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Miss Sidhu

Topic 5 Spec Points Broken Down

2. Know the structures inside a chloroplast as below and know the function of each structure as well
as which events of photosynthesis occur in each structure

Thylakoids
Grana
Stroma lamella
Stroma
Starch granules

3. Know the overall photosynthesis reaction as carbon dioxide and water being reactants and
glucose and oxygen being products.

This happens through water being split apart by energy from light then the hydrogen is combined
with carbon dioxide to form glucose and the oxygen is released as a waste product into the
atmosphere.

4. Describe the light dependent reactions of photosynthesis including cyclic and non-cyclic
reactions.

Cyclic Production of ATP (Electron transport chain)

Non-cyclic Production of ATP (Electron transport chain), Producing oxygen (Photolysis - Breaking of
water), Production of NADPH (Reduction of electron carrier)

5. ATP is produced from ADP + Pi This is a phosphorylation reaction and requires energy.

Breaking down ATP into ADP and Pi is a hydrolysis reaction and releases energy for all biological
processes

6. Describe the Light-independent reactions as being the reduction of carbon dioxide (due to the
addition of hydrogen from NADPH from light dependent reactions)

Carbon is fixed in these reactions (put into a useable form)

Within the light-independent reactions know about the following:

Role of GP, GALP, RuBP and RUBISCO

Products are simple sugars and these can be used for the following

Used by plants, animals and other organisms in respiration


Used in the synthesis of new biological molecules such as polysaccharides, amino acids,
lipids and nucleic acids
Miss Sidhu

7. Carry out calculations of net primary productivity

Be able to use the following calculation NPP = GPP Respiration and explain how it can be used

8. Be able to calculate how much energy is transferred (efficiency) from one feeding level (trophic
level) to the next

9. Recall the carbon cycle

Use understanding of carbon cycle to explain how levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide can be
reduced. These should include methods such as using biofuels, reforestation and lowering carbon
emissions from cars and industry

10. Recall that abiotic factors are non-living factors (e.g. temperature, light intensity) and biotic
factors are living factors (e.g. predator/prey levels) and that they control the numbers and
distribution of organisms within a habitat

11. This spec point is what we did on our field trip

Describe how to carry out a study in an ecological habitat such as a forest, grassland or river.

Explain how to use equipment and techniques including quadrats and transects to find abundance
and distribution (how individuals are spread out in a habitat) as well as measuring abiotic factors
such as light intensity, gradient of the ground, oxygen levels and soil pH or soil moisture

12. Explain what a niche is and how this leads to a particular abundance and distribution of
organisms in a habitat

13. Explain what succession is and how it leads to a climax community

14. Explain how the greenhouse effect is leading to global warming including the roles of
greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane

15. Describe the effects of global warming including rising global temperature, changing rainfall
patterns and seasonal cycles (reproduction cycles etc) on plants and animal. This should include
effects on the distribution of species (where species live) and the development of their life cycles

16. Explain how and why increasing temperature effects enzyme activity in plants, animals and
microorganisms

17. Brine Shrimp Practical they hatch earlier in warmer conditions

Explain how changing temperature effects the development of organisms (E.g. brine shrimp
hatching, and seedling growth)

18. Analyse and interpret different types of evidence that show that global warming is happening
and what is causing it. This should include evidence such as records of carbon dioxide levels,
temperature records, types of pollen in peat bogs and tree rings dendrochronology.
Miss Sidhu

Define the terms correlation and cause and distinguish between the two terms. Be clear that
correlations dont necessarily always mean cause but they can provide evidence for a causal
relationship

19. Describe that data can be used to make predictions about global warming and model what may
happen in the future. Explain that these models do have their own limitations including the fact
that they are based on everything continuing exactly as it currently is

20. Explain how scientific conclusions about controversial issues are often dependent on who does
the research. For example, the actions that should be taken to reduce global warming and the
degree to which humans are effecting global warming are currently quite controversial. Some people
say that humans are not causing global warming or even that it is not happening. This can be
because of conflicting evidence and also for other reasons such as an effect on their own businesses

21. Define evolution as a change in allele frequency and explain that it can come about due to
mutations in genes and natural selection

22. Explain that reproductive isolation is the inability of individuals to reproduce with one another.
This can be in the form of mechanical isolation, geographical isolation and behavioural isolation and
can lead to the formation of a new species this is known as speciation

23. Describe how the scientific community have a role in checking and authorising new evidence.
They do this through research into areas like molecular biology e.g. DNA and proteomic evidence to
support scientific theory such as that of evolution

The scientific community use avenues such as scientific journals, peer review and scientific
conferences to publish and discuss new evidence
Miss Sidhu