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Axial Compressor Design

Part II

Onur Tuncer

Istanbul Technical University


Faculty of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Department of Aeronautical Engineering
Maslak, Istanbul 34469
tuncero@itu.edu.tr

December 7, 2011
Outline

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Empirical Performance Models Based on 2-D Cascade Tests Cascade Geometry and Performance Parameters

Cascade Geometry and Performance Parameters


Angle of Attack

= 1

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Empirical Performance Models Based on 2-D Cascade Tests Cascade Geometry and Performance Parameters

Cascade Geometry and Performance Parameters

Incidence Angle

i = 1 1

Deviation Angle

= 2 2

Fluid Turning

 = 1 2

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Empirical Performance Models Based on 2-D Cascade Tests Cascade Geometry and Performance Parameters

Cascade Geometry and Performance Parameters

Lift Coefficient for NACA Airfoils

tan(/4) = 0.05515Cl0 /(a/c)

Camber Angle

= 1 2

Solidity

= c/s

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Empirical Performance Models Based on 2-D Cascade Tests Design Angle of Attack or Incidence Angle

Design Angle of Attack or Incidence Angle

= [3.6Ksh Kt,i + 0.3523(a/c)0 .25] e

tb /c = 0.1, Kt,i = Ksh = 1, a/c = 0.5.

e = 0.65 0.002
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Empirical Performance Models Based on 2-D Cascade Tests Design Angle of Attack or Incidence Angle

Thickness Correction

Kt,i = (10tb /c)q

q = 0.28/[0.1 + (tb /c)0.3 ]


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Empirical Performance Models Based on 2-D Cascade Tests Design Angle of Attack or Incidence Angle

Design Incidence Angle

An equivalent circular arc is used for the NACA-65 series blades as the
basis for defining the incidence angle (Lieblien, 1960).

i = Ksh Kt,i (i0 )10 + n


Correlation of Johnsen and Bullock (1965)

1p
(i0 )10 = 0.1 3 exp[(1 70)/4]
5 + 46exp(2.3)

p = 0.914 + 3 /160

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Empirical Performance Models Based on 2-D Cascade Tests Design Angle of Attack or Incidence Angle

Zero Camber Design Incidence Angle

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Empirical Performance Models Based on 2-D Cascade Tests Design Angle of Attack or Incidence Angle

Design Incidence Angle Slope Factor


(1 /90)(1+1.2)
n = 0.025 0.06
1.5 + 0.43

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Empirical Performance Models Based on 2-D Cascade Tests Design Angle of Attack or Incidence Angle

Pseudo Blade Inlet Angle for NACA A4 K6 Guide Vanes and


Parabolic Arc Blades

1 = || + 1/2
This angle is used to calculate a pseudo-design incidence angle using
Liebliens correlation. The design angle of attack for the actual blade is
adjusted by,

= 1 + i || + (a/c 0.5)
The actual design incidence angle is given by,

i = + 1
However note that design angle of attack model provides more accurate
predictions.

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Empirical Performance Models Based on 2-D Cascade Tests Design Deviation Angle

Design Deviation Angle

= Ksh Kt, (0 )10 + m

(0 )10 = 0.011 + [0.74 1.9 + 3](1 /90)(1.67+1.09)

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Empirical Performance Models Based on 2-D Cascade Tests Design Deviation Angle

Design Deviation Angle Slope Factor

m1.0 : Slope factor for solidity 1.0.


Solidity correction,

m = m1.0 / b
Defining x = 1 /100.
Slope factor for NACA-65 series camberline,

m1.0 = 0.17 0.0333x 0.333x 2


Slope factor for circular arc camberlines,

m1.0 = 0.249 + 0.074x 0.132x 2 + 0.316x 3

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Empirical Performance Models Based on 2-D Cascade Tests Design Deviation Angle

Design Deviation Angle Exponent

b = 0.9625 0.17x 0.85x 3

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Empirical Performance Models Based on 2-D Cascade Tests Design Deviation Angle

Thickness Correction for

Kt, = 6.25(tb /c) + 37.5(tb /c)2

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Empirical Performance Models Based on 2-D Cascade Tests Design Deviation Angle

Extension to NACA A4 K6 Guide Vanes and Parabolic Arc


Blades

Howells (1945) Modified Design Deviation Angle Correlation


Liebleins design deviation angle model does not apply to NACA A4 K6
guide vanes and parabolic arc camberlines.

0.92(a/c)2 + 0.0022
= + (Ksh Kt, 1)(0 )10
1 0.002/
Above equation is also used for all inlet guide vanes, regardless of
camberline and profile type.

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Empirical Performance Models Based on 2-D Cascade Tests Design Loss Coefficient and Diffusion Factors

Design Loss Coefficient and Diffusion Factors

Loss coefficient is related to the wake momentum thickness.


 2
w W2
= 2
c cos 2 W1
Wake momentum thickness is primarily a function of blade surface skin
friction and blade surface velocity distribution.
The amount of decelaration or diffusion of surface velocity determines
wake momentum thickness.
For irrotational flow Stokes theorem may be applied. As a result,

W W1 + f [(W2 W1 )/]

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Empirical Performance Models Based on 2-D Cascade Tests Design Loss Coefficient and Diffusion Factors

Typical Blade Loading Diagram

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Empirical Performance Models Based on 2-D Cascade Tests Design Loss Coefficient and Diffusion Factors

Diffusion Factors

D-Factor, Lieblein et al. (1953)

D (Wmax W2 )/W1

W2 Wtheta1 W2
D =1 +
W1 2W1

De q, Lieblein (1959)

Wmax
Deq =
W2

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Empirical Performance Models Based on 2-D Cascade Tests Design Loss Coefficient and Diffusion Factors

Diffusion Factors (Continued)

Loss Factor Correlations


 2
cos 2 W1
= f (D)
2 W2
or,

cos 2
= f (D)
2

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Empirical Performance Models Based on 2-D Cascade Tests Design Loss Coefficient and Diffusion Factors

Loss Coefficient as a Function of D (At the Design Point)

cos 2
= 0.0035[1 + 3.5D + 37(D )4 ]
2

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Empirical Performance Models Based on 2-D Cascade Tests Design Loss Coefficient and Diffusion Factors

Equivalent Diffusion Factor at Minimum Loss (At the


Design Point)

For NACA-65 series and C.4 circular arc blades,

Wmax cos2 1
 
= 1.12 + 0.61 [tan 1 tan 2 ]
W1
Hence,
 
W1 cos 2 Wm1
 
Wmax Wmax
Deq = =
W1 W2 W1 cos 1 Wm2

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Empirical Performance Models Based on 2-D Cascade Tests Design Loss Coefficient and Diffusion Factors


Loss Coefficient as a Function of Deq (At the Design Point)

2
cos 2 W1


= 0.004[1 + 3.1(Deq 1)2 + 0.4(Deq 1)8 ]
2 W2

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Empirical Performance Models Based on 2-D Cascade Tests Design Loss Coefficient and Diffusion Factors

Off Design Deq for i i

Wmax cos2 1
= 1.12 + 0.61 [tan 1 tan 2 ] + (i i )1.43
W1
(
0.0117 NACA-65 Series
=
0.007 C.4 Circular Arc Blades
A more general form that accounts for meridional velocity changes and
blade circulation applicable to both on and off-design conditions,

Wmax cos2 1 r1 C1 r2 C2
= 1.12 + 0.61 + (i i )1.43
W1 r1 Cm1

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Empirical Performance Models Based on 2-D Cascade Tests Design Loss Coefficient and Diffusion Factors

Other Sources of Total Pressure Loss

I Tip clearence
I Stator shroud leakage
I End wall boundary layers
I Mach number effects
I Reynolds number effects
I Secondary flows

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Empirical Performance Models Based on 2-D Cascade Tests Design Loss Coefficient and Diffusion Factors

Howells Model (1945) for Additional Losses

In terms of drag coefficient,

= CD cos2 1 / cos3

tan = (tan 1 + tan 2 )/2

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Empirical Performance Models Based on 2-D Cascade Tests Design Loss Coefficient and Diffusion Factors

Howells Model (1945) for Additional Losses

End Wall Drag Coefficient

CDa = 0.02s/h
h: Blade height

Secondary Flow Drag Coefficient

CDs = 0.18CL2

CL = 2 cos (tan 1 tan 2 )/

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Empirical Performance Models Based on 2-D Cascade Tests Design Loss Coefficient and Diffusion Factors

General Form of Loss Models

cos 2
= K1 [K2 + 3.5D + 37(D )4 ]
2

cos 2 W1 2
 
= K1 [K2 + 3.1(Deq 1)2 + 0.4(Deq 1)8 ]
2 W2
K1 , K2 empirical constants.

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Empirical Performance Models Based on 2-D Cascade Tests Positive and Negative Stall Incidence Angles

Positive and Negative Stall Incidence Angles

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Empirical Performance Models Based on 2-D Cascade Tests Positive and Negative Stall Incidence Angles

Stall Angles of Attack for NACA 65 Series

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Empirical Performance Models Based on 2-D Cascade Tests Positive and Negative Stall Incidence Angles

Stall Angles of Attack for NACA 65 Series

"  0.48 #
30
c = 9 + 1
1c 4.176
 
1s
s = 10.3 + 2.92
15.6 8.2

1 = +
In practice,

1c 20

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Empirical Performance Models Based on 2-D Cascade Tests Mach Number Effects

Mach Number Effects

Low Loss Working Ranges for Low Speed Cascades

Rc = c = i ic
Rs = s = is i

Mach Number Corrections (For All Blade Types)

ic = i Rc /[1 + 0.5M103 ]
is = i + Rs /[1 + 0.5(Ksh M103 )]

Ksh 1.

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Empirical Performance Models Based on 2-D Cascade Tests Mach Number Effects

Mach Number Corrections (Continued)

Inlet Flow Angle Corresponding to Choke


Assuming a constant stream sheet thickness, from conservation of mass,

1 W1 s cos 1choke = o W
This imposes a lower limit on the negative stall incidence angle.

ic 1choke 1 + 1
The approach to choked flow where i ic is associated with large and
rapidly increasing losses.

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Empirical Performance Models Based on 2-D Cascade Tests Mach Number Effects

Mach Number Corrections

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Empirical Performance Models Based on 2-D Cascade Tests Mach Number Effects

Mach Number Corrections (Continued)

Minimum Loss Incidence Angle

im = ic + (is ic )Rc /(Rc + Rs )


For moderate Mach number blade profiles far from the choke limit im = i .
For higher Mach number profiles, im > i .

Off Design Loss Coefficient for ic < i < is


(
m + m [(i im )/(ic im )]2 i im
=
m + m [(i im )/(is im )]2 i im

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Empirical Performance Models Based on 2-D Cascade Tests Mach Number Effects

Mach Number Corrections (Continued)

Minimum Correction Required for Minimum Loss Coefficient

m = [1 + (im i )2 /Rs2 ]

Critical Mach Number

Mc0 = M10 W /Wmax

m = [1 + (im i )2 /Rs2 ] + Ksh [M 0 /Mc0 1)W /W1 ]2

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Empirical Performance Models Based on 2-D Cascade Tests Shock Wave Loss for Supersonic Cascades

Shock Wave Loss for Supersonic Cascades


Mach number corrections DO NOT account for shock wave losses!

Supersonic expansion over the suction side of the blade.


Expanded higher Mach number flow passes through the stronger normal
shock.
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Empirical Performance Models Based on 2-D Cascade Tests Shock Wave Loss for Supersonic Cascades

Shock Wave Loss for Supersonic Cascades

Assumptions
I Blade surface Mach number is modeled as a simple Prandtl-Meyer
expansion.
I Passage shock calculated using an upstream Mach number that is the
average of blade inlet Mach number and expanded blade surface
Mach number.
I The flow is assumed to approach the blade row at a flow angle
tangent to blade suction surface.
I Narrow incidence angle operating range for supersonic flow makes this
assumption reasonable.

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Empirical Performance Models Based on 2-D Cascade Tests Shock Wave Loss for Supersonic Cascades

Shock Wave Loss for Supersonic Cascades


Flow must expand through an angle along the suction surface.
Expansion Angle Geometry

2Ru /c = sin(u /2)


2bu /c = tan(u /4)
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Empirical Performance Models Based on 2-D Cascade Tests Shock Wave Loss for Supersonic Cascades

Shock Wave Loss for Supersonic Cascades (Continued)

Similarly for circular arc,

2R/c = sin(u /2)


2b/c = tan(u /4)

: True camber angle


R: Camberline radius of curvature
b: Analogous to bu but for the mean camberline.
Since, bu b = tb /2 then,

tan(u /4) = tan(/4) + tb /c

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Empirical Performance Models Based on 2-D Cascade Tests Shock Wave Loss for Supersonic Cascades

Shock Wave Loss for Supersonic Cascades (Continued)


For a circular arc, the angle of the arc with the chord line at the inlet is
given by,

u1 = u /2
Since the flow angle is assumed to be equal to the suction surface inlet
angle,

1 = 90 = u /2 +

= 90 u /2 = 90 u /2 1 + /2
Using law of sines,

s cos
tan =
s sin + Ru

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Empirical Performance Models Based on 2-D Cascade Tests Shock Wave Loss for Supersonic Cascades

Prandtl Meyer Isentropic Expansion

Z WS p dW
= M 02 1
W1 W
For thermally and calorifically perfect gases, this equation can be
integrated analytically and expressed in terms of Prandtl-Meyer angle
usually designated as v (M).
Numerical integration requiried to accommodate any equation of state.
Shock wave total pressure loss calculated for a normal shock wave at an
inlet Mach number of,
q
0
Min = M10 MS0

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Empirical Performance Models Based on 2-D Cascade Tests Shock Wave Loss for Supersonic Cascades

Conservation Equations Across a Shock Wave

(W )in = (W )out
(P + W 2 )in = (P + W 2 )out
Hin = Hout
sout sin

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Empirical Performance Models Based on 2-D Cascade Tests Off-Design Cascade Performance Correlations

Off-Design Cascade Performance Correlations

I 2-D cascade measurements are usually performed far downstream


(where blade wake and flow distortion is minimal).
I Strong interaction between successive blade rows.
I 2-D cascade tests cannot predict rotating stall.
I Flow is far from two dimensional!
I Need EXPERIMENTAL data and calibration!

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Empirical Performance Models Based on 2-D Cascade Tests Off-Design Cascade Performance Correlations

Off-Design Deviation Slope





= [1 + ( + 0.25 4 )(1 /53)2 .5]/exp(3.1)
i

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Empirical Performance Models Based on 2-D Cascade Tests Off-Design Cascade Performance Correlations

Correction due to Pollard and Gostelaw (1967)





= + (i i ) + 10(1 Wm2 /Wm1 )
i

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Empirical Performance Models Based on 2-D Cascade Tests Off-Design Cascade Performance Correlations

Schematic of 2 vs. 1 in Cascades

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Empirical Performance Models Based on 2-D Cascade Tests Off-Design Cascade Performance Correlations

Off-Design Loss Coefficient

Normalized Incidence Angle Parameter


(
(i im )/(is im ) i im
=
(i im )/(im ic ) i < im

Loss Coefficient
Designating the upstream shock wave loss coefficient by s (if any),

2 2 1
s + m [1 + ]

= s + m [5 4( + 2)] < 2

s + m [2 + 2( 1)] > 1

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Empirical Performance Models Based on 2-D Cascade Tests Off-Design Cascade Performance Correlations

Off Design Loss Coefficient

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Empirical Performance Models Based on 2-D Cascade Tests Off-Design Cascade Performance Correlations

Off-Design Wake Blockage

(
0 Deq 2
Bwake =
1 (2/Deq )0.9 Deq > 2

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Empirical Performance Models Based on 2-D Cascade Tests Blade Tip Clearence Loss

Blade Tip Clearence Loss


The pressure difference across the two sides of the blade must balance the
blade torque.

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Empirical Performance Models Based on 2-D Cascade Tests Blade Tip Clearence Loss

Blade Tip Clearence Loss

The pressure difference across the blade must balance the blade torque.
For the clearence gap,

= c [(r Cm )1 + (r Cm )2 ][
Average pressure difference across each blade row,

P = (Zrtip c c cos ) (1)


Z: Number of blades

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Empirical Performance Models Based on 2-D Cascade Tests Blade Tip Clearence Loss

Blade Tip Clearence Loss (Continued)

Velocity of leakage,
p 0.2
Uc = 0.816 2P//Nrow
Leakage mass flow rate,

mc = Uc Z c c cos
Clearence gap total pressure loss for the entire blade row,

Pt = P mc /m

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Empirical Performance Models Based on 2-D Cascade Tests Shroud Seal Leakage Loss

Shroud Seal Leakage Loss


The seal allows larger clearences between the shroud band and the shaft to
be used without causing excessive leakage.

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Empirical Performance Models Based on 2-D Cascade Tests Shroud Seal Leakage Loss

Shroud Seal Leakage Loss

The total pressure loss due to shroud leakage is that given by the leakage
mass flow and the pressure difference across the blade row,

Pt = P mleak /m
Leakage mass flow through the labyrinth seal (Egli, 1935),

mleak =

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Empirical Performance Models Based on 2-D Cascade Tests Implementation, Extensions and Alternate Methods

Implementation, Extensions and Alternate Methods

Implementation of empirical models into performance analysis is a


non-trivial task.
For the sake of completeness parameters K1 and K2 should be defined.

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Empirical Performance Models Based on 2-D Cascade Tests Implementation, Extensions and Alternate Methods

Reynolds Number Effect

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Meridional Through Flow Analysis

Meridional Through Flow Analysis

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Meridional Through Flow Analysis Meridional Coordinate System

Meridional Coordinate System

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Meridional Through Flow Analysis Inviscid Adiabatic Flow on a Quasi Normal

Inviscid Adiabatic Flow on a Quasi Normal

Conservation of mass along a quasi-normal,

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Meridional Through Flow Analysis Linking Quasi Normals

Linking Quasi Normals

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Meridional Through Flow Analysis Repositioning the Stream Surfaces

Repositioning the Stream Surfaces

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Meridional Through Flow Analysis Full Normal Equilibrium Solution

Full Normal Equilibrium Solution

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Meridional Through Flow Analysis Simplified Forms of the Through Flow Analysis

Simplified Forms of the Through Flow Analysis

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Meridional Through Flow Analysis Annulus Sizing

Annulus Sizing

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Meridional Through Flow Analysis Numerical Approximations

Numerical Approximations

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End-Wall Boundary Layer Analysis

End-Wall Boundary Layer Analysis

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End-Wall Boundary Layer Analysis

Displacement Thickness Data

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End-Wall Boundary Layer Analysis

Tangential Force Defect Data

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End-Wall Boundary Layer Analysis End Wall Boundary Layer Eqauations

End Wall Boundary Layer Eqauations

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End-Wall Boundary Layer Analysis End Wall Boundary Layer Eqauations

End Wall Boundary Layer Eqauations (Continued)

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End-Wall Boundary Layer Analysis Boundary Layer Velocity Profile Assumptions

Boundary Layer Velocity Profile Assumptions

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End-Wall Boundary Layer Analysis Empirical Models for Entrainment and Wake Shear Stress

Empirical Models for Entrainment and Wake Shear Stress

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End-Wall Boundary Layer Analysis Boundary Layer Jump Conditions

NACA 8-Stage Compressor Blockage

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End-Wall Boundary Layer Analysis Boundary Layer Jump Conditions

NACA 10-Stage Compressor Blockage

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End-Wall Boundary Layer Analysis Boundary Layer Jump Conditions

NACA 5-Stage Compressor Blockage

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