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Submitted by:

Cauan, Jhoanie Marie P.

Abales, Pollyiana D. Liwag, Jhenikka Mae C. Medallo, Abbey L.

Alarcon, John Poller G. Madlangsakay, Patrick Medel, Gerek Mikail D.

Crisino, Brian Elbert T. Pula, Juliet A.

Maluto, Mary Joy

Garcia, Santy L. Ybaez, Raven C.

Submitted to:

Mr. Jay R. Lacaba

October 19, 2015


The taillights or the pair of red lights at the back of cars are connected in parallel.

They are connected in series to the pilot lamp or small red light in front of the driver.

Once the pilot lamp is on, the driver knows that the taillights are also on. Why?

Sometimes in electrical circuit, both series and parallel connections of lights are

used in a single circuit. Sometimes in an electrical circuit, multiple resistors are

connected in a combination of both series and parallel connections. This type of

connection is referred to as series-parallel connection or the combination circuit.

Since the circuit is more complex, then we have to be careful on how and where

we apply the different rules for series and parallel.



1. What is an electrical circuit?

An electric circuit is a path which electrons from a voltage or current

source flow. Electric current flows in a closed path called an electric circuit.

The point where those electrons enter an electrical circuit is called the

"source" of electrons.
2. What important process must take place before electricity becomes


There are lots of principles that are very essential in electricity. The laws

that are made up should be followed. The electrical circuit must be fixed with

its components in order to make the electricity useful. As we have learned,

electricity flows in an electrical circuit. First, we need the electrical circuit to

have electricity for the electrons to flow. Second, the electrical circuit which is

made up of voltage source, capacitors, resistors, etc., and its values, output

or positioning must be right in order for us to have a useful electricity and to

avoid electrical problems.

3. How are residential consumers charged for electrical service?

Residential consumers were being charged by the electric companies

from the watts that they have consumed. It appears on our bills the number of

watts that we have consumed in a month.

4. State the general rules that apply to equal resistors in series; to equal

resistors in parallel

All resistors obey the same basic rules as defined by Ohm's

Law and Kirchhoff's Circuit Laws.

In a series circuit, we also use the Voltage Division Rule that allows us to use

the effects of resistance proportionality to calculate the potential difference

across each resistance regardless of the current flowing through the series


The parallel circuit has very different characteristics than a series circuit. A

Parallel circuit has certain characteristics and basic rules: A parallel circuit has

two or more paths for current to flow through. Voltage is the same across

each component of the parallel circuit. The sum of the currents through each

path is equal to the total current that flows from the source. You can find total

resistance in a Parallel circuit with the following formula:

1/Rtot = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3 +... 1/Rn

If one of the parallel paths is broken, current will continue to flow in all the

other paths.

IV. Connection. This bulbs also

is about an represent the

electrical circuit load resistance in
containing the circuit.
multiple bulbs
Our project is
that are
figures show the
connected of both
equivalent picture
series and
diagram, circuit
Circuit: Series-
diagram, and
connection. The
diagram of the


Figure 1.

Picture Diagram

Figure 2.

Circuit Diagram

Figure 3.

Schematic Diagram

Because the circuit is a combination of both series and parallel, we cannot apply

the simple series or simple parallel rules to every part of the circuit. Instead, we will

have to identify which parts of that circuit are in series and which parts are in parallel,

then selectively apply series and parallel rules as necessary to determine what is




Many "real life" circuits are a combination of elements in series and parallel. It is

not possible to solve these circuits by direct application of these basic rules. However,

adding some simple procedures for reducing the circuit to a simple series or parallel

circuit will allow us to solve most circuits of interest.

The basic procedure is to use a step-by-step process of replacing combinations

of elements that are in simple series or parallel with the equivalent single resistance

value. Rules for addition of resistance in series or parallel can be used to do this. When

a simple series or parallel circuit is obtained, this circuit is solved. Results can then be

used to solve for values in the more complicated circuit, generally by simply reversing

the process used to simplify the circuit.

Therefore when analyzing combination circuits, it is critically to have a solid

understanding of the concepts that pertain to both series and parallel circuits.


The following recommendations for approaching combination circuit problems

are offered by the group:

If a schematic diagram is not provided, take the time to construct one. Use

the schematic symbols

When approaching a problem involving a combination circuit, take the time

to organize yourself, writing down known values and equating them with a

symbol such as Itot, I1, R3, V2, etc.

Know and use the appropriate formulae for the equivalent resistance of

series-connected and parallel-connected resistors. Use of the wrong formulae

will guarantee failure

Transform a combination circuit into a strictly series circuit by replacing (in

your mind) the parallel section with a single resistor having a resistance value

equal to the equivalent resistance of the parallel section

Use the Ohms law equation (V = IR) often and appropriately. Most

answers will be determined using this equation. When using it, it is important to

substitute the appropriate values into the equation.



Boundless. Combination Circuits. Boundless Physics. Boundless, 21 Jul. 2015.

Retrieved 15 Oct. 2015 from https://www.boundless.com/physics/textbooks/624/circuits-



All About Circuits. What is a Series-Parallel Circuit? Retrieved 15 Oct. 2015 from



Electronics Tutorials. Resistors in Series. Retrieved 16 Oct. 2015 from

EPB. Series-Parallel Combinations. Retrieved 15 Oct. 2015 from


Meralco. Meralco charges up by P0.31/kwh this month. Retrieved 16 Oct. 2015 from


SWTC. Parallel Circuits. Retrieved 14 Oct. 2015 from


Wikipedia. Electrical Circuit. Retrieved 13 Oct. 2015 from


Wikipedia. Electricity. Retrieved 13 Oct. 2015 from



On October 12, 2015, our instructor, Mr. Jay R. Lacaba, gave us a group project

regarding the connections in circuit. Our group was assigned to make a series-

parallel or combination circuit. After the class, we talked about it and I assigned the

different tasks to the members.

The next day, October 13, 2015, Santy Garcia started to answer the questions.

John Poller Alarcon and Gerek Mikail Medel, went to an electronics shop and asked

for the price of the materials needed in our project.

On October 14 to 15, we kept on making our project and researching. We

gathered information mostly on the internet. Our group bought the materials needed

and started to make the circuit project which consists of 5 bulbs, 5 socket, wires, ply
wood, and plug.

My group mates gave their sources to me. These sources and the sources that

Ive got was sent to our BS Architecture group mates by me on October 16, 2015 for

them to make the Bibliography of the project.

On October 17, 2015, there were no classes due to typhoon Lando. I started to

finish our group project. I compiled the different parts of the projects that I assigned

to my group mates. I edited and added many information about it.

I finished our group project this October 18, 2015 and re-read it.

Group 4

BS EE 21M1


Cauan, Jhoanie Marie P.

Introduction, Narrative Report, Project Description, Conclusion,

Recommendation, Bibliography


Abales, Pollyiana D.

Alarcon, John Poller G.


Crisino, Brian Elbert T.


Garcia, Santy L.

Introduction, Answers in Questions, Bibliography

Liwag, Jhenikka Mae C.

Researcher, Bibliography

Madlangsakay, Patrick Joshua

Project Description, Conclusion, Recommendation

Maluto, Mary Joy

Project Description, Conclusion, Recommendation

Medallo, Abbey L.

Answers in Questions

Medel, Gerek Mikail D.

Project Description, Circuit

Pula, Juliet A.

Ybaez, Raven C.