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SOC 003: Philippine Politics and Governance

First Quarter Exam Reviewer

Prepared by: Romeo D. Erese III, LPT, MA, PhD.

Politics- in general, it means organizing human activities. Modes of Acquiring a Territory

Politics is all around.
Politics happens because of the need to make 1. Discovery and Occupation- a state may acquire a
decisions in the complex world we live in. territory by discovering a continent, an island or
land with no inhabitants or occupied by uncivilized
According to Aristotle, Man by nature is a political inhabitants and thereafter, occupying it, by placing
animal. If it is true, then politics is not only it under its political administration.
common in our lives it is unavoidable.
2. Prescription- it is a mode of acquiring territory
Elements of Politics: through continuous and undisputed exercise of
Power sovereignty over it during such period as it is
Rule necessary to create under the general conviction
Authority that the present condition of things is in
conformity with international order.

Governance- it refers to the way in which something is

3. Cession it is the assignment, transfer or yielding
governed to meet objectives such as protecting its people,
up of territory by one state or government to
and acting in the countrys best interest.
another. It may be in a form of sale or donation.
State is a group of people living in a definite territory,
4. Subjugation and annexation- it is a mode of
having a government of their own and enjoying their own
acquiring territory belonging to a state in the
course of war and by annexation at the end of the
Elements of State
5. Accretion- mode of acquiring territory by addition
1.People a mass of population or community of people
of portions of soil, either artificial or by gradual
living within the territorial jurisdiction of state.
disposition through the operation of natural causes.
2. Territory- The space within which the government
exercise its supreme authority.
3. Government- agency through which the will of the state
are formulated, expressed carried out.
1. Monarchy (ruled by one person)
- where one person exercises sovereignty. It
4. Sovereignty the supreme power of the state to enforce
is the form of government in which the
its will upon its citizen through laws. It also means
supreme and final authority is in the hands
independence from the control of other states. It has two
of a single person.
2. Aristocracy- ( ruled by a few persons)
a. internal sovereignty- w/c means complete
- where political power is exercised by a
authority to rule over the people inside the state
privilege class known as the elite or
b. external sovereignty (often referred as
independence) which means independence from
3. Democracy ( ruled by many)
outside or foreign control.
- is one in which supreme power is vested to the
people . It is classified into two:
Nation - any large group of people who are united by
a. direct democracy ( pure democracy)- is where
common bonds of race, language, custom, tradition, or
people directly govern themselves
b. indirect democracy (representative democracy)
State v Nation
is where people elect representatives to act in
State is a political concept while nation is an ethnic concept.
their behalf.

SOC 003: Philippine Politics and Governance
First Quarter Exam Reviewer
Prepared by: Romeo D. Erese III, LPT, MA, PhD.
Demo people / Kratos power History the interpretation of the past, how it affects our
views of the present, understanding trends or the lack
Political Science- is a branch of social science that studies thereof in the past.
politics and state.
Economics refers to the scientific study of human action,
Subfields of Political Science particularly as it relates to human choice and the utilization
1. National Politics - deals with the study of the of scarce resources.
structure of the government, its branches, the
political system of the state, public opinon and Political Phenomenon- any occurrence, events, or facts
elections. relating to politics.
2. Comparative Politics studies the politics and
government of other countries Ideology - refers to a system of beliefs about how society
should function, behave, and operate
3. International Relations political cooperation
Political Ideology is a set of related beliefs about political
among states, diplomatic relationships, theory and policy held by an individual, group of individuals
international organizations and laws. or a particular social class.
4. Political Theory defines what is good and what
is bad government. Major Political Ideologies
Example: Machiavelli
5. Constitutional Law studies the balance between 1. Anarchism - The belief that the best government is
the powers of the government and the rights of the absolutely no government. This ideology argues
people. that everything about governments is repressive
6. Public Policy focuses on the programs of the and therefore must be abolished entirely.
state to benefit the economy and the state as a 2. Absolutism - The belief that a single ruler should
whole. have control over every aspect of the government
and of the peoples lives.
Political Science is a social science. 3. Liberalism - A set of political beliefs emphasizing
individual rights and liberties
Social science is the study of society and the manner in 4. Conservatism - A set of political beliefs based on
which people behave and influence the world around us. preservation of customs and traditions that define
the character of a society
The following are the Major branches of Social Science:
5. Socialism - A set of political beliefs emphasizing
community and social equality
Psychology studies emotional and cognitive impacts of
environments and relationships, and the reactions of human
systems to emotional and cognitive changes. Political Power is:

Sociology how we become members of groups, move The ability to shape and control the political
between groups, and how being in different groups affects behavior of others and to lead and guide their
individuals and the groups in which they participate. behavior in the direction desired by the person,
group, or institution exercising the political power.
Political Science how we identify ourselves as citizens of
a particular nation, how we participate in our political The capacity to influence, condition, mold, and
structure, how it affects us, what motivates us to affiliate control human behavior for the accomplishment of
ourselves with certain points of view or parties. political objectives.

Anthropology deals with of what it means to be human, Major Forms of Political Power
through the understanding of modern cultures across the
globe, the cultures of the past, languages, the human body, 1. Political Authority - is governmental power. It is the
and our evolutionary history. legally established power of the government to make rules
and issue commands and to compel obedience to them,
making use of physical force and coercion when deemed

SOC 003: Philippine Politics and Governance
First Quarter Exam Reviewer
Prepared by: Romeo D. Erese III, LPT, MA, PhD.
necessary. Political authority in short, is the legal right--the Article XII National Economy and Patrimony
legally established power--to govern society. Article XIII Social Justice and Human Rights
Article XIV Education, Science and Technology, Arts,
2. Political Influence - is the ability of private individuals Culture and Sports
and groups to impact on the government's making and Article XV The Family
implementation of official policy decisions. It is a form of Article XVI General Provisions
political power exercised by those who do not possess the Article XVII Amendments or Revisions
formal-legal authority, but have and utilize the ability to Article XVIII Transitory Provisions
condition, modify, and control the official decision-making
behavior of those in government office who do possess the
authority to make and implement the decisions. Article I: National Territory

CONSTITUTION Section 1. The national territory comprises the Philippine

archipelago, with all the islands and waters embraced
heart of the nation
therein, and all other territories over which the Philippines
foundation of the government has sovereignty or jurisdiction, consisting of its terrestrial,
blueprint of the government fluvial, and aerial domains, including its territorial sea, the
fundamental law of the land seabed, the subsoil, the insular shelves, and other
highest law of the land submarine areas. The waters around, between and
connecting the islands of the archipelago, regardless of their
basic law of the land
breath and dimensions, form part of the internal waters of
Constitution is a written instrument enacted by direct the Philippines.
action of the people by which the fundamental powers of
Article II: Declarations of Principles and State Policies
the government are established, limited and defined, and by
which those powers are distributed among the several Basic Principles of the 1987 Philippine Constitution
departments for their safe and useful exercise for the 1. The Philippines is a democratic and republican
state. Sovereignty and government authority
benefit of the body politic.
belong to the people. ART II SEC 1
The Republic of the Philippines is using the 1987 Philippine
2. The Philippines renounces war as an element of
Constitution also known as the Freedom Constitution.
national policy ART II SEC 2
Preamble introduction to the constitution
3. Civilian authority is all times supreme over the
We, the sovereign Filipino, imploring the aid of Almighty military. ART II SEC 3
God, in order to build a just and humane society and
4. The prime duty of the government is to serve and
establish a government that shall embody our ideals and
protect the people. ART II SEC 4
aspirations, promote the common good, conserve and
develop our patrimony, and secure to ourselves and our
posterity the blessings of independence and democracy, 5. The separation of church and state shall be at all
times be upheld. ART II SEC 6
under the rule of law, and a regime of truth, justice,
freedom, love, equality, and peace, do ordain and
promulgate this Constitution. 6. The government shall provide social justice. ART II
SEC 10
Articles of the 1987 Philippine Constitution
Article III: Bill of Rights
Article I National Territory
Basic rights that are recognized and protected by the
Article II Declaration of Principles and State Policies
Article III Bill of Rights Constitution:
Article IV Citizenship
1. Right to due process of law (Art III Sec 1)
Article V Suffrage
Article VI Legislative Department 2. Right against unreasonable search and seizure (Art
Article VII Executive Department III Sec 2)
Article VIII Judicial Department 3. Right to privacy of communication and
Article IX Constitutional Commissions correspondence (Art III Sec 3)
Article X Local Government 4. Right to travel and Liberty of abode (Art III Sec 6)
Article XI Accountability of Public Officers

SOC 003: Philippine Politics and Governance
First Quarter Exam Reviewer
Prepared by: Romeo D. Erese III, LPT, MA, PhD.
5. Right to Assembly and Petition/ Right to form 3. Municipalities
association (Art III Sec 8) 4. Barangays
*** Autonomous Regions: ARMM and CAR
Article IV: Citizenship
It encapsulates the provisions that will answer the question: Article XI: Accountability of Public Officers
Who are the citizens of the Philippines?
Article V: Suffrage Sandiganbayan anti-graft court
Right to vote/Election
Ombudsman/Tanodbayan investigates on its own
Article VI: Legislative Department any act or omission of any public official, employee,
Philippine Congress is bicameral legislature which consists office or agency.
of :
Upper house: Senate Article XII: National Economy and Patrimony
Lower house: House of Representatives Distribution of income, wealth and opportunities
Economy of the nation
Article VII: Executive Department Sustainable development
President of the Philippines (qualifications, manner of
Industrialization and full employment
voting, term of office, powers and limitations)
Agricultural Development
Agrarian Reform
Article VIII: Judicial Department Natural Resources
1. The Supreme Court
Article XII: Social Justice and Human Rights
2. Intermediate Appellate Court (Court of Appeals) Human dignity
Reduce social, economic, and political inequalities
3. Regional Trial Court (RTC)
Remove cultural inequities
4. Municipal Trial Court (MTC), Municipal Circuit Trial Social Justice commitment to create economic
Court opportunities based on freedom of initiative and
In addition to these regular courts, there are two special
courts, namely:

1. Court of Tax Appeals

Article XIV: Education, Science and Technology, Arts,
Culture and Sports
2. Sandiganbayan
Quality education
The Constitution also provides for two special legal bodies,
namely: System of education
The study of constitution shall be part of the
1. Judicial and Bar Council curricula of all educational institutions
Language: Filipino is the official language
2. Ombudsman (Tanodbayan)
Research and Development
Article IX: Constitutional Commissions Innovation
1. Commission on Elections Preservation of arts and culture
2. Commission on Audit Physical education
3. Civil Service Commission Sports Program
League competitions
Article X: Local Government
Amateur sports
Political Subdivisions of the Republic of the Philippines: Regular sports activities in all educational
1. Provinces institutions
2. Cities

SOC 003: Philippine Politics and Governance
First Quarter Exam Reviewer
Prepared by: Romeo D. Erese III, LPT, MA, PhD.
Article XV: The Family
Family is the foundation of the nation
Family Rights and Duties

Article XVI: General Provision

Name of the country
National anthem
National seal
Armed Forces of the Philippines
The State may not be sued without its consent
Ownership of mass media is limited to citizens of
the Philippines

Article XVII: Amendments or Revisions

-Changing the constitution.
Article XVIII: Transitory Provisions:
- Provision about the first election of Philippine congress/
first local election
-Provisions about the revolutionary powers, legislative
power of President (Cory Aquino)

Ignorantia Legis Neminem Excusat

Ignorace of the law excuses no one