installed yet), and the ULS
checks being activated for the project, AMRetain automatically activates the LEM

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calculation, and the action LEM coefficients to define the properties for the counter-
earth resistance (refer to tutorial 2).
When creating phase 2, AMRetain behaves the same until the definition and
validation of the active anchor (in case of a passive anchor, the phase would still be
cantilever anyway). Indeed, until then, AMRetain doesnt know that the wall is not
cantilever anymore. But after the anchor validation, the LEM calculation is
automatically deactivated, and associated LEM coefficients action is automatically
removed.

Comments about phases 2 and 4:


The useful length of anchors (Lu) is used for the check of the anchoring block
stability. In the case of grouted anchors, the useful length Lu is usually defined as the
free length plus half the grouted part length.
The stiffness K of the anchors can be calculated using the anchor wizard, depending
on the Young modulus E, section S, useful length Lu and horizontal spacing eh of the
anchors (next screenshot). Click on the Transfer button to transfer the K value to the
anchors parameters. The wizard may also be used to calculate the prestress force for
the anchors. Please refer to part C of the manual for more information about the
calculations performed by this wizard.

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ArcelorMittal Course March 17th 2011

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D.3.3. STEP 3: CALCULATION AND OUTPUT

Please click on the Calculate button. The following screenshots illustrate the results
obtained after calculation for the last calculation phase.

Click on Results to get to the results details.

Lets start with the results synthesis tab, in order to quickly check that all ULS checks are
satisfied.

We can see that:


The check of the failure on the passive side is satisfactory for all phases (LEM and
SSIM): the wall embedment is ok.
The vertical forces resultant is positive for all phases, which is also satisfactory.
The check of the anchoring block stability (Kranz) is ok for phases 2 to 5 (all phases
with at least one anchor).
Lets now have a look at the more detailed results, for phase 1 first, and then for phase 5
(final stage).

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SLS curves (phase 1)

ULS curves (phase 1)

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SLS results for phase 1:


The maximum displacement is 9 mm.
The maximum moment is 35 kN.m/ml.
The maximum shear force is 20 kN/ml.

ULS results for phase 1 (LEM calculation):


This phase has been defined as a cantilever phase with a LEM calculation. Thus the
ULS calculation provides neither displacements nor characteristics values for
moments and shear forces. It provides design values for moments and shear forces
(please refer to Tutorial 2 and parts B and C of the manual).
The maximum moment (design value) is 77 kN.m/ml.
The maximum shear force (design value) is 29 kN/ml.

From the ULS results screen, 3 buttons enable to access the detailed results of the 3 ULS
check types.

Lets consider for example the check against failure on the passive side for phase 1.

This check is satisfactory with respect to the embedment ratio as well as to the mobilisation
factor (please also refer to Tutorial 2 for more details).

Again, in the case of this first phase, the calculations for this check are based on the LEM
calculation. It will not be the case of phases 2 to 5, which are anchored and thus the ULS
calculations and checks will be based on a SSIM calculation.

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SLS curves (phase 5)

ULS curves (phase 5)

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Global results of the calculation

SLS results:
The maximum displacement is 25 mm. It is reached in the last phase, and in the
middle part of the wall.
The maximum moment is 209 kN.m/ml. It is reached in phase 3.
The maximum shear force is 225 kN/ml. It is reached in the last phase.

ULS results (LEM calculation for phase 1, SSIM calculations for phases 2 to 5):
The maximum displacement is 25 mm. It is reached in the last phase, and in the
middle part of the wall (same as SLS results).
The maximum moment (characteristic value) is 209 kN.m/ml. It is reached in phase 3.
The maximum moment (design value) is 282 kN.m/ml. It is reached in phase 3.
The maximum shear force (characteristic value) is 225 kN/ml. It is reached in the last
phase.
The maximum shear force (design value) is 303 kN/ml. It is reached in the last phase.

Note: in the case of phases with anchors with a ULS SSIM calculation, design values of
moments or shear forces are equal to characteristic values multiplied by mt (and with the
French Standard NF P 94-282 we are using here, mt = 1.35).

We can check that in our example, ULS characteristic results (k) are identical (for all phases)
to SLS results, because the project includes no (variable) surcharge (only surcharges are
weighted for the SSIM calculation of characteristic values and can lead to different results).

Forces in anchors can also be checked from the detailed results window for each phase:

The screenshot here above shows the forces in anchors for phase 5.
The force in anchor n 1 is maximum at its installation phase (prestress value,
200 kN/ml). Then it decreases a little and its final value is 190 kN/ml (characteristic
value).
The force in anchor n 2 is maximum in the last stage (increase from the prestress
value, 400 kN/ml to 410 kN/ml in the last stage, in characteristic values).

From the ULS results screen, 3 buttons enable to access the detailed results of the 3 ULS
check types.

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Check of safety against failure on the passive side of the wall (phase 5)

In phase 5, the wall is supported by 2 levels of anchors, and thus the verification of failure on
the passive side is based directly on the SSIM model results. It consists in checking that the
available (limiting) passive pressure is larger with sufficient safety to the passive pressure
requested (mobilised) to ensure the horizontal equilibrium of the wall.
Here, the design value of the available passive pressure is Bm,d = 1980 / 1.40 = 1414 kN/ml
The design value of the limiting passive pressure is Bt,d = 876 x 1.35 = 1183 kN/ml < Bm,d

The application of the 1.40 factor on the available passive pressure is explained by the
fact that phase 5 is considered as permanent .

Vertical balance check (phase 5)

The summary of vertical forces takes into account:


The vertical component of earth pressures mobilised along the wall. It is calculated
from the horizontal equilibrium of the wall (SSIM);
The vertical component of the anchor forces;
The weight of the wall itself.

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The evaluation of the vertical component of earth pressures along the wall is based on a
prorata approach: for a horizontal component of earth pressure which is intermediate
(neither a limiting active pressure value nor a limiting passive pressure value), the
corresponding vertical component is calculated as a prorata of the horizontal mobilisation,
considering that the vertical component is zero for zero displacement (reference point). This
is detailed and illustrated in part C of the manual (chapter C.3.3.2.1).
It should be mentioned that this evaluation is valid only in the case of layers that are
horizontal.

Kranz (phases 2 to 5)

For phases 2 to 5, the presence of anchors implies to perform an additional check, which is
the check of the anchoring block stability.

This check is carried out with the Kranz model: for each phase, several situations are
considered (corresponding to each anchoring block associated with each active anchor in a
given phase).

For each situation, one or several anchors are taken into account depending whether their
effective anchor point (defined by Lu ) is inside or outside the considered anchoring block.

Lets consider for instance phases 3 and 5:


in phase 3 , 1 single situation is considered: situation 1 with the anchor 1;
in phase 5, 2 situations have to be considered:
o Situation 1 with only one anchor taken into account;
o Situation 2 with both anchors taken into account.

For a given situation, the check of the anchoring block equilibrium may require to separate
this anchoring block into several elementary blocks along the interfaces of soil layers
intersected by the assumed failure surface (CD, according to the figure in the screenshot
below). In our example, for phase 5, a separation into 4 elementary blocks was considered
for situation 1, into 3 blocks for situation 2.

For each situation, AMRetain displays the geometrical properties of the considered
anchoring block, and the summary of forces obtained by writing the equilibrium of the block.

This Kranz verification consists in checking for each situation, and thus for the anchoring
block, that the destabilizing force (corresponding to limit equilibrium) is superior, with
sufficient safety, to the resultant force taken by the anchors taken into account for this
situation.

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Kranz results for phase 3 (one situation):

Kranz results for phase 5 (2 situations):

For instance, for situation 2:


The design value of the destabilizing force of the considered anchoring block is
Tdsb,d = 1190 kN/ml / 1,10 = 1081 kN/ml ;
Both anchors are taken into account, they are parallel to each other, the resultant
force is calculated here as Tref,k = 189 + 410 = 599 kNm/ml. The corresponding
design value is thus Tref,d = 599 x 1,35 = 809 kN/ml < Tdsb,d.

The button Details enables to get more details about the calculations, for each phase, each
situation and each elementary block.

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Important note:
For a given situation, taking into account an anchor or not is decided depending on the
relative position of its anchoring point with respect to the corresponding block boundaries.
Attention is drawn to the case in which this anchoring point, although located geometrically
outside the block, is close to the borders BC or CD, and in which case its influence cannot be
neglected. Adapting the useful length of the anchors is necessary to allow them to be taken
into account.
To illustrate this comment, lets compare the Kranz calculation above for phase 5 with a new
calculation where Lu1 for the first anchor is set to 20.5 m (instead of 20 m), which means that
for situation 2, the effective anchor point of the first anchor will be outside the anchoring
block, and thus anchor 1 will not be taken into account for situation 2.

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Indeed, in the screenshot above, we can check that:


Only one anchor (anchor 2) is considered when checking situation 2 (instead of both
anchors considered for the same situation in the initial calculation with Lu1 = 20 m).
The values for Tdsb didnt change with respect to the initial calculation with Lu = 20 m
for anchor 1, which was expected as Lu1 has no influence on the calculation of Tdsb
(the geometry of the anchoring block n2 has not been changed, it depends on Lu2).
The values of Tref did change. Tref,k (respectively Tref,d) was equal to 599 kN
(resp. 809 kN) for Lu1 = 20 m and is equal to 410 kN (resp. 553 kN) for Lu1 = 20,5 m.
In this case, the check with respect to Tdsb,d is satisfactory in both cases, but the
difference between both values is important (for only 0,5 m change in the Lu length
of one anchor !) and in some cases, it could make the Kranz check conclusion
change from unsatisfactory to satisfactory.
So again, when the anchoring point of an anchor is located geometrically outside the
block but close to the borders BC or CD, its influence cannot be neglected. Adapting
the useful length of the anchors is necessary to allow them to be taken into account.

Note: the values for Tdsb in situation 1 changed a little, because the position of point C for
the anchoring block changed when Lu1 changed.

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D.3.4. STEP 4: ALTERNATIVE PROJECT WITH STANDARD U SHEETPILES

Please quit the results window, and save as your project under a new name.

The wall is now assumed to be made of U-shaped sheet piles. As these are installed by
doubles, the effective bending stiffness may be considered via the beta.D coefficient as
referenced by the standards. As this coefficient is generally a function of the soil conditions
and the number of active anchors or struts, it can be changed during the different
construction stages.

This chapter details this alternative project: data input and new results.

D.3.4.1. MODIFICATION OF WALL PROPERTIES


The wall is now assumed to be made of sheet piles of type AU 14, 17 m long, with the
definition of a beta.D coefficient equal to 0.5.

D.3.4.2. MODIFICATION OF PHASES 2 AND 4


We will change the beta.D coefficient each time a new anchor level is installed, i.e. in phases
2 and 4:
Select phase 2, and then add an action Modification of factor beta.D (from the
category Anchors-Wall) to the phase actions. Then change the beta.D value to 0,6
(meaning the EI used for the wall in the calculations will be increased from 50 % to
60 % of the catalogue value). Click on Validate.

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Select phase 4, and then add an action Modification of factor beta.D. Then change
the beta.D value to 0,8 (meaning the EI used for the wall in the calculations will be
increased from 60 % to 80 % of the catalogue value). Click on Validate.

D.3.4.3. RESULTS

Click on Calculate and then on Results to get to the detailed results.

Lets start with the results synthesis tab, in order to quickly check that all ULS checks are
satisfied.

We can see that:


The check of the failure on the passive side is satisfactory for all phases (LEM and
SSIM): the wall embedment is ok.
The vertical forces resultant is positive for all phases, which is also satisfactory.
The check of the anchoring block stability (Kranz) is ok for phases 2 to 5 (all phases
with at least one anchor).
Lets now have a look at the more detailed results.

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SLS Curves (phase 5)

ULS Curves (phase 5)

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SLS results:
The maximum displacement is 30 mm. It is reached in the last phase, and in the
middle part of the wall.
The maximum moment is 206 kN.m/ml. It is reached in phase 3.
The maximum shear force is 224 kN/ml. It is reached in the last phase.

ULS results:
The maximum displacement is 30 mm. It is reached in the last phase, and in the
middle part of the wall (same as SLS results).
The maximum moment (characteristic value) is 206 kN.m/ml. It is reached in phase 3.
The maximum moment (design value) is 278 kN.m/ml. It is reached in phase 3.
The maximum shear force (characteristic value) is 224 kN/ml. It is reached in the last
phase.
The maximum shear force (design value) is 303 kN/ml. It is reached in the last phase.

We can check that in our example, ULS characteristic results (k) are identical (for all phases)
to SLS results, because the project includes no (variable) surcharge (only variable
surcharges are weighted for the SSIM calculation of characteristic values and can lead to
different results).

Forces in anchors can also be checked from the detailed results window for each phase:

The screenshot here above shows the forces in anchors for phase 5.
The force in anchor n 1 is maximum at its installation phase (prestress value,
200 kN/ml). Then it decreases a little and its final value is 185 kN/ml.
The force in anchor n 2 is maximum in the last stage (increase from the prestress
value, 400 kN/ml to 410 kN/ml in the last stage).

The results are quite close to those of the calculation using the Standard Z sheet pile. The
differences (for instance the maximum displacement is 25 mm with the standard Z sheet pile
and it is 30 mm with the Standard U sheet pile) are due only to the difference in the EI value
of the wall between both calculations:
Standard Z sheet pile (AZ 13-770): the EI value is 46956 kN.m2 for the whole project.
Standard U sheet pile (AU 14): the EI value is 30114 kN.m2 for phase 1 (beta.D =
0,5), it is 36137 kN.m2 for phases 2 and 3 (beta.D = 0.6), and it is 48182 kN.m2 for
phases 4 and 5 (beta.D = 0.8).
The EI values for the AU 14 sheet pile are smaller than those of the AZ 13-770 sheet pile for
phases 1 to 3, and are almost the same for phases 4 and 5, which leads to higher
displacements for the solution with AU 14 sheet piles.

You may also check the details of the new ULS checks results as shown in section D.3.3.

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D.4. TUTORIAL 4: TYPICAL CASE OF A DOUBLE SHEETPILE WALL


(COFFERDAM)
This case is an example of a double sheet pile wall (cofferdam) connected by 2 levels of
horizontal linking anchors.

These anchors are assumed to work in unilateral mode (traction only).

The left wall is made of sheet piles of type AZ 26, 21 m long.

The right wall is made of sheet piles of type AZ 24-700, 21 m long too.

The construction stages are mainly symmetrical: most actions are performed simultaneously
on the right side of the left wall (wall 1) and on the left side of the right wall (wall 2) (change
of water levels, installation of linking anchors, fill levels, etc).

Only in the last 2 stages, some actions are applied only on the left side of the left wall (water
level changes, and simulation of wave effect).

Note: this project doesnt include any ULS checks.

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D.4.1. STEP 1: DATA INPUT

D.4.1.1. TITLE AND OPTIONS

The following screenshot displays the relevant data.

In the zone Project type, select Double Wall.

In the zone Double wall options, keep the default settings, i.e. 100 for the maximum
number of iterations and 0.1 kN for the convergence allowance.

In the zone Title / Project number, input the relevant information.

We will use metric units.

We will use levels for this example.

In the zone Calculation options, keep the default settings again, which are 50 for
the maximum number of iterations per calculation step and 0.5 m for the calculation
step.

Use English for the output language.

Click on Validate and Quit.

Save the project with the name and in the directory you wish to use.

The dialogue box Characteristics of soil layers Wall 1 is then displayed.

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D.4.1.2. DEFINITION OF SOIL PROPERTIES


The dialogue box Characteristics of soil layers Wall 1 should be filled in to achieve the
following screenshot:

This dialogue box enables to fill in the soil properties relating to wall 1.

In the bottom zone, fill in the properties for soil layer 1. Soil properties are provided in
the tables here below (the same wizards as for previous examples may be used):

zw d c dc
z (m) () a/ p/
(m) (kN/m3) (kN/m3) (kN/m2) (kN/m2/m)
Layer 1 -7 0 19 9 27.5 0 0 0 0
Layer 2 -11.75 0 19 11 35 0 0 0.66 -0.5
Layer 3 -15.75 0 18 10 37.5 0 0 0.66 -0.5

dkh
k0 ka kp kd kr kac kpc kh (kN/m3) (kN/m3
/m)
Layer 1 0.538 0.370 2.725 0.538 0.538 0 0 30000 0
Layer 2 0.426 0.227 6.199 0.426 0.426 0 0 60000 0
Layer 3 0.391 0.204 7.623 0.391 0.391 0 0 100000 0

Click on New and fill in the properties for soil layers 2 and 3.

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Click on Validate and Quit.

The following dialogue box is then displayed:

Note: In the case of a project with identical soil layers for both walls, this option enables to
copy all soil data defined for wall 1 directly to wall 2 (select Yes).

In the case of this tutorial, soil layers for both walls are indeed the same, so click on
the Yes button.

The same soil properties are then displayed for Wall 2, in case you need to make
some changes. In our case, the properties are exactly the same as for wall 1. So just
click on Validate and Quit.

D.4.1.3. DEFINITION OF WALL PROPERTIES


The dialogue box Retaining wall - Wall 1 is then displayed and should be filled in to achieve
the screen shot below.

This dialogue box enables to define the properties of Wall 1.

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In the zone ArcelorMittal catalogue of steel sheet piles, check type Standard Z. In
the sheet piles list for Z Section, select AZ 26.

Click on the Transfer button to copy the sheet pile properties (name and EI value) to
the project data (left part of the window).

In the left part of the window, fill in the sheet pile wall top level Z0 and the wall bottom
level Zf, with the values provided in the next table

Type EI (kN.m2) Z0 (m) Zf (m)


Wall 1 AZ 26 116571 6 -15

Click on Validate and Quit.

The following question appears:

Note: In the case of a project with identical sheet pile properties for both walls, this option
enables to copy wall properties defined for wall 1 directly to wall 2 (select Yes).

In our example, both walls are made of different sheet piles, so please answer No.

The dialogue box Retaining wall - Wall 2 is then displayed:

This dialogue box enables to define the properties of Wall 2.

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In the zone ArcelorMittal catalogue of steel sheet piles, check type Standard Z. In
the sheet piles list for Z Section, select AZ 24-700.

Click on the Transfer button to copy the sheet pile properties (name and EI value) to
the project data (left part of the window).

In the left part of the window, fill in the sheet pile wall top level Z0 and the wall bottom
level Zf, with the values provided in the next table

Type EI (kN.m2) Z0 (m) Zf (m)


Wall 2 AZ 24-700 117222 6 -15

Click on Validate and Quit.

The drawing with soil layers and both walls is then displayed in the main screen (refer
to next screenshot).

Note: in order to view and/or edit the data relating to one of the walls, first select the relevant
wall using the buttons of the main window button bar (screenshot below), and then select the
relevant data type in the Data menu.

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D.4.2. STEP 2: DEFINITION OF PHASES AND ACTIONS

When data input has been completed, the main screen should be like on the screenshot
below.

Note: if the picture of the cross-section is displayed only in one quarter of the phase zone,
just double click on the picture, and it will be displayed full screen.

We should first define the actions for the initial phase (phase 0). But in our case, theres no
action to be defined for the initial stage.

We will thus start with the creation of phase 1, as indicated below.


The complete phasing for this example is illustrated in the following tables.

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The recommended procedure to define the phases and actions for both walls is the following:

Creation of all phases and actions for Wall 1 (without switching to Wall 2).
This should be done exactly in the same way as for a single wall.
When defining successive fill actions for Wall 1: the properties of the fill have to be
filled in for the first fill action for Wall 1.
For the next fill actions (for the same wall), and provided all fill levels have the same
properties (which is the case for this example), it is possible to copy the properties
from the first fill level (screenshot).

When the definition of phases for Wall 1 is finished, click on tab Phase 1, then click
on Wall 2, and start the definition of actions for Wall 2, one phase after the other
(again, exactly in the same way as for a single wall).
When defining successive fill actions for Wall 2: again, the properties of the fill have
to be filled in for the first fill action for Wall 2.
For the next fill actions (for the same wall), and provided all fill levels have the same
properties, it is again possible to copy the properties from the first fill level
(screenshot).
Please note that the Linking Anchor actions in phases 2 and 6 have been copied
automatically from Wall 1 to Wall 2.

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Actions for
Actions for wall
Phase Phase properties wall 2 (right Phase properties
1 (left wall)
wall)
Initial
- -
phase
1. Fill on the right side: zt=-2m, zb=-7m, q=0kN/m, 1. Fill on the left side: zt=-2m, zb=-7m, q=0kN/m,
3 3 3 3
Fill properties: zw=0m, =19kN/m , d=9 kN/m , Fill properties: zw=0m, =19kN/m , d=9 kN/m ,
2 2 2 2
Phase 1 1. Fill 1 =27.5, c=0kN/m , dc=0kN/m , ki=0.538, ka =0.37, 1. Fill 1 =27.5, c=0kN/m , dc=0kN/m , ki=0.538,
kp =2.725, kd=kr=0.538, kac=0, kpc=0, a/=0, ka =0.37, kp =2.725, kd=kr=0.538, kac=0, kpc=0,
3 3 3 3
p/=0, kh=30000kN/m , dkh=0 kN/m a/=0, p/=0, kh=30000kN/m , dkh=0 kN/m
1. Linking anchor: anchor, zaa=-1.5m, zab=-1.5m, 1. Linking anchor: anchor, zaa=-1.5m, zab=-1.5m,
1. Linking
Phase 2 1. Linking anchor K=65000kN/m, Lu=10m, =0, Unilateral mode K=65000kN/m, Lu=10m, =0, Unilateral mode
anchor
checked (activated) checked (activated)
1. Excavation - 1. Excavation-water on the right side: zh=-2m, 1. Excavation 1. Excavation-water on the left side: zh=-2m,
Phase 3
Water zw=-2m, q=0kN/m (change of the water level) Water zw=-2m, q=0kN/m (change of the water level)
1. Fill on right side: same characteristics as Fill1 with 1. Fill on left side: same characteristics as Fill1 with
Phase 4 1. Fill 2 1. Fill 2
zt=0m, zb=-2m, q=0kN/m zt=0m, zb=-2m, q=0kN/m

1. Fill on the right side: Same characteristics than Fill1 1. Fill on the left side: Same characteristics than
Phase 5 1. Fill 3 1. Fill 3
with zt=2m, zb=0m, q=0kN/m Fill1 with zt=2m, zb=0m, q=0kN/m
1. Linking anchor: anchor, zaa=2.5m, zab=2.5m, 1. Linking anchor: anchor, zaa=2.5m, zab=2.5m,
1. Linking
Phase 6 1. Linking anchor K=15000kN/m, Lu=10m, =0, Unilateral mode K=15000kN/m, Lu=10m, =0, Unilateral mode
anchor
checked (activated) checked (activated)
1. Fill on the right side: same characteristics as Fill1 1. Fill on the left side: same characteristics as Fill1
Phase 7 1. Fill 4 1. Fill 4
with zt=6m, zb=2m, q=0kN/m with zt=6m, zb=2m, q=0kN/m
1. Excavation - 1. Excavation-water on the right side: zh=6m, zw=0m,
1. Excavation-water on the left side: zh=6m,
Water q=20kN/m (change of the surcharge value) 1. Excavation
Phase 8 zw=0m, q=20kN/m (change of the surcharge
2. Excavation - 2. Excavation-water on the left side: zh=-7m, Water
value)
Water zw=-2.3m, q=0kN/m (change of water level)
1. Excavation-water on the left side: zh=-7m, zw=0m,
1. Excavation -
q=0kN/m (change of the water level)
Water
2. Horizontal load on the wall with zt=5.32m, zb=0m,
2. Horizontal load 2 2
Phase 9 qht=0kN/m , qhb=44.1kN/m
to the wall
3. Horizontal load on the wall with zt=0m,
3. Horizontal load 2 2
zb=-7m, qht=44.1kN/m , qhb=32.2kN/m
on the wall
(these horizontal loads simulate a wave effect)

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D.4.3. STEP 3: CALCULATION AND OUTPUT

Please click on the Calculate button. The calculation progress is quickly displayed in the
following window:

Note: if the calculation had not converged (which is not the case here), the following window
would be displayed:

In the main window, you may view the main results (displacements, moments and shear
forces) for each phase and each wall (exactly as for single walls).

It is also possible, thanks to the display option Grouped, to superimpose results for both
walls on the same graphs with the same scales (screenshot next page).
In this case, the thick curves relate to the selected wall, and the thin curves relate to the
other wall.

The Results button enables to access to the detailed results (curves and tables).

The following screenshots illustrate the output obtained for phase 9 (the last stage of this
project), as well as the results synthesis and the envelopes curves for the project.

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In the detailed results window, it is possible for each phase, at any moment, to switch from
results of Wall 1 (left wall) to those of Wall 2 (right wall).

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Wall 1

Wall 2

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A few comments about the results:

The global behaviour of the system is almost symmetrical. there are only minor
differences because both walls dont have the same stiffness, and because the
actions in the last stages are not symmetrical either.

The forces obtained in linking anchor n 1 for walls 1 and 2 are opposite and have the
same absolute value (action/reaction), except for the small convergence allowance of
0,1 kN. Its the same for linking anchor n 2.

The traction forces in the linking anchors are positive for wall 1 (left wall), and
negative for wall 2 (right wall).

In phase 2, the anchor being passive, it is not taken into account (installation phase).
It is taken into account from the next phase (phase 3).

For linking anchor n 1, the forces are zero while it is submitted to compression
(phase 3): indeed, the linking anchors are defined to behave in the unilateral mode in
this example, i.e. they wont take any compression forces: when submitted to
compression (this is being checked separately for each anchor), their stiffness is not
taken into account and everything happens as if the anchors were deactivated.

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D.5. TUTORIAL 5: MAIN WALL ANCHORED WITH A SHORTER


REAR WALL

This example deals with a double sheet pile wall used for the construction of a quay wall.

The main long wall (left wall) is made of sheet piles of type HZM 880 A-12 / AZ 13-770-D,
30.5 m long. It is attached to a shorter rear wall (right wall) made of sheet piles of type
AZ 37-700, 11 m long, through a horizontal level of linking anchors.

The system installation includes several fill levels between both walls.

The soil is then excavated in front of the main wall (left side) and a linear force is applied to
the top of the main wall (mooring force).

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D.5.1. STEP 1: DATA INPUT

To start AMRetain:

Click on Start, Programs, AMRetain.

Select English language, and click on Start AMRetain

Check I accept liability clauses.

Select New project.

The dialogue box Title and Options - 1/3 is then displayed.

D.5.1.1. TITLE AND OPTIONS

The dialogue box Title and options - 1/3 enables to define the general settings for the
project. The following screenshot displays the relevant data.

In the zone Project type, select Double Wall.

In the zone Double wall options, keep the default settings, i.e. 100 for the maximum
number of iterations and 0.1 kN for the convergence allowance.

In the zone Title / Project number, input the relevant information.

We will use metric units.

Keep the default water weight 10 kN/m3.

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We will use levels for this example.

In the zone Calculation options, keep the default settings again, which are 50 for
the maximum number of iterations per calculation step and 0,5 m for the calculation
step, and keep the Accounting for 2nd order moments box unchecked.

Use English for the output language.

In the zone Curves display, keep the Same horizontal scale for curves box
checked.

Click on Validate and Quit.

Save the project with the name and in the directory you wish to use.

D.5.1.2. DEFINITION OF SOIL PROPERTIES

The dialogue box Characteristics of soil layers Wall 1 - 2/3 is then displayed and
should be filled in to achieve the following screenshot.

Soil layers
relating to
Wall 1

Input zone (here


with SOIL 1 data)

This dialogue box enables to fill in the soil properties relating to wall 1.

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In the bottom zone, fill in the properties for soil layer 1. Soil properties are provided in
the tables here below:

z zw d c dc
(m) (m) (kN/m3) (kN/m3) () (kN/m2) (kN/m2) a/ p/
SOIL1 -8.75 2.3 18 10 31 0 0 0.66 -0.33
SOIL2 -12.5 2.3 18 10 37.5 0 0 0.66 -0.33

k0 ka kp kd kr kac kpc kh dkh


SOIL1 0.485 0.271 4.212 0.485 0.485 0 0 25000 0
SOIL2 0.391 0.204 6.349 0.391 0.391 0 0 35000 0

The following wizards may be used:

k0: keep the default settings (here below for the first layer):

ka / kp: please use Tables by KERISEL and ABSI. Select Active earth
pressure (respectively Passive earth pressure ) and click on Transfer to
copy each value to the main soils dialogue box.

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kd = k0 and kr = k0

For this example, the other soils data were provided with the project data and the use of
other wizards is not requested.

Click on New and fill in the properties for soil layer 2.

Click on Validate and Quit.

The following dialogue box is then displayed:

Note: In the case of a project with identical soil layers for both walls, this option enables to
copy all soil data defined for wall 1 directly to wall 2 (select Yes).

In the case of this tutorial, the soils to define for wall 2 are partially the same as the
soils defined for Wall 1, so click on the Yes button. The same soil properties are then
displayed for Wall 2 (next screenshot).

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In our case, we need to delete Soil 2 and to change the top level of Soil 1.

Click on SOIL2 and then press the Delete button, so that SOIL 2 is not used for
wall 2.

Then change the top level z for SOIL1, so that this top level is at level 2 m for Wall 2.
The dialogue box for Wall 2 should then be like on the next screenshot.

Click on Validate and Quit.

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D.5.1.3. DEFINITION OF WALLS

The dialogue box Retaining wall - Wall 1 - 3/3 is then displayed and should be filled in to
achieve the screen shot below.

This dialogue box enables to define the properties of Wall 1.

In the zone ArcelorMittal catalogue of steel sheet piles, check type Combined
wall, HZ-AZ, Sol 12. In the list HZ Section, select HZM 880 A - 12, and in the list
Infill SSP, select AZ 13-770 - D.

Click on the Transfer button to copy the sheet pile properties (name and EI value) to
the project data (left part of the window).

In the left part of the window, fill in the sheet pile wall top level Z0 and the wall bottom
level Zf, with the values provided in the next table.

Type EI (kN.m2) Z0 (m) Zf (m)


Wall 1 HZM 880 A-12 / AZ 13-770-D 451668 4.75 -25.75

Click on Validate and Quit.

The following question appears:

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Note: In the case of a project with identical sheet pile properties for both walls, this option
enables to copy wall properties defined for wall 1 directly to wall 2 (select Yes).

In our example, both walls are made of different sheet piles, so please answer No.

The dialogue box Retaining wall - Wall 2 - 3/3 is then displayed and should be filled in with
the following data:

In the zone ArcelorMittal catalogue of steel sheet piles, check type Standard Z. In
the sheet piles list for Z Section, select AZ 37-700.

Click on the Transfer button to copy the sheet pile properties (name and EI value) to
the project data (left part of the window).

In the left part of the window, fill in the sheet pile wall top level Z0 and the wall bottom
level Zf, with the values provided in the next table

Type EI (kN.m2) Z0 (m) Zf (m)


Wall 2 AZ 37 - 700 194040 4.25 -6.75

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Click on Validate and Quit.

The drawing with soil layers and both walls is then displayed in the main screen (refer
to next screenshot).

Note: in order to view and/or edit the data relating to one of the walls, first select the relevant
wall using the buttons of the main window button bar (screenshot below), and then select the
relevant data type in the Data menu.

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D.5.2. STEP 2: DEFINITION OF PHASES AND ACTIONS

When data input has been completed, the main screen should be like on the screenshot
below.

Note: if the picture of the cross-section is displayed only in one quarter of the phase zone,
just double click on the picture, and it will be displayed full screen.

We should first define the actions for the initial phase (phase 0). But in our case, theres no
action to be defined for the initial stage.

We will thus start with the creation of phase 1, as indicated below.


The complete phasing for this example is illustrated in the following tables.

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The recommended procedure to define the phases and actions for both walls is the following:

Creation of all phases and actions for Wall 1 (without switching to Wall 2).
This should be done exactly in the same way as for a single wall.
When defining successive fill actions for Wall 1: the properties of the fill have to be
filled in for the first fill action for Wall 1.
For the next fill actions (for the same wall), and provided all fill levels have the same
properties (which is the case for this example), it is possible to copy the properties
from the first fill level (screenshot).

When the definition of phases for Wall 1 is finished, click on tab Phase 1, then click
on Wall 2, and start the definition of actions for Wall 2, one phase after the other
(again, exactly in the same way as for a single wall).
When defining successive fill actions for Wall 2: again, the properties of the fill have
to be filled in for the first fill action for Wall 2.
For the next fill actions (for the same wall), and provided all fill levels have the same
properties, it is again possible to copy the properties from the first fill level
(screenshot).
Please note that the Linking Anchor action in phase 2 has been copied
automatically from Wall 1 to Wall 2.

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Actions Actions
Phase for wall 1 (left Phase properties for wall 2 (right Phase properties
wall) wall)
Initial phase
1. Fill on the right side: zt=-3m, zb=-8.75m,
q=15kN/m,
3
Phase 1 Fill properties: zw=2.3m, =18 kN/m ,
3 2 2
Fill on the right 1. Fill 1 d=10 kN/m , =30, c=0 kN/m , dc=0 kN/m ,
side of left wall ki=0.304, ka =0.304, kp =3.965, kd=kr=0.5,
3
a/=0, kac=0, kpc=0, p/=0, kh=20000 kN/m ,
3
dkh=0 kN/m
1. Fill on the left side: zt=4.75m, zb=2.0m,
q=0kN/m,
3
Fill properties: zw=2.3m, =18 kN/m ,
1. Fill on the right side: same characteristics as 3 2 2
Phase 2 d=10 kN/m , =30, c=0 kN/m , dc=0 kN/m ,
Fill1, with zt=-1m, zb=-3m, q=15kN/m,
Fill for each 1. Fill 2 1. Fill 1 ki=0.304, ka =0.304, kp =3.965, kd=kr=0.5,
2. Linking anchor: anchor, zaa=2m, zab=2m, 3
wall + linking 2. Linking anchor 2. Linking anchor a/=0, kac=0, kpc=0, p/=0, kh=20000 kN/m ,
K=16146kN/m, Lu=45m, =0, Unilateral mode
anchor dkh=0 kN/m
3
unchecked (deactivated)
2. Linking anchor: anchor, zaa=2m, zab=2m,
K=16146kN/m, Lu=45m, =0, Unilateral mode
unchecked (deactivated)
Phase 3
1. Fill on the right side: same characteristics as 1. Fill on the right side: same characteristics as
Fill for each 1. Fill 3 1. Fill 2
Fill1 with zt=2m, zb=-1m, q=15kN/m Fill1 with zt=4.75m, zb=2m, q=15kN/m
wall
Phase 4 1. Fill on the right side: Same characteristics as
1. Fill 4
Fill and Fill1 with zt=4.75m, zb=2m, q=15kN/m
2. Excavation -
excavation- 2. Excavation-water on the left side: zh=-16m,
Water
water for wall 1 zw=2.3m, q=0kN/m
1. Excavation-water on the right side: zh=4.75m,
Phase 5 1. Excavation -
zw=2.3m, q=35kN/m (change of the surcharge 1. Excavation-water on the right side: zh=4.75m,
Excavation- Water 2
value) 1. Excavation - Water zw=2.3m, q=35kN/m (change of the surcharge
water for both 2. Excavation -
2. Excavation-water on the left side: zh=-16m, value)
walls Water
zw=1.75m, q=0kN/m (change of the water level)
Phase 6
Linear force on 1. Linear force 1. z=4.75m, F=-50kN, =0
wall 1

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D.5.3. STEP 3: CALCULATION AND OUTPUT

Please click on the Calculate button. The calculation progress is quickly displayed in the
following window:

In the main window, you may view the main results (displacements, moments and shear
forces) for each phase and each wall (exactly as for single walls).

It is also possible, thanks to the display option Grouped, to superimpose results for both
walls on the same graphs with the same scales (screenshot below for phase 6).
In this case, the thick curves relate to the selected wall, and the thin curves relate to the
other wall.

The Results button enables to access to the detailed results (curves and tables).
The following screenshots illustrate the output obtained for phase 6 (the last stage of this
project), as well as the results synthesis and the envelopes curves for the project.

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In the detailed results window, it is possible for each phase, at any moment, to switch from
results of Wall 1 (left wall) to those of Wall 2 (right wall).

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Wall 1

Wall 2

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A few comments about the results:

The global behaviour of the system is not symmetrical at all.

o The maximum displacement of wall 1 is 285 mm (last phase), whereas the maximum
displacement of wall 2 is 14 mm (last phase again).
The maximum displacement of the top of wall 1 is reached in the first phase (before
the anchor is activated).

The forces obtained in linking anchor n 1 for walls 1 and 2 are opposite and have the
same absolute value (action/reaction), except for the small convergence allowance of
0,1 kN. Its the same for linking anchor n 2. Its always the case for linking anchors
between double walls (this is one of the system convergence criteria).

The traction forces in the linking anchors are positive for wall 1 (left wall), and
negative for wall 2 (right wall).

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D.5.4. STEP 4: ULS CHECKS

ULS checks are not directly available for double sheet pile walls in AMRetain

But the following manual procedure may be followed to perform these checks anyway.

Note: in this example, we present the application of the procedure for Wall 1, but the same
procedure could be applied for Wall 2.

D.5.4.1. CONVERSION OF WALL 1 INTO A SINGLE WALL PROJECT

Save the file under a new name (tutorial 5 left wall for instance)

Then open menu Data, Title and Options, and switch the project type back to
Simple wall.

When doing that, the program asks you which wall you would like to save. Please ask
for Wall 1 (left wall) for example.
The following procedure will thus apply for Wall 1, but you can do exactly the same
for Wall 2 too.

Then AMRetain creates a new single wall file, with all the data from your left wall,
except the linking anchor.

So we need to define for each phase where the linking anchor is active, a linear force
equivalent to the force in the linking anchor.

To do so, select Phase 2, and add a linear force at level 2, with horizontal force
22.6 kN (value of the force in the linking anchor in phase 2).

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Then in Phase 3, deactivate the linear force that you have just added in phase 2, and
then create a new horizontal linear force at level 2, value 77.5 kN.

Etc until the last phase (forces in the anchor resulting from the double wall calculation
are displayed in the next screenshot).

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When youre finished, you can run the calculation and check that the results are very
close to the ones obtained for Wall 1 in the double sheet pile wall calculation.

This is indeed the case: less than 0.1 % difference on maximum displacements and
moments. The very small differences are due to the approximations we made when
defining the linear forces values.

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D.5.4.2. ACTIVATION OF ULS CHECKS

Next step is to activate the ULS checks: go to menu Data, Title and Options. Switch
the checkbox ULS checks on, and keep the default selection for Method D. A
warning is then displayed on the right part of the window.

Indeed, you now need to go through all construction stages and check the data
relative to ULS checks:
o Activate LEM calculation for cantilever phases: this is the case here for stage 1
only (for the other phases, we havent defined a real anchor in AMRetain, but
we have defined linear forces representing the linking anchor).
o Check for each phase whether its permanent/variable, according to the following
data:

Phase 1 (construction) Temporary


(cantilever, LEM)
Phase 2 (construction) Temporary
(anchored, SSIM)
Phase 3 (construction) Temporary
(anchored, SSIM)
Phase 4 (end of construction) Permanent
(anchored, SSIM)
Phase 5 (surcharge on soil + change of water level) Temporary
(anchored, SSIM)
Phase 6 (temporary mooring force) Temporary
(anchored, SSIM)

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o Check for each action whether its permanent/variable and


favourable/unfavourable, according to the following data:

Phase 1 LEM coefficients Keep the default settings


(action automatically created when
cantilever mode is selected)
Fill Permanent action
Phase 2 Fill Permanent action
Linear force Permanent and
(simulating the linking anchor) favourable action OK
Phase 3 Fill Permanent action
Linear force Permanent and favourable
(simulating the linking anchor) action
Phase 4 Fill Permanent action
Excavation-water -
(excavation on the left side)
Linear force Permanent and favourable
(simulating the linking anchor) action
Phase 5 Excavation-water Permanent load
(change of load value on the right
side)
Excavation-water -
(change of water level on the left
side)
Linear force Permanent and favourable
(simulating the linking anchor) action
Phase 6 Linear force Permanent and
(simulating the mooring force) unfavourable action
Linear force Permanent and favourable
(simulating the linking anchor) action

Note 1: the nature of each phase and action should be defined according to the
project data.
Note 2: if you define some unfavourable actions as variable, this implies that they
will be weighted by a partial factor of 1.11 in the SSIM calculation (cf parts B and
C of the manual), which means that this SSIM calculation of the single wall is not
completely compatible with the double wall calculation anymore. In this case, the
double wall calculation could be performed with a manual weighting of the loads
by the user (i.e. the user could multiply the variable loads by 1.11 in the double
wall calculation in order to get forces in the linking anchor that are compatible
with the ULS SSIM calculation performed afterwards for the left wall as a single
wall).

You can then perform the calculation again, and check the results.

Lets first check that the SLS results are the same as the results before activation of ULS
checks. This is indeed the case:

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Then lets switch to ULS results:

We can see that:


The check of the failure on the passive side is satisfactory for all phases (LEM and
SSIM): the wall embedment is ok.
The vertical forces resultant is positive for phases 1 to 4, which is also satisfactory,
but is negative for phases 5 and 6 (meaning the resultant vertical force is directed
upwards for these phases).
o It has been indicated in tutorial 2 that in the case of a vertical resultant
directed upwards for a cantilever phase, the inclination of counter passive
earth pressures can be changed in order to obtain a final vertical resultant
directed downwards.
o But in the case on an anchored wall, when obtaining a vertical resultant
oriented upwards, its usual to adjust (first) the inclinations of passive earth
pressures (in the range [-0.66 ; 0]). If this adjustment doesnt allow to obtain a
vertical resultant directed downwards, then it may also be considered
adjusting the inclinations of active earth pressures (in the range [0 ; 0.66]).
There was no Kranz check because the linking anchor is not modelled with an
anchor, but with a linear load).

Lets now have a look at the more detailed results.

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The maximum ULS displacement is 285 mm. It is reached in the last phase, and in
the middle part of the wall. The ULS displacements are identical to the SLS
displacements because there is no variable load defined for this project.
The maximum moment (characteristic value) is 2203 kN.m/ml. It is reached in phase
5.
The maximum moment (design value) is 2974 kN.m/ml. It is reached in phase 5.
The maximum shear force (characteristic value) is 617 kN/ml. It is reached in the last
phase (phase 6).
The maximum shear force (design value) is 833 kN/ml. It is reached in the last phase.

We can check that in our example, ULS characteristic results (k) are identical (for all phases)
to SLS results, because the project includes no variable surcharges (only variable
surcharges are weighted for the SSIM calculation of characteristic values and can lead to
different results).

D.5.4.3. KRANZ CHECK OF THE REAR WALL

As mentioned in the previous section, this calculation as a single wall does not allow for an
automatic Kranz check because the linking anchor is not modelled as an anchor but as a
linear load.

Moreover, AMRetain does not allow for an accurate Kranz check of the rear wall because
point C (effective anchor point) should be at the bottom of the rear wall, and this case is
not accounted for in AMRetain yet.
A later update will probably include this feature.

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Meanwhile, a possible way round to perform a Kranz check of the rear wall based on the
existing AMRetain file that we just built consists in defining in phase 2 (phase where the
linking anchor is installed) a fictitious anchor, with a very low stiffness and with such
properties that the associated anchor point is located at the bottom of the rear wall (for
example a horizontal anchor, connected to the main wall at z = z_bottom_rear_wall = -6,75
m and with Lu = distance between both walls = 45 m).

The introduction of this fictitious anchor , which will take no force due to its low stiffness
(and which will thus not perturbate the wall equilibrium), forces the Kranz calculation kernel
to consider a situation with an anchoring block with the bottom of the rear wall as point C .

So lets define this fictitious anchor in phase 2:

We can then run the calculation again.


Lets check the results synthesis in ULS mode:

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We can note that:


The results are indeed almost the same (with very small differences) as the results
before the definition of this anchor. This is consistent with the very small value that we
input for the anchor stiffness, and with the fact that the anchor indeed takes no force
(less than 0,01 kN)
The Kranz check column includes NA mentions for phases 2 to 6, which means that
the Kranz calculations have been performed for these phases (due to the presence of
the fictitious anchor), but the conclusion of the check cannot be provided because it is
a fictitious anchor which takes no force. This is detailed here below.

Lets check the details of the Kranz check for phase 6:

As expected, one situation (i.e. one anchor) has been considered and calculated.
This calculation leads to a destabilising force Tdsb of 4155 kN in characteristic value, and
3777 kN in design value.
The Tref (k and d) values are zero because AMRetain checks the characteristic value
resulting from the SSIM calculation from the anchor we defined, which takes no force. Thus a
warning is displayed in red mentioning that no conclusion about the Kranz check can be
drawn automatically by AMRetain.
But we know the Tref value from the double sheet pile wall calculation: in phase 6,
Tref,k = 551 kN, and thus Tref,d = 551 x 1.35 = 744 kN.
So we have Tref,d Tdsb,d and the check is satisfactory.

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