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SAN BEDA COLLEGE OF LAW

Mendiola, Manila

Viktor Kevin S. Rubio

CRIMINAL LAW I

Prescribed textbook/s:

1. Revised Penal Code Book I by Luis B. Reyes and/or

2. Commentaries on Criminal Law Book I by Atty. Maximo P. Amurao Jr.

NB: Closed book policy shall be observed during class. Only handwritten notes will be allowed.

I. General Principles of Criminal Law

A. Nature and definition

- Ient v. Tullett Prebon, G.R. No. 189158, 11 January 2017

B. Characteristics of Criminal Law

1. General (Art. 2, RPC)

Minucher v. Scalzo, G.R. No. 142396, 11 February 2003

Liang v. People, G.R. No. 125865, 28 January 2000

2. Territorial (Art.2, RPC)

People v. Tulin, G.R. No. 111709, 30 August 2001, 364 SCRA 10

3. Prospective (Article 21 and 22, RPC)

a. Effects of repeal

C. Sources of Criminal Law

1. Revised Penal Code

2. Special Penal Laws

D. Constitutional Limitations on Criminal Law

1. Due process and Equal protection (Art. 3, Sec. 1, 1987 Constitution)

White Light Corp. v. City of Manila, G.R. No. 122846, 20 January 2009
Garcia v. Drilon, G.R. No. 179267, 25 June 2013

2. Freedom of expression (Art. 3, Sec. 4, 1987 Constitution)

Guingguing v. People, G.R. No. 128959, 30 September 2005.

3. Freedom of religion (Art. 3, Sec. 5, 1987 Constitution)

Estrada v. Escritor, AM No. P-02-1651, 22 June 2006, 492 SCRA 1

4. No excessive fines, nor cruel, degrading or inhuman punishment.

(Art. 3, Sec. 19, 1987 Constitution)

People v. Echagaray, G.R. No. 117472, 7 February 1997, 267 SCRA 682

Corpuz v. People, G.R. No. 180016, 29 April 2014

5. Non-imprisonment for debt or non-payment of poll tax ( Art. 3, Sec. 19, 1987 Constitution)

6. Bill of attainder (Art. 3, Sec. 22, 1987 Constitution)

People v. Ferrer, L-32613-14, 27 December 1972, 48 SCRA 382

7. Ex-post facto laws (Art. 3, Sec. 22, 1987 Constitution)

US v. Diaz Conde, L-18208, 14 February 1922

E. Construction and interpretation

1. Liberally in favour of the accused

2. Spanish text of the RPC prevails over the English text

People v. Abilong, L-1960, 26 November 1948.

3. Retroactive application when favourable to the accused

4. Prescribed but undeserved penalties (Art. 5, RPC)

People v. Formigones, L-3246, 29 November 1950

5. Suppletory application of RPC to Special Penal Laws (Art. 10, RPC)

Ladonga v. People, G.R. No. 141066, 17 February 2005

People v. Simon, G.R. No. 93028, 29 July 1994


II. General Principles of Criminal Liability

A. Felony, defined (Art. 3, RPC)

B. Elements of criminal liability

1. Physical element (Actus reus)

a. Act

b. Omission

People v. Sylvestre and Atienza, G.R. No. 35748, 14 December 1931, 56 Phil. 353

People v. Talingdan, L-32126, 6 July 1978, 84 SCRA 19

2. Mental element (Mens rea)

a. Deliberate intent (Dolo)

Manuel v. People, G.R. No. 165842, 29 November 2005

i. Elements of dolo

ii. General and specific intent

People v. Puno, G.R. No. 97471, 17 February 1993, 219 SCRA 85

People v. Delim, G.R. No. 142773, 28 January 2003

iii. Mistake of fact

US v. Ah Chong, G.R. No. 5272, 19 March 1910, 15 Phil. 488

People v. Oanis, G.R. No. 47722, 27 July 1943, 74 Phil. 257

iv. Malum prohibitum as exception to the requirement of mens rea

Padilla v. Dizon, AC No. 3086, 23 February 1988, 158 SCRA 127

Magno v. CA, G.R. No. 96132, 26 June 1992, 210 SCRA 475

Garcia v. CA, G.R. No. 157171, 14 March 2006, 484 SCRA 617

v. Intent distinguished from motive

b. Constructive intent (Culpa) Art. 3 and 365

i. Elements

ii. Imprudence or lack of skill

iii. Negligence or lack of foresight


People v. Pugay, L-74324, 17 November 1988, 167 SCRA 439

Ivler v. San Pedro, G.R. No. 172716, 17 November 2010.

c. Transferred intent (Art. 4, par. 1)

i. Aberratio ictus

People v. Guillen, L-1477, 18 January 1950, 85 Phil. 307.

ii. Error in personae

People v. Sabalones, G.R. No. 123485, 31 August 1998, 294 SCRA 751

iii. Praeter intentionem

People vs. Albuquerque, G.R. No. 38773, 19 December 1933, 59 Phil. 150

3. Concurrence

4. Resulting harm

5. Causation

Bataclan v. Medina, L-10126, 22 October 1957, 102 Phil. 181

People v. Iligan, G.R. No. 75369, 26 November 1990

Urbano v. Intermediate Appellate Court, G.R. No. 72964, 7 January 1988

C. Impossible Crimes (Art. 4, Par. 2)

Intod v. CA, G.R. No. 103119, 21 October 1992, 215 SCRA 52

People v. Saladino, L-3634, 30 May 1951, 89 Phil. 807

Jacinto v. People, G.R. No. 162540, 13 July 2009.


III. Stages of execution

A. Attempted Stage

B. Frustrated Stage

C. Consummated crimes

US v. Eduave, G.R. No. 12155, 2 February 1917, 36 Phil. 209

Rivera v. People, G.R. No. 166326, 25 January 2006, 480 SCRA 188

Baleros v. People, G.R. No. 138033, 22 February 2006, 483 SCRA 10

D. Stages of execution in relation to specific felonies

1. Theft

Valenzuela v. People, G.R. No. 160188, 21 June 2007

2. Illegal Trespass

People v. Lamahang, L-43530, 3 August 1935, 61 Phil. 703

3. Physical Injuries, Homicide, and Murder

People v. Borinaga, G.R. No. 33463, 18 December 1930, 55 Phil. 433

People v. Kalalo, G.R. No. 39303-05, 17 March 1934, 59 Phil. 715

People v. Trinidad, G.R. No. 79123-25, 9 January 1989, 169 SCRA 51

Martinez v. CA, G.R. No. 168827, 13 April 2007.

Mondragon v. People, L-17666, 30 June 1966, 17 SCRA 476

People v. Sy Pio, L-5848, 30 April 1954, 94 Phil. 885

4. Robbery

People v. Dio, L-36461, 29 June 1984, 130 SCRA 151

People v. Salvilla, G.R. No. 86163, 26 April 1990.

5. Rape

People v. Orita, G.R. No. 88724, 3 April 1990, 184 SCRA 105

People v. Campuhan, G.R. No. 129433, 30 March 2000

6. Arson

US v. Valdes, L-14128, 10 December 1918.


E. Conspiracy and proposals to commit a felony (Art. 8)

1. Conspiracy and proposal, when punished?

2. As a manner of incurring criminal liability.

People v. Aguilos, G.R. No. 121828, 27 June 2003

IV. Circumstances that affect criminal liability

A. Justifying circumstances

1. Defense of self, relatives, and strangers

Manaban v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 150723, 11 July 2006.

Senoja v. People, G.R. No. 160341, 19 October 2004.

People v. Decena, G.R. No. 107874, 4 August 1994, 235 SCRA 67

People v. Dela Cruz, G.R. No. 128359, 6 December 2000, 347 SCRA 100

People v. Jaurigue, G.R. No. 384, 21 February 1946, 76 Phil. 174

People v. Narvaez, L-33466-67, 20 April 1983, 121 SCRA 389

(see also dissents of J. Abad Santos and J. Gutierrez, Jr.)

Sabang v. People, G.R. No. 168818, 9 March 2007, 518 SCRA 35

People v. Dagani, G.R. No. 153875, 16 August 2006, 499 SCRA 64

Palaganas v. People, G.R. No. 165483, 12 September 2006, 501 SCRA 533

2. Avoidance of greater evil

People v. Ricohermoso, L-30527-28, 29 March 1974, 56 SCRA 431

People v. Norma Hernandez, CA-G.R. No. 22553-R, 14 April 1959, 55 OG 8465

3. Fulfillment of duty

People v. Delima, L-18660, 22 December 1922, 46 Phil. 738

People v. Lagata, L-1940-42, 24 March 1949, 83 Phil. 150

Mamangun v. People, G.R. No. 149152, 2 February 2007

People v. Dagani, G.R. No. 153875, 16 August 2006, 499 SCRA 64


4. Obedience to a lawful order of a superior

People v. Beronilla, L-4445, 28 February 1955, 96 Phil. 566

Tabuena v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 103501-03, 17 February 1997, 268 SCRA 332

B. Exempting Circumstances

1. Insanity

People v. Taneo, L-37673, 31 March 1933, 58 Phil. 255

People v. Bonoan, L-45130, 17 February 1937, 64 Phil. 87

People v. Dungo, G.R. No. 89420, 31 July 1991, 199 SCRA 860

People v. Rafanan, L-54135, 21 November 1991, 204 SCRA 65

People v. Madarang, G.R. No. 132319, 12 May 2000, 332 SCRA 99

People v. Robios, G.R. No. 138453, 29 May 2002, 382 SCRA 581

People v. Opuran, G.R. Nos. 147674-75, 17 March 2004, 425 SCRA 654

Verdadero v. People, G.R. No. 216021, 2 March 2016

People v. Genosa, 341 SCRA 493, 419 SCRA 537

RA 9262 (Re: Battered Woman Syndrome)

See also: Maria Diory F. Rabajante, The Privilege of Being Insane: An Examination of,

and a Saner Alternative to the Insane Rule on Insanity Defense, 49 San Beda L.J. 1

(March 2012)

2. Minority

RA 9344 as amended by RA 10630.

People v. Doquea, G.R. No. 46539, 27 September 1939, 68 Phil. 580

Ortega v. People, G.R. No. 151085, 20 August 2008

People v. Mantalaba, G.R. No. 186227, 20 July 2011.

3. Accident

US v. Taedo, L-5418, 12 February 1910, 15 Phil. 196

People v. Castillo, G.R. No. 172695, 29 June 2007, 526 SCRA 215
People v. Retubado, G.R. No. 124058, 10 December 2003

Pomoy v. People, G.R. No. 150647, 29 September 2004, 439 SCRA 439

4. Irresistible force or uncontrollable fear of a greater injury

US v. Caballeros, G.R. No. 1352, 29 March 1905, 4 Phil. 350

People v. Loreno, L-54414, 9 July 1984, 130 SCRA 311

People v. Del Rosario, G.R. No. 127755, 14 April 1999, 305 SCRA 740

5. Insuperable cause

People v. Bandian, G.R. No. 45186, 30 September 1936, 63 Phil. 530

(see also: separate opinion of J. Villareal)

C. Other exculpatory causes

1. Instigation

People v. Lua Chu, G.R. No. 34917, 7 September 1931, 56 Phil. 44

People v. Doria, G.R. No. 125299, 22 January 1999, 301 SCRA 668

2. Pardon (Art. 266-C and Art. 344)

3. Absolutory circumstances

a. Art. 6 (3)

b. Art. 20

c. Art. 247

d. Art. 280*

e. Art. 332

Intestate Estate of Manolita Gonzales v. People, G.R. No. 181409, 11 February 2010.

D. Mitigating Circumstances

1. Classes of Mitigating Circumstances

a. Privileged

i. Art. 13 (2) and Art. 68

ii. Art. 13 (1) and Art. 69

People v. Jaurigue, G.R. No. 384, 21 February 1946, 76 Phil. 174


People v. Narvaez, L-33466-67, 20 April 1983, 121 SCRA 389

People v. Ulep, G.R. No. 132547, 20 September 2000

Guillermo v. People, G.R. No. 153287, 20 January 2009.

b. Ordinary

i. Lack of intent to commit so grave a wrong

People v. Ural, L-30801, 27 March 1974, 56 SCRA 138

People v. Gonzales, G.R. No. 139542, 21 June 2001, 359 SCRA 352

ii. Sufficient provocation

People v. Pagal, L-32040, 25 October 1977, 79 SCRA 570

Urbano v. People, G.R. No. 182750, 20 January 2009

iii. Vindication of a wrong

People v. Benito, L-32042, 13 February 1975, 74 SCRA 271

Bacabac v. People, G.R. No. 149372, 11 September 2007

iv. Passion or obfuscation

US v. Hicks, G.R. No. 4971, 23 September 1909, 14 Phil. 217

US v. Dela Cruz, G.R. No. 7094, 29 March 1912, 22 Phil. 429

People v. Gelaver, G.R. No. 95357, 9 June 1993, 223 SCRA 310

People v. Bello, L-18792, 28 February 1964

v. Voluntary surrender or plea of guilt

People v. Amaguin, G.R. Nos. 54344-45, 10 January 1994, 229 SCRA 166

People v. Dela Cruz, L-45284, 29 December 1936, 63 Phil. 874

vi. Deafness, muteness, blindness, or other physical defect which restricts the

offenders means of action, defense, or communication

vii. Illness as would diminish the exercise of will-power without depriving

the offender of consciousness of his acts.

viii. Analogous circumstances


Canta v. People, G.R. No. 140937, 28 February 2001

E. Aggravating Circumstances

Art. 14 and 62 of the RPC.

People v. Legaspi, G.R. Nos. 136164-65, 20 April 2001

1. Classes of Aggravating Circumstance

a. Generic

b. Qualifying

c. Specific

d. Inherent

e. Special

2. Taking advantage of public office

People v. Capalac, L-38297, 23 October 1982, 117 SCRA 874

People v. Gapasin, G.R. No. 73489, 25 April 1994, 231 SCRA 728

3. Insult to public authority

People v. Tiongson, L-35123-24, 25 July 1984, 130 SCRA 614

People v. Magdueo, L-68699, 22 September 1986, 144 SCRA 210

People v. Tac-an, G.R. Nos. 76338-89, 26 February 1990.

4. Disregard of rank, age, or sex, and dwelling;

People v. Diaz, G.R. No. L-24002, 21 January 1974.

People v. Arizobal, G.R. No. 135051-52, 14 December 2000, 348 SCRA 143

People v. Daniel, G.R. No. L-40330, 20 November 1978

People v. Apduhan, L-19491, 30 August 1968

5. Abuse of confidence or obvious ungratefulness

People v. Mandolado, L-51304-05, 28 June 1983, 123 SCRA 133

6. The crime is committed in the palace of Chief Executive, in his presence, where public

authorities are engaged in the discharge of their duties, or place dedicated to religious worship;

7. Nighttime, uninhabited place, or by a band;


People v. Garcia, L-30449, 31 October 1979, 94 SCRA 14

People v. Rodas, G.R. No. 175881, 28 August 2007

People v. Damaso, L-30116, 20 November 1978, 86 SCRA 370 (uninhabited)

8. Crime committed on the occasion of conflagration, shipwreck, earthquake, epidemic, or other

calamity or misfortune;

9. Aid of armed men or persons who afford impunity;

10. Recidivism

People v. Baldera, L-2390, 24 April 1950, 86 Phil. 189

11. Reiteracion

12. Habitual delinquency (Art. 62, par. 5);

People v. Melendrez, G.R. No. 39913, 19 December 1933, 59 Phil. 154

13. Quasi- recidivism (Art. 160)

14. Price, reward, or promise;

15. Inundation, fire, poison, etc.

16. Evident premeditation;

US v. Manalinde, G.R. No. 5292, 28 August 1909, 14 Phil. 77

People v. Ilaoa, G.R. No. 94308, 16 June 1994, 233 SCRA 231

People v. Bibat, G.R. No. 124319, 13 May 1998, 290 SCRA 27

17. Craft, fraud, or disguise;

People v. Empacis, G.R. No. 95756, 14 May 1993, 222 SCRA 59

18. Taking advantage of superior strength, or means employed to weaken the defense;

People v. Bigcas, G.R. No. 94534, 2 July 1992, 211 SCRA 631

19. Treachery;

People v. Sangalang, L-32914, 30 August 1974, 58 SCRA 737

People v. San Pedro, L-44274, 22 January 1980, 95 SCRA 306

People v. Castillo, G.R. No. 120282, 20 April 1998, 289 SCRA 213

People v. Arizobal, G.R. No. 135051-52, 14 December 2000, 348 SCRA 143
People v. Escote, G.R. No. 140756, 4 April 2003, 400 SCRA 603

People v. Villonez, G.R. Nos. 122976-77, 16 November 1998, 359 Phil. 95, 1998

People v. Guzman, G.R. No. 169246, 26 January 2007

20. Ignominy;

People v. Torriefel CA-GR. No. 659-R, 29 November 1947, 45 OG 803

People v. Jose, L-28232, 6 February 1971, 37 SCRA 450

People v. Butler, L-50276, 27 January 1983, 120 SCRA 281

People v. Saylan, L-36941, 29 June 1984, 130 SCRA 159

People v. Sultan, G.R. No. 132470, 27 April 2000, 331 SCRA 216

21. Unlawful entry;

22. Breaking of wall, roof, floor, door, or window;

23. Aid of persons under fifteen years old, use of motor vehicles, airships,

or other similar means;

24. Cruelty;

25. Organized or syndicated crime group;

26. Use of illegal firearms or explosives see RA 10591

People v. Ladjaalam, G.R. Nos. 136149-51, 19 September 2000

Celino v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 170562, 29 June 2007

27. Use of dangerous drugs while committing a felony Sec. 25 of RA 9165

28. Use of information and communications technologies in committing a

felony Sec. 6, RA 10175

F. Alternative Circumstances

1. Relationship

People v. Atop, G.R. No. 124303-05, 10 February 1998, 286 SCRA 157

2. Intoxication

US v. McMann, L-2229, 1 July 1905, 4 Phil. 561


3. Degree of Instruction

People v. San Pedro, L-44274, 22 January 1980, 95 SCRA 306

V. Persons Criminally Liable

A. Principals Art. 17

People v. Yanson-Dumancas, G.R. No. 133527-28, 13 December 1999, 320 SCRA 584

People v. Maluenda, G.R. No. 115351, 27 March 1998, 288 SCRA 225

People v. Montealegre, L-67948, 31 May 1988

People v. Madali, L-67803, 30 July 1990

B. Accomplices Art. 18

Abejuela v. People, G.R. No. 80130, 19 August 1991, 200 SCRA 806

People v. Doble, L-30028, 31 May 1982, 114 SCRA 131

People v. Doctolero, G.R. No. 34386, 7 February 1991, 193 SCRA 632

People v. De Vera, G.R. No. 128966, 18 August 1999, 312 SCRA 640

Garces v. People, G.R. No. 173858, 17 July 2007

C. Accessories Art. 19 and 20 (RPC); PD 1612; PD 1829

People v. Talingdan, L-32126, 6 July 1978, 84 SCRA 19

Dizon-Pamintuan v. People, G.R. No. 111426, 11 July 1994


VI. Plurality of Crimes

A. Compound crime (delito compuesto)

People v. Tabaco, G.R. No. 100382, 19 March 1997

People v. Valdez, G.R. No. 127663, 11 March 1999

People v. Sanchez, G.R No. 131116, 27 August 1999, 313 SCRA 254

B. Complex crime proper (delito complejo)

People vs. Hernandez, L-6025-26, 18 July 1956, 99 Phil. 515

Enrile vs. Salazar, G.R. No. 92163, 5 June 1990, 184 SCRA 217

People v. Garcia, G.R. No. 141125, 28 February 2002

Batulanon v. People, G.R. No. 139857, 15 September 2006

C. Continuing crime (delito continuado)

People v. Madrigal-Gonzales, L-16688, 30 April 1963

Gamboa v. Court of Appeals, L-41054, 28 November 1975

People v. Mallari, G.R. No. L-58886, 13 December 1988

Santiago v. Garchitorena, G.R. No. 109266, 2 December 1993

D. Composite Crimes/Special Complex Crimes

1. Art. 266-B

2. Art. 267

3. Art. 294

4. Art. 297

5. Art. 320

E. Complex crimes in relation to Quasi-crimes

Ivler v. San Pedro, G.R. No. 172716, 17 November 2010


VII. Penalties

A. Imposable penalties

1. Principal penalties

a. Capital punishment Sec. 19, Art III of the 1987 Constitution; RA 7659, RA 8177;

RA 9346; Art. 40 and 47 Revised Penal Code; RA 9346

People v. Bon, G.R. No. 166401, 30 October 2006

b. Afflictive penalties

i. Reclusion perpetua RA 7659, Art. 27 of Revised Penal Code

People v. Lucas, G.R. No. 108172, 25 May 1994;

People v. Lucas, G.R. No. 108172, 9 January 1995;

People v. Latupan, G.R. No. 112453, 28 June 2001

ii. Reclusion temporal

iii. Perpetual or temporary absolute disqualification Article 30

iv. Perpetual or temporary special disqualification Art. 31

v. Prision mayor Art. 27

c. Correctional penalties Art. 27, 39, and 44

i. Prision correccional

ii. Arresto mayor

iii. Suspension

iv. Destierro

d. Light penalties Art. 27, 39, and 44


i. Arresto menor

ii. Public censure

e. Common penalties Art.25

i. Fines Art. 26, 39, and 66

ii. Bond to keep the peace Art. 27 and 35

2. Accessory penalties Art. 40 -45

a. Perpetual or temporary absolute disqualification

b. Perpetual or temporary special disqualification

c. Suspension from public office, the right to vote and be voted for, the profession or calling

d. Civil interdiction

e. Indemnification

f. Forfeiture or confiscation of the instruments and proceeds of the offense

g. Payment of costs

3. Subsidiary penalty Art. 39

See also: RA 10159

B. Application and computation of penalties

1. General rules Art. 5, 21, 28, 29 (see also RA 10592), 46, 73-77

2. Specific Rules

a. Complex Crimes (Art. 48)

b. Crime different from that which was intended Art. 49

c. Effect of degree of participation and stage of commission Art. 50 -57, 60-61

d. Additional penalty for certain accessories Art. 58

e. Impossible crimes Art. 59

f. Effect of mitigating, aggravating, and qualifying circumstances Art. 62-66

g. Incomplete justifying or exempting circumstances Art. 67 and 69

h. Minors RA 9344

3. Indeterminate Sentence Law


People v. Lanuza, G.R. No. 188562, 17 August 2011

Talampas v. People, G.R. No. 180219, 23 November 2011

People v. Temporada, G.R. No. 173473, 17 December 2008. See CJ Puno Dissent

and J. Corona Separate Opinion

C. Execution and service of penalties

1. General rules Art. 47, 70, 78, and 86-88,

In re Petition for Habeas Corpus, Pete Lagran, G.R. No. 147270, 15 August 2001,

363 SCRA 275

2. Probation Law (PD 968 as amended)

See also: RA 10707

3. Suspension of sentence

a. In cases of insanity Art. 79

b. Minors

i. Section 31-35 of AM No. 02-1-18-SC

ii. RA 9344
VIII. Extinction of criminal liability

A. Total Art.89-93

Sermonia v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 109454, 14 June 1994

Republic v. Desierto, G.R. No. 136506, 23 August 2001, 363 SCRA 585

See also: Act No. 3326 as amended by Act No. 3763

Romualdez v. Marcelo, G.R. No. 165510, 28 July 2006

B. Partial Art. 94-99; See also: amendments under RA 10592

Cruz III v. Go, G.R. No. 223446, 28 November 2016

IX. Civil Liability arising from criminal liability Art. 100-113

People v. Bayotas, G.R. No. 102007, 2 September 1994.