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# 2010 IEEE Symposium on Industrial Electronics and Applications (ISIEA 2010), October 3-5, 2010, Penang, Malaysia

Pitch Control System Using LQR and
Fuzzy Logic Controller
Faculty of Electrical Engineering Faculty of Electrical Engineering
Universiti Teknologi MARA Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
23000 Dungun, Terengganu, Malaysia 81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia

Abstract—This paper presents a comparative assessment Pitch is controlled by the rear part of the tail plane's
based on time response specification performance between horizontal stabilizer being hinged to create an elevator. By
modern and intelligent controller for a pitch control system moving the elevator control backwards the pilot moves the
of an aircraft system. The dynamic modeling of pitch elevator up (a position of negative camber) and the
control system is considered on the design an autopilot that downwards force on the horizontal tail is increased. The
controls the pitch angle of an aircraft. It begins with a angle of attack on the wings increased so the nose is
derivation of suitable mathematical model to describe the pitched up and lift is generally increased. In micro-lights
dynamics of an aircraft. To study the effectiveness of the and hang gliders the pitch action is reversed and the pitch
controllers, the Linear Quadratic Controller (LQR) and control system is much simpler, so when the pilot moves
Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) is developed for controlling the elevator control backwards it produces a nose-down
the pitch angle of an aircraft system. Simulation results for pitch and the angle of attack on the wing is reduced. The
the response of pitch controller are presented in time pitch angle of an aircraft is controlled by adjusting the
domain. Finally, the performances of pitch control systems angle and therefore the lift force of the rear elevator. The
are investigated and analyzed based on common criteria of aerodynamic forces (lift and drug) as well as the aircraft’s
step’s response in order to identify which control strategy inertia are taken into account. This is a third order,
delivers better performance with respect to the desired pitch nonlinear system which is linearized about the operating
angle and pitch rate. It is found from simulation, LQR point.
controller give the best performance compared to fuzzy This work presents investigation into the development
logic controller. of pitch control schemes for pitch angle and pitch rate of
an aircraft systems. Pitch control systems with full state
Keywords—Aircraft; Flight control; Autopilot; Longitudinal feedback controller are investigated. A modern controller
dynamic; LQR; Fuzzy logic. (LQR) and intelligent fuzzy logic controller (FLC) is
developed for control the pitch of an aircraft systems.
I. INTRODUCTION Performance of both control strategy with respect to the
Today’s aircraft designs rely heavily on automatic pitch angle and pitch rate is examined. Comparison of
control system to monitor and control many of aircraft’s both control schemes to the system performance of
subsystem. The development of automatic control system aircraft system is presented and discussed
has played an important role in the growth of civil and
military aviation. Modern aircraft include a variety of II. MODELLING OF A PITCH CONTROL
automatic control system that aids the flight crew in Flight control system has been designed using
navigation, flight management and augmenting the mathematical models of the aircraft linearized at various
stability characteristic of the airplane. For this situation an flight condition parameters varied with the flight
autopilot is designed that control the pitch of aircraft that operating conditions [9]. This work is developed to
can be used by the flight crew to lessen their workload control the pitch angle of an aircraft for pitch control in
during cruising and help them land their aircraft during order to stabilize the system when the airplane is nose up
adverse weather condition in the real situation [1]. The and nose down. The pitch control system considered in
autopilot is an element within the flight control system. It this work is shown in Fig. 1 where Xb, Yb and Zb represent
is a pilot relief mechanism that assists in maintaining an the aerodynamics force components. θ, Ф and δe represent
attitude, heading, altitude or flying to navigation or the orientation of aircraft (pitch angle), orientation of
landing references [2]. Designing an autopilot requires aircraft (roll angle) in the earth-axis system and elevator
control system theory background and knowledge of deflection angle.
stability derivatives at different altitudes and Mach
numbers for a given airplane [3]. Lot of works has been
done in the past to control the pitch of an aircraft for the
purpose of flight stability and yet this research still
remains an open issue in the present and future works [4],
[5], [6], [7] and [8].