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Cognitive Psychology (Solso, Maclin, & Maclin) Chapter 1

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1. Behaviorism: The view that human and animal psychology were 18. Lateralization Studies: Studies done on subjects with or without
cast in a framework of reducing experience to a stimulus- severed corpus collosums which focus on the differences in
response psychology functions of either side of the brain
2. Case Studies: Study that is observational by nature. Not an 19. Mental Representation: Brentano in Austria emphasized the
experiment processes or acts of _______
3. Cognitive Map: "The animal, according to Tolman's 20. Metaphors: People often use ___ to describe cognitive
interpretation, gradually developed a 'picture' of its processes
environment that was later used to find the goal. This picture is 21. Model: An organizational framework used to describe
called a ___" processes
4. Cognitive Revolution: The change in popular psychological 22. Nativists: Argued that knowledge is based on innate
discourse from a behaviorism dominated culture to a more characteristics of the brain
accepting view
23. Neuroscience: Perspective that focuses on the underlying
5. Computer Science: Perspective that focuses on the metaphor brain functions that produce cognitive experience
of the mind as a machine
24. Observation Studies: Allow researchers to describe
6. Empiricists: Maintain that knowledge comes from experiences phenomena, does not allow them to explain phenomena
gained through the lifetime
25. Operational Definition: Requires that you specify the concept
7. Ethics: Researchers study cognitive processes of humans and precisely and explicitly, thereby turning the abstract into
animals. What is tolerated with animals is not always tolerated something concrete
with humans. As with our fellow scientists in medicine and
26. Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP): Model that assumes
biology, you have to weight the benefits with the cost to both
that information processing takes places through the
the quality of life of the animal and the quality of life gained by
interactions of a large number of simple processing elements
humans.
called units, each sending excitatory and inhibitory signals to
8. Evolutionary Perspective: Perspective based on a functionalist the other units
approach, or how humans developed a cognitive process for
27. Period of Enlightenment: (The Renaissance) during which many
survival
technological, social, and political changes were taking place
9. Expiriment: Allows researches to explain phenomena as
28. Perspectives: In cognitive psychology there are 4 dominant
opposed to simply describing it
ones
10. Eye-Tracking Studies: Since eye movements are often 1)Information Processing
involuntary, it is useful to have objective measurements of the 2)Neuroscience
movements of the eye 3)Computer Science
11. Formalism: A means to represent the rules used in the 4)Evolutionary Psychology
establishment of a model 29. Philosophy: During the nineteenth century, psychologists
12. Functionalists: They explain their psychological processes in emerged from ______ to form a discipline based on testable
terms of how their function allow us to adapt to changes in the hypotheses and empirical data
environment 30. Priming Studies: A study in which a stimulus is briefly
13. Imaging Studies: Studies that use technology that shows us presented and then after a delay, a second stimulus is
images of the brain. Seperated into imaging that shows presented and a participant is asked to make some judgment
process, imaging that shows structure, and imaging that shows regarding the second stimulus
both 31. Psychophysics: the scientific study of the relationship between
14. Information Processing: Perspective that is generally related to stimuli (specific in physical terms) and the sensations and
a time-ordered sequence of events perceptions evoked by these stimuli
15. Internal Representation: Three types 32. Reaction Time Studies: Basically examine the amount of time it
1) Direct sensory events took to complete a simple task such as responding to a white
2)Events that are stored in memory light being turned on and comparing that to the amount of
3)Transformation of these events in the thinking process time it took to respond to a yellow light being turned on
16. Intervening Variables: Hypothetical constructs presumed to 33. Representation of Knowledge: Became dichotomized in last
represent processes that mediated the effects of stimuli on half of nineteenth century into structure and process
behavior. (as defined by behaviorists) 34. Single-Cell Studies: Studies that have been used by
17. Introspection: Emphasized by Wundt in Germany and his researchers such as Hubel and Wiesel who mapped out the
American Student Titchner, focused on the structure of mental visual cortex of a cat. They are invasive in the the researcher
representation must open the skull of the subject
35. Speculation: Philosophical precursor to the science of psychology
36. Stimulus Response: Basic premise of behaviorism, that all psychology can be reduced to an input and an output
37. Theories: Attempt to explain particular aspects of phenomena and are often used to test hypotheses
38. Unit of Analysis: This is the primary entity or focus of your study, and is ultimately what is measured
39. Cognitive Science: A science which relies heavily on the following areas as an interdisciplinary field: computer science, philosophy,
psychology, neuroscience, linguistics, and anthropology