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SUBSTATIONEQUIPMENTS&ITSFUNCTIONS Energyconservationtechnicsand
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LighteningArrester
Lighteningarrestorsaretheinstrumentthatareusedintheincomingfeederssothattopreventthehigh
voltage entering the main station. This high voltage is very dangerous to the instruments used in the
substation.Eventheinstrumentsareverycostly,sotopreventanydamagelighteningarrestorsareused.The
lighteningarrestorsdonotletthelighteningtofallonthestation.Ifsomelighteningoccursthearrestorspull
Buy
thelighteningandgroundittotheearth.Inanysubstationthemainimportantisofprotectionwhichisfirstly Electrical
done by these lightening arrestors.The lightening arrestors are grounded to the earth so that it can pull the
lighteningtotheground.Thelighteningarrestorworkswithanangleof30to45makingacone. testers
CVT Available at
Acapacitorvoltagetransformer(CVT)isatransformerusedinpowersystemstostepdownextrahigh Best Prices
voltagesignalsandprovidelowvoltagesignalseitherformeasurementortooperateaprotectiverelay.Inits
mostbasicformthedeviceconsistsofthreeparts:twocapacitorsacrosswhichthevoltagesignalissplit,an
Brands: Fluke,
inductiveelementusedtotunethedevicetothesupplyfrequencyandatransformerusedtoisolateandfurther Meco,
stepdown the voltage for the instrumentation or protective relay. The device has at least four terminals, a Rishabh
highvoltage terminal for connection to the high voltage signal, a ground terminal and at least one set of
secondaryterminalsforconnectiontotheinstrumentationorprotectiverelay.CVTsaretypicallysinglephase
devicesusedformeasuringvoltagesinexcessofonehundredkilovoltswheretheuseofvoltagetransformers
wouldbeuneconomical.Inpracticethefirstcapacitor,C1,isoftenreplacedbyastackofcapacitorsconnected
inseries.Thisresultsinalargevoltagedropacrossthestackofcapacitorsthatreplacedthefirstcapacitorand
acomparativelysmallvoltagedropacrossthesecondcapacitor,C2,andhencethesecondaryterminals.

WaveTrap
Wavetrapisaninstrumentusingfortrippingofthewave.Thefunctionofthistrapisthatittrapsthe
unwanted waves. Its function is of trapping wave. Its shape is like a drum. It is connected to the main
incoming feeder so that it can trap the waves which may be dangerous to the instruments here in the
substation.
InstrumentTransformer
Instrument transformers are used to stepdown the current or voltage to measurable values. They Home

providestandardized,useablelevelsofcurrentorvoltageinavarietyofpowermonitoringandmeasurement Home
applications.Bothcurrentandvoltageinstrumenttransformersaredesignedtohavepredictablecharacteristics jobsrelatedelectrical
G.T.UResults
onoverloads.Properoperationofovercurrentprotectionrelaysrequiresthatcurrenttransformersprovidea
R.T.UResults
predictabletransformationratioevenduringashortcircuit.
Thesearefurtherclassifiedintotwotypeswhicharediscussedbelow.
Labels
a.CurrentTransformers
b.PotentialTransformers ElectricalInstrumentation(5)
ElectricalTractionAndControl(1)
electricalworkshop(10)
CurrentTransformer EnergyConservationTechniques
(12)
Currenttransformersarebasicallyusedtotakethereadingsofthecurrentsenteringthesubstation.This
Installationcommissioningand
transformerstepsdownthecurrentfrom800ampsto1amp.Thisisdonebecausewehavenoinstrumentfor maintenance(1)

measuringofsuchalargecurrent.Themainuseofthistransformeris
a.DistanceProtection BlogArchive

b.BackupProtection April2016(1)

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5/18/2016 ElectricalEngineering:SubstationequipmentanditsFunction
c.Measurement March2016(1)
November2015(2)
A current transformer is defined as an instrument transformer in which the secondary current is
July2015(1)
substantiallyproportionaltotheprimarycurrent(undernormalconditionsofoperation)anddiffersinphase
June2015(2)
from it by an angle which is approximately zero for an appropriate direction of the connections. This May2015(1)
highlights the accuracy requirement of the current transformer but also important is the isolating function, February2015(1)
which means no matter what the system voltage the secondary circuit need to be insulated only for a low November2014(5)
October2014(1)
voltage.
September2014(3)
The current transformer works on the principle of variable flux. In the ideal current transformer,
August2014(1)
secondary current would be exactly equal (when multiplied by the turns ratio) and opposite to the primary June2014(1)
current. But, as in the voltage transformer, some of the primary current or the primary ampereturns are April2014(1)
utilizedformagnetizingthecore,thusleavinglessthantheactualprimaryampereturnstobetransformedinto October2013(3)
September2013(3)
the secondary ampereturns.This naturally introduces an error in the transformation.The error is classified
August2013(3)
intocurrentratioerrorandthephaseerror
July2013(4)
June2013(6)
PotentialTransformer April2013(2)
March2013(1)
There are two potential transformers used in the bus connected both side of the bus. The potential
February2013(1)
transformer uses a bus isolator to protect itself.The main use of this transformer is to measure the voltage
November2012(2)
throughthebus.Thisisdonesoastogetthedetailinformationofthevoltagepassingthroughthebustothe October2012(4)
instrument.Therearetwomainpartsinit September2012(4)
a.Measurement
b.Protection TotalPageviews

Thestandardsdefineavoltagetransformerasoneinwhichthesecondaryvoltageissubstantially
proportionaltotheprimaryvoltageanddiffersinphasefromitbyananglewhichisapproximatelyequalto
10901 1
zeroforanappropriatedirectionoftheconnections.Thisinessencemeansthatthevoltagetransformerhasto
beascloseaspossibletotheidealtransformer.
Inanidealtransformer,thesecondaryvoltagevectorisexactlyoppositeandequaltotheprimary
voltagevectorwhenmultipliedbytheturnsratio.
Inapracticaltransformer,errorsareintroducedbecausesomecurrentisdrawnforthemagnetizationof
thecoreandbecauseofdropsintheprimaryandsecondarywindingsduetoleakagereactanceandwinding
resistance. One can thus talk of a voltage error which is the amount by which the voltage is less than the
appliedprimaryvoltageandthephaseerrorwhichisthephaseanglebywhichthereversedsecondaryvoltage
vectorisdisplacedfromtheprimaryvoltagevector.

BusBar
Thebusisalineinwhichtheincomingfeederscomeintoandgetintotheinstrumentsforfurtherstep
uporstepdown.Thefirstbusisusedforputtingtheincomingfeedersinlasingleline.Theremaybedouble
lineinthebussothatifanyfaultoccursintheonetheothercanstillhavethecurrentandthesupplywillnot
stop.Thetwolines in the bus are separated by a little distance byaconductor having a connector between
them.Thisissothatonecanworkatatimeandtheotherworksonlyifthefirstishavinganyfault.
A bus bar in electrical power distribution refers to thick strips of copper or aluminum that conduct
electricity within a switchboard, distribution board, substation, or other electrical apparatus.The size of the
busbarisimportantindeterminingthemaximumamountofcurrentthatcanbesafelycarried.Busbarsare
typicallyeitherflatstripsorhollowtubesastheseshapesallowheattodissipatemoreefficientlyduetotheir
highsurfaceareatocrosssectionalarearatio.Theskineffectmakes5060HzACbusbarsmorethanabout8
mm(1/3in)thickinefficient,soholloworflatshapesareprevalentinhighercurrentapplications.Ahollow
section has higher stiffness than a solid rod of equivalent current carrying capacity, which allows a greater
spanbetweenbusbarsupportsinoutdoorswitchyards.Abusbarmayeitherbesupportedoninsulatorsorelse
insulation may completely surround it. Bus bars are protected from accidental contact either by a metal
enclosureorbyelevationoutofnormalreach.
Neutral bus bars may also be insulated. Earth bus bars are typically bolted directly onto any metal
chassisoftheirenclosure.Busbarsmaybeenclosedinametalhousing,intheformofbusductorbusway,
segregatedphasebus,orisolatedphasebus.

CircuitBreaker
Thecircuitbreakers are used to break the circuit if any fault occurs in any of the instrument.These
circuit breaker breaks for a fault which can damage other instrument in the station. For any unwanted fault
overthestationweneedtobreakthelinecurrent.Thisisonlydoneautomaticallybythecircuitbreaker.There
aremainlytwotypesofcircuitbreakersusedforanysubstations.Theyare
a.SF6circuitbreakers
b.Springcircuitbreakers.

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TheuseofSF6circuitbreakerismainlyinthesubstationswhicharehavinghighinputkvinput,say
above220kvandmore.Thegasisputinsidethecircuitbreakerbyforcei.e.underhighpressure.Whenifthe
gasgetsdecreasesthereisamotorconnectedtothecircuitbreaker.Themotorstartsoperatingifthegaswent
lowerthan20.8bar.Thereisameterconnectedtothebreakersothatitcanbemanuallyseenifthegasgoes
low.ThecircuitbreakerusestheSF6gastoreducethetorqueproduceinitduetoanyfaultintheline.The
circuitbreakerhasadirectlinkwiththeinstrumentsinthestation,whenanyfaultoccuralarmbellrings.
The spring type of circuit breakers is used for small kv stations.The spring here reduces the torque
producedsothatthebreakercanfunctionagain.Thespringtypeisusedforstepdownsideof132kvto33kv
alsoin33kvto11kvandsoon.Theyareonlyusedinlowdistributionside.

Transformer
Therearethreetransformersintheincomingfeederssothatthethreelinesarestepdownatthesame
time.Incaseofa220KVormoreKVlinestationautotransformersareused.WhileincaseoflowerKVline
suchaslessthan132KVlinedoublewindingtransformersareused.
Thetransformeristransportedontrailortosubstationsiteandasfaraspossibledirectlyunloadedon
theplinth.Transformertanksupto25MVAcapacityaregenerallyoilfilled,andthoseofhighercapacityare
transported with N2 gas filled in them +ve pressure of N2 is maintained in transformer tank to avoid the
ingressofmoisture.Thispressureshouldbemaintainedduringstorage,ifnecessarybyfillingN2Bushings
generallytransportedinwoodencasesinhorizontalpositionandshouldbestoredinthatposition.Therebeing
moreoffragilematerial,careshouldbetakenwhilehandlingthem.RadiatorsTheseshouldbestoredwith
endsdulyblankedwithgasketsandendplatestoavoidingrossofmoisture,dust,andanyforeignmaterials
inside.Thecareshouldbetakentoprotectthefinsofradiatorswhileunloadingandstoragetoavoidfurtheroil
leakages.Theradiatorsshouldbestoredonraisedgroundkeepingthefinsintact.

OilPiping.TheOilpipingshouldalsobeblankedattheendswithgasketandblankingplatestoavoidingross
of moisture, dust, and foreign All other accessories like temperature meters, oil flow indicators, PRVs,
buchholzrelayoilsurgerelaysgasketOringsetc.shouldbeproperlypackedandstoredindoorinstore
shed.Oilisreceivedinsealedoilbarrels.Theoilbarrelsshouldbestoredinhorizontalpositionwiththelids
oneithersideinhorizontalpositiontomaintainoilpressureonthemfrominsideandsubsequentlyavoiding
moisture and water ingress into oil. The transformers are received on site with loose accessories hence the
materialsshouldbecheckedasperbillsofmaterials.

Isolator

The use of this isolator is to protect the transformer and the other instrument in the line. The isolator
isolatestheextravoltagetothegroundandthusanyextravoltagecannotentertheline.Thusanisolatoris
usedafterthebusalsoforprotection.

ControlandRelayPanel
The control and relay panel is of cubical construction suitable for floor mounting. All protective,
indicatingandcontrolelementsaremountedonthefrontpanelforeaseofoperationandcontrol.Thehinged
rear door will provide access to all the internal components to facilitate easy inspection and maintenance.
Provisionismadeforterminatingincomingcablesatthebottomofthepanelsbyprovidingseparatelineup
terminal blocks. For cable entry provision is made both from top and bottom. The control and relay panel
accepts CT, PT aux 230 AC and 220V/10V DC connections at respective designated terminal points.
220V/10V DC supply is used for control supply of all internal relays and timers and also for energizing
closingandtrippingcoilsofthebreakers.230VACstationauxiliarysupplyisusedforinternalillumination
lampofthepanelandthespaceheater.ProtectiveHRCfuseareprovidedwithinthepanelforP.Tsecondary.
AuxACandbatterysupplies.EachCapacitorBankiscontrolledbybreakerandprovidedwithalineammeter
with selector switch for 3 phase system & over current relay (2 phases and 1 Earth fault for 3 ph system).
Under voltage and over voltage relays. Neutral Current Unbalance Relays are for both Alarm and Trip
facilities breaker control switch with local/remote selector switch, master trip relay and trip alarms
acknowledgeandresetfacilities.

ProtectiveRelaying
Protectiverelaysareusedtodetectdefectivelinesorapparatusandtoinitiatetheoperationofcircuit
interruptingdevicestoisolatethedefectiveequipment.Relaysarealsousedtodetectabnormalorundesirable
operating conditions other than those caused by defective equipment and either operate an alarm or initiate
operation of circuit interrupting devices. Protective relays protect the electrical system by causing the

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defectiveapparatusorlinestobedisconnectedtominimizedamageandmaintainservicecontinuitytotherest
ofthesystem.Therearedifferenttypesofrelays.
i.Overcurrentrelay
ii.Distancerelay
iii.Differentialrelay
iv.Directionalovercurrentrelay
i.OverCurrentRelay
Theovercurrentrelayrespondstoamagnitudeofcurrentaboveaspecifiedvalue.Therearefourbasic
typesofconstruction:Theyareplunger,rotatingdisc,static,andmicroprocessortype.Intheplungertype,a
plungerismovedbymagneticattractionwhenthecurrentexceedsaspecifiedvalue.Intherotatinginduction
disctype,whichisamotor,thediscrotatesbyelectromagneticinductionwhenthecurrentexceedsaspecified
value.
StatictypesconvertthecurrenttoaproportionalD.Cmillvoltsignalandapplyittoaleveldetector
with voltage or contact output. Such relays can be designed to have various currentversustime operating
characteristics. In a special type of rotating inductiondisc relay, called the voltage restrained over current
relay.The magnitude of voltage restrains the operation of the disc until the magnitude of the voltage drops
belowathresholdvalue. Static over current relays are equipped with multiplecurvecharacteristicsandcan
duplicatealmostanyshapeofelectromechanicalrelaycurve.Microprocessorrelaysconvertthecurrenttoa
digital signal. The digital signal can then be compared to the setting values input into the relay. With the
microprocessor relay, various curves or multiple timedelay settings can be input to set the relay operation.
Some relays allow the user to define the curve with points or calculations to determine the output
characteristics.
ii.DistanceRelay
The distance relay responds to a combination of both voltage and current. The voltage restrains
operation,andthefaultcurrentcausesoperationthathastheoveralleffectofmeasuringimpedance.Therelay
operates instantaneously (within a few cycles) on a 60cycle basis for values of impedance below the set
value. When time delay is required, the relays energizes a separate timedelay relay or function with the
contacts or output of this timedelay relay or function performing the desired output functions. The relay
operatesonthemagnitudeofimpedancemeasuredbythecombinationofrestraintvoltageandtheoperating
currentpassingthroughitaccordingtothesettingsappliedtotherelay.Whentheimpedanceissuchthatthe
impedance point is within the impedance characteristic circle, the relay will trip. The relay is inherently
directional.Thelineimpedancetypicallycorrespondstothediameterofthecirclewiththereachoftherelay
beingthediameterofthecircle.
iii.DifferentialRelay
Thedifferentialrelayisacurrentoperatedrelaythatrespondstothedifferencebetweentwoormore
devicecurrentsaboveasetvalue.Therelayworksonthebasisofthedifferentialprinciplethatwhatgoesinto
thedevicehastocomeout.Ifthecurrentdoesnotaddtozero,theerrorcurrentflowstocausetherelayto
operateandtripthecircuit.
The differential relay is used to provide internal fault protection to equipment such as transformers,
generators, and buses. Relays are designed to permit differences in the input currents as a result of current
transformermismatchandapplicationswheretheinputcurrentscomefromdifferentsystemvoltages,suchas
transformers.Acurrentdifferentialrelayprovidesrestraintcoilsontheincomingcurrentcircuits.Therestraint
coilsincombinationwiththeoperatingcoilprovideanoperationcurve,abovewhichtherelaywilloperate.
Differentialrelaysareoftenusedwithalockoutrelaytotripallpowersourcestothedeviceandpreventthe
devicefrombeingautomaticallyorremotelyreenergized.Theserelaysareverysensitive.Theoperationofthe
deviceusuallymeansmajorproblemswiththeprotectedequipmentandthelikelyfailureinreenergizingthe
equipment.
iv.DirectionalOvercurrentRelay
A directional over current relay operates only for excessive current flow in a given direction.
Directional over current relays are available in electromechanical, static, and microprocessor constructions.
Anelectromechanicalovercorrectrelayismadedirectionalbyaddingadirectionalunitthatpreventstheover
current relay from operating until the directional unit has operated. The directional unit responds to the
product of the magnitude of current, voltage, and the phase angle between them or to the product of two
currentsandthephaseanglebetweenthem.Thevalueofthisproductnecessarytoprovideoperationofthe
directionalunitissmall,sothatitwillnotlimitthesensitivityoftherelay(suchasanovercurrentrelaythatit
controls).Inmostcases,thedirectionalelementismountedinsidethesamecaseastherelayitcontrols.For
example,anovercurrentrelayandadirectionalelementaremountedinthesamecase,andthecombinationis
called a directional over current relay. Microprocessor relays often provide a choice as to the polarizing
method that can be used in providing the direction of fault, such as applying residual current or voltage or
negativesequencecurrentorvoltagepolarizingfunctionstotherelay.

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5/18/2016 ElectricalEngineering:SubstationequipmentanditsFunction

DCPowerSupply
I.DCBatteryandCharger
Allbutthesmallestsubstationsincludeauxiliarypowersupplies.ACpowerisrequiredforsubstation
building small power, lighting, heating and ventilation, some communications equipment, switchgear
operatingmechanisms,anticondensationheatersandmotors.DCpowerisusedtofeedessentialservicessuch
as circuit breaker trip coils and associated relays, supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) and
communications equipment. This describes how these auxiliary supplies are derived and explains how to
specify such equipment. It has Single 100% battery and 100% charger, Low capital cost, No standby DC
System outage for maintenance. Need to isolate battery/charger combination from load under boost charge
conditionsinordertopreventhighboostvoltages.
II.BatteryandChargerconfigurations
Capitalcostandreliabilityobjectivesmustfirstbeconsideredbeforedefiningthebatteryandbattery
charger combination to be used for a specific installation.The comparison given inTable 5.1 describes the
advantagesanddisadvantagesofthreesuchcombinations.
Capital cost and reliability objectives must first be considered before defining the battery/battery
chargercombinationtobeusedforaspecificinstallation.Thecomparisongivendescribestheadvantagesand
disadvantagesofthreesuchcombinations
III.400VDCBattery

Make:Exide
Capacity:300AHat27
No.ofCells:110No.
Dateofinstallation:06/2001
Make:Universal,
Sr.No.:BC1020/82
Dateofmanufacturing:4/2000
InputRating:Voltage:415V+10%
OutputRating:Float:220V,10Amp
Boost:180V,30Amp
FunctionsofAssociatedSysteminSubstation
FunctionsofAssociatedSysteminSubstationisasshownbelowintable4.1
Table4.1FunctionsofAssociatedSysteminSubstation
Sr. System Function
1. SubstationEarthingsystem To provide anearth matfor connecting neutral points,
Earthmat equipmentbody,supportstructurestoearth.Forsafety
Earthingspikes ofpersonnelandforenablingearthfaultprotection.To
Earthingrisers providethepathfordischargingtheearthcurrentsfrom
neutrals, faults, Surge Arresters, overheads shielding
wiresetc.withsafesteppotentialandtouchpotential.

2. Overheadearthwire Toprotecttheoutdoorsubstationequipmentfrom
shieldingorLightningmasts. lightningstrokes.

3. Illuminationsystem(lighting) Toprovideproperilluminationtosubstationyard.
forswitchyard
buildings
roadsetc.
4. Protectionsystem To provide alarm or automatic tripping of faulty part
protectionrelaypanels from healthy part and also to minimize damage to
controlcables faultyequipmentandassociatedsystem.
circuitbreakers
CTs,VTsetc.
5. Controlcable For Protective circuits, control circuits, metering
circuits,communicationcircuits
6. Powercable To provide supplypath tovariousauxiliaryequipment
andmachines.
7. PLCCsystem Forcommunication,telemetry,telecontrol,powerline
powerlinecarrier carrierprotectionetc.
communicationsystem

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5/18/2016 ElectricalEngineering:SubstationequipmentanditsFunction
8. Telephone,telex,microwave, Forinternalandexternalcommunication
OPF
9. Auxiliarystandbypower For supplying starting power, standby power for
system auxiliaries.
10. FireFightingsystem To sense the occurrence of fire by sensors and to
Sensors,detectionsystem initiate water spray, to disconnect power supply to
waterspraysystem affectedregiontopinpointlocationoffirebyindication
fireport,panels,alarm incontrolroom.
System.
watertankandspraysystem

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LabManual BoardResult TimeTable 1Amp Angle Backup BreakerCircuit


BreakersCircuit Cartrackingdevices Chassis LabManual BoardResult

21comments:

V.KJain 18April2013at00:53

InformativeblogaboutsubstationstransformersandthanksforsharingyourideasaboutTransformers

Reply

Replies

NiravBarbhaya 18April2013at09:12

thanksforgivingsuchyoursprecioustimetoviewmycontent.

Reply

Anurag 8May2013at02:42

thank u for ur informative details about substation equipment and thier functions anurag_anu95@yahoo.com /
8686744289

Reply

VineetVaisakhiya 21June2014at05:19

Veryniceandinformaticarticle.Welearnedalotaboutsubstationequipments.Thanksalot.

Reply

buloxpower 28October2014at23:36

Your post has given very valuable information about SubstationTransformer, keep posting the same information like this
always.

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Replies

YOGESHKUMAR 25June2015at22:22

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5/18/2016 ElectricalEngineering:SubstationequipmentanditsFunction
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YOGESHKUMAR 25June2015at22:34

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BayMax 29March2015at23:23

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helpedmanylikemeinfindingthebestIndustrialStabilizermanufacturersinIndia

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yogi 3September2015at08:31

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Reply

JabirK.P. 18September2015at19:00

THANKS

Reply

ExcelantoGlobalServices 30November2015at04:53

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RupeshGaud 17December2015at23:06

shortandveryusefulinformation..thankyou!
Reply

ATEEQAFTAB 21December2015at08:49

Thankyousooomuchforthisawesomestuff.
Reply

Replies

NiravBarbhaya 12April2016at06:28

thanksforappreciation..

Reply

Unknown 22February2016at09:39

Thankstourvaluableinformationaboutsubstation
Reply

SurgeProtection 30March2016at03:03

Nice post.Surge Protector is a network signal lightning arrester ensuring the reliable operation of Local and Wide Area
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KhushaliThacker 11April2016at11:56

Thankyousoomuchforsharingvaluablestuff

Reply

Replies

NiravBarbhaya 12April2016at06:27

Thanksforfeedbackthiswillleadmetopostaninterestingfactsandknowledgeaboutelectricalengineering.
andyouwillfindteachingmateriellikelabmanualendetc...
sokeepvisiting

Reply

http://erofelectrical.blogspot.in/2012/09/substationequipmentanditsfunction.html 7/8
5/18/2016 ElectricalEngineering:SubstationequipmentanditsFunction

KhushaliThacker 11April2016at11:56

Thankyousoomuchforsharingvaluablestuff

Reply

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