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# Stress - strain Modification

By Vijay Sharan
Sony Ericsson Mobile
Communications, Lund, Sweden
Background
Usually, all calculations are based on
Engineering data in terms of engineering stress
and engineering strain.
This leads to incomplete and only partially
reliable results.
In large strain problems, all stress-strain input
must be in terms of true stress and true strain.
True stress true strain data take into account
the area reduction.
This is an important aspect while simulating
large strain behaviour.
Problem
At present, there is no known standard
technique for converting engineering stress-
strain data into true stress-strain for plastics.
Acquiring true stress-strain data with the help of
experimental testing is a formidable task due to
the difficulty of conducting such tests at very
large strains, while maintaining a homogeneous
state of deformation.
The lack of a consistent set of true stress-strain
data for polymers at large strains, limits the
development of constitutive models covering this
behaviour [1].
Mode of Procedure
Figure 1 shows tensile tests of a typical plastic
material at different strain rates.
2500

2000

1500
Force [N]

1000
6900 [mm/min]
690 [mm/min]
200 [mm/min]
500 100 [mm/min]
57.5 [mm/min]
5 [mm/min]
0.5 [mm/min]
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
Displacement [mm]

## Figure 1. Tensile tests made at different rates for PC/ABS

Mode of Procedure, contd
The curve with the slowest rate is
considered as static.
This curve is also the base for the
conversion of Engineering stress-strain to
True stress-strain.
It should be noted that the test results in
Figure 1, are presented in terms of Force
Displacement.
Theory
The static data of Force Displacement (curve
with the lowest strain rate) may be converted into
engineering stress and engineering strain using
Equations (1) and (2) below.

F
eng = (1)
A0

eng = (2)
L0
Theory, contd
Here A0 is the constant original area of cross-
section, see Figure 2 below.

Relationship
For small stress-strain regions of response, true
stress-strains and engineering stress-strains are
identical, since the area reduction effect in the
begining is negligible.
Figure 3 shows engineering stress versus
engineering strain for a typical Plastic material,
used in Telecommunications industry.
Relationship, contd
80
L
=
L0
70

60
Engineering Stress

50

40
eng = 1

Engineerin g
eng =
F
30 A0

20

10

0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
Engineering Strain

## Figure 3. Engineering stress versus Engineering strain for a typical

Plastic material
Relationship, contd
There is a Mathematical relationship
between Engineering stress strain and
True stress strain.

## true = eng (1 + eng ) (4)

Relationship, contd
Using the mathematical Equations (3) and (4), the true stress true
strains were calculated and are shown in Figure (4).

80 L
=
L0

70

60
true = ln( )
True
true = F A
50
True Stress

40

30

20

10

0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
True Strain

Figure 4. True stress versus True strain for the same Plastic
material.
Relationship, contd
However, the real true stress strain values differ
considerably from those calculated, using Equations (3)
and (4).
In reality, there is no simple way to convert engineering
stress strain to true stress strain.
Due to the obvious difficulties in obtaining true stress
strain data from experimental results, we were forced to
develop a new approach for this purpose.
Our approach is based on FEM Simulation technique.
Figure 5 shows the True stress strains as calculated
using Sony Ericsson approach.
Relationship, contd
80
L
=
L0
70

true = ln( )
True
60 true = eng (1 + eng )

50
True Stress

40

30

20

10

0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
True Strain

## Figure 5. True stress versus True strain for a Plastic material

Conversion
Figure 6 shows a comparison between all the
three curves.
80
L
=
L0
70
2
60
3 true = ln( )
True
50 true = F
A
Stress

40 1
30

20

10

0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
Strain

## Figure 6. Relationship between the various Stress - Strain curves.

Curve 1 shows engineering stress strain. Curve 2 shows true
stress strain based on Equations (3) and (4). Curve 3 shows the
real true stress strain relationship as calculated using
SonyEricsson method.
Conclusions
True stress strain allows us to extend the use of
plastics to very large strains, while maintaining the
accuracy at the same time.
It also allows us either to reduce the weight of the
cellular phone or else decrease the outer dimensions of
the cellular phone.
Both these aspects are well known aims in the design
and development work of cellular phones.
This new approach uses FEM simulation technique.
SonyEricsson along with Vijay Sharan etc has acquired
a Trade Secret for this technique.
This forbids me from describing the technoque in detail.
Thank you and Au revoir.
Reference
[1] Arruda, E. M. and Boyce, M. C. (1990),
An Experimental and Analytical
Investigation of the Large Strain
Compressive and Tensile Response of
Glassy Polymers, Polymer Engineering
and Science, Vol 30, No. 20, pp 1288-98.