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Ques.1- Define Computer Network.

Examine the pre-requisites of internet


connection.

Ans.- Computer Network - A computer network is a group of computer systems and other
computing hardware devices that are linked together through communication channels to
facilitate communication and resource-sharing among a wide range of users. Networks are
commonly categorized based on their characteristics.

Pre-requisites of Internet Connection

1. The basic requirements for connecting to the Internet are a computer device, a
working Internet line and the right modem for that Internet line. In addition, software
programs such as Internet browsers, email clients, Usenet clients and other special
applications are needed in order to access the Internet. A computer device is any one of
the following: a PC, a Macintosh or Linux computer, a tablet PC and a smart-phone.

2. Examples of a working Internet line include a fiber-optic connection, a DSL line, a


cable connection, a Wi-Fi connection, a 3G or 4G cellular connection, a dial-up line
and satellite Internet. In addition, for computers that are part of a network, an Internet
connection can come via an Internet gateway, through which other computers in the
network connect to the Internet.

3. The third essential component of an Internet connection is the modem or router. It


must correspond to the Internet line installed in order to work.

4. Lastly, software programs such as Internet browsers and email clients are optional;
however, they are essential for the majority of Internet applications.

Ques.2- Discuss the different types of threats in the computer programmes.

Ans.- In computer security a threat is a possible danger that might exploit a vulnerability to
breach security and therefore cause possible harm. A threat can be either "intentional" (i.e.
hacking: an individual cracker or a criminal organization) or "accidental" (e.g. the possibility
of a computer malfunctioning) or otherwise a circumstance, capability, action, or event.
Types of threats

1. Malware: Malware is short for malicious software. Wikipedia


describes malware as a term used to mean a variety of forms of hostile, intrusive, or
annoying software or program code. Malware could be computer viruses, worms,
Trojan horses, dishonest spyware, and malicious rootkitsall of which are defined
below.
2. Viruses: programs that infect other programs by adding to them a virus code to get
access at an infected file start-up. This simple definition discovers the main action of
a virus infection. The spreading speed of viruses is lower than that of worms.
3. Worms: this type of Malware uses network resources for spreading. This class was
called worms because of its peculiar feature to creep from computer to computer
using network, mail and other informational channels. Worms intrude into ones
computer, calculate network addresses of other computers and send to these addresses
its copies. Besides network addresses, the data of the mail clients' address books is
used as well. Representatives of this Malware type sometimes create working files on
system discs, but may not deploy computer resources (except the operating memory).
4. Trojans: programs that execute on infected computers unauthorized by user actions;
i.e. depending on the conditions delete information on discs, make the system freeze,
steal personal information, etc. this Malware type is not a virus in traditional
understanding (i.e. does not infect other programs or data): Trojans cannot intrude
the PC by themselves and are spread by violators as useful and necessary software.
And still harm caused by Trojans is higher than of traditional virus attack.
5. Spyware: software that allows to collect data about a specific user or organization,
who are not aware of it. One may not even guess about having spyware on your
computer. As a rule the aim of spyware is to:
Trace user's actions on computer.
Collect information about hard drive contents; it often means scanning some
folders and system registry to make a list of software installed on the
computer.
Collect information about quality of connection, way of connecting, modem
speed, etc.
6. Phishing is a mail delivery whose aim is to get from the user confidential financial
information as a rule. Phishing is a form of a social engineering, characterized by
attempts to fraudulently acquire sensitive information, such as passwords and credit
card details, by masquerading as a trustworthy person or business in an apparently
official electronic communication, such as an email or an instant message
7. Adware: program code embedded to the software without user being aware of it to
show advertising.
8. Riskware: this software is not a virus, but contains in itself potential threat. By some
conditions presence of such riskware on your PC puts data at risk.
9. Rootkit: these are utilities used to conceal malicious activity. They disguise Malware,
to prevent from being detected by the antivirus applications.
10. Other malware: different programs that have been developed to create other
Malware, organizing DoS-attacks on remote servers, intruding other computers, etc.
Hack Tools, virus constructors and other refer to such programs.
11. Spam: anonymous, mass undesirable mail correspondence. Another category of spam
are messages suggesting to cash a great sum of money or inviting to financial
pyramids, and mails that steal passwords and credit card number etc.
Ques.3- Examine the law governing cyberspace. Also discuss the scope
of cyber law in brief.
Ans.- The law that regulates the Internet must be considered in the context of the
geographic scope of the Internet and political borders that are crossed in the process of
sending data around the globe. The unique global structure of the Internet raises not only
jurisdictional issues, that is, the authority to make and enforce laws affecting the Internet,
but also questions concerning the nature of the laws themselves.
In their essay "Law and Borders -- The Rise of Law in Cyberspace", David R.
Johnson and David G. Post argue that it became necessary for the Internet to govern itself and
instead of obeying the laws of a particular country, "Internet citizens" will obey the laws of
electronic entities like service providers. Instead of identifying as a physical person, Internet
citizens will be known by their usernames or email addresses. Over time, suggestions that the
Internet can be self-regulated as being its own trans-national "nation" are being supplanted by
a multitude of external and internal regulators and forces, both governmental and private, at
many different levels. The nature of Internet law remains a legal paradigm shift, very much in
the process of development.
Leaving aside the most obvious examples of governmental content monitoring and internet
censorship in nations like China, Saudi Arabia, Iran, there are four primary forces or modes
of regulation of the Internet derived from a socioeconomic theory referred to as Pathetic dot
theory by Lawrence Lessig in his book, Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace:

1. Law: What Lessig calls "Standard East Coast Code," from laws enacted by
government in Washington D.C. This is the most self-evident of the four modes of
regulation. As the numerous United States statutes, codes, regulations, and evolving
case law make clear, many actions on the Internet are already subject to conventional
laws, both with regard to transactions conducted on the Internet and content posted.
Areas like gambling, child pornography, and fraud are regulated in very similar ways
online as off-line. While one of the most controversial and unclear areas of evolving
laws is the determination of what forum has subject matter jurisdiction over activity
(economic and other) conducted on the internet, particularly as cross border
transactions affect local jurisdictions, it is certainly clear that substantial portions of
internet activity are subject to traditional regulation, and that conduct that is unlawful
off-line is presumptively unlawful online, and subject to traditional enforcement of
similar laws and regulations.
2. Norms: As in all other modes of social interaction, conduct is regulated by social
norms and conventions in significant ways. While certain activities or kinds of
conduct online may not be specifically prohibited by the code architecture of the
Internet, or expressly prohibited by traditional governmental law, nevertheless these
activities or conduct are regulated by the standards of the community in which the
activity takes place, in this case internet "users."
3. Markets: Closely allied with regulation by social norms, markets also regulate certain
patterns of conduct on the Internet. While economic markets will have limited
influence over non-commercial portions of the Internet, the Internet also creates a
virtual marketplace for information, and such information affects everything from the
comparative valuation of services to the traditional valuation of stocks
These forces or regulators of the Internet do not act independently of each other. For
example, governmental laws may be influenced by greater societal norms, and markets
affected by the nature and quality of the code that operates a particular system.
Scope of Cyber Law -Cyber law is concerned with every individual these days. This is
primarily because we all use internet in some or the other form daily. Internet is used when
we create any account online, while performing e-commerce transactions, net banking,
sending or receiving emails, surfing the net to take out some important information, etc.
Cyber law is that stream of law where all the cyber-crimes such as theft, fraud, etc. all of
which are subject to the Indian Penal Code are addressed by the Information Technology Act,
2000. With advanced technology and changing times, almost all the processes are now going
on IT platform. This is giving rise to increase of cyber-crimes in India as well as abroad.

Cyber-crimes are broadly categorized in two different categories:

1. Using a computer to target other computer for eg. Virus attacks, hacking, etc.

2. Using a computer to commit crimes for eg. Credit card frauds, cyber terrorism, etc.

Cyber-crime is a criminal exploitation of the internet. A misconduct that is committed against


an individual or groups of individuals with an unlawful intention to hurt the position of the
victim or cause any mental or physical harm to the victim directly or indirectly by using
advanced IT and related sources such as Internet and mobile phones is termed as cyber-crime.
Such crimes may be harmful for a country.

Ques.4- What do you mean by business software patenting?

Ans- Business method patents are a class of patents which disclose and claim new methods
of doing business. This includes new types of e-commerce, insurance, banking and tax
compliance etc. Business method patents are a relatively new species of patent and there have
been several reviews investigating the appropriateness of patenting business methods.
Nonetheless, they have become important assets for both independent inventors and major
corporations.

In order to adequately identify a business method invention that is linked to some kind
of computer implementation the following should be followed:

1. The business method must be described in a way that clearly identifies the real world value
of the business method. In order to fulfil this requirement it will be necessary to provide a
generalized description of the overall business method in a way that explains what the
business method accomplishes and how it accomplishes the task. In order to do this most
patent attorneys suggest the use of one or more flow charts the depict the steps associated
with the overall business method. In most, if not all, business method inventions it will be
possible to describe the process from multiple viewpoints. For example, how the overall
system operates viewed from the user perspective is different from the perspective of the
central computer, which performs the various computations, comparisons and routes
information. It is, therefore, critical to clearly identify the business method from all
possible viewpoints.
2. In addition to providing a generalized overview of the business method, it is also necessary
to clearly identify what the central computer does when it performs the processes required
by the business method. This will normally require a detailed description of the
functionality of the central computer.
3. It is also necessary to provide an overview of the system used to implement the business
method. This will require description of the relationship of the central computer (or other
central controller) to other subject matter outside the computer (or controller), which
together represent the system for carrying out the business method.
4. Specialized software will almost always constitute a part of the best way to carry out the
invention. In this situation it is necessary to provide a description of the best way to carry
out the invention using software by disclosure of the functions of the software. While the
Patent Office position is that flow charts are not a requirement for adequately disclosing
the functions of the software, most patent attorneys would strongly recommend or even
require their clients to include flow charts. This is because those skilled in the art will be
computer programmers and computer engineers, who are (or should be) taught from the
earliest levels of their technical education to conceptualize software first in a flow chart.
Therefore, the provision of a flow chart is fundamental to conveying the function of
software. If done properly your flow charts will also satisfactorily disclose the algorithms,
which is becoming increasing essential.
5. Disclosure of the software code is not necessary where the functions of the software
program are readily apparent from the specification and one skilled in the art could
generate the necessary software code to implement the disclosed functions. Nevertheless,
the disclosure of some code may be a good idea, particularly at the time of filing a
provisional patent application. This is because the code you disclose provides an effective
way to convey aspects relating to core functionality of what has been coded.

Ques. 5- Briefly discuss e-governance.

Ans.- E-Government can be defined as the use of information and communications


technologies by governments to enhance the range and quality of information and services
provided to citizens, businesses, civil society organizations, and other government agencies in
an efficient, cost-effective and convenient manner, making government processes more
transparent and accountable and strengthening democracy.

E-Government refers to the use by government agencies of information technologies (such


as Wide Area Networks, the Internet, and mobile computing) that have the ability to
transform relations with citizens, businesses, and other arms of government. These
technologies can serve a variety of different ends: better delivery of government services to
citizens, improved interactions with business and industry, citizen empowerment through
access to information, or more efficient government management. The resulting benefits can
be less corruption, increased transparency, greater convenience, revenue growth, and/ or cost
reductions.

Thus, the stress here is on use of information technologies in improving citizen-


government interactions, cost-cutting and generation of revenue and transparency.
Basically, e-Governance is generally understood as the use of Information and
communications Technology (IcT) at all levels of the Government in order to provide
services to the citizens, interaction with business enterprises and communication and
exchange of information between diferent agencies of the Government in a speedy,
convenient efcient and transparent manner.

The goal of e-Government is not merely to computerize governmental records; to the


contrary, the ultimate goal of e-Government is to transform government. Indeed, successful
e-Government is at most 20% technology and at least 80% about people, processes, and
organizations. It is important, therefore, to recognize that e-Government is not an end; it is
an enabler. e-Government should eventually disappear as a distinct concept, because
government rather than technology is at the core of e-Government and technology will
eventually pervade all governmental operations. The key question, therefore, is whether the
integration of government and technology will serve the interests of the public.