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Title of Fatwa

How the Qur’an Was Collected in the Current Order

   
     

Date of Fatwa

5/ June/ 2002

   

Date of Reply

5/ June/ 2002

In the Site

Topic Of Fatwa

Quran

   

Question of Fatwa

The Qur'an was revealed in the form of separate verses upon Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon

   

him). It was only at the time of the Caliph `Uthman Ibn

 
   

`Affan (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Qur'an

 
   

was collected in the order it is today. Can you please elaborate on who decided the current order of the Qur'an (I mean the order of the verses and the surahs

 
   

(chapters) in the present form)? Can you also mention how it was all done? May Allah reward you for the

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service you are providing!

Name of Mufti

Sheikh `Abdul-Majeed Subh

 

Content of Reply

In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most

 
   

Merciful.

 
   

All praise and thanks are due to Allah, and peace

     

and blessings be upon His Messenger.

 
   

Dear brother in Islam, it give us great pleasure to receive your question. We seize the opportunity to

   

implore Allah from the depths of our hearts to lead all the perplexed youth to the light of Islam, His true religion.

 
         
   

With regard to your question, Sheikh `Abdul-Majeed Subh, a prominent Azharite scholar, answers:

 

Fatwa

       

   

“The Glorious Qur'an was revealed gradually within a

 
         

period of 23 years of Prophet Muhammad's (peace and

   

blessings be upon him) outstanding life. The Prophet

 
   

(peace and blessings be upon him) ordered his Companions to observe the order of the Qur'anic surahs. `Uthmaan Ibn `Affaan (may Allah be pleased

 

Counseling

   

   

with him) narrated: "Sometimes, several surahs were revealed to Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings

 
         

   

be upon him). When anything was revealed to him, he would call on one of his scribes and say: 'Insert this

 

Directories

   

into the surahs where there is such and such.' When

   

some verses were revealed, he would say: 'Insert these

 
   

verses into the surahs in which there is such and such.' When a single verse was revealed, he would say:

 
   

'Insert this verse into the surahs in which there is such and such.’ " (Reported by Ahmad, Abu Dawud,

   
   

and At-Tirmidhi)

   
   

There is another Hadith that is more worthy-mentioning

   

Services

   

here. It reads: “Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings be upon him) told `Uthman Ibn Abu Al-`As: ‘Jibril

   
   

(Gabriel) (peace and blessings be upon him) came

   
   

(to me) and ordered me to insert this verse into this position of these surahs. The verse reads: ‘Lo! Allah

   
   

enjoineth justice and kindness, and giving to kinsfolk, and forbiddeth lewdness and abomination

   

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and wickedness. He exhorteth you in order that ye

may take heed’. (An-Nahl: 90)” (Reported by Imam Ahmad)

The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) recited

the Glorious Qur'an before his honorable Companions

 

in this very order. Consequently, the Companions committed it to their hearts in this order. Arch-angel

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Gabriel (peace be upon him) used to recite the Qur'an before Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be

 

upon him) once a year and twice at the year of his death.

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Muslim scholars have unanimously agreed on that the arrangement of every verse in the Qur'an is tawqifi (i.e. something that has come to us from Almighty Allah through Divine revelation) and is not left to humans or even Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) to decide. This is applicable to the order of surahs in the copy of the Glorious Qur'an. Consequently, the majority of scholars consider it makruh (detestable act) to recite the Qur'an starting from the final-positioned surahs.

Historically speaking, Abu Bakr As-Siddiq (may Allah be pleased with him) was the one who actually collected all surahs of the Qur'an into one mus-haf (book compiling all the scripts of the various surahs of the Qur'an). Afterwards, `Uthman Ibn `Affan (may Allah be pleased with him) made more than one copy of what has been collected by Abu Bakr and sent them all over the Islamic territories. Thus, arranging the Glorious Qur'an has been done during the lifetime of Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) and during the Rightly-guided Caliphs' eras while thousands of Companions were still alive and witnessing the whole issue (nothing was reported to indicate the rejection of anyone of them to the issue)."

Do keep in touch. If you have any other question, don't hesitate to write back.

Allah Almighty knows best.

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