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SISTEMAS DE PUESTA A TIERRA


- TEORA, DISEO, MEDICIN y MANTENIMIENTO -

15. Referencias

ndice

0. GENERALIDADES.

[0.1] Miguel de la Vega Ortega. "Problemas de Ingeniera de Puesta a Tierra".


LIMUSA 1999.

[0.2] Toledano Gasca, Jos y Martnez Requena, Juan. Puesta a tierra en edificios
y en instalaciones elctricas". Paraninfo 1997

[0.3] Burgsdorf V. V. y Yakobs A. I. "Grounding in Electrical Installations".


Energoatomizdat. Mosc 1987.

1. PUESTA A TIERRA DE SISTEMAS Y EQUIPOS ELCTRICOS.

[1.1] "IEEE Std 142 Grounding of Industrial and Commercial Power Systems".
Green Book.

[1.2] "IEEE Std 141 Electric Power Distribution for Industrial Plants". Red Book.

[1.3] "NOM-SEDE-001-2005 Instalaciones Elctricas (utilizacin)". Diario


Oficial de la Federacin 13 Marzo 2006.

[1.4] "National Electrical Code. ANSI/NFPA 70" National Fire Protection


Association, Batterymarch Park, Quincy MA 12269

[1.5] "McGraw-Hill's National Electrical Code Handbook 1993". McGraw-Hill.


New York NY.

[1.6] T. Croft, "American Electricians' Handbook", 12th Edition W. I. Summers.


McGraw-Hill. New York, NY.

[1.7] "NOM-STPS-022-1999 Electricidad Esttica en los Centros de Trabajo.


Condiciones de Seguridad e Higiene". Diario Oficial de la Federacin 28 Mayo
1999.

3. SISTEMAS DE TIERRA DE EQUIPOS ELECTRNICOS.

[3.1] "IEEE Std 518 - IEEE Guide for the Installation of Electrical Equipment to
Minimize Electrical Noise Inputs to Controllers from External Sources", IEEE,
ISBN 0-471-89539-5

[3.2] Ralph Morrison & Warren Lewis, "Grounding and Shielding In Facilities",
Wiley-Interscience, ISBN 0-471-83807-1

[3.3] Henry Ott, "Noise Reduction Techniques in Electronic Systems", 2nd. Ed,
Wiley-Interscience

[3.4] Ralph Morrison, "Grounding and Shielding Techniques in Instrumentation",

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Wiley-Interscience

[3.5] Sten Benda, Chartwell Bratt, "Interference-free Electronics, Design and


Application", London ISBN 0-86238-255-6

[3.6] Hugh W. Denny "Grounding for the Control of EMI", Don White
Consultants, Inc. Gainsville, VA, 1983, ISBN 0-82-063066

[3.7] Michel Mardiguian, "Grounding and Bonding, Vol. 2", Interference Control
Technologies, Inc. Gainsville, VA., ISBN 0-944916-02-3

[3.8] "IEEE Std. 1100-2005 - IEEE Recommended Practice for Powering and
Grounding Sensitive Electronic Equipment", IEEE Emerald Book

[3.9] L. Shulman, "Electromagnetic Interference and Grounding Consideration in


Distributed Control Systems". IEEE Industrial Applications Society Newsletter,
May/June 1986.

[3.10] Guidelines for Grounding Information Technology Equipment (ITE) -


Information Technology Industry Council

[3.11] FIPS PUB 64 Guideline on Electrical Power for ADP Installations - US


National Bureau of Standards

[3.12] TIA/ANSI-J-STD-607-A-2002 - Commercial Building Grounding


(Earthing) and Bonding Requirements For Telecommunications.

[3.13] Electrical Construction & Maintenance. http://www.ecmweb.com

4. PUESTA A TIERRA DE LNEAS DE TRANSMISIN Y DISTRIBUCIN

[4.1] E. S. Thomas, R. A. Barber, J. B. Dagenhart & A. L. Clapp


"Distribution Grounding Fundamentals". IEEE Rural Electric Power
Conference, 2004

5. SISTEMAS DE TIERRA DE PROTECCIN ATMOSFRICA

[5.1] "Lightning Protection Code. ANSI/NFPA 780". National Fire Protection


Association, Batterymarch Park, Quincy MA 12269

[5.2] R. T. Hasbrouck, "Lightning - Understanding It and Protecting Systems from


Its Effects", UCRL-53925 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, April 1989.

[5.3] M. O. Durham and R. Strattan. Stillwater, "Harmonics on AC Power


Systems. Frontiers of Power". Oklahoma State University, Oct. 1990.

[5.4] Marcus O. Durham and R. A. Durham, "Lightning, Grounding and


Protection for Control Systems". IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications Jan
1995.

[5.5] M. O. Durham. "Submersible power supply considerations" Electric


Submersible Pump Workshop. Society of Petroleum Engineers. Houston TX,
April 1986.

[5.6] F. Schwab. Bull, "Berechnung der Schutzwirkung von Blitzableitern und

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Turmen". Schweiz Elektrotech, vol 56 1965.

[5.7] R. B. Bent. "Lightning and the hazards it produces for explosive facilities"
ACS Symp. Series No. 96. 1979. p 81.

[5.8] R. Verma. "Fundamental Considerations and Impulse Impedance of


Grounding Grids" IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. 3
March 1981 p. 1023.

[5.9] "Ground Systems Design Considerations for Vessels". IEEE Industry


Applications Magazine. Nov-Dec 2001 41-49.

[5.10] T. Udo. "Contents of Large Current Flashes among all the lightnings
measured on transmission lines". IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Oct
1998. 1432-1436.

[5.11] L. G. Byerley et al. "Towers, Lightning and Human Affairs". 11th


International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity, June 7-11, Guntersville, AL,
1999.

[5.12] Martin A. Uma. "Natural and Artificially-Initiated Lightning and Lightning


Test Standards". Proceedings of IEEE, Vol. 76, No. 12, Diciembre 1988. Pgs.
1548-1565.

[5.13] R. H. Golde, "The Frequency of Ocurrence and the Distribution of


Lightning Flashes to transmission lines" AIEE Trans., 1945. Vol 64, pgs. 902-
910.

[5.14] R. H. Golde, , "Protection of Structures Against Lightning" Proceedings of


the Institute of Electrical Engineers, Vol. 115, No. 10, pp. 1523-1529, 1968.

[5.15] A. J. Eriksson, "The Incidence of Lightning Strikes to Power lines" IEEE


Transactions on Power Delivery Vol PWRD-2, 1987.

[5.16] John P. Nelson, "Power Systems in Close Proximity to Pipelines". IEEE


Transactions on Industry Applications pgs. 435-441 May/June 1986

[5.17] D. E. Parrish. "Distribution Lightning Protection - Past, Present, Future".


IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications pgs. 183-187 March/April 1982.

[5.18] L. M. Tolbert, Lynn J. Degenhardt, and Jeff T. Cleveland. "Reliability of


Lightning-Resistant Overhead Lines". IEEE Industry Applications Magazine pgs.
17-21 Jul/Aug 1997.

[5.19] Lightning Protection Guide - Dehn

[5.20] Lightning Protection - MIL-HDBK-1004 / 6 (1979)

7. MEDICIONES DE RESISTIVIDAD PARA DISEO

[7.1] "Getting Down to Earth..." Megger.com. 2005.

[7.2] "IEEE Guide for Measuring Earth Resistivity, Ground Impedance, and Earth
Surface Potentials of a Ground System", ANSI/IEEE Standard 81, 1983.

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[7.3] K. M. Michaels. "Earth Ground Resistance Testing for Low-Voltage Power


Systems". IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications Jan/Feb 95.

[7.4] Dr. G. Tagg. "Measurement of the Resistance of Large Earth Electrode


Systems by the Slope Method". IEE Proceedings, Vol 117, Nov 1970.

8. MATERIALES

[8.1] W. R. Jones. "Bentonite Rods Assure Ground Rods Installation in Problem


Soils". IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems Jul/Aug 1980.

[8.2] P. W. Rowland. "Industrial System Grounding for Power, Static, Lightning,


and Instrumentation, Practical Applications." IEEE Transactions on Industry
Applications Nov/Dec 1995.

[8.3] H. B. Dwight. "Calculation of Resistances to Ground." AIEE Transactions


vol 55. Dic 1936. pgs. 1319-1328.

[8.4] Herb G. Ufer, "Investigation and testing of footing-type grounding electrodes


for electrical installations." IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., Vol. PAS-83, pgs.
1042-1048, Oct. 1964.

[8.5] "Effects of Electrical Grounding on Pipe Integrity and Shock Hazard".


American Water Works Association, JOURNAL AWWA July 1998. Vol. 90, No. 7.
pgs. 40 52

[8.6] Quingo Meng et al. "A New Method to decrease ground resistances of
substation grounding systems in high resistivity regions". IEEE Transactions on
Power Delivery vol 14, No. 3. Jul 1999. pgs. 911-916.

9. DISEO DE SISTEMAS DE TIERRA

[9.1] "Electrical Transmission & Distribution Reference Book". Westinghouse


1955.

[9.2] Ing. Rodolfo Lorenzo Bautista "Sistemas de Tierra en Subestaciones


Elctricas". 1994.

[9.3] "IEEE Std 80-2000 Guide for Safety in AC Substation Grounding."

[9.4] Wagner y R. D. Evans, "Symmetrical Components" C.F. New York;


McGraw-Hill, 1933.

[9.5] L. Hung, X. Chen. "Study of unequally spaced grounding Grids." IEEE


Transactions on Power Delivery. Vol 10, No. 2 pp 716-722. April 1995.

10. EJEMPLOS RESUELTOS DE SISTEMAS DE TIERRA

[10.1] En Internet se discuten casos en el grupo misc.utilities.electrical

[10.2] S. J. Schwarz, "Resistance of Grounding Systems." Trans. AIEE Vol 73,


1954, pgs. 1010-1016

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12. MEDICIONES DE TIERRAS PARA MANTENIMIENTO

[12.1] A. Eleck, "Providing the Adequacy of Station Grounds" IEEE Trans. Comm.
and Electronics Nov. 1962. pgs. 368-376.

[12.2] Sobral, S.T. y otros. "Grounding Measurements at the Itapu Generating


Complex using the Extended Eleck Method". IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery Vol.
3 No. 4 Oct 1988 pgs. 1553-1572

[12.3] Ing. Ramn Rivero. "Puesta a tierra de sistemas de potencia y mediciones de


campo de sus parmetros". Instituto Tecnolgico de Cd. Madero, Tams. 2001.

[12.4] "Getting Down to Earth..." Biddle Instruments. 1982.

[12.5] "IEEE Guide for Measuring Earth Resistivity, Ground Impedance, and Earth
Surface Potentials of a Ground System", ANSI/IEEE Standard 81, 1983.

[12.6] M. Michaels. "Earth Ground Resistance Testing for Low-Voltage Power


Systems". IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications Jan/Feb 95.

[12.7] Dr. G. F. Tagg. "Measurement of the Resistance of Large Earth Electrode


Systems by the Slope Method." IEE Proceedings, Vol 117, No. 11 Nov 1970.

[12.8] Cheng-Gang Wang et al. "Grounding Resistance Measurement Using Fall-


of-Potential Method with Potential Probe Located in Opposite Direction to the
Current Probe". IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 13, No. 4, Oct 1998.
1128-1135

14. EFECTOS DE LA CORRIENTE ELCTRICA

[14.1] C. F. Dalziel and W. R. Lee. "Re-evaluation of lethal electric currents",


IEEE Trans. Ind. Gen. Appl., vol IGA-4 pgs. 467-476. Sep-Oct 1968.

15. EXPERTOS EN LA MATERIA

Richard Keil
Dayton Power & Light
P. O. Box 1807
Dayton, OH 45401
T: (937) 331-4675 ; F: (937) 227-2673
richard.keil@dlpinc.com
* Sistemas de Tierras de Subestaciones

A. P. (Sakis) Meliopoulos
Georgia Institute of Technology
1886 Fisher Trail NE
Atlanta, GA 30345-3466
T: (404) 894-2926 ; F: (404) 894-4641
sakis.meliopoulos@ece.gatech.edu
* Puesta a Tierra de Sistemas de Potencia

Dr. Vctor Manuel Cabrera M.


Torren, Coah.
* Proteccin de Lneas de Transmisin

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Ing. Jess Anselmo Estrada


Mxico, D.F.
janselmoe@prodigy.net.mx
* Sistemas Hospitalarios

ndice

071220 r.ruelas-gomez@ieee.org Len, Gto. MXICO.

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