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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY

Chapter 1 is made up of five parts, namely: (1)

Background and Theoretical Framework of the study, (2)

Statement of the Problem and the Hypothesis, (3)

Significance of the Study, (4) Definition of Terms, and

(5) Delimitation of the Study.

Part one, Background and Theoretical Framework of

the Study, provides the introduction and rationalizes the

essence of conducting the research. It also provides the

theoretical framework, which serves as the base of

reference. It aims to explain the reason for conducting

the study and the facts and information involved in the

formulation of ideas and concepts in the pursuit of the

investigation to device results.

Part two, Statement of the problem, presents the

specific problems of the study.

Part three, Significance of the study, discusses the

benefits that may be derived from the result and the

persons who may benefit from them.

Part four, Definition of Terms, gives conceptual and

operational meanings of the important terms used in the

study.

Part five, delimitation of the Study, states the

scope and coverage of the study.

Background and Rationale of the Study Mt. we could not resist adopting the change of life due to modernization which sometimes creates conflict on our existing tradition”. The Indigenous Peoples (IP’s) particularly Tag-ao Ati admitted that with the latest technologies such as cell phones. Capiz. customs and cultural heritage in terms of songs. These people have been discovered because of their lifestyle. DVD’s. known as the Ati of Tag-ao the only indigenous group of Dumarao existing until today. Dumarao. their traditions and culture have been affected and influenced. computer games. television. radio and videoke”. they usually come up with creating or . Due to limited resources of instruments. either people will deny it or not. usually using native materials or instruments. Nowadays. Tag-ao is the place where the indigenous people located in Barangay Tamulalod. Traditional Filipino songs in the Philippines are songs commonly sung by children. a tribal Chieftain of Tag-ao Ati’s. said Palenua.

Ethnography is more than a variety of methods. However. A core ethnographic technique is participant observation. . such as preparing an evening meal. and gathering and analyzing data. It means that it does not begin with a hypothesis. giving a shrugging excursion. It is specifically within the unexpected patterns of behavior and meaning that answers. there are specific techniques that all ethnographers use for designing research. interacting with participants.composing songs with their group during their free time as part of their recreation. It is said that ethnographers do not listen with their answers running. Participant observation allows a holistic understanding of events as they unfold and therefore a more complete understanding of what is really important to participants. it is a way of approaching knowledge and understanding the world. This is not just a poetic turn of phase. Training and experience combine in such a way that everything becomes potential data and good ethnographers view the world from that angle. where the researcher participates in and observes the behavior under the examination.

in their interviews and shop along.Ethnographers use a variety of tools and technologies such as haier. leaving how the things in their environment may impact their behavior. They collect artifacts. and motivations. Paradigm of the Study Figure 1. take pictures of important contextual factors and pay attention to how people move through space. videography. thoughts. Vocal Music Tag-ao – the Indigenous people in Tamulalod Material Instruments Classification . Shows the paradigm of the study.

compositions are running the way of life of the IP’s. Instructors and Music enthusiast. Department of Education. Statement of the Problem The purpose of this study was to determine and identify the songs/composo of indigenous people of Tag-ao Ati. Provincial Tourism Office.E. Specifically. What are the cultural folksongs of IP’s Tag-ao? 2. this study sought to answer the following questions: 1. . and the Municipal Tourism Office and the Future Researchers in selecting the kind of songs. What are the underlying beliefs of the folksongs? 3. Local Government Unit. What are the challenge encountered by the IP’s? Significance of the Study The findings of this study may benefit the following P.

composo and the living tradition of Tag-ao community. CHAPTER II Review of the Related Literature Chapter II is divided into 5 parts: (1) History. Department of Education. Filipinos love music. Capiz integrated in the music clauses. They may be given an idea that indigenous people have their existing folksongs. the students and pupils . (3) Folksongs of Tag-ao Ati (4) Musical Instrument (5) Synthesis. If you could hear any songs it could elicit and bring a happy faces. folk music is life.E. Through this. Teachers and music enthusiasts. the local government should spearhead in helping the community preserving the folksongs. P. (2) Folksongs. Everyone here agrees. fun and sentiments. They may be oriented and many include and introduce the folksongs and composo of the Tag-ao community in Dumarao. This study may be able to give them an outlook in life that Capiz have a rich culture. Local Government Unit. Thus. and composo that could bring about the Dumarao culture which were owned and preserve by the Tag-ao people (indigenous people in Tamulalod).

songs and composo. The traditional music of the Philippines like the folk music . This study may benefit those who wish to look into the lifestyle of the people in Tag- ao community as relation to their folksongs/composo music. Dumarao Municipal Tourism. this will help them account and document their folksongs and composo music. Music is a way for Filipinos to express their feelings and aspirations in life. Filipino folks clearly and lucidly express their experiences and dreams through folk songs. Indigenous people of Tag-ao. Future Researchers.will be able to know and appreciate that there are folksongs and composo which were handed down by our ancestors. The Filipinos are music lovers. Even the most common people have their own music. They may help Tag-ao community by creating various progress and projects in order to preserve their traditions. their tradition may not be forgotten. Thus. This study is of great help to them in order them to preserve their iverse culture. Through these program.

Regarded to have a wide range. they are still considered within the capacity of even an average singer.of other countries reflects the life of common mostly rural Filipino like its counterparts in Asia. a lot of traditional songs from the Philippine have a strong connection nature. Although there is some music intended for dance. as most of them stretches more than an octave. epic poetry as having been the earliest form and cater augmented by instrumental accompaniment. . the best preserved form of traditional music is that intended for the role with chanting. Vocal Music A community is that vocal music is of signifying import to every ethnic group in the country.

We listen to it when waking up. It has a sitio which known as Tag-ao found in the mountains of the said barangay. For many. Capiz. while in transit. music is like a constant companion. Definition of Terms The following terms defines for common understanding and to word confusion in the study. Folksongs- History Music is essential to many of our lives. It can bring us joy and motivate us. people residing there the IP’s called ati of Tag-ao. Tamulalod is one of the barangay located in the Dumarao. Tag-ao Ati are unique people against the backdrop of the . at work and with our friends. accompany us through difficult times and alleviate our worries. Primitive tribes and religious practice have used music to heal different psychological and physical ailments. This conceptual and operation definition will be employed.

They are fair-skinned original inhabitants of the mountains. Folksongs of Tag-ao Ati . recreational.prevent society holding on to their centuries culture. harana. and composition/composo. The Ati trobe were generous to give us place to stay and have a conversation interrogating about their lifestyle. living. activities and their Folksongs.

Part two. Part one. research procedure. methods describe the participants. data gathering process and instruments used in this study. It is composed of 3 parts: (1) Purpose of the Study and Research Design (2) Methods (3) Data Analysis Procedure. . CHAPTER III Research and Methodology This chapter explains the research design and methodology used in the study. describes the procedure employed in the conduct of the study. Part three. restates the main problem and discusses the research design which will be utilize in this study. purpose of the study and research design.

comparisons and predictions attempts to remove the investigator from the investigation. This differs from quantitative research which attempts to gather data by objectives methods to provide information about relations. Interaction between variables is important. Detailed data is gathered through open ended questions that provide direct questions. and music instruments. Dumarao. The researcher like to look into the process and ways on how they preserve their traditional songs. . this study is a qualitative research which utilizes ethnography. This is where ethnography came in. composition of Tag-ao IP’s at Tamulalod. anthropological. The interviewer is an integral part of the investigating (Jacob. naturalistic. Moreover. Qualitative research is a generic term for investigative methodologies described as ethnographic. Purpose of the Study and Research Design This study primarily aimed at finding out and documenting the songs. field or participant observer research. It emphasize the importance of looking at variable in the natural setting in which they are found. Capiz. 1988).

while often complementary ultimately have different twins. or what might be described as the “insiders” point of view.dec.. . The emphasis in this representation is this on allowing critical categories and meaning to emerge from the ethnographies encounter rather than imposing these from the existing models.2014) According to Hoey (2007).edu/ag/agedcm4h/academic/aged5980a/5980/news page21.okstate. The use of the term “qualitative” is meant to distinguished the kind of social crime research from more “qualitative” or statistically oriented research.(http://www. The two appropriate quantitative and qualitative. This is sometimes referred to as “thick description”.rat.htm.. Ethnographies general understanding of the culture through representation of what is called anemic perspective. a sum attributed to the anthropologist Clifford Geertz writing on the idea of an interpretive theory of culture in the early 1970’s. the ethnography has come to be equaled with virtually any qualitative research project where the intent is to provide a detailed. in depth description of everyday life and practice.

An ethnographic understanding is developed through close exploration of several source as a foundation. by contrast. This is perhaps the primary source of ethnographic data. analytical orientation to experience. To develop an understanding of what is like to live in a setting. refers to a more distant. The term represents the dual role of the ethnographer. Typically ethnographers spread many months or even years in the place where they conduct their research often forming lasting bonds with people. Due to historical development and disciplinary biases. Long term engagement in the field setting a place where the ethnography takes place is called participant observation. someone who can describe the experience with a measure of what we might call detachment. the researcher must both become a participant in the life of sh setting while also maintaining the stance of art observer. An ethic perspective. Note that this does not mean the ethnographers cannot also become advocates for the people they study. in the fast mood ethnographers conducted their research in foreign countries which largely ignoring the potential for work . the ethnographic relive on a cultural form of analysis.

Regardless. This take the form of representative artifacts that embody characteristics of the topic of interest. secondary academic source are utilized to “locate” the specific study within an existing body of literature. something which clearly differentiate qualitative from more quantitative or demographic approach. This has meant that much of the ethnographers done outside of its disciplinary home. Although often not tied to the site of study.right here at home. the emphasis is on allowing the person a person being interviewed to answer without being limited by pure defined chviser. . government reports and newspaper and magazine articles. Interviewers finds for what might be called “targeted” data collection by asking specific but open- minded questions. Increasing numbers of cultural anthropologists however have begun doing field work in the communities where they themselves live and work. Each ethnographers brings his or her own unique approach to the process. Researchers collect other sources of data which defend on the specific nature of the field setting. There is a quart variety of interview styles.

Video camera and voice recorder was also used in the conduct of the study. Capiz. Tag-ao Ati were the indigenous people who hail in the mountains of the Dumarao. The advance and most moderators rely on an outline or . Mt. They were interviewed for the meaning/interpretation of the different traditional folk song. A focus group discussion is a focus of group interviewing in which a small group . Methods Participants The participants of the study were the Tag-ao Ati’s elders. Focus Group Discussion (FGD) Guide and In-Depth Interview Guide Questionnaire were used in the study. Data Gathering Instruments The researcher subjected himself in an immersion in the Municipality of Dumarao for four days. The questionnaire was subjected to validation. They also performed the different songs for a better and clear understanding as the researcher is trying to document the different cultural songs. is led by a moderator (interview) in a loosely structured discussion of various topics of interest. usually 5 to 12 people.

It is not uncommon for two discussion groups.moderators guide.com/fvwschs.2014). Lange living rooms are all commonly used. and audio and video taping capabilities. One observation is clearly not a reliable reflection of the real would (http:www. This reflects the exploratory nature of populations investigate and the diverse nature of populations.retmay14. What is said in one group a qualitative interview might never be repeated in a second group.dfrank. Focus group discussions can be conducted anywhere that is government hotel conference rooms. meeting halls. Such facilities usually have a comfortable client observation room with one way mirrors. to have different thoughts on the some subject. to ensure that all topics of interest are covered. so that respondents are not disturbed by the presence of observes.htm. Focus group sessions should be considered as a means to explore unknown territory. They are excellent as tools for explaining consumer attitudes and for . but the most popular place to hold such discussions is in a facility specially designed for the purpose. groups that are identical in demographic and life stage characteristics.

using prototype product it appreciate. before the introduction of a new product. . Generating ideas for products developing marketing or advertising themes screening or evaluating new products concepts. Focus group discussions are often used for: Understanding the marketplace and obtaining an insight into how people think and believe. Focus groups discussions should not be used as a substitute for qualitative research.clarify and providing a better understanding of the subject matter. or before the change of an existing one. A disaster check.