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24/1/2016 JC General Paper Essays: globalisation

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Showing posts with label globalisation. Show all posts

Globalisation and greater interconnectedness


worldwide means more conflict, rather than less. How
far do you agree with this statement?

Written by: Goh SW, September 2015

Global is a pervasive term today from the ongoing global war on terror
coined by George W. Bush to global cities to describe important node
cities in the worldwide financial system like New York and Singapore. The
widespread usage of this term derives from the ongoing process we term
globalisation: an intricate web of processes which has made the world
increasingly interconnected in worldwide technological, political, social,
economic, and cultural exchanges and interdependencies. However, it
remains to be seen whether this process has caused, or conversely
prevented, more conflict. This essay will explore this key question based
on the effects of globalisation in the political, socio-cultural and economic
spheres of human endeavor.

Anthony Giddens identifies the concept of Time-Space separation to Search JC General Paper Essays
elucidate modernitys dynamic nature in his Consequences of Modernity.
Search
While mankinds concept of time has been made homogeneous through a
worldwide standardization of calendars and international time, our
physical, geographical places have been conversely separated from our Total Pageviews
social spaces. This phenomena is largely attributed to the rise of
information and communications technologies, most ostensibly the 466
Internet. With the advent of social media and social networking sites,
social influences from afar are given a platform to penetrate and Labels
subsequently shape our immediate surroundings. This often results in
essay questions
extensive political repercussions.
globalisation

In 2011, a combination of influence of western ideas of liberalism from history


abroad and the use of social networking sites to circumvent state-operated how to prepare for GP
media channels aided activists to orchestrate the Arab Spring against the notice
incumbent Middle East governments. Mass protests and armed civil political science
resistance came about from that combinnation. That aside, greater Singapore
interconnectedness from the blurring of locale and global lines has society

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24/1/2016 JC General Paper Essays: globalisation

potentially curtailed authoritarian, inhumane, and corrupted regimes from writing an introduction
inflicting greater harm on their people. Western supporters of liberal ideals
strongly purported these views at the time of insurrection. JC General Paper (GP) Essays - Privacy
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However, the proliferation of de-territorialising technologies can also be a
Please note that there is the use of
double-edged sword. Fast-forward four years from the Arab Spring, the third-party advertising companies
global war on terror faces a new, globalised, threat from the Islamic State to serve ads, when you visit us.
of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), more commonly known as ISIS, Islamic State These companies may use
of Iraq and Syria. Capitalising on technological advances and operating on information about your visits to
social media platforms, ISIS is an extremist Muslim terrorist organisation this and other sites to provide
advertisements and suggestions
which willingly shares information or creates and manufactures
about goods and services of
information, or disinformation to coax a global audience to join their
possible interest to you. Google Co.
cause. These platforms are also used to broadcast their acts of violence uses cookies to serve ads to you;
worldwide as a show of might, such as the infamous beheading of a Google's use of cookies enables it
Japanese journalist. In fact, ISIS propaganda has radicalised many to serve ads to users based on
moderate Muslims and disenfranchised youths in surrounding nations. It is visits. In addition, take note that
hence evident that greater interconnectedness has, in fact, promulgated visitors from Europe and certain
conflict beyond Iraqi and Syrian borders. The shifting sands in the Middle parts of the world may see
different disclaimers highlighting
East create an impact on other regions too. In Southeast Asia, Malaysians,
the use of cookies and may also see
Indonesians and even a few Singaporeans have been inspired to join ISIS other legal information from their
fight. The situation has created much domestic friction and polarisation, respective governments. Thank
and is a good example of how globalisation has facilitated the spread of you for reading.
conflict.
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As I have argued, globalisation is deeply characterized by the omnipresent
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media and lines of communications. Different cultures and ideas interact
and exchange over these platforms, and the local lines are increasingly
blurred. This has not only created awareness of other cultures worldwide,
but also, fostered understanding. From July 2012, South Korean musical
artist PSY gained international fandom as his music video Gangnam Style
went viral over Youtube. Even international sensations like Katy Perry,
Britney Spears and Tom Cruise amongst millions of others took to Twitter
to share their appreciation of the music video. The video was known not
only for its humour, but a strong satirical message on the pursuit of the
outward appearance of wealth and luxury. This seemed to have created
resonance across the globe. Commenting on this, UN Secretary General
Ban Ki Moon remarks that in this era of instability and intolerance we
need to promote better understanding through the power of music." This
demonstrates that cultural exchanges, be it through music or other
mediums, can be a constructive force to promote collaboration, inter-
cultural understanding, and in an ideal situation world peace.

However, many critics see that the same cultural aspect of globalisation
promotes the cultural imperialism of western ideals. This means a greater
and more dominant powers (nations) privileging and imposing their ideals
over others. When a minority of Hong Kongers took to the streets in the
Occupy Central movement over cries of universal suffrage, U.S. President
Barack Obama pronounced that the U.S. would continue to speak up for
the right of people to both protest against and change the elections
process determining Hong Kongs Chief Executive. More ironically, Hong
Kongs ex-British governor and other British parliamentarians mention
democracy in Hong Kong despite her citizens being deprived of any
democratic electoral processes under British administration. All this is
despite Hong Kong having agreed to the One Country, Two Systems
constitution, which grants them not a full, but an altered, form of

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24/1/2016 JC General Paper Essays: globalisation

democracy given her historical circumstances. The aforementioned actions


by western leaders have galvanized the protestors activism against the
Chinese government in Beijing, resulting in a massive economic shutdown
and violent clashes. This proves to show that cultural globalisation does
have aspects which promote conflict, especially when people feel that
their ideals are universal and can be replicated elsewhere. This seems to
be too true, especially in relation to the earlier mentioned Arab Spring,
which has later metamorphosed into an Arab Winter of social and ethnic
conflicts.

Globalisation and greater interconnectedness also bring economic aspects


of free-market capitalism and industrialisation around the world. This has
facilitated greater free-trade, increased capital flows, increased transport
and communication, and the growth of multi-national companies (MNCs).
One example of how these have brought more stability, less conflict, to a
country once ravaged by the ills of war is South Korea. Under the
leadership of third President Park Chung Hee, South Korea shifted her
focus from self-sufficiency in the Syngman Rhees administration to export-
oriented industrialisation. This facilitated the rise of multinational
conglomerates such as Hyundai in heavy industries and motors, and
Samsung in electronics and shipbuilding. To facilitate the above
operations, infrastructures and communications were improved. As a
result, a once socially instable and poverty-ridden post-war South Korea
transformed into a wealthy, developed and socially stable nation in a span
of four decades. The Miracle on the Han River is a testament that
globalisation and greater interconnectedness have allowed nations to
experience less evils, hence conflict, compared to what would have been in
the past.

On the contrary, the same economic aspects have ironically brought


scourge to other parts of the world. There was an initial belief that Congo,
which holds more than 80% of the worlds coltan reserves, would benefit
socio-economically from the rise in demand of consumer electronics
starting from the late 1990s. This is because coltan is a raw material used
to produce tantalum in capacitors, a critical component in manufacturing
computers and smart devices. However, the digital revolution proved to
be more of a bane than a boon. Warring rebel forces attack villages and
displace families to mine and supply coltan in response to demand from
MNCs. This finances their ensuing civil war. Even neighbouring Rwanda has
joined in the pillaging to exploit the coltan reserves. As a consequence,
more than a few million civilians have perished. This shows that when
nations have weak governance and polarized societies, there are rendered
unfit to best take advantage of too widespread a phenomena as
globalization. In these cases, civil unrest, and conflict results.

Ultimately, our transition into an age of late-modernity has been


indubitable a multi-faceted and complex process. Globalisation and
interconnectedness will likely remain an irreversible trend, but
gloablisation can simultaneously bring more and less conflict. This largely
depends on political, cultural, and historical climates of the geographical
places in which the related events occur. However, what remains
important is that humanity continues to learn from her circumstances, and
face them to construct a better age. This is through both the conflicts
which globalisation has promoted in certain places such as the Middle
East, Hong Kong and Congo; and the good it has done to other nations like

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24/1/2016 JC General Paper Essays: globalisation

South Korea.

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