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NEWATEC

Einsatz von Wassertechnologien in


Karnataka als Beispiel fr Indien
Voraussetzungen fr das Engagement
deutscher Firmen auf einem fr sie
neuen Markt

Was knnen die NEWATEC Firmen von


Indiens Wassersektor erwarten?
KERNBEREICHE: TRINKWASSERVER- UND ABWASSERENTSORGUNG , MISCHSYSTEME, MANAGEMENT
VON NIEDERSCHLGEN , BERWACHUNG UND K ONTROLLE

FOKUS: ZENTRALE UND DEZENTRALE KOMMUNALE ANWENDUNGEN, INDUSTRIEABWASSER

Schlussfassung Februar 2012


Autoren: Dr Juergen Porst, Robert John, Bangalore, Karnataka, Indien

I
NEWATEC

Use of Water Technologies in Karnataka


as Model for India
Prerequisites for German Companies to
Start Business in a New Market

What Can NEWATEC Companies Expect


from Indias Water Sector?

FOCUS: TREATMENT OF RAW WATER, SEWERAGE, AND WASTEWATER, RAINWATER HARVESTING


CENTRALISED UND D ECENTRALIZED MUNICIPAL APPLICATIONS , INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS

Draft Final Version February 2012


Authors: Dr Juergen Porst, Robert John, Bangalore, Karnataka, India

II
Preface
NEWATEC as a network of German companies providing advanced technologies in the water
sector was officially created in 2011 after a relatively short preparation period. The NEWATEC
companies decided to combine their efforts in getting access to the water sector of India, one of
the fastest growing and, thus, most interesting markets in Asia. The German Federal Ministry of
Economics and Technology is supporting this initiative.
A few of the NEWATEC companies have already a strong market presence in India; others are
completely new in this region of the world. So an introduction to Indias water sector and the
market opportunities for German technology providers was required. Hence, it was decided to
elaborate this study. It was decided to concentrate this study on one federal state of this huge
country only, because to cover the entire country was seen as too difficult. So Karnataka was
selected as an example. It was Karnataka because this state has a very good cooperation already
with the Free State of Bavaria since 2007 (and even longer) in the field of environment and in
the water sector, apart from other fields like scientific collaborations between universities and
other educational institutions and in economics and culture.
In 2008 a two-days water conference was organised jointly by the Karnataka State Pollution
Control Board (KSPCB), the Indo-German Environment Programme ASEM (operated by the
German International Cooperation Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Internationale Zusammenarbeit
(GIZ) GmbH) and the Bavarian State Ministry of Environment and Health (through its
Environment Protection Agency - Landesamt fuer Umweltschutz LfU). Subsequently several
expert missions from Bavaria came to Karnataka and worked in the public and private sector in
planning and implementation of training, hands-on consultancy and study preparation.
The idea for this company network and project was born in India itself among actors who are
now the organisers of NEWATEC: the Environment Cluster Bavaria (UmweltCluster Bayern), the
Bavarian-Indian Centre BayIND, the LfU top management and the team of GIZ-ASEM in
Bangalore.
Karnataka can be considered as model state in India, the capital Bangalore is one of the fastest
growing cities in Asia. It is not heavily industrialised but faces all typical problems that
characterise the water sector in India: water scarcity, outdated equipment, heavy pollution of all
water bodies and types, growing urban population, etc. This tremendous growth creates
challenges for the environment and the natural resources that have to be met by measures
initiated by the government and implemented by both, the public and the private sector.
With concern to the water sector, the improvement of infrastructure in terms of water supply
and wastewater discharge (planning and implementation of projects) is a huge task that
requires efforts from all sides. This study shows possible methodologies to start with this and to
reach certain goals at least mid-term because of the immense size of the sector mostly in
examples. The opportunities German technology providers will have in this context are
numerous and promising. They are outlined in a technically oriented manner and in general
terms of market opportunities.
The authors of this study being members of the GIZ-ASEM team in Bangalore were using a
selection of manifold existing market studies published in recent years, different papers and
studies of the last five years resulting among others out of the close cooperation between KSPCB,
other authorities and organisations of the state, GIZ-ASEM and the private sector. A complete list
of all literature and sources used together with proposals for further reading are listed in the
annex.
Of course Indian and other expert colleagues contributed directly and indirectly to this report.
The authors want to express their full gratitude to everybody. Mr M N Thippeswamy, retired
Chief Engineer of the Bangalore water authority and the most estimated water expert in the

III
state needs to be mentioned as one of the major contributors to this paper, we owe him our
heartiest thanks.
Bangalore, March 2012
Dr Juergen Porst
(Senior Advisor)

IV
List of Contents
Preface ..................................................................................................................................................................................III
List of Figures .................................................................................................................................................................... IX
List of Tables ...................................................................................................................................................................... IX
Executive Summary...........................................................................................................................................................X
1. Introduction.....................................................................................................................................................................1
2. Water Sector Analysis .................................................................................................................................................1
2.1. Current Environmental Status ........................................................................................................................1
2.1.1. Rivers.................................................................................................................................................................1
2.1.2. Groundwater ..................................................................................................................................................1
2.1.3. Water Demand...............................................................................................................................................2
2.1.4. Pollution of Water Resources ..................................................................................................................3
2.1.5. Pressures .........................................................................................................................................................7
2.1.6. Trends ...............................................................................................................................................................7
2.2. Current Market Status...................................................................................................................................... 11
2.2.1. Karnataka Industrial Areas ................................................................................................................... 11
2.2.2. Water Demand and Supply Management in Bangalore city .................................................... 12
2.2.3. Water and Wastewater Treatment .................................................................................................... 17
2.2.4. Market Potential of Industrial and Municipal Water Management ...................................... 19
2.3. Environmental Policy and Regulatory Framework ............................................................................. 19
2.4. Market Participants .......................................................................................................................................... 24
2.4.1. Municipalities and Commissioners .................................................................................................... 24
2.4.2. Investors ....................................................................................................................................................... 25
2.4.3. End Users ...................................................................................................................................................... 25
2.4.4. Public Sector ................................................................................................................................................ 26
2.4.5. Decision Makers and Key players ....................................................................................................... 27
2.4.6. Potential Private Sector Partner Companies for NEWATEC Members ............................... 27
2.5. Competitive Conditions ................................................................................................................................... 32
2.5.1. Competitors in the Indian Market ...................................................................................................... 33
2.6. Market Entry ........................................................................................................................................................ 33
2.6.1. Strategies for Market Entry ................................................................................................................... 33
2.6.2. Operational Models .................................................................................................................................. 37
2.6.3. Government Subsidies ............................................................................................................................ 38

V
2.6.4. Tendering and Procurement Procedures ........................................................................................ 39
2.6.5. Fairs, Exhibitions and Conferences .................................................................................................... 45
2.7. Tax System ............................................................................................................................................................ 47
2.7.1. Direct Taxation ........................................................................................................................................... 47
2.7.2. Indirect Taxation ....................................................................................................................................... 48
2.8. Import and Export Policy ............................................................................................................................... 48
2.8.1. Trade Barriers ............................................................................................................................................ 48
2.8.2. Latest Development.................................................................................................................................. 49
2.9. After-Sales Issues ............................................................................................................................................... 50
2.9.1. Educational Level of Operational Staff ............................................................................................. 50
2.9.2. Training Needs ........................................................................................................................................... 52
2.10. Limitations and Shortcomings of the Water Sector .......................................................................... 52
2.11. Trends and Opportunities ........................................................................................................................... 53
2.11.1. Policy Trends in Karnataka ................................................................................................................ 54
2.11.2. Opportunities for NEWATEC Companies ..................................................................................... 55
2.11.3. Insights of the Indian water market ............................................................................................... 57
2.12. Future Projects ................................................................................................................................................. 58
3. Technological Assessment ...................................................................................................................................... 58
3.1. Existing Technical Standards and Minimum Requirements ............................................................ 59
3.2. Water and Wastewater Technologies ....................................................................................................... 59
3.3. Monitoring and Control Technologies Applied ..................................................................................... 60
3.4. Possibilities of using Remote Control and Online Measurement ................................................... 61
4. Assessment ................................................................................................................................................................... 61
4.1. SWOT Analysis .................................................................................................................................................... 61
4.2. TOWS Analysis (internal) ............................................................................................................................... 62
4.3. Identification Resolution Matrix.................................................................................................................. 63
4.4. PESTILE Analysis ............................................................................................................................................... 68
4.5. Exemplified Strategies ..................................................................................................................................... 71
4.6. Recommendations ............................................................................................................................................. 71
4.6.1. Water Management in Bangalore City .............................................................................................. 71
4.6.2. Contacts at Public Institutions ............................................................................................................. 72
Annex I ................................................................................................................................................................................ XII
Draft National Water Policy 2012 Extract (GOI) ......................................................................................... XIX

VI
Legislation on Rainwater Harvesting............................................................................................................... XXI
Abbreviations ................................................................................................................................................................... LX
Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................... LXII

Annex II.................................................................................................................................................................................CD
Folder 1: Sources
Wassertechnik und Wassermanagement in Indien 2007 (Bundesagentur fr
Auenwirtschaft)
India- EU: Creating Market Alliances: Building Access for Waste-Water Manage-
ment Companies 2011 (European Business and Technology Centre)
State of Environment Report Karnataka 2010 (Environmental Management & Policy
Research Institute)
Environmental Compliance and Enforcement in India: Rapid Assessment 2006 (OECD)
Karnataka Industrial Policy 2009-14 (Department of Industries and Commerce)
Karnataka - A Vision for Development 2008 (Karnataka State Planning Board)
Market Structure of Environmental Technology in India 2008 (Swedish Trade Council)
Folder 2: Acts & Regulations
The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 (Central Pollution
Control Board)
Central Board for the Preventaion and Control of Water Pollution (Procedure for
Transaction of Business) Rules, 1975 (CPCB)
The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Act, 1977 (CPCB)
The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Rules, 1978 (CPCB)
The Enviroment (Protection Act), 1986 (CSPB)
Pollution Control Acts, Rules and Notifications issued thereunder (CPCB)
Draft National Water Policy 2012 (Ministry of Water Resources)
The Karnataka Ground Water (Regulation and Control of Development and Management)
Bill 2009 (Government of Karnataka)
State Water Policy 2002 (Karnataka Water Resources Department)
Folder 3: Technical Standards
Manual on water supply and treatment 1999 (CPHEEO)
Folder 4: Tender Procedures
Orders/ Notifications/ Circulars regarding Karnataka Transparency in Public
Procurements Act 1999 and Rules 2000 and Procurement Reforms (Government of
Karnataka)
Tender Bulletin 2011 (Water Resource Department)
The Karnataka Transparency in Public Procurements Act, 1999 (Government of
Karnataka)

VII
Folder 5: Press Clippings
Folder 6: Further Reading
Final Report on Water Management in Bangalore 2008 (LFU Bavaria)
Action Plan for the Water Sector Measures 2008 (Goverment of Karntaka)
India Vision 2020 (Planning Commission Government of India)
Karnataka Vision 2025 (Confederation of Indian Industries, CII / Indian Institute of
Management-Bangalore IIM-B)
Mission Report on Water Management in Bangalore 2008 (LFU Bavaria)
Status of Water Supply, Sanitation and Solid Waste Management in Urban Areas
2005 (National Institute of Urban Affairs)

Documents are listed in order of appearance.


Special attention should be paid to the bolded documents, highlighting the most important
enclosures.

VIII
List of Figures

Figure 1: Availability and Utilization of Ground Water in Karnataka ..........................................................2


Figure 2: Water Pollution Areas in Karnataka .......................................................................................................6
Figure 3: Proposed Karnataka Development Corridors and Special industrial zones ....................... 12
Figure 4: Indian Wastewater Sector........................................................................................................................ 19
Figure 5: Demand for Water Treatment Products in India............................................................................ 25
Figure 6: Companies across the Indian Wastewater Sector Value Chain ................................................ 32
Figure 7: Key Questions of the Market Structure for Water Technologies ............................................. 33
Figure 8: Steps to be undertaken to start new business operations ......................................................... 36
Figure 9: Financing of SMEs........................................................................................................................................ 38
Figure 10: EUs Export Partners and Indias Import Partners ..................................................................... 50
Figure 11: Technology Transfer................................................................................................................................ 59

List of Tables

Table 1: Groundwater Availability in Karnataka ..................................................................................................2


Table 2: Karnataka's Largest Cities (rounded figures) .......................................................................................5
Table 3: Projections for Water Demand in Karnataka (in TMC) ....................................................................8
Table 4: District-Wise Ground Water Resources Demand in Karnataka ....................................................8
Table 5: Key Projects of KIADB ................................................................................................................................. 11
Table 6: Indian Water Quality Standards .............................................................................................................. 22
Table 7: Projected Water Requirement and Sewage Generation ................................................................ 22
Table 8: Private Sector Companies as Potential Clients or (in Some Cases Partners) for
NEWATEC Group............................................................................................................................................................. 28
Table 9: Comparative Summary of Entry Options in India ............................................................................ 34
Table 10: Indian Procurement Processes ............................................................................................................. 39
Table 11: Conferences, Exhibitions and Conferences in India ..................................................................... 45
Table 12: Cooperate Income Tax .............................................................................................................................. 47
Table 13: List of Engineering Colleges in Karnataka offering Environmental Engineering............. 50
Table 14: Basin wise Presentation of Water Pollution Areas ...................................................................... XII
Table 15: List of all KIADB Industrial Areas and Zonal Offices in Karnataka......................................XVII
Table 16: Competitors and Potential Partners in the Indian Market ................................................... XXIV

The currency exchange rate used in this study is: Indian Rupee (INR) 65 = 1 .

IX
Executive Summary
This study describes the essentials of the Indian water sector focussing on the current status
with respect to availability of water for the population and industrial production, water qualities
and pollution and also concentrating on the expected development. The market situation and
conditions for foreign companies offering technologies in this sector is analysed and evaluated.
In regard of the sheer size of the country, focus is laid on the state of Karnataka in the south with
its capital Bangalore. Both can be considered as a model for the entire country with all
challenges and opportunities existing and to be expected in the near future. The objective of this
study is to give German companies insight in the structures of the market as a whole, the major
players and their roles and limitations. It lists areas of technical and infrastructural
shortcomings and limitations and shows where gaps and deficiencies are obvious or will become
evident in future and it hints to regional challenges in the state and with respect to urban water
management, because it is there, where the big and severe problems are erasing already now.
Being one of the most important emerging economies in Asia and in future worldwide and
comparable in its economic strength and capabilities with similar countries such as Brazil,
Russia, China and South Africa, India will play a major role geo-politically and economically in
the next two decades. However, huge challenges can be easily identified when one has a closer
look at the existing infrastructure of this country. There are major complications that have to be
overcome now and in the near future. Among others this has to do with access to and supply
with sufficient quantities of water with the required qualities for all parts of the population
along with satisfying the demand of industry and agriculture. The water sector will play a major
role in the list of infrastructure troubles that also implies the power and transport sector and the
education of a huge population of young people.
The country is now in the focus of many technology and equipment suppliers of western and
advances economies; after China, India is one of the most interesting Asian emerging countries
that promise stability and fast growth.
The study chapters show how German companies active in the water sector offering advanced
technologies could enter this market and find customers on a huge and diverse market with
technologies in use that are somewhat out-dated. India always was said to be difficult,
however, once being accepted in the market and with proven capabilities and high quality of
equipment and concepts Made in Germany one can be accepted and a leading player in India in
a sustainable manner.
From the legal background of the water sector with clear and also stringent acts and regulations
to the relevant principles in tendering and commissioning, it is shown how German companies
could get in touch with public and private customers for their technologies. Procedures of
tendering for projects are described and fields for offering the specific technologies of the
NEWATEC companies are shown. Potential Indian clients are listed in particular in the public
sector, but also in the semi-private and private sectors business partners are numerous, some of
them are mentioned.
With respect to create partnerships and networks some Indian companies have expressed
already their willingness for cooperation. So lists with selected opportunities for NEWATEC are
given. From technical view the currently applied treatment schemes and process systems are
referred and discussed. Since NEWATEC companies cover a broad variety of technology supply
(from laboratory testing through equipment supply to holistic planning) it is not easy to cover all
market interests evenly. However, the possibilities in this emerging market in India are simply
so manifold and numerous that it would be a miracle if not all the NEWATEC members would
find fields of business contacts and opportunities to sell their products.
Efficient, new and advanced technologies in all fields of water technologies, in the entire water
sector are currently needed in India, the existing structures and plants are outdated and simply
not sufficient or in most cases not existing at all. Companies and authorities more frequently

X
are asking for latest techniques, equipment and conceptions and in particular ask deliberately
for German experience in these fields.
An assessment in the end shows how the market opportunities can be evaluated taking into
consideration all relevant conditions in this specific country.

XI
1. Introduction
India, with a population over 1.2 billion (B) and a Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth of
7.3%, has become one of the worlds preferred investment destinations owing to its vibrant do-
mestic market, technological capabilities, and cost advantage. India presents a host of opportuni-
ties to nations looking to expand and increase profitability especially when markets in regions
such as Europe are stagnating and corporate profits are plummeting.
India is also witnessing a shift in focus towards Green Technologies in the wake of increased
public awareness, environmental pressures, legal requirements and conscious government sup-
port. The water sector is an area of focus due to diminishing water resources and increasing
population pressure. Water and wastewater treatment market in India is currently worth
approx. 954 M and is expected to grow at about 13% in the next 3-4 years. Out of the total
wastewater generated roughly 65% goes untreated, requiring imminent need for effective
wastewater management.1

2. Water Sector Analysis

2.1. Current Environmental Status


Water resources of Karnataka are fast dwindling with a growing population and increasing
utilization of water for expanding economic activities. Water demand for consumptive use
(drinking, health and sanitation needs) and productive use (agriculture, industries, power gen-
eration, mining, and recreational activities) has increased tremendously while water supply has
declined with depletion and degradation of water resources causing water distress or scarcity in
the state. Depletion of quantity and degradation of quality of water has restricted the availability
of water for consumptive and productive uses and consequently caused negative externality
which imposes economic and social cost on the society. Development is linked to availability and
access to water resources, therefore, proper planning and management is indispensable in real-
izing sustainable development.2

2.1.1. Rivers
Surface water represents the most important water sources of Karnataka as it is endowed with a
river system comprising 7 rivers and several tributaries which form a catchment of area of
1,91,773 km. The state accounts for about 6 %of India's surface water resources of which about
40 %is available from east flowing rivers and the remaining 60% from west flowing rivers. The
usable water in these river basins is highly uneven. The annual availability of water from these
river basins is estimated to be about 7,663 thousand million cubic feet (TMC).3

2.1.2. Groundwater
Groundwater becomes very important water sources with limited availability of surface water
for various economic needs in the state. The increasing thrust on ground water is highly preva-
lent with state has already reached stage of development of 70% whereas; average ground wa-
ter draft is 58% in the country. The ground water draft or exploitation is 10.71 billion cubic me-
ter (BCM), out of which 9.75 (91 %) is exploited for irrigation needs and 0.97 (9 %) for domestic
and industrial needs (Figure 1 and Table 1). This shows that there is a considerable pressure
on ground water for irrigation needs in the state and there is little scope for further tapping this
scare resource.4

1 Dewan 2011, p. 5.
2 SoER 2010, p. 75.
3 op. cit., p. 76.

4 op. cit., p. 78.

1
Figure 1: Availability and Utilization of Ground Water in Karnataka

Table 1: Groundwater Availability in Karnataka

2.1.3. Water Demand


The state is facing water shortage due to depletion, degradation and poor management of water
resources. Scarcity of water limits economic growth in the state unless it is adequately ad-
dressed as emphasized in Karnataka Water policy, 2002. Access to adequate water for agricul-
tural, industrial and domestic uses was highly competitive in nature. Of the three sectors of

5 Central Ground Water Board,GOI, 2006.


6 op. cit.

2
economy, agriculture sector continues to suck predominant portion of water owing to its sus-
tained importance to the states economy. At the same time, there is persistent growth in de-
mand from other sectors. Domestic demand for water even though is only a small portion of the
total annual water withdrawals however; access to adequate water and sanitation remains un-
satisfactory both in rural and urban areas.7

2.1.3.1. Industry
Demand for water for industrial use was progressively mounting with fast expansion of econ-
omy under the aegis of economic globalization. Industrial use of water in the process of manu-
facturing of products includes fabricating, processing, washing, diluting, cooling, transporting a
product etc. Karnataka is ranked as one of the industrialized states in terms of having high den-
sity of industries of different categories. In recent time, growing industrial use of both surface
and ground water has created potential conflict among different users. In addition to the use of
water by industries, pollution of water bodies through industrial discharge of wastewater has
constrained availability of water for productive use. Industrial withdrawal of water is estimated
about 3.6% of total water utilization. Even though industries demand about 47.57 TMC of water
currently the demand will be increased to 125 TMC by 2025 with expansion of industrial base
along with increase quantity of production. The industrial growth inflict high burden on ground
water especially under uncertainty or limited availability of surface water as ground water use
has increased.8

2.1.3.2. Domestic Sector


Domestic demand for water is growing persistently and it is also an important requirement as
its share continues to increase on account of rapid urbanisation. There is increasing demand for
both surface and ground water resources, however, domestic water demand remained low and
accounts for only 4.4% of total water demand. The human water demand is estimated based on
the norms of 150 litres per capita per day (LPCD) in the rural areas and 200 LPCD in urban ar-
eas. Per capita availability of water varies significantly among different population group such as
urban and rural people. Of the 208 cities/towns in the state, 54% receive stipulated 200 LPCD,
conversely, 46% receive less. The rural water supply scenario is also inefficient in meeting stipu-
lated demand with 35% villages receiving less than 55 LPCD of drinking water.
Drinking water supply is better in case of urban areas with 78.4% of households have access to
tap water whereas, in rural areas only 48% of households access to this source. It is estimated
that, of the 27,000 villages in the state, about 35% are partially served by bore wells with hand
pumps and open wells, 9% by mini-water supply schemes and 56% by a mix of piped water
supply and hand pump schemes.
The state of sanitation provision both in rural and urban areas is still precarious with 82.5% and
24.7% of rural and urban households have no access to toilet facility respectively (Government
of Karnataka, 2005). 9

2.1.4. Pollution of Water Resources


Surface and ground water bodies of the state have been under severe pressure with increasing
level contamination by biological, toxic, organic and inorganic pollutants. The main sources of
pollution are point source (industrial effluents) and non-point source (agricultural run-off carry-
ing agrochemicals, municipal waste, human faeces from open defecation, etc.). The degraded wa-
ter quality of both surface and ground water bodies have been rendered unsafe for human con-
sumption as well as irrigation and industrial needs thereby imposing social, economic and envi-
ronmental costs on the society. The damages of water pollution are pervasive in nature which

7 SoER 2010, p. 80.


8 cf. op. cit.,p. 82.
9 cf. op. cit., pp. 82.

3
includes damages to land, biodiversity, agricultural corps, industrial damage and these have
enormous impact in terms of loss of livelihood, incurring health costs, incurring defensive ex-
penditure etc. However, despite increasing environmental and economic costs of water pollu-
tion, reliable estimates are not available. Therefore, implementation of water pollution preven-
tion policies by the state has not really been a success.10

2.1.4.1. Surface Water


Surface water bodies particularly rivers and lakes are highly polluted with increasing pollution
load from municipal wastewater, agricultural run-off, industrial effluents and domestic waste. A
project report on BioMapping of major rivers in Karnataka carried out by KSPCB in 2006-07
shows that change in environmental quality in Tunga, Bhadra and Tungabhadra rivers. As per
the Water, sediment and biological samples analysed from 15 stretches reveal that out of three
stations on Tunga River two are slightly polluted and one is moderately polluted. In Bhadra
River out of four stations, two are slightly polluted and two are moderately polluted whereas, in
Tunga Bhadra River, out of nine monitoring stations, one is non-polluted, one is slightly polluted
and seven stations are moderately polluted. This implies that rivers are the common dumping
outlets for untreated effluent from industries and municipal sewage. Mining industries involved
in large scale mining of iron ore and other minerals have also caused water pollution through
discharging tailings in Bellary, Chitradurga, Chikkamagalore, Tumkur, Belgaum, Bagalkot and Bi-
japur districts.11
The KSPCB has carried out water analysis of selected rivers through river quality monitoring
stations and it is found that majority of river stretches adjoining to urban areas are severely pol-
luted indicating discharge of large amount of untreated industrial and domestic effluents. The
pollution of rivers is also found in identified locations caused by agricultural run-off consisting
of high concentration of chemical and toxic pollutants. The major sources of pollution identified
are domestic effluent discharged from large cities, agricultural pollution including fertilizer and
pesticides and industrial pollution. Highly polluting industries categories by State Pollution
Control Boards (SPCB) are:
1. Cement mills (above 200 t/day)
2. Sugar
3. Thermal Power plants
4. Distilleries
5. Fertilizers
6. Oil refineries
7. Caustic Soda Production
8. Petrochemicals
9. Zinc Smelting
10. Copper Smelting
11. Aluminium Smelting
12. Sulphuric acid
13. Integrated Iron and Steel
14. Pulp and Paper
15. Tanneries
16. Pharmaceuticals
17. Dye and Dye Intermediates
18. Pesticides.12
There are 85 highly polluting industries identified in the state, of which about 22 industries have
no adequate facility to comply with pollution standard. However, the number of default indus-
tries has come down over period of time with the compliance of standard.

10 op.cit., pp. 84.


11 op.cit., p. 85.
12 cf. op.cit., p 86.

4
Areas which are focal points for water pollution and show problems with water quality are
numerous in the state of Karnataka. A list of those locations and problems only can be like a
snapshot and will not be complete. The following lists and maps give an impression on the mani-
fold issues and different locations. The focus is on urban water management, rural water prob-
lems are not considered.
A basin wise presentation of water pollution sites in Karnataka is set out in Table 14, in the An-
nex I.
As per 2011 census, Karnataka's six largest cities sorted in order of decreasing population were:
Table 2: Karnataka's Largest Cities (rounded figures)

Nr City Population
1 Bangalore 9.600.000
2 Belgaum 4.800.000

3 Mysore 3.000.000
4 Tumkur 2.700.000

5 Gulbarga 2.600.000

6 Bellary 2.500.000

7 Bijapur 2.200.000
8 Dakshina Kannada 2.100.00013
The biggest water pollution sites in Karnataka are the biggest cities listed in Table 2, on the
right, and smaller cities such as Ramanagara, Mandya, Chitradurga, Davangere.

2.1.4.2. Groundwater
About 25 of the 234 watersheds have serious water quality problems in the state as per the re-
cent analysis of ground water samples by the Department of Mines and Geology. Ground water is
highly polluted with excess concentration of fluoride, arsenic, iron, nitrate and salinity due to
both anthropogenic and geogenic factors. Of the total 56,820 habitations of the study in the state,
about 21,008 or 37% of habitations suffer from ground water contaminations including excess
fluoride (10.30%), brackishness (7.87%), excess nitrate (7.19%) and excess Iron (11.70%).14

13 Population census 2011.


14 cf. SoER 2010, p. 86.

5
Figure 2: Water Pollution Areas in Karnataka

15

15 http://pm.neemtecsolutions.com/ksrsac_web/?page_id=3171 (viewed on 07.12.2011).

6
2.1.5. Pressures
2.1.5.1. Agriculture
Water resources of the state are under great pressure as a consequence of depletion and degra-
dation. Irrigation efficiency of the state is comparatively low. Increasing use of agro-chemicals
and pesticides for reaping higher yields has significantly affected fertility of the soil, land surface
and ground water quality. Bellary and Raichur districts are severely affected by salinity and Chi-
tradurga and Bijapura are afflict with alkalinity, Raichur and Mysore are badly troubled by water
logging in command areas of Tungabhadra and Kabini reservoirs, and Mangalore and Kodagu
districts face severe soil acidity problem. Further, the pollution of land and water is caused by
injudicious use of agro-chemicals and pesticides, especially in the irrigated ecosystem. Applica-
tion of fertilizer, in recent years, has shown increasing trend in the state with an estimated 150
kg per hectare in 2008-09 against 110 kg per hectare in 2006-07, exceeding national average.16

2.1.5.2. Industries
Rapid industrialisation and improper treatment of wastewater has caused surface and ground
water pollution, rendering it unfit for consumption in many parts of the state. Water pollution
caused by effluents is substantial though this sector accounts for only 2% of annual water con-
sumption. The state had 11,688 registered industries in 2009, of which 160 industries are classi-
fied under the 17 category of highly polluting industries. It is found that many industries have
failed to comply with water pollution standards such as end-ofpipe treatment or Common Ef-
fluent Treatment Plant (CETP) prescribed by KSPCB. Wastewater is dumped into adjoining river,
streams or lakes without proper treatment of hazardous persistent organic pollutants (POPs),
toxic metals and other pollutants. Coal and iron ore extraction, mining and other industrial ac-
tivities often discharge wastewater contaminated with toxic organic and inorganic substances
which have caused widespread land, surface and ground water pollution in Bellary and Kem-
manu Gundi and other places in the state.
High concentration of heavy and small scale industries around cities such as Bangalore, Manga-
lore, Mysore, etc. were the cause of more than 50% of the urban organic load. In several loca-
tions of Bangalore ground water is contaminated with heavy metals (such as Cr-VI) and other
substances from industries rendering ground water unfit for drinking. Of the total water pollut-
ing large-scale industries in the state only 62% of them have water pollution control system
whereas, 57 of the small scale industries are compliant and continue to pollute the surrounding
water bodies.17

2.1.5.3. Domestic Usage


Urbanisation generates huge domestic waste and inadequate mechanism for wastewater
treatment in cities result in discharging of untreated sewage to streams and rivers. The domestic
waste discharge, poor drainage and sanitation are responsible for pollution of water bodies. The
cities of the state generate about 3,000 million litres per day (MLD) of wastewater, of which 80%
is collected for treatment. The state completely lacks in provision of underground water drain-
age facility for 182 out of 218 urban local bodies and only 36 local bodies excluding Bangalore
city have this facility. Households connection to underground drainage finality is also not ade-
quate in these urban local bodies.18

2.1.6. Trends
There is also increasing demand for ground water from industry and domestic sectors in the
coming years. Heavy and small scale industries represent growing demand with concomitant
scarcity of water. Hence, industries will have to switch to water efficient technologies and also
16 cf. SoER 2010, p. 87.
17 op. cit.
18 op. cit.

7
adopt technology for recycling wastewater generated by them. Excessive draft of groundwater is
associated with falling water tables, ecological disturbance and water pollution such as excess
fluoride, iron, brackishness, iron etc., thereby making ground water unfit for productive pur-
poses. It is estimated that over 21,000 habitations are severely affected by major water quality
problems (about 5,838 inhabitations by excess fluoride, 4,460 inhabitations by brackishness and
about 6,633 with high iron). The projected demand and available ground water data are given in
Table 5.19

Table 3: Projections for Water Demand in Karnataka (in TMC)

20

Table 4: District-Wise Ground Water Resources Demand in Karnataka

21

(R = rural; U = urban)

19 cf. op. cit., p. 90.


20 Karnataka Development Report 2007.
21 Central Ground Water Board 2007.

8
Many water shortages originate from the widespread failure to value waters true worth.
Growing scarcity of drinking water in metropolitan cities is reflected in increasing economic
value of water resources.22 However, governments have largely failed to recognise the
importance of economic aspects of water supply in the major policy frameworks. Demand for
water is estimated based on projections and normative requirements of water for the growing
population, but the effect of price on the demand for water has not been properly evaluated. The
quantity of water demanded is significantly affected by the price of water and other socio-
economic factors. Demand for water is inversely related to its price and positively with
individual income with the exception that some level of water is demanded regardless of price.
However, the supply enhancement of water is given high priority compared to demand
management of water by policy resulting in the emergence of low-level-equilibrium-trap.23
Whenever the demand for water exceeds supply, urban water utilities quickly design water
supply strategies giving little importance to demand control or management.

22 Zerah 2000.
23 cf. Reddy 1999, pp. 89-124.

9
Figure 3: Inter-linkages of Drivers, Pressures and Impacts of Water Resources

24

24 SoER 2010, p.92.

10
2.2. Current Market Status
2.2.1. Karnataka Industrial Areas
Karnataka has a large number of industrial estates which mostly have organisational structures:
the industries are organised in a specific industries association. Many of them can be regarded in
many cases as a group of polluters and thus can be potential customers for NEWATEC. The
following paragraphs will give an overview of Karnatakas Industries while describing the
Karnataka Industrial Areas Development Board (KIADB).
KIADB is one of the infrastructure agencies of Government of Karnataka. It provides expeditious
acquisition of lands for industrial and infrastructure purposes. KIADB, besides forming layouts
with all infrastructure facilities for promotion of industries, also acquires lands in favour of
various State and Central Government Departments and Organizations and Single Unit
Complexes, for setting up their projects on standalone basis.25 (www.kiadb.in;
kiodb@moil.kar.nic.in)
A list of all KIADB industrial areas in Karnataka plus a list of all zonal offices with address can be
found as Table 15 in the Annex I.
Special Economic Zones (SEZ) in Karnataka are specifically delineated duty free enclaves
deemed to be foreign territory for the purpose of trade operations, duties and tariff. The KIADB
has set up or is about to set up sector specific SEZs in the following places:
Textile SEZ at Hassan.
Pharmaceutical SEZ at Hassan.
Food Processing and Agro based SEZ at Hassan.
Information Technology (IT) SEZ at Mangalore.
Aerospace SEZ at Bangalore26

Table 5: Key Projects of KIADB

Key Projects of KIADB


General Industrial Areas 132 Industrial Areas spread over in 28 Districts
Growth Centres 1. Dharwad (established by KIADB)
2. Hassan (established by KIADB)
3. Raichur (established by KIADB)
Integrated Infrastructure 1. Auto complex Belgaum
Development Centres 2. Malur III Phase Kolar
3. Bagalkot Bagalkot
Mini Growth Centres 1. Aliabad Bijapur
2. Malur Kolar
3. Amble Chickmagalur
4. Mundargi Bellary
5. Narsapur Gadag
Export Promotion Indus- 1. Bengaluru
trial Parks 2. Mangalore
SEZs 1. Textile Hassan
2. Pharmaceutical Hassan
3. Agro Tech and Food Processing Hassan
4. IT/ITES Mangalore
5. Aerospace Bangalore
Apparel Parks 1. Doddaballapura Bengaluru

25 KIADB 2010: pp. 1.


26 http://www.kiadb.in/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=12&Itemid=12 (viewed on (16.12.2011).

11
2. Mundargi Bellary
3. Karur Davanagere
Agro Tech and Food 1. Bagalkot Bagalkot
Parks 2. Malur Kolar
3. Jewargi Gulburga
4. Hiriyur Chitradurga27

Figure 4: Proposed Karnataka Development Corridors and Special industrial zones

28

2.2.2. Water Demand and Supply Management in Bangalore city


A demographically rather diverse city, Bangalore is a major economic hub and the fastest grow-
ing major metropolis in India. Bangalore is known as the Silicon Valley of India because of its
prominent position as the nation's leading information and communication technology (ICT)
employers and exporters. Bangalore became the seventh largest city in the Country by 1971, its
population exceeding 1.6 M. The population growth between 1971 and 1981 was beyond expec-
tation and reached nearly 3.0 M. Bangalore became place five among the Indian Metropolitan

27 http://www.kiadb.in/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=13&Itemid=6 (viewed on 18.01.2012)


28 Department of Industries and Commerce 2008, p. II.

12
Cities. 2007-08 it was considered as a Class-A1 city, and now it is a metropolitan centre soon
crossing the 10 M population limit. Information technology growth increased the migration rate
of Bangalore tremendously. The population of 2007 was 7.0 M and reached 9.5 M by 2011. Due
to the high growth in population and less availability of water the city is facing tremendous wa-
ter scarcity, which needs to be attempted by the following institutions:
The Bangalore Development Authority (BDA) is the Planning Authority for Bangalore Metro-
politan Area. As a Planning Authority, BDA has to prepare the Comprehensive Development Plan
(CDP) for Bangalore Metropolitan Area. The total jurisdiction of BDA as per Revised CDP is 1279
km2 area. The Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike (BBMP) (Greater Bangalore City Cor-
poration) area is 800 km including spotted development. BDA has now taken up re-revision of
CDP, which is under progress. BBMP (or the Corporation as it is called) is forming also the city
government with a lord mayor and the city council. The third Urban Authority in Bangalore is
the Bangalore Metropolitan Region Development Authority (BMRDA). All these three authori-
ties form the municipality of Bangalore. It is not difficult to imagine that mismatch of compe-
tencies and difficulties in management and organisation of projects and day-to-day activities
represent one of the biggest challenges, to name only a few issues.
The Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Board (BWSSB) is the water authority for entire
Bangalore city which was constituted under an act of the Karnataka state legislature in the year
1964, and has the primary responsibility to supply drinking water to its consumers and provide
adequate sanitary systems with the BDA area. For the rest of the state the Karnataka State Wa-
ter Supply and Sewerage Development Board (KSWSDB) is the relevant authority, closely col-
laborating with BWSSB and having similar competences. KSWSDB is working with municipali-
ties of Karnataka and the relevant Urban Local Bodies (ULB).
Another important institution in this respect is the Karnataka Urban infrastructure develop-
ment and Finance Corporation (KUIDFC). They are financing or administering financing of
large infrastructure projects supported by the State, the Central Government or internationally.
This state authority is acting as the body that is implementing all the international and national
programme schemes under e.g. Worldbank, Asian Development Bank, Kreditanstalt fr Wied-
eraufbau (KfW)-Bankengruppe, JNNURM, etc.

2.2.2.1. Population
As the growth of Bangalore now is considered to be outside the city as attributed to the
planned development such as Electronic City, the IT/ICT parks in Whitefield and in the North
due to the new international airport there, the Core Area (BMP Area) population is also expected
to maintain a certain moderate to high trend in growth, as the effect of the peripheral growth
would also percolate within the city.
The above population data includes slum population. The slum population as per the Karna-
taka Slum Clearance Boards (KSCB) assessment done during 1999 indicates that the Core Area
has a slum population of about 550,000. It works out to about 10% of the total population of the
Core Area. KSCB have also considered rehabilitation of the slum area, while upgrading some of
them from their original condition to better living conditions with suitable amenities provided to
them. Therefore, it was considered that the slum population would be a diminishing %of the to-
tal population in the Core Area as given below.
The growth of the city in the peripheral areas is due to new settlements coming up there in
terms of smaller units (single family homes, etc.) but also in form of huge residential blocks of
sometimes several thousand families in one or several structures.
This kind of new ad upcoming residential areas is numerous and occurring in all directions,
mainly to the north and east of the city. It creates another serious threat to water management
in terms of supply and discharge, since these new huge blocks are not connected to any sewer-
age system, nor do they have proper water supply schemes in a manner that could be called sus-

13
tainable. The solutions applied at present is apart from water harvesting schemes (for gardening
use or other secondary purposes) a certain approach in some cases using partial reuse of treated
wastewater as grey water for minor use such as toilet flush or similar purposes.
All these approaches need decentralised water supply and wastewater treatment systems,
all developers building these kinds of residencies are cooperating with water engineering com-
panies and equipment suppliers who offer suitable solutions. The developing companies are
among the biggest companies in this field in India and Asia. They are maintaining entire sections
for water supply and discharge systems for their compounds since they normally keep service
and maintenance of these decentralised plants for one or two years after finalising the housing
blocks.

2.2.2.2. Cauvery Water Supply Scheme (Water Source)


To meet the growing needs in water management of the city through new sources of water
supply, State Government accepted to tapping the perennial river Cauvery approx. 120 km
south-west of Bangalore in April 1964 and administrative approval was accorded to the Cauvery
Water Supply Scheme (CWSS).
The commissioning of CWSS first stage did not quench the thirst of Bangaloreans, because of the
continuous increase in domestic and non-domestic demand for water. The BWSSB took up CWSS
to 2nd Stage and subsequently CWSS 3rd Stage. The total potential created from Cauvery stages I,
II and III was 540 MLD. Stage IV is currently being built, with Phase I completed and bringing an
additional 270 MLD to the city. Construction of Stage IV: Phase II is expected to bring an addi-
tional 500 MLD.
Furthermore water is conveyed from Chamrajsagar Waterworks on the Arkavathy River to the
western part of the city. But it is not possible to supply water from Chamrajsagar waterworks
near the River Arkavathy to its design capacity due to lack of sufficient flows in the river.29

2.2.2.3. Demand
Water demand is categorized as follows:
1. Domestic demand - Population residing in houses with consumer service connections -
Slum population is receiving water through public taps. Domestic demand is 150 LPCD
as per Central Public Health and Environmental Engineering Organisation (CPHEEO)
manual for Mega/Metro cities excluding UFW (>unaccounted for water< = water losses
in the distribution net) and bulk demand.
2. Non-domestic demand, comprising of all demand other than domestic including com-
mercial demand, industrial demand, institutional demand, parks and gardens; on
assessment based on experience in other Indian cities and observations made within
Bangalore, it is assumed that the non-domestic demand would be of the order of about
10% of the domestic demand.
3. Other Allowances - Fire demand - Allowance for Leakage: As per the norms of the
CPHEEO, a demand at the rate of 100*[SQRT (P)], where P is the total population in
thousands and demand in kilolitres per day, was assumed for fire demand. CPHEEO
guidelines indicate limiting the unaccounted for water (UFW) to 15% of the Gross De-
mand.

2.2.2.4. Demand versus Supply


A comparison of projected demands and supply capacity are summarized below. (Demand Sup-
ply Deficit Remark Year = MLD):

29 BWSSB website

14
In 2001 BWSSB is serving only 225 km2 which is 73% of the total demand. Actual Deficit
is 490 MLD.
In 2007 BWSSB is serving only 300 km2, the actual demand served is approximately 65%
of the total demand. Actual Deficit is 110 MLD.
Completion of Stage IV, Phase 2 Project brings 135 MLD from Reuse of Water by 2013.
It can be concluded that after the implementation of Phase 2 project 1,348 MLD can be made
available for the city. Unless the Cleaned Water Scheme with recycling and re-use of treated
wastewater is implemented, or there is groundwater made available with appropriate treatment
there will be a huge gap between demand and supply the Bangalore city.
This implies BWSSB is unable to meet the demand of the whole city of (800 km 2). However
BWSSB was supplying water to the core area (225 km2) and some adjacent areas (76 km2) till
2008. Due to the increase in city municipal boundary the supply area to 800 km2 it can be seen
that the supply is not able to meet the demand of the city. Since the present water loss due
to leakages is 37% in the whole system. The actual deficit is more than the projected values.
Since the Cauvery and Arkavati schemes are unable to meet the demand of the whole city
BWSSB constructed borewells to meet some of the demands. According to BWSSB records, there
are approx. 6,000 borewells maintained by the Board and 50,000 are residential borewells in the
record. Till now there is no restriction or permission required for constructing residential bore
wells by the public.
As a result, the ground water table is dropping rapidly. Also there is little place for ground wa-
ter to get recharged within the City limits.

2.2.2.5. Demand Management


Several factors influence the residential and non-residential demand for water. In the aggregate,
per capita water demand is very stable. Residential water usage is largely a function of basic
demographics, particularly household size, property size, and income.
Non-residential water demand varies substantially according to the type of industry. The pro-
duction of e. g. food and beverages, paper products, and microchips is highly water intensive.
Demand management deploys various techniques for conserving water and improving the effi-
cient use of water by end users. Improvements to economic efficiency are achieved whenever
the total benefits of a measure are outweighed by the total costs of implementation. Although
demand management should not be equated with drought management, the experience of
BWSSB and customers in implementing efficiency practices can be beneficial during periods of
water shortage. Some of the basic demand management techniques can be accelerated during
supply emergencies or droughts. Demand management consists of:
1. Minimization of water uses.
2. Minimization of water losses.
2.2.2.6. Minimization of Water losses
Minimization of water loss is reduction in UFW. The major contributor to the UFW is the leak-
ages in the system. Presently UFW is 37% in Bangalore (official figure). This means BWSSB is
generating revenue from the 63% of the Total water it produces. Under Stage IV, Phase 2 Project
BWSSB has taken up Distribution Improvement and UFW Reduction work as a part of the pro-
ject and to minimize the UFW from 37% to 16% in the city. This will not only help to generate
more revenue for BWSSB but also to meet additional demand in the city.
Reduction of UFW is done by BWSSB by dividing the total distribution network into smaller hy-
draulic isolated areas within the characteristic of each district area can be monitored, accessed
and Inflow and outflow across the boundaries are metered is called District Metering Area
(DMA). DMAs may be further subdivided into smaller areas. DMA establishment is done by Pres-

15
sure Zero Test (PZT). After establishing the DMAs the UFW reduction is done by the methods
mentioned below: - Minimum Night Flow (MNF) Approach - Mobile Tanker and Pump Approach
- Metering Illegal Consumption - Metering Error - Replacing Inaccurate and Damaged Consumer
Meters - Metering Public Taps - Network Modelling - Public Awareness.
After the target leakage level is reached the same is maintained in the future. Successful imple-
mentation of UFW projects minimizes water loss and more demand can be served with the same
supply.30

2.2.2.7. Supply Management


Supply management is required to increase the supply of water from existing as well as alternate
sources to meet more demand and an equitable distribution of water.
The supply of water to the city can be consolidated by following method:
1. Storing rain water runoff in lakes or other storage tanks for reuse
2. Rainwater harvesting applied to recharge borewells and ground water
3. Recycling of wastewater for indirect potable and non-potable applications
4. Public awareness for rain water harvesting for watering garden/lawn/cleaning pur-
poses/reuse of water

2.2.2.8. Storing rain water runoff in lakes for reuse


There is sufficient rainwater potential available in Bangalore city. 30 years rainfall data (1975-
2004) is given below and the average annual rainfall of 940 mm over the area of 800 km 2 yield
752 M m3 of water per year. The minimum rainfall recorded was 521 mm in the year 1990
which yields a minimum of 417 M m3 of water per year and the maximum rainfall recorded was
1411 mm in the year 1998 which yields a maximum of 1129 M m3 of water per year. The
weighted mean average rain fall for the 30 years is 964 mm. If 30% of the rainfall can be har-
vested, it amounts to 176 M m3 per year or 176,000 MLD (482 MLD). At present most of this wa-
ter flows away contaminated by sewage mixing and no attempts have been made to arrest in
place and utilise for water supply needs. Rainwater harvesting needs drains, small and large in
every street and area followed by storages like lakes.
The topography of Bangalore has supported the creation of large number of manmade lakes.
The total storage capacity of the existing lakes in Bangalore city is about 250 MLD. It means only
250 MLD can be harvested through these lakes and excess 482 MLD requires additional storage
facility to harvest. Presently 127 lakes are in Bangalore city and out of which only 81 lakes are
alive. Out of these 81 lakes only 5 are mostly free from sewage contamination and could be
more readily used for storing rainwater after improvements to recharge ground water for indi-
rect potable use with minimum treatment and structural rehabilitation. Most of the lakes in
Bangalore are environmentally deteriorating through constant inflow of domestic effluents and
the storage capacities have been reduced because of silting and solid waste and garbage dump-
ing. There is no maintenance of tank bunds and spillways. In some places the untreated and
overflowed sewage water is flowing to the lakes directly.
So the following rehabilitation works have to be done:
1. De-silting and de-weeding
2. Strengthening of tank buns and spillway structures
3. Regulation of public access to the lakes
4. No sewage water should be allowed without proper treatment and control of solid waste

30 Farley 2008, p.

16
2.2.2.9. Rainwater harvesting for bore well recharging and ground water recharging
There are no restrictions for constructing residential borewells till now. For that reason the
ground water table is going down rapidly in the city. So ground water recharge is required to
maintain the ground water table. Borewells can always be recharged and kept alive. Those hav-
ing open wells too can adopt this system. By directing the filtered rainwater to the open wells,
their water tables could be improved. Ground water recharging in urban areas is done by collect-
ing the rainwater from the rooftops and the portico of the house and by making it easily ab-
sorbed within the veranda space.3132

2.2.2.10. Recycling of wastewater for Indirect Potable and Non-potable applications


Bangalore city is having a well developed sewerage system in the core area, 13 sewage water
treatment plants (STPs) exists and under BWSSB-Phase II project another 9 STPs are pro-
posed, where some locations are adjacent to the existing STPs. The total existing capacity of the
STPs are 718 MLD and after the completion of Phase 2 project it will be 1,032 MLD.
To meet the present deficit and the future demand BWSSB is taking interest to execute a reuse
of wastewater scheme in the Vrishabhavati Valley (one of the seven watersheds in Bangalore)
to get additional 135 MLD of water using ultra filtration methods and to make the Arkavathi
scheme work at design capacity. After the completion of BWSSB Stage IV, Phase 2 project in
Vrishbhavati Valley (V-valley) the STPs will be V-valley STP (180 MLD).
Presently a 60 MLD tertiary treatment plant exists in the V-valley which supplies the recycled
water for non-domestic purpose. BWSSB has planned to expand the tertiary treatment plant to
135 MLD. The treated water is to be pumped to Tavarekere which is around 20 km from V-valley
and then the water has to be treated using ultra filtration membrane techniques and then dis-
charged to the Arkavathi River 7 km upstream of the Chamraj Sagar (Intake for Arkavati
Scheme) to use the Arkavathi scheme with full design capacity.
After successful completion of this project the full capacity of 148 MLD of water will be avail-
able for the city from T.G. Halli the major waterworks of Bangalore for the Cauvery water
pumped to the city. It is first of its kind in India for indirect potable use.
It is possible to use tertiary treated water for industrial purpose. BWSSB is currently supplying
tertiary treated water for industrial or non-domestic use. Five major Tertiary Treatment Plants
such as Yelahanka 10 MLD plant which supplies water to Bangalore International Airport Limited
(BIAL), near the military HAL Airport tertiary treatment plant which is supplying to the nearby
gulf course, Cubbon Park and Lalbagh (botanical garden) each 1.5 MLD plant which is used for
park maintenance and Vrishabhavathi valley 60 MLD plant supplying to various small industries
and non-domestic bulk consumers at very affordable rates. It will help to conserve more fresh
portable water. Consequently more tertiary treated water can be used for industrial supply in
the future so that more water will be available for potable purpose.33

2.2.3. Water and Wastewater Treatment


India is endowed with sizeable renewable water resources about 4% of the global availability.
However, its about 1.2 billion population offsets much of the advantages associated with that
endowment. The Indian population in 1991 living in urban areas was 25.7%. By 2001 it grew to
27.7% and was projected to further increase to 32% by 2011, actually it reached a higher
percentage in the last census (2010). If urban India were to be regarded as a separate country,
with a population of 285.4 million residents (2001), it would be the fourth largest country in the

31http://science.gallery.youngesterd.com/2008/08/rain-water-harvesying.html (viewed 03.02.2012).


32 http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercycleinfiltration.html (viewed 03.02.2012)
33 DRR for Sewerage Treatment Plant BWSSB-Phase-2 Project.

17
world. Experts estimate that, by the year 2050, half of India's population will be living in urban
areas and therefore face acute water shortages.34
The rapid pace of industrialisation and the greater emphasis on agricultural growth for overall
development have brought in a host of environmental problems in recent years. Financial and
technological constraints have led to inefficient conversion processes, thereby leading to
generate larger quantities of waste and resulting pollution. The concentration of industries in
certain pockets and the skewed distribution of rainfall have further compounded the scenario.
Thus, India encounters water quality problems both on account of water pollution and
overexploitation of groundwater.
Yet, untreated domestic sewage, industrial effluents and runoffs from chemical intensive
agricultural farms are the main contributors to widespread pollution of surface and
groundwater sources.35
The infrastructure for treatment of wastewater is inadequate. Only about 26% of domestic and
60% of industrial wastewater is treated. In 423 class I cities (i.e. cities with a population of more
than 100,000), only 29% of wastewater is treated. Even worse, class II towns (i.e. towns with a
population between 50,000 and 100,000) are able to treat just 4% of wastewater. Even Indias
national capital, New Delhi, treats less than half of the 3,267 million litres of wastewater it
generates every day.
Today, India's drinking water investments constitute about 3% of the national budget. 85% of
the urban and 75% of the rural population has access to public water supplies, and 48% of the
urban and 36% of the rural population to sanitation services. In a developing urban society, the
wastewater generation is usually around 30-70 m per person per year. There is a huge
demand supply gap, since almost 75% of urban wastewater goes untreated compared to
around 40% from Industries.
The growth segments in industrial sector include
Power generation,
Steel manufacturing,
Food and beverages,
Chemicals, and
Pharmaceuticals
In the municipal sector, the growth is expected to come from investments in municipal
wastewater treatment.36
It is estimated that 22,900 MLD of domestic wastewater is generated from urban centres while
13,500 MLD of industrial wastewater is generated. The treatment capacity available for
domestic wastewater is only for 5,900 MLD, against 8,000 MLD of industrial wastewater. Thus,
there is a huge gap in treatment of domestic wastewater.
Indian water treatment equipment industry is reasonably well established and cost-
competitive. Locally fabricated equipment is about 30% cheaper than imported equivalents,
but Indian firms have limited capabilities in designing technologies for larger scale water
treatment plants and do not all follow latest technology trends. The water treatment market is
evolving from chemical treatment and demineralisation technologies to greater use of
membrane technology; thereby enhancing the quality of water available for re-use.37

34 Draft Market study NEWATEC 2011, pp.1.


35 Dewan 2011, p. 22.
36 op. cit., p. 24.
37 op. cit., p. 25.

18
Wastewater treatment plants in Karnataka
33 wastewater treatment plants have been installed in Karnataka over the past few years (15
plants in Bangalore, 3 plants in Mysore, 15 plants in different other municipalities).
In total there are 224 municipalities (cities and towns) in Karnataka of which 18 already have a
treatment plant, meaning that another 206 need to be built plus 12 plants alone in the city of
Bangalore.
Regarding this the Government of India has created an ambitious plan to install the needed 224
plants in Karnataka and many more in other states of the country until 2012 end. Therefore, a
budget of Rs. 1,000 B ( approx. 16 B) is provided for the entire country.
Regarding projects already implemented (with foreign companies involvement) an average
share of 40% of the total investment volume is spent for machinery and technical equipment,
say in a wastewater treatment plant or waterworks. Out of these 40% machinery and equipment
manufactured in India have an average share of 75% versus 25% foreign equipment (mostly
used for measurement, laboratory consultancy, information and communication technologies,
and similar purposes.

2.2.4. Market Potential of Industrial and Municipal Water Management


Wastewater sector is becoming increasingly important for Indias growth and prosperity. The
market in India for water and wastewater treatment is currently worth approx. 954 M
and is anticipated to grow at a Compounded Average Growth Rate (CAGR) of approx. 13%
between 2010 and 2013. U.S. is Indias principal source of imports of water treatment equip-
ment, with an estimated 40% market share.
The current water consumption in India is 1,900 B litres per day (LPD). The per capita do-
mestic consumption is 89. By year 2050 water consumption is expected to grow at a CAGR of
0.5% and is estimated at 2,463 B LPD. Also, the per capita domestic consumption is esti-
mated to be 167 LPD.38
Government related projects contribute over 50% of revenues in this market, while the private
sector contributes the rest.

Figure 5: Indian Wastewater Sector

3940

2.3. Environmental Policy and Regulatory Framework


The Ministry of Water Resources (MoWR) is responsible for laying down policy guidelines
and programs for the development and regulation of water resources on a federal level.

38 op. cit., p. 33.


39 Graphs being converted using exchange rate of 31.05.2010.
40 Dewan 2011, pp. 33.

19
The market has received the necessary stimulus backed on awareness and impact built by
Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), stricter Environmental Regulations, 11th Five
Year Plans allocation towards urban sewerage, water and sanitation facilities, and the compul-
sions to treat, recycle, and reuse the industrial effluent back into the process operations.
Over the last three decades India has developed an elaborate Environmental Policy Framework
and enforcement infrastructure. The key pieces of legislation driving Indias wastewater
treatment markets are as follows:
The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974:
The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act was enacted in 1974 to provide for the pre-
vention and control of water pollution, and for maintaining or restoring the wholesomeness of
water in the country. The Act was amended in 1988 to conform closely to the provisions of the
Environment Protection Act (EPA), 1986. It set up the CPCB, which lays down standards for the
prevention and control of water pollution on federal level. As per the act, standards for effluent
treatment plant are based on end-of-pipe treatment. At the State level, the SPCBs function under
the direction of the state governments.
The act can be found in Annex II, in Folder 2, Document (1).
The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) (Procedure for Transaction of Business)
Rules, 1975:
In exercise of the powers conferred by section 63 of the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollu-
tion) Act, 1974 (6 of 1974), the Central Government enacted this after consultation with the Cen-
tral Board for the Prevention and Control of water Pollution.
The act can be found in Annex II, in Folder 2, Document (2).
The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Act, 1977:
The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Act was enacted in 1977, to provide for
the levy and collection of a cess on water consumed by persons operating and carrying on cer-
tain types of industrial activities. This cess is collected with a view to augment the resources of
the Central Board and the State Boards for the prevention and control of water pollution consti-
tuted under the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974. The Act was last
amended in 2003.
The act can be found in Annex II, in Folder 2, Document (3).
The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Rules, 1978:
A Rule to specify standards of meters to be affixed, specify returns to be furnished, the manner in
which and the time within which the cess collected shall be paid to Central Government, specify
the powers to be exercised by officer or authority, specify authority which may impose penalty,
specify authority to which an appeal may be filed or any other matter which has to be or may be
prescribed in the Water (prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Act, 1977.
The act can be found in Annex II, in Folder 2, Document (4).
Environment (Protection) Act, 1986:
The Environment (Protection) Act authorises the central Government to protect and improve
environmental quality, control and reduce pollution from all sources, and prohibit or restrict the
setting and / or operation of any industrial facility on environmental grounds.41
The act can be found in Annex II, in Folder 2, Document (5).

41 op. cit., pp. 28.

20
Draft National Water Policy 2012
The new policy shows the latest development in environmental water policy of the central gov-
ernment. An extract with the most important passages for the NEWATEC Group can be found in
the Annex I. Some of the most promising policy shifts shall be listed here:
Over and above the pre-emptive uses for sustaining life and eco-system, water needs to
be treated as an economic good and therefore, may be priced to promote efficient use
and maximizing value from water. While the practice of administered prices may have to
be continued, economic principles need to increasingly guide the administered
prices
Every State should establish a water tariff system and fix the criteria for water charges,
preferably on volumetric basis, based on the principle that the water charges shall re-
flect the full recovery of the cost of administration, operation and maintenance of
water resources projects taking into account the cross subsidy, if any
The Service Provider role of the state has to be gradually shifted to that of a regula-
tor of services and facilitator for strengthening the institutions responsible for plan-
ning, implementation and management of water resources. The water related services
should be transferred to community and / or private sector with appropriate Public
Private Partnership models
Recycle and reuse of water, after treatment to specified standards, should be encour-
aged through a properly planned tariff system, in which there is a cost for the quantity
withdrawn, a refund for properly treated water returned for reuse, and heavy fines
for returning polluted waters
Improved water supply in rural areas needs to be provided with proper sewerage fa-
cilities
Reuse of urban water effluents from kitchens and bathrooms, after primary treat-
ment, in flush toilets should be encouraged
In urban and industrial areas, de-salinization, wherever techno-economically feasible,
should be encouraged to increase availability of utilizable water
Urban water supply and sewage treatment schemes should be integrated and exe-
cuted simultaneously
Water supply bills should include sewerage charges
Industries in water short regions have an obligation to return treated effluent to a
specified standard back to the hydrologic system
Subsidies and incentives should be implemented to encourage recovery of industrial
pollutants and recycling / reuse.42
The full wording of the policy can be found in Annex II, in Folder 2, Document (DraftNWP).
Bottled water in India is governed by the IS 14543 standards. In April 2003, India notified strin-
gent standards for bottled water, based on the recommendations of the Bureau of Indian Stan-
dards (BIS). The standards included fixing the permissible limit of pesticides residues at 0.0001
mg/L individually and 0.0005 mg/L collectively in line with international standards. Bottled wa-
ter was prescribed tests for 32 pesticides, using internationally established test methods. The
notification also made it mandatory for manufacturers to produce a no objection certificate from
the central or state government ground water authorities before they could be issued a license
to bottle water.
The below mentioned chart highlights the Water Quality Standards as laid out by the Regula-
tory Authorities in India:

42 Ministry of Water Resources 2012, pp. 1.

21
Table 6: Indian Water Quality Standards

Designated-Best-Use Class of water Criteria

Drinking Water Source with- A Total Coliforms Organism most prob-


out conventional treatment able number (MPN)/100ml shall be 50
but after disinfection or less
pH between 6.5 and 8.5
Dissolved Oxygen 6mg/l or more
Biochemical Oxygen Demand 5 days
20C 2mg/l or less
Outdoor bathing B Total Coliforms Organism MPN/100ml
shall be 500 or less pH between 6.5 and
8.5 Dissolved Oxygen 5mg/l or more
Biochemical Oxygen Demand 5 days
20C 3mg/l or less
Drinking water source after C Total Coliforms Organism MPN/100ml
conventional treatment and shall be 5000 or less pH between 6 to 9
disinfection Dissolved Oxygen 4mg/l or more
Biochemical Oxygen Demand 5 days
20C 3mg/l or less
Propagation of Wild life and D pH between 6.5 to 8.5 Dissolved Oxy-
Fisheries gen 4mg/l or more
Free Ammonia (as N) 1.2 mg/l or less
Irrigation, Industrial Cooling, E pH between 6.0 to 8.5
Controlled Waste disposal Electrical Conductivity at 25C micro
mhos/cm Max.2250
Sodium absorption Ratio Max. 26
Boron Max. 2mg/l
Below-E Not Meeting A, B, C, D and E Criteria43

Table 7: Projected Water Requirement and Sewage Generation

43 Dewan 2011, p.26.

22
44

The Rules for Rainwater Harvesting regarding whole India can be found in the Annex I. Fur-
ther information on rainwater harvesting in Bangalore is given on the following website:
http://www.rainwaterharvesting.org/bangalore/bangalore.html.
Implementation, Enforcement, Compliance, Sanctioning
There are still major defectives and challenges which need to be tackled but it can be observed
that the policies and enforcement is becoming more and more stringent and serious over the
past years. Good indicators of the change are the many legal cases which have been filed against
industries, water boards etc.
A serious limitation is the lack of personnel in SPCBs, which make it difficult to deal effectively
with environmental degradation. Consequently the focus of enforcement actions lies on large in-
dustries, leaving out the small and medium sized companies.45

44 Dewan 2011, p.67.


45 OECD 2006, pp. 14.

23
2.4. Market Participants
2.4.1. Municipalities and Commissioners
Because the government of India as well as the governments of federal states and municipalities
are making efforts to improve their performance, demand is predominantly driven by them.
This, however, indirectly includes private households as the main beneficiaries of any municipal
water utility. Indias population is growing, and there are more and more private households in
an increasingly urbanized setting. As a result, the demand for drinking water is growing rapidly.
It is doubtful whether municipal water utilities are capable of supplying sufficient volumes of
usable water, and that free of interruption.
Of the many market segments, the following are likely to drive demand at a particularly large
scale:
Real estate: there is a national norm in India that stipulates no establishment with more
than 50 people can be without a wastewater treatment plant. Suppliers of solutions and
equipment should find a market for themselves wherever hotels, hospitals, software
parks, shopping malls and the likes are planned.
Food and beverages: the Indian processed food output is expected to grow by 44% to
reach a size of around 100 B. This industry produces a lot of wastewater.
Pharmaceutical: This industry has shown an average annual growth rate of 9.9% until
2010. This growth is likely to diminish only slightly to 9.5% until 2015.
Textile: The Indian textile industrys size was estimated to be around 40 B in 2008. It is
expected to reach the size of 88 B by 2012.
Auto components: The size of the auto components industry was estimated at a size of
15 B in 2008 - 09, growing at a CAGR of about 23% over the previous five years. The in-
dustry is expected to grow to 31 B by 2016. 46
Another factor with a direct impact on demand is the role which multilateral and bilateral agen-
cies play. Such organisations provide major funding for infrastructure projects in India. The
World Bank currently operates four projects in the supply of water as well as two projects in
sanitation and the improvement of sewage. These projects are worth 550 M. The World Banks
total commitment to Indias water sector amounts to more than US 1 B.

46 cf. Draft Market study NEWATEC 2011, pp. 12.

24
Figure 6: Demand for Water Treatment Products in India

47

Decision making process in the field of granting orders to private sector industries (also foreign
ones or consortia including foreign partners) is usually through competitive bidding in govern-
ment and public projects.

2.4.2. Investors
There are public and private investors. Public investors are the Central Government, the State
Governments and their authorities. Financing Institutions are active on central level and State
Level. Municipal water supply and sewerage collection and treatment systems are looked after
by the municipalities (City Corporations) and State Government organisations and authorities.
Private investors are either the relevant industries (see under end users in the following chap-
ter) in the field of effluent treatment, water supply or else or they are private banks and private
investors.

2.4.3. End Users


The principal end users in the water market are
Municipal authorities and
Public health departments.
The major industries connected with the water sector include
Chemicals,
Fertilizers,
Food and beverages,
Pulp and paper,
Pharmaceuticals,
47 Global Research and Data Service 2010.

25
Power,
Refineries,
Sugar and distilleries,
Tanneries and textiles.
Commercial establishments include hospitals, hotels and housing units.
The government makes purchase decisions through a standard tendering process. The over-
riding consideration in government purchases is cost. The private sector is increasingly adopt-
ing lifecycle cost analysis for procurement decisions, especially in service-oriented industries
such as healthcare and hotels.
The urban water sector is witnessing the growth of informal water markets. Municipal agen-
cies in many Indian towns and cities are unable to increase their water supply capacities to
match the growth of urban populations. The private provision of domestic water has emerged as
a significant and growing economy in many Indian urban areas in the form of tanker water
markets.
The Indian standards follow international norms and do not constitute a significant challenge
to exports. In sectors where differences exist, India is trying to match national standards with
international norms. No distinctions are made between foreign and domestically produced
goods. Indian water safety standards are, however, in some cases more stringent than interna-
tional norms.
The BIS is the national standards body of India responsible for formulation of Indian standards.
Besides developing Indian Standards, BIS is involved with product certification, quality system
certifications and testing.

2.4.4. Public Sector


The population of urban India is growing fast. Services to manage that growth are, however, lag-
ging. Ensuring the provision of services such as water and waste management is critical to avoid
staggering socio economic costs both now and in the future. Water supply and sanitation is a
state subject. The Ministry of Urban Development in New Delhi (www.urbanindia.nic.in) is the
central nodal agency, but its role is limited to defining norms for the sector and providing guide-
lines and technical assistance to states. Other Central bodies that directly or indirectly influence
the sector include
The Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF) (http://moef.nic.in),
The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (http://mohfw.nic.in/) and
The Central Pollution Control Board (http://cpcb.nic.in/).
At the state level, the provision of services is undertaken by four institutional set ups
State water boards and city water boards
Municipal corporations or urban local bodies (the local governments),
Public health and engineering departments.
The gap between wastewater generation and treatment has visibly amplified over the previous
15 years. Increasing urbanization and industrialization have resulted in a sharp increase in
wastewater generation. ULBs or water boards vested with the wastewater management function
are somehow deficient in financial and technical expertise. This has resulted in incomplete and
improper wastewater treatment in most urban areas. Unclear policy perspectives and un-
metered, uncontrolled water supply in most Indian cities have further compounded the problem.
The level of urbanisation increased substantially. This has put wastewater service delivery un-
der tremendous pressure. Further, the existing sewage treatment plants are too inefficient to
meet the growing demand.

26
An analysis of water supply, wastewater generation, collection and treatment during the last
four decades indicates that wastewater generation nearly quadrupled between 1978-79 and
2005-06. Despite the fact that treatment capacity has increased by two and a half times, the gap
of untreated volume has increased drastically. As per the assessment made by the CPCB, around
29 MLD of wastewater was generated in 2005-06 in class I cities and class II towns which to-
gether constitute nearly 70% of the urban population. Wastewater treatment capacity is around
6,190 MLD which accounts for a mere 21% of the wastewater generated.
Many companies in India have capabilities of designing and executing the project for treatment,
disposal and reuse of different types of industrial wastewater. Also the technologies are avail-
able for treatment of sewage and its recycling. However, the capabilities are lacking for treat-
ment and restoration of large water bodies, like rivers and lakes. Some of the modern treatment
technologies like Membrane Bio-reactors are also not very popular in India, considering the
higher cost.
Considering Indias much cited economic growth, rise in disposable income and growth of
wealth, it comes as no surprise that the market for water treatment products is estimated to be
worth almost 834 M, growing at about 18% each year.48

2.4.5. Decision Makers and Key players


Decision makers and key players of the water sector are to be found in the public sector. The
drinking water segment is governed nearly completely by government institutions and
municipalities; in India these organisations are similar to Urban Local Bodies. When it comes to
industrial effluents it has to be distinguished between individual treatment plants in company
owned ETPs and CETPs. In this field the players belong to the private sector. Large companies
are forced to have individual treatment plants when they are listed as polluting industries. Small
and medium sized industries normally discharge to CETPs, in case they are existing. The
monitoring and surveillance of the industries and their ETPs, CETPs is with the State Pollution
Control Boards who carry out regular tests and controls.
So based on this situation key players are to be found in both, the public and the private sector.
They are both, commissioners of plants and equipment, techniques and consultancies and are
together with other bodies organising tenders public and private ones. They are all potential
clients for NEWATEC member companies. The large number of water technologies suppliers
also belong to this group.
These individual official and semi-official organisations, government institutions, private sector
actors are mentioned and listed in different chapters of this study. Please refer to the specific
chapters and paragraphs, e.g. Ch. 2.4, 2.5 and 2.6 as well as in 2.11 and 2.12.

2.4.6. Potential Private Sector Partner Companies for NEWATEC Members


Creating Public Private Partnership (PPP) or partnering is bearing a big market chance for NE-
WATEC; till today only very few companies are active in PPP; this opens opportunities for NE-
WATEC to provide proposals or at least introduce the network companies capabilities and their
specific technological offers to each of these players. So they will in return request at least cer-
tain technologies or components depending on the requirements of the tender or project cur-
rently under discussion.
These companies include the following:

48 cf. Draft Market study NEWATEC 2011,: pp. 11.

27
Table 8: Private Sector Companies as Potential Clients or (in Some Cases Partners) for NEWATEC Group

Potential Private Sector Companies for NEWATEC Group

Company General Company Profile and Core Working Field Contact


The IL&FS Financial Centre
1 1IL & FS Infrastructure Leasing & Financial Services Limited (IL&FS): one of India's leading infra-
Plot C22, G Block, Bandra
structure development and finance companies. It was promoted by the Central Bank of In-
Kurla Complex, Bandra East,
dia (CBI), Housing Development Finance Corporation Limited and Unit Trust of India).
Mumbai 400 051
Shareholders are including State Bank of India, Life Insurance Corporation of India, ORIX
Corporation - Japan and Abu Dhabi Investment Authority and others. IL&FS has a distinct
Tel: + 9122 2653 3333 / 3232
mandate - catalysing the development of infrastructure in the country. The organisation
Fax: + 9122 2653 3038
has focussed on the commercialisation and development of infrastructure projects and
Post Box No. 8145
creation of value added financial services. They have the expertise to provide the complete
Email: info@ilfsindia.com
array of services necessary for successful project completion: visioning, documentation, fi-
nance, development, management, technology and execution.
www.ilfsindia.com
Veolia Water India Pvt-Ltd
2 Veolia Water Veolia is active in the areas of drinking water production and distribution. They provide
B-1, Marble Arch, 9 Prithviraj
India their services to towns such as Jamshedpur, Chennai or Nagpur, and to the state of Karna-
Road
taka.
New Delhi - 110 011
Their pilot water distribution programme took place in Gulbargh, Hubli-Dharwad and Bel-
gaum, Karnatka. Tel. + 91 11 2465 1465
Veolia offers: Wastewater Service, Municipal wastewater, Treatment sludge, Drinking Wa- Fax + 91 11 2465 3458
ter, Management of services, Water treatment, Water distribution, Seawater Desalination,
Recycling Wastewater, Aquifer recharge, Industrial Process Water
Unitech Business Park, Tower-
3 Suez Environ- Degrmont, a French company in Water and Wastewater Technologies, is a subsidiary of
A, Ground Floor, South City-1,
ment Suez Environment operating in India in 1954.
Gurgaon 122001, Haryana
The company design, build and commission facilities for drinking water production, desali-
nation, wastewater treatment and sludge treatment for local authorities. They also directly Tel: 0124-4680100
operate facilities and provide all the services for maintenance, spare parts and upgrading Fax: 0124-4080103
work.

28
Potential Private Sector Companies for NEWATEC Group

Company General Company Profile and Core Working Field Contact


www.degremontindia.net/
SPML House, Plot No. 65, Sec-
4 SPML Established in 1981, SPML Infra Limited is a leading publicly listed infrastructure devel-
tor-32 | Gurgaon - 122001 |
opment company that has managed and implemented over 400 projects across India.
Haryana
SPML offers basic and in-depth engineering, process technology, project management, pro-
curement, fabrication and erection, construction and commissioning. Tel: +91 124 394 4555
The company is executing infrastructure projects for water treatment and transmission, Fax: +91 124 398 3201
wastewater handling, treatment and recycling, solid waste management, power transmis- Email: info@spml.co.in
sion and distribution and civil infrastructure development.
Mfar Silverline Tech park, No
SPML provides water management solutions such as canals, irrigation network, hydrol- 180, 2nd floor, EPIP zone - 2nd
ogy, reservoirs - storage facilities and distribution; components such as intake water, stage, Whitefield, Bangalore-
weirs, pumping machinery, pipeline works, pipeline distribution networks and asso- 560066
ciated civil works.
Tel: +91 80 39445555
Fax: +91 80 40956701

http://spml.co.in
VA TECH WABAG Limited
5 Va Tech Wa- Wabagh is active in the Indian market since 1996 holds a big market share in the Indian
11, Murray's Gate Road, Al-
bagh water technology market.
warpet,
Its performance ranges from: Chennai 600018. India
Drinking water treatment
Tel: +91 44 42232323
Industrial water treatment
Fax: +91 44 42232324
Desalination
Email: wabag@wabag.in
Water Reuse
Municipal wastewater treatment http://www.wabag.com
Industrial wastewater treatment
Sludge treatment
Operations to
29
Potential Private Sector Companies for NEWATEC Group

Company General Company Profile and Core Working Field Contact


Processes and technologies
Building No. 9-10, Sigma Cor-
6 Doshion Doshion is working for public authorities, industries and common man. They offer project
porate, Behind Rajpath Club,
development and investment, source identification and development technology and solu-
Off S.G. Road, Bodakdev, Ah-
tion selection, pumping and transmission, distribution, networking, metering, billing, col-
medabad - 380 054
lection and e-governance.
Their Water Transmission Division caters to the need of infrastructure development in wa- Tel. : +91-79-61609000
ter, sewage and industrial effluent transmission management for municipality and Indus- Fax : +91-79-61609061
tries (Power, Refinery, Metal and Mining, Chemical, Co-generation in Sugar, Bulk Drug and E-mail : dosh-
Pharmaceuticals). ion@doshion.com

www.doshion.com
MWH India Pvt. Ltd., #168,
7 MWH India Pvt. MWH is a global, full-service consulting, engineering and construction company. MWH is
Udyog Bhavan, Sonawala
Ltd. active since more than 150 years and delivers innovative environmental planning and
Road, Goregaon (East), Mum-
management services, handled the clean up and closure of industrial sites and military
bai 400 063, India
bases; selected routes for major pipelines, power lines, telecommunications and highways;
prepared sites in industrial, urban and suburban areas; and managed environmental
Tel: +91 022 42467100
wastewater treatment plants and networks.
Fax: +91 022 40967133
MWH offers water-related projects and programs from water supply, treatment and stor-
age, dams, water management for the natural resources industry and coastal restoration to http://www.mwhglobal.com/
renewable power and environmental services. Their water and wastewater engineering
and construction services reach from the planning phase through to start-up of water and
wastewater treatment facilities, as well as facility upgrades.
MWH has globally designed and/or constructed close to 500 water treatment plants, 800
wastewater treatment plants, 200 reservoirs, 1,000 pumping stations and thousands of
miles of pipeline.
Sakchi Boulevard Road,
8 JUSCO The Jamshedpur Utilities and Services Company (JUSCO) was founded by Tata Steel from
Northern Town, Bistupur Jam-
its Town Services Division in 2004. Its a comprehensive urban infrastructure service pro-

30
Potential Private Sector Companies for NEWATEC Group

Company General Company Profile and Core Working Field Contact


vider, including water, power, infrastructure, public health and horticulture services. shedpur, 831 001, India
JUSCO works alongside civic bodies, large and small industries, local government bodies,
communities and individuals. Tel: 91 65 7214 6000
Fax: 91 65 7242 421
JUSCO water services cover operations and maintenance of the entire water cycle from in-
take to treatment, conveyance and distribution. The company offers asset management ac-
http://www.juscoltd.com/
tivities, GIS, billing, collection and Non Revenue Water reduction programmes.
Services offered:
Operation and Maintenance of Water Treatment Plants Sewage Treatment Plants,
distribution networks.
Build new Water Treatment Plant and Sewage Treatment Plant
Technical and Management support to improve performance of the Water Treat-
ment Plants, Sewage Treatment Plants and Distribution Systems.
Control of UFW or Non Revenue Water (NRW).
Creation of 24 x 7 municipal water supply systems.
CRISIL is an Indian based, global analytical company providing ratings, research, and CRISIL House, Central Avenue,
9 CRISIL
risk and policy advisory services. The company provides research to the world's largest Hiranandani Business Park,
banks and leading corporations. Powai, Mumbai- 400 076, In-
dia
CRISIL Infrastructure Advisory provides solutions to governments, donor funded agen-
cies and leading organizations in over 20 emerging economies across the world, Tel: +91-22-3342 3000
Fax: +91-22-3342 3001
# 12/6, Saffron Square Delhi,
10 EGIS Egis is present in India for 15 years, initially through Egis BCEOM International. Egis India
Mathura Road, Faridabad,
has regional offices in Hyderabad, Kolkata and Chennai. In addition, there are project site
Haryana-121003
offices spread out over more than 11 states of India.
Tel: +91-129-4050888
EGIS addresses all aspects of water and sanitation such as: sewerage and treatment, Fax: +91-129-4050892
watershed and water-course development, rural water development, minor irrigation and Email: egis-india@egis-
agriculture, drinking water supply. india.com
http://www.egis-india.com/

31
2.5. Competitive Conditions
Wastewater Management in India has become an extremely important area of focus due to in-
creasing health awareness and population pressure. The water and wastewater treatment
Industry in India is well diversified and has made rapid strides in technological capabilities,
both on its own and through strategic partnerships with overseas firms. Wastewater sector was
witnessing major growth in the last decade due to increasing government support and private
participation. India's wastewater market is expected to grow at a rate of 15-20%. Techniques
such as watershed management, rainwater harvesting, desalination, filtration, river-interlinking,
effluent treatment and sewage treatment are finding huge importance in major cities, which are
the major contributors to water pollution in India.
Global Water companies have established a presence in India across 20 cities, with some 70 pro-
jects started or underway, worth several billion Euros. Large global and Indian players have
operations in India that include: Veolia Water, Suez de Lyonnaise (Degremont) and VA Tech
Wabag, Nalco and GE Betz-Dearborn.
Multilateral and bilateral agencies provide major funding for infrastructure projects in India.
The World Bank currently operates four projects in water supply and two in sanitation and sew-
age improvement, worth 571 M. The World Banks total commitment to Indias water sector
amounts to more than 1.1 B.
The Indian Wastewater sector has large number of companies across the value chain, from
Technology Providers, Engineering, Procurement and Construction Companies, Consultants to
other solution providers. The graphical snapshot highlights some of the companies across the
Indian Wastewater Sector value chain:

Figure 7: Companies across the Indian Wastewater Sector Value Chain

Companies that offer Wastewater Technology


Technology
Providers

Engineering, Procurement, Construction companies such as Ion Exchange, Hindustan


Dorr-Oliver, L&T
EPC*
Companies

Identification of customers unmet need to deliver customised solutions. Offered by


companies that include Janaksons and Aqua Design. They need to approach wastewater
Consultants consultants for requirements. SMEs need to be on approved list of consultants.

Access to/ supply of clean water for operational process by companies such as Cadbury
Other and Technocraft
Solution
Providers

Support EPC and Consultants by providing ancillary products and services. Ensto offers
these services
End Users

49

49 cf. Dewan 2011, pp. 22.

32
2.5.1. Competitors in the Indian Market
The wastewater management sector in India is highly competitive, with a healthy mix of In-
dian and Overseas firms.
There are no network linkages between private companies in the water sector. A few big play-
ers are active as well as a large number of small and medium sized firms. Some are active in the
entire environmental area such as waste and water management, industries development, large
and medium scale estate development, ports management, etc. and also beyond. They are doing
planning, concepts, developing, constructing, operating and may more activities relevant for pro-
ject development and implementation even full financing. For each tender they will try to find
new or known partners, depending on the technical specifications given.
The major players and their water and wastewater technologies applied can be found in An-
nex I, Table 16. This Table is a crucial part of this study and gives a comprehensive overview
on national and international water companies in India.

2.6. Market Entry


2.6.1. Strategies for Market Entry
Critical success factors for companies entering the environmental technology market in India in-
clude
Competitive pricing,
Proven technology,
After sales service,
Contact with the relevant authorities, financial suppliers and NGOs
The following Figure gives an overview:

Figure 8: Key Questions of the Market Structure for Water Technologies

- Who are the


govermental players?
Who are the key - Who are the financial
players? suplliers?
- Who are the
collaborators?

- What are the different


laws?
What are the policies, - What is the most
rules and regulations? critical regulation?
What is the market
- What are the policies
structure of Water
involved?
Technologies in India?
- Who is the actual
How are decisions business maker?
made? - What is the process to
make the decision?

- What are the most


What are the current important programs?
programs and initatives
in India? - What other inititatives
are there? 50

50 Swedish trade Council 2008, pp. 6.

33
The following Table provides a Comparative Analysis of the various entry options available
and the formalities / procedures to be adhered to.

Table 9: Comparative Summary of Entry Options in India

Particulars Liaison Office Project Office/ Subsidiary / Joint


Branch Office Venture

Prior approval of Re- Yes Yes, except SEZs (Ex- Government of India
serve Bank of India empted on fulfilment (GOI) / Foreign In-
(RBI) for Setting up of certain conditions) vestment Promotion
Board (FIPB) Ap-
proval (Not for auto-
motive route) and
thereafter compliance
with post facto filings
required

Liaison / representa- Yes RBI permitted activity Yes as specified in the


tion / communication allowed memorandum of as-
Activities Permitted sociation of the com-
pany

Commercial Activities Yes Manufacturing, (ex- Yes, subject to For-


Permitted cept SEZ units) not eign Direct Invest-
permitted ments (FDI) guide-
lines

Funding of local op- Yes Yes Through equity or


erations met through other forms of per-
inward remittances mitted capital infu-
sion or borrowings or
internal accruals

Unlimited liability Yes Yes Liability limited to the


equity participation
in the Indian com-
pany

Periodical Compli- Yes Yes Yes (Higher statutory


ance requirements compliance)
under Companies Act

Annual Compliance Yes Yes Yes (Periodic filings


certificate under for- also required)
eign exchange man-
agement regulations

34
Particulars Liaison Office Project Office/ Subsidiary / Joint
Branch Office Venture

Compliance require- No tax liability Tax on income Liable to be taxed on


ments under IT Act earned; No tax on re- global income on a
patriation of profits net basis Dividend
declared freely remit-
table but subject to
distribution tax of
16.9%

Permanent Estab- LOs generally not Generally constituting An independent tax-


lishment (PE) having PE / taxable a PE and being a tax- able entity and not a
presence under Dou- able presence under PE of the PE of the
ble Taxation Avoid- DTAA and domestic foreign company
ance Agreement IT provisions unless it is subject to
(DTAA) due to limited the provisions of the
scope of activities in DTAA51
India

Company Approval
Prospective EU companies can enter Indian markets through the following routes:
As an Indian Company: A foreign company can commence operations in India by incorporating
a company under the Companies Act, 1956 through
Joint Ventures
Wholly Owned Subsidiaries
As a Foreign Company:
Liaison Office / Representative Office
Project Office
Branch Office
Such offices can undertake any permitted activities. Companies have to register themselves with
Registrar of Companies (ROC) within 30 days of setting up a place of business in India.
A Foreign Company is expected to select one of the above mentioned modes of entry in the In-
dia Market depending on its scale, financial capability, and Project / Business requirement.
Regulatory Authorities concerned with establishing new business set-ups:
Secretariat for Industrial Assistance (SIA)
Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion in the Ministry of Industry (GOI) has set
up SIA. It provides a single window for entrepreneurial assistance, investor facilitation,
processing all applications that require Government approval, assisting entrepreneurs
and investors in setting up projects and in monitoring the implementation of projects
Foreign Investment Promotion Board (FIPB)
The FIPB is a government body that offers a single window clearance for proposals on
FDI in India that are not allowed access through the automatic route.
(http://www.fipbindia.com/)

51 Dewan 2011, p. 60.

35
Project Approval Board (PAB)
PAB takes applications for approval of foreign technology transfer and payment of roy-
alty.
Reserve Bank of India
The RBI regulates Bank Notes and controls reserves, looking at securing monetary sta-
bility in India and generally operates the currency and credit system of the country. RBI
is also concerned with collecting the required security deposit for tenders.
(http://www.rbi.org.in)
Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI)
The SEBI basic functions is states "...to protect the interests of investors in securities
and to promote the development of, and to regulate the securities market and for mat-
ters connected therewith or incidental thereto"
(http://www.sebi.gov.in)
Registrar of Companies (ROC)
The ROC covers the various States and Union Territories with the primary duty of regis-
tering companies floated in the respective states and the Union Territories and ensur-
ing that such companies comply with statutory requirements under the law and act.
These offices function as registry of records, relating to the companies registered with
them, which are available for inspection by members of public on payment of the pre-
scribed fee. The Central Government exercises administrative control over these offices
through the respective Regional Directors. (www.mca.gov.in/Ministry/roc.html )52
Government has laid down a systematic procedure for setting up a company in India.

Figure 9: Steps to be undertaken to start new business operations

Obtaining approval for the proposed name of the company from the ROC

Drawing up the Memorandum of Association

Drawing up the Articles of Association

Getting the appropriate persons to subscribe to the Memorandum (a minimum of 7 for a


public company and 2 for a private company)

Payment of registration fee to the ROC

Receipt of Certificate of Incorporation

Obtain a certificate of commencement of business from the ROC in case of a public company
53

52 op. cit., p. 59.


53 op. cit., p. 61.

36
2.6.2. Operational Models
In addition to starting an own company, a direct participation in Indian companies or a partici-
pation in public-private-partnership projects is a good market entry strategy. PPPs are usually
carried out in the following forms:

2.6.2.1. Build Operate Transfer (BOT)

Build Operate Own Transfer (BOOT) and Design Build Own Operate Transfer (DBOOT)
In this contract, the company shall install the plant at its own cost, operate and maintain it over a
stipulated contact period; including all spares and consumables (e.g. including resin and mem-
brane replacement) form part of the scope. At the end of the contract period, the property will
be transferred to the customer at a price equivalent to the book value of the plant. Being immov-
able property, civil works unless otherwise specified and mutually agreed will form part of
customers scope. The customer shall be charged at the basis of unit rate of water produced.

2.6.2.2. Build Operate and Own Contract (BOO)


In this contract, the company agrees to install the plant at their own cost and maintain it over the
stipulated contact period; including all spares and consumables (e.g. including resin and mem-
brane replacement) form part of the scope. Unlike the above BOOT contract, the property will
still be in the possession of the company and will not be transferred to the customer. The cus-
tomer has the discretion of extending the contract. Being immovable property, civil works
unless otherwise specified and mutually agreed will form part of customers scope. The cus-
tomer shall be charged at the basis of unit rate of water produced.

2.6.2.3. Equipment, Lease, Run, Own and Transfer Contract (ELROT)


Companies enter into such contracts when the job involves rehabilitation, modification and ret-
rofits. In this case, they will take over the existing plant in its current condition and carry out all
modifications/revamping and/or retrofit other equipment, operate over a stipulated contract
period and then transfer the property back to the customer. The customer shall again be charged
on the basis of unit rate of water produced.

Further market entry opportunities include:

2.6.2.4. Operation and Maintenance Contracts (O&M)


It is a comprehensive service contract where the company undertakes complete responsibility of
supply of treated water in required quantity and of desired quality at any clients place. Right
from manpower to services to consumables are provided.

2.6.2.5. Annual Maintenance Contracts (AMC)


This contract offers the costumer the water and wastewater equipment. Regular features of this
package include scheduled inspection visits and scheduled maintenance and services.

2.6.2.6. Management Contract


This contract includes the takeover of the operation and maintenance of a water and wastewater
treatment plant by a private company. In this case, the local government unit remains responsi-
ble for any expansion and renovation investments. The private operator generally is asked to
meet specific targets such as the amount of drinking water or treatment ratio of wastewater to
be provided to the community.

37
2.6.2.7. Service Contracts
These contracts mostly relate to administrative services such as the reading of water meters, the
billing and taking over the claims management from the local provider.

2.6.3. Government Subsidies


In order to encourage private participation in waste management sector the government of-
fers an array of incentives. The overall budget of gov-
Figure 10: Financing of SMEs ernment agencies operating in waste management sec-

tor has increased, which enables them to transfer the


benefits to the private operators.
Major incentives that have been introduced in waste-
water management space have been highlighted as fol-
lows:

2.6.3.1. Fiscal Incentives:


1. Tax Holiday: A 10 year, 100% deduction of prof-
its and gains is available for companies operating in
water supply projects, water treatment systems, and
sanitation and sewage projects.
2. FDI Opportunity: 100% FDI is permissible under automatic route in construction and main-
tenance of Rural Drinking Water Supply Projects, Package Water Treatment Plants, Rain and
Rain Water Harvesting Structures, Waste-Water Recycling.
3. Loans Availability: Soft loans are provided through Indian Renewable Energy Development
Agency (IREDA), a public sector company of the Ministry or nationalised banks and other fi-
nancial institutions for identified technologies / systems
4. Tax / Duties Relief:
Direct taxes: 100% depreciation within 1st year of project installation
Exemption / reduction in excise duty
Exemption from Central Sales Tax (CST), and customs duty concessions on the import of mate-
rial, components and equipment used in Renewable Energy projects
Duty-free import of renewable energy equipment
Exemptions from electricity taxes
5. Subsidies: Common Effluent Treatment Plants, Treatment, Storage and Disposal Facilities,
and conveyance pipelines for treated wastewater disposal into deep sea are eligible for a
25% state subsidy. Capital subsidies and concessionary financing from the Indian Renewable
Energy Development Agency are available.54

2.6.3.2. Government Initiatives:


1. Setting-up an Energy Fund: In the Union Budget 2010-11, the government announced
the setting up of the National Clean Energy Fund for all funding research and innovative
projects within clean technologies.

54 Dewan 2011, pp. 30.

38
2. Initiating Waste Management Programs: Government has set up Jawaharlal Nehru Na-
tional Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM) program to fund cities for developing urban infra-
structure and services. In recent past, funds allocated for JNNURM increased by 87% for
2009-10 to 2 B, which is attracting global players to enter the Indian market. As of May
2009, government had sanctioned 463 projects requiring an investment of approx. 7.5 B,
mainly for basic urban services like water supply, sewerage and storm-water drainage.
3. Budget Expansion: Plan outlay for the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy has in-
creased by 61%, from 99 M in 2009- 10 to 160 M in 2010-11
4. Encouraging Public-Private Partnerships: Through economic incentives, both the central
and state governments are promoting PPPs for the development of infrastructure for envi-
ronmental services
5. Other Incentives
Scrap / waste / remnants / unutilised materials / surplus or obsolete capital goods may be
exported or sold in the deferred tax assets on payment of duties
Liberalised foreign investment approval regime is enabled to facilitate foreign investment and
transfer of technology through joint ventures.55

2.6.4. Tendering and Procurement Procedures


Foreign and domestic companies operating in Indian Market through PPP / municipal and
private projects have to conform to the following tenders and processes:

Table 10: Indian Procurement Processes

Players Decision Makers Process Other Important Process

State Govern- Float Tenders Foreign Companies can


Head of State
ment Board Competitive Bidding be represented by Ap-
price is the pre- pointed Distributors in
Head of Munici-
dominant criteria tender process
palities
PPP are also promoted
by the government,
which also provides
funding
Public Sector Short listing Con- Generally procured
Executive heads
Undertaking tractors through domestic sup-
of new projects
Float Tenders pliers
Competitive Bidding Good quality and com-
price is the pre- petitive process are the
dominant criteria key decision criteria
Private Through direct con- Decisions are based on
Top Level Man-
tacts to suppliers criteria such as compli-
ager
Final decision made ance, productivity, effi-
Heads of sus-
by management ciency and predomi-
tainability De-
heads nately price
partment
Competitive bidding Geographical location is
Purchase Man-
price is the pre- an important criteria for
ager

55 op. cit., pp. 31.

39
Plant Manager dominant criteria buying environmental
technology56

2.6.4.1. Regulations of Procurement


The tendering regulations are laid down in the Karnataka Transparency in Public Procurement
Act, 1999 and The Karnataka Transparency in Public Procurement Ordinance 2000.

Regulations of Procurements shall NOT apply to Procurement of goods and services:


- In case of construction works of all types the value of which does not exceed INR
500,000;
- In case of goods or services other than construction works the value of which does not
exceed INR 100,000
- For the purpose of implementing mini water supply scheme which do not exceed INR
200,000 in value

During the initial examination the following factors shall be considered, namely:
1. Whether the tenderer meets the eligibility criteria laid down in the tender documents.
2. Whether the crucial documents have been duly signed.
3. Public tenders require all tenders to pay an earnest money deposit (amount required
to be deposited by a tenderer along with his tender indicating his willingness to imple-
ment to contractor):
o Deposit needs to be paid at the rates as per the departmental rules by means of a
demand draft, bankers, cheque, specified small savings instruments or where the
procuring entity deems fit, irrevocable bank guarantee in a specified form of the
department
Any tender submitted without the earnest money deposit be summarily rejected
4. Pre-qualification (process by which the tenders are first secured for their capability
and resources to implement the contract before they are permitted to offer their ten-
ders) of tenders shall be checked on the basis of:
o Experience and past performance in the execution of similar contracts testing
of samples where required tender is substantially responsive to the technical
specifications set out in the bidding documents
o Capabilities of the tenderer with respect to personnel, equipment and construc-
tion or manufacturing facilities
o Financial status and capacity
Only the tenders of pre-qualified tenders shall be considered for evaluation as a guar-
antee of the tenderers performance of the contract, a security deposit has to be taken
from the successful tenderer as per departmental rules
Tenderer payment of liquidated damages and penalty payable by the tenderer in the
event of non-fulfilment of any of the terms or whole of the contract

After the initial examination


- The tenderer who has bid the lowest evaluated price in accordance with the evalua-
tion criteria or the tenderer scoring the highest on the evaluation criteria specified as the
case may be, shall be determined.
In the case of construction or supply and installation of equipment, tenders exceeding INR 5M
in value, the tender inviting shall follow the two-cover tender system:
1. The first cover shall contain the following information about the tenderer namely:
o Experience and past performance in the execution of similar contracts.

56 op. cit., p. 64.

40
oCapabilities with respect to personnel, equipment and construction or manufac-
turing facilities.
o Financial status and capacity.
o Any other information considered relevant.
2. The second cover shall contain the prices quoted by the tenderer.
The tender inviting authority shall cause the first cover to be opened just and evaluate
the tenderers capacity on the basis of criteria specified in the tender document and on
this basis, prepare a list of qualified tenders.
Thereafter, the second cover containing the price quotations of only those tenders
found qualified shall be opened by the tender inviting authority.57

57 cf. Government of Karnataka 2005, pp. 14.

41
2.6.4.2. Randomized Tender Example
The following Box gives a randomized example of a public tender from the Government of Kar-
nataka, Water Resources Department, with all its requirements and regulations.

Office of the Executive Engineer, WRD, KPC, Divn. No.1, XY.


No:EE/KPCD.1/BDR Dated: 24-01-2011
This is a Pre-qualification (Two Cover) bid system of tendering consisting of technical bid as
Part I and financial bid as part II which shall be as follows:
The evaluation of the technical bid for pre-qualification will be done based solely on the
information provided by the contractor as per original documents, duly verified if
necessitates.
PRE-QUALIFICATION
(I) TECHNICAL BID PART:
1. Each applicant in the last five years reckoned should have
a. Achieved in at least two financial years a minimum annual financial turnover of
two times the amount put to tender. Financial turnover shall be given a
weightage of 10% per year based on the reference value to bring them to
2009-10 price level.
b. Satisfactorily completed at least one similar nature work of value not less than
50% of value of work put to tender at 2009-10 price level. Cost of completed
work shall be given a weightage of 10% per year based on the reference value
to bring them to 2009-10 price level.
2. The applicant should produce following original testimonials during the opening of the
said tender
a. Availability (either owned or leased) of the key and critical equipment for the
work.
b. Availability for this work, a Graduate Project Manager with not less than 5
years experience in construction of similar Engineering works and other key
expert like surveyor, licensed technical personnel etc. with adequate
experience as required.
3. Contractor should have sufficient Man power for executing the work. An organization
chart to be produced by him to that effect.
4. The documents furnished by the contractor for pre-qualification should invariably be
signed by the contractor as a token of attestation regarding genuinity and truthfulness
of the documents. The documents without the contractors attested signature will not
be considered for evaluation of the pre-qualification bid and it will be treated as
incomplete bid offer.
5. The intending contractor should furnish the valid certificate of Registration issued by
KPWD / CPWD / MES of Karnataka State.
6. The contractor should furnish the name of the individual / firm with/ firm residential
Postal address and telephone No. with place of registration, year of incorporation etc.,
(for correspondence purpose).
7. The application made by the firm / company shall be signed by a person holding the
power of attorney, in which case an attested copy of power of attorney shall be
submitted
8. The contractor should have experienced and skilled labours in the relevant field of
works. The detail should be submitted along with technical bid documents.

42
9. All the original documents shall be produced at the time of opening of tenders for
verification. The bidders who does not produce original documents at the time of
opening is liable for rejection
10. Latest copies of Income Tax and Sales Tax clearance certificate issued by the
competent authority shall be enclosed.
11. Employee provident fund (EPF) registration certificate shall be enclosed, or the
contribution will be recovered from bill as per Govt. directions.
12. The requisite Earnest Money Deposit (EMD) shall be paid:
a. The contractor should pay INR 100,000 the earnest money deposit (EMD) using
any of the payment modes such as (a) Credit card (b) Direct Debit (c) National
Electronic Fund Transfer (NEFT) (d) Over the Counter (OTC). This will be
maintained in the Government central pooling account at axis bank until the
contract is closed. The EMD amount submitted by the contractor should govern
the following conditions.
i. Each tenderer must pay specified full earnest money of INR 50,000 in the e-
proc platform only through any of the payment modes such as Credit
Card/Debit Card/NEFT/OTC/for the works for which the amount put to
tender is below INR 5M.
ii. Each tenderer must pay an Earnest Money of up to INR 50,000 in the e-proc
platform through any of the payment modes such as Credit card/Debit
card/NEFT/OTC/: and the remaining balance EMD through Bank Guarantee
issued by Nationalised/schedule Banks for the works for which the amount
put to tender is in between INR 5M up to INR10M.
iii. Each tenderer must pay an Earnest Money of up to INR 100,000 in the e-
proc platform through any of the payment modes such as Credit Card/Debit
Card/NEFT/OTC/; and the remaining balance EMD through Bank Guarantee
issued by Nationalised/Schedule Banks for the works for which the amount
put to tender is more than INR 10M.
(II) MODE OF PAYMENT:
The stipulated cost of blank pre qualification / tender documents for tendering should be in
the form of Electronic cash only.( Non- refundable)
The financial bid documents for the above work comprises of financial bid to indicate the
amount offered by the bidder for completion of the work based on contract specifications,
Schedule A and Schedule B of the contractor form. The contractor should neither make any
alteration in the conditions of contract nor stipulate any condition of his own in the first
section of the financial bid documents.
The Executive Engineer shall have the right to reject any or all the tenders without assigning
any reason whatsoever.
The intending contractor should note that, if any of the lands (either in part / parts or in
whole) required for the work is not yet acquired by the Water Resources Department, it shall
be the responsibility of the contractor to take possession of such land and start the work by
consent of the owners before commencement of work at no extra cost to the Water Resources
Department and no claims whatsoever relating to non-availability of land would be
entertained, in future.
Sd/-
EXECUTIVE ENGINEER, WRD
58

58 Water Resource Department 2011, pp. 1.

43
2.6.4.3. Winning Strategy and how to Become Short-listed in a Tender Procedure
NEWATEC and their potential local partners should provide consultancy and advisory assis-
tance to the offices, institutions, local bodies, etc. in the major cities Mumbai, Kolkata, Banga-
lore, Chennai, Hyderabad, or New Delhi which are preparing the tender documents, laying down
the technical minimum requirements and defining the technological systems to be applied. Thus,
the new and sophisticated technologies NEWATEC companies are offering (alone, as network
or with German partners or abroad) will be introduced and promoted in a first step, The next
step would be to show the technical possibilities of the systems and prove the capabilities
through certificates and recommendation letters of clients (in Germany and abroad). The ulti-
mate step would be to set up at least one (better a handful) complete systems in India as a pilot
and demonstration plants.
If new, improved (and custom tailored) water technologies were considered in the tendering
documents and procurement guidelines NEWATEC has better chances to compete with local and
international bidders.
A promising strategy for NEWATEC to win tenders according to a senior and experienced local
expert is to invite and address: (1) The leading consultants, (2) The project executers (3) The
registered contractors.
And inform them about the NEWATEC network, its capabilities, unique technical solutions and
innovations in an informal round. Such meetings initiate a first exchange of information with the
key players and establish greater chances to be listed in coming tenders.

2.6.4.3. Public Tenders


National and international tenders are published in Indian newspapers (sometimes in technical
publications) and on some websites.
As usual for large projects it would be too late to wait for the tender to be published in a paper
and then try to react. The preparation of technical and financial proposals would be so time
consuming that the 3 to 6 weeks time between publication date and deadline of submission
would never be sufficient in most cases. This is true in particular when consortia have to be
formed which normally needs also a lot of time. So as many information as possible has to be
collected before the publication of a tender when the project is in the pipeline. In case of
international tenders information is given on the websites of the funding agency such as
Worldbank or Asian Development Bank or special publication and information agencies (such as
the German BfAI) have to be consulted.
Pre-tender information for national tenders can be obtained by contacting the tendering
authorities regularly a difficult and lengthy process. Most bigger companies employ special
staff members (acquisition representatives, marketing experts) for this purpose. Smaller
companies either have the relevant personal contacts or spend tremendous efforts and time to
gain this kind of information. In any case personal contacts are inevitable.

2.6.4.4. Non-public Tendering and Commissioning


In the private sector it is usual not to organise tendering procedures following any kind of rules
of the public sector (because of transparency in this case). Private industries and companies are
free to commission projects to suppliers as they wish and consider beneficiary. However for
bigger projects and instalments such as a new effluent treatment system or an upgrading of such
a plant they also would request several bidders to submit technical and financial proposals.
However their selection process will differ. In public tendering procedures in most cases the
cheapest offer has to be selected among those that meet the technical requirements. In the
private sector mostly different criteria will be applied, however the cost factor will play an
important role.

44
2.6.5. Fairs, Exhibitions and Conferences
Conferences, exhibitions and fairs are a good chance for market newcomers to present their company, services and products and to get to know the
competitors in the water sector. Such events can be used to analyse the product and service range from the other exhibitors. Such events provide more-
over information on upcoming projects by the government, the municipalities and private companies. Furthermore offer fairs a good overview on the
current market situation/ trends and are suitable for the initiation of first business contacts with industries and decision makers.

Table 11: Conferences, Exhibitions and Conferences in India

Name Date in Venue Contact Website


2012/2013
1 Bangalore World 1 3 Febru- Hotel Lalit Ashok, Ban- Centre for Sustainable Development http://www.bangalorewatersum
Water summit ary 2012 galore 21st floor, Public Utility mit.com/
Building, MG Road, Bangalore 560001
Phone: 080 6560 3839; Fax: 080 2532 3020;
E-mail: csdbng@yahoo.co.in
2 Water Todays Wa- 7 9 Febru- Chennai Trade Centre WATER TODAYTM http://waterexpo.biz
ter Expo ary 2012 3D, III floor Bhagheeratha Residency,
124, Marshall's Road, Egmore,
Chennai - 600 008.
Phone +91 42916900
Fax: +91 42147898
E-Mail: info@watertoday.biz
3 Everything About 9 12 Febru- India Expo Centre and EA Water Pvt Ltd http://www.eawater.com/expo/
Water Expo ary 2012 Mart A1/152, Neb Sarai, IGNOU Road,
Greater Noida, Uttar New Delhi 110068, India
Pradesh, India Tel: +91-11- 4310 0568/ 0572/ 0500
Mob: +91 98910 54929
Fax: +91 11 4310 0599
E-mail:
National: enquiry@eawater.com
International: intlenquiry@eawater.com

45
4 Aquatech India 25 27 April Pragati Maidan Exhibi- Nick Mouthaan http://www.aquatechtrade.com/
2012 2012 tion Centre in New Delhi T.:+31 20 549 2299
n.mouthaan@rai.nl
5 Watertech Expo 28-30 Sep- Bangalore Exhiference Media Pvt Limited http://www.watertechindia.com/
2012 tember 2012 B-2 Basement, Kalyan Tower, Nr.Vastrapur
6 Watertech Expo 02-04 No- Gujarat University Exhi- Lake, Ahmedabad-380015, Gujarat. India
2012 vember 2012 bition Hall Tel: +91-079-40039444, 40039431-32 |
Ahmedabad, Gujarat, In- Fax: +91-079-40039431
dia Email: marketing@exhiferencemedia.com
Website: www.exhiferencemedia.com
7 WaterEx World 15 18 Janu- Bombay Exhibition Cen- Chemtech Secretariat http://www.chemtech-
Expo ary 2013 tre, NSE Complex, Gore- 26, Maker Chambers VI, online.com/events/waterex/chem
gaon, Mumbai, India Nariman Point, tech_history.html
Mumbai - 400 021, India.
Tel: +91-22-40373737
Fax: +91-22-22870502
For Enquiries regarding Exhibition
and Sales and Marketing write to:
Email: sales@jasubhai.com
For Enquiries regarding Conferences write:
Email: conferences@jasubhai.com
8 Water India 2013 15 -17 Febru- Pragati Maidan, Announcement only /
ary 2013 Delhi

46
2.7. Tax System
Corporates are subject to Direct and Indirect Taxes as the case may be. India has a well-
developed tax structure, with the authority to levy taxes divided between the Central Govern-
ment and the State Governments. The Central Government levies direct taxes such as personal
income tax and corporate tax and indirect taxes such as customs duty, excise duty, CST and ser-
vice tax. The States are empowered to levy professional tax and state sales tax apart from vari-
ous other local taxes like Entry Tax, Octroi, etc.

2.7.1. Direct Taxation

Table 12: Cooperate Income Tax

S. Domestic Foreign
No. Company Company

1 Regular Tax

Where total Income is more than Indian 33.9% 42.2%


Rupee 10 M ( 0.2 M)

Where the total Income is equal to or 30.9% 41.2%


less than INR 10 M ( 0.2M)

2 Minimum Alternate Tax

Where total Income is more than INR 10 11.3% of the book 10.6% of book profits
M ( 0.2 M) profits

Where the total income is equal to or 10.3% of book profits 10.3% of book profits
less than INR 10 M ( 0.2 M)

3 Dividend Distribution Tax 16.9% N.A.

4 Fringe Benefit Tax 33.9% 31.7%59

Withholding Tax Rates for payments made to Non-residents are determined by the Finance Act
passed by the Parliament for various years. The current rates are:
Interest: 20% of Gross Amount
Royalties: 20%
Technical Services: 10%
Any other Services:
o Individuals: 30% of net income
o Companies / Corporates: 40% of net income60
The above rates are general and in respect of the countries with which India does not have a
DTAA.

59 Dewan 2011, p. 62.


60 op. cit. P. 63.

47
2.7.2. Indirect Taxation
Sales Tax:
CST: CST is 2% on manufactured goods
Value Added Tax (VAT): Where a sale takes place within a state, VAT would be levied.
Such a tax would be governed by the relevant state tax legislation. This normally ranges
from 4% to 12.5%
Excise Duty: Excise duty on most commodities ranges between 0 to 12%
Customs Duty: The peak rate of basic custom duty is 10%. However the aggregate custom du-
ties, including additional duties and the educational cess, are 26.85%. Several products attract
the basic customs duty of 7.5% which works out to an effective duty of 23.89%.
Service Tax: Service tax is levied at 10.3% of the value of taxable services (including the educa-
tion cess and the secondary and higher education cess) on a broad range of services. Service
providers having aggregate value to taxable services up to approx. 17,000 are kept outside
purview of service tax, subject to certain conditions.61

2.8. Import and Export Policy


2.8.1. Trade Barriers
Primary interactions exhibit that tariffs do not seem to be a large problem for the exporting
companies.
The Trade Barriers can be broadly classified under two categories:
Tariff: These are monetary deterrents that have an impact on cross border trade
Non-Tariff: These are non-monetary constraints that negatively impact trade Also, in-
formation around tariff barriers is predictable and transparent than about non-tariff
barriers.

2.8.1.1. Tariff Barriers:


Tariffs and other Charges on Imports: Trade in Environmental Goods and Technologies are gen-
erally not significantly impeded by tariffs. Government has progressively reduced Tariff
Barriers such as Import duties and offers import subsidies on certain wastewater technologies.
Following are a few Tariff Barriers:
Internal Taxation
Services and Investment
Customs / Excise

2.8.1.2. Non-Tariff Barriers


Perceived Lack of Coordination / Integration of Policy: India has a centralised energy sector
that is dominated by state-owned enterprises. In this context, there appears to be a perceived
lack of co-ordination / integration regarding renewable energy and energy efficiency policies
that applies across ministries, states, and sub-sectors. Policies are often unclear and inconsis-
tent.
Weak or Unclear Legal / Regulatory Environment: The enforcement of the legal and regula-
tory environment in India is a significant barrier for private sector participation in the renew-
able energy market. Regulatory issues such as time delays and complexity in permitting and sit-

61 op. cit., pp. 62.

48
ting of projects pose additional legal and regulatory hurdles, i.e. Intellectual Property Right (IPR)
issues.
Market Distortions of Fossil Fuels versus Renewable: Major distortions are lack of account-
ing for externalities (both environmental and socioeconomic) in conventional fossil fuels, price
distortions, uneven subsidies and tax structures, and capital cost accounting versus life-cycle ac-
counting.
Lack of Policy Guidelines for Waste-to-Energy Projects: In waste-to-energy projects, there is
lack of clear policy guidelines from state governments with respect to allotment of land, supply
of garbage, power purchase arrangements, and evacuation facilities.
Lack of Strategic Review of Energy Efficiency at the National and State Levels: In the En-
ergy Efficiency sector, there is a lack of strategic review to assess priorities for initiatives on en-
ergy efficiency development in the future.
Technical Barriers to trade: Primary insights showcase that many Asian countries such as
China, India, Thailand, South Korea etc. are expected to get local certification. In India and South
Korea for example, certificates issued in EU Member States are not accepted. Instead certain
products that have been certified in the EU have to be certified again in India.62
2.8.2. Latest Development
EU is India's largest trading partner in goods and second largest trading partner in services
(after the US). Its also a source of advanced technology and a significant donor. In the last
decade, both countries have come together to increase the trade relationship and thereby be-
come stronger economic allies.
Germany and India have a very good trade relationship and regard each other as crucial part-
ners. The relationship between the two countries is extraordinarily good. Especially the trade
and scientific cooperation is longstanding and successful. In the field of technology and here in
environmental technology and water management and treatment systems, German companies
and their products are considered as advanced, very reliable and of high quality and durability.
Government has implemented various trade liberalization policies to attract overseas compa-
nies to enter the Indian markets. There was a gradually reduction in trade barriers to encour-
age greater participation from various European and North American countries. As Trade
barriers, import substitution and protectionism are being replaced by a more supportive in-
vestment framework in order to reap the full benefits of FDI for growth opportunities in India.
Sectorial FDI restrictions have been eased and overseas ownership caps lifted. Public own-
ership of industries has substantially reduced as many sectors that were previously reserved
are now open to private enterprises, including overseas investment.63

62 op. cit., pp. 65.


63 op. cit., pp. 56.

49
Figure 11: EUs Export Partners and Indias Import Partners

64

World Trade Organization (WTO) agreement, that called for "The reduction or elimination of
Tariff and non-Tariff barriers to environmental goods and services, has enabled smooth opera-
tions for all stakeholders. In the Wastewater sector, EU-India Trade has made huge strides in
the recent past with high import of environmental goods in India from EU. Various EU compa-
nies have already entered the Indian market. EU is also becoming a prime destination for In-
dias outward investment in sectors which include Steel, Pharmaceuticals, Automobiles, IT
and Energy. However, a number of barriers continue to thwart the competitiveness of over-
seas companies within the Indian landscape.65

2.9. After-Sales Issues


2.9.1. Educational Level of Operational Staff
Even though the Indian labour market should offer a range of qualified personnel, all industries
complain about untrained manpower. Consequently the educational standard is a prime con-
cern across all industrial regions of India.
Despite the educational problems many universities in Karnataka offer study courses in Envi-
ronmental and Water Engineering.

Table 13: List of Engineering Colleges in Karnataka offering Environmental Engineering

University Study course

1 KVG College of Engineering - Sullia Bachelor of Engineering in Environmental En-


gineering
Location: Sullia, Karnataka, India

2 Vidya Vardhaka College Of Engineering Bachelor of Engineering in Environmental En-


gineering
Location: Mysore, Karnataka, India

3 P.E.S. College of Engineering Bachelors in Environmental Engineering


Location: Mandya, Karnataka, India Master of Technology in Environmental Sci-
ence and Engineering

64 op. cit., p. 58.


65 op. cit., pp. 65.

50
4 Karnataka Lingayat Education Society's Master of Technology In Environmental Engi-
College of Engineering Technology neering
Location: Bangalore, Karnataka, India

5 S.J. College of Engineering, Mysore Bachelor of Engineering in Environmental En-


gineering
(SJCE M)
Master of Technology in Environmental Engi-
Location: Mysore, Karnataka, India
neering

6 Poojya Doddappa Appa College of Engi- Master of Engineering in Environmental En-


neering gineering
Location: Gulbarga, Karnataka, India

7 University Visvesvaraya College of Engi- Master of Engineering in Environmental En-


neering, Bangalore (UVCE B) gineering
Location: Bangalore, Karnataka, India Master of Engineering in Water Resource En-
gineering

8 Basaveshwar Engineering College Master of Engineering in Environmental En-


gineering
Location: Bagalkot, Karnataka, India

9 B.M.S Evening College Of Engineering - Master Of Engineering In Environmental En-


Bangalore gineering
Location: Bangalore, Karnataka, India

10 PDA College of Engineering, Gulbarga Master of Engineering in Environmental En-


(PDACE) gineering
Location: Karnataka, India

11 B.M.S. College of Engineering, Bangalore Master of Technology in Environmental Engi-


(BMSCE B) neering
Location: Bangalore, Karnataka, India

12 Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal Master of Technology in Environmental Engi-


(MIT M) neering
Location: Bangalore, Karnataka, India

13 Visvesvaraya Technological University Bachelors in Environmental Engineering


(VTU)
Master of Engineering in Environmental En-
Location: Belgaum, Karnataka, India gineering

However, in the non-academic sector trained and educated technical staff is practically not
available. There are no vocational training schemes for technical professions such as mechanics,
electricians, construction workers, etc. Professional profiles such as a waterworks technician or
a sewerage treatment plant technician are totally unknown. Specialised institutes, mostly in the
private sector or sponsored through multinational industries offer training courses for welders,
electricians, mechanics, others. Among those institutions are the Indo-German Chamber of
Commerce, Swiss organisations, huge industries such as Bosch, Siemens, others. However con-
sidering the size of the country and the number of unskilled workers and the huge demand for

51
trained workforce, those initiatives only can be models and demonstration and approaches to
show the right direction and approach.
The Indian central government has of course realised this immense gap between the very high
need for trained personnel and the existing huge numbers of untrained people. Efforts are al-
ready undertaken and enormous funds for improving the national vocational education and
training schemes on federal and state level are available and have started to show first reflec-
tions in form of up-coming training institutes, state education programmes, etc.
With regard to the level of academic and graduated workforce (engineers, scientists) the need of
staff is also high, however, there are of course large numbers of university graduates and experi-
enced technical personnel. Although the education at colleges and universities is not very much
practise oriented. There is clear overshot of theory in the curricula of engineering and scientific
subjects.

2.9.2. Training Needs


With respect to the existing massive needs in educated and trained technical staff in the non-
academic field companies and businesses in the water area that rely on technical well educated
and experienced staff for their operation and maintenance, service and repair of plants, plant
components and equipment, have to think of how to employ adequately educated personnel.
The majority of German manufacturing companies in India do only have one choice; they must
send their qualified workers overseas to Germany and other advanced countries for proper edu-
cation and training. In case of equipment and plant supply like installation of wastewater treat-
ment plants or single components with after sales services and operational training needs an ex-
tended training programme may be sufficient. However, emphasis should be laid on the fact that
better more training is required then in comparison to other emerging economies in other parts
of the world.
To execute trainings in India the NEWATEC group should use existing training centres in Chen-
nai, Bangalore and other places. This makes it easier for the network companies to reach out and
access more people for their trainings.
There is certain risk for foreign companies bringing new or sophisticated technologies to India
when it comes to operation and maintenance through Indian non-skilled or semi-skilled staff.
Non-functioning or failure of systems and equipment might be attributed to systemic errors in
the equipment or inadequacy and shortcoming of technology and not seen as originating in mis-
handling through faulty operation. So it is really required to think over the effort for training of
staff and for making the equipment fool-proof.

2.10. Limitations and Shortcomings of the Water Sector


Indian Wastewater Segment is experiencing a steady growth rate. However, lack of knowledge
of best practices amongst various municipalities regarding generation, collection and disposal
of wastewater leads to continuation of poor practices.
Structuring and implementation of PPP in urban sewerage and sanitation continues to be a
challenge. This is mainly due to lack of enabling legal and regulatory environment at the
state / city level, apprehensions about managing PPP related contracts, capacity and knowledge
gaps among institutions and key stakeholders.
Following are the Reasons for Improper Management of Waste:
Improper Planning for waste management while setting up townships
Unclear Institutional Set-up for waste management, planning and designing in ULBs
Untrained Manpower is a prime concern across all industrial regions of India. Also,
execution of service contract is a complex assignment, even for large companies.

52
Lack of Community Involvement due to low awareness levels of waste management
among people
Low Expertise and Exposure to city waste management using modern techniques /
best practices
Shortfall of Funds with ULBs and indifferent attitude of ULBs to levy user charges and
sustainability
Low Price as unorganised segment dominates the Annual Maintenance Contract (AMC)
market; services are offered at low rates by providing cheap labour, low-grade chemicals
and spares
Absence of Segregation of Waste at Source, which highlights that largely, End-of-Pipe
treatment is prevalent in India, unlike Europe, where treatment at source is also empha-
sised. This leads to varying composition of wastewater throughout the geography66

2.11. Trends and Opportunities


In the last decade, India has become an important business destination for various overseas
companies. In the recent past various EU Wastewater companies have entered India to benefit
from the immense Operational Advantages on offer.
Following are the Major Advantages that India in general offers:
Economies of Scale:
India offers an immense target base for various EU companies in waste management sector.
The countrys increasing population and urbanisation keeps the target market growing, an
opportunity that overseas companies can tap and thereby increase their sales volume and
benefit by achieving Economies of Scale
Low Cost Benefit:
The overall cost of doing business in India is much lower, approx. 30-50% lower, than conduct-
ing business in Europe, due to cheap labour and other input costs. EU companies will reduce
their overall cost of operations with an India presence.
PPP Business Model:
The government was promoting the PPP model in waste management sector. EU companies can
conduct business through the PPP channel and benefit from reduced cost and availability of low
cost capital. This would significantly reduce their operational cost and ease business operations.
Subsidies through SEZs:
Government offers tax breaks to companies (domestic and foreign) for setting up units in SEZ.
Some of these subsidies include tax rebates, fiscal incentives, and lands at subsidised rates.
EU companies can follow this investment route and avail various attractive schemes.67
35% of the respondents expect an Return on Investment (ROI) of 15- 18% and an Internal Rate
of Return (IRR) by the end of 2-3 years in India
By examining the Indian wastewater sector more closely, it became obvious that it has gradually
changed in the last decade. The sector in recent past has seen higher focus from government
agencies and the private sector. Growing population demands coupled with increasing health
consciousness have fuelled the growth in the Indian wastewater sector.
Water and wastewater treatment, especially in the industrial and municipal sectors, is becoming
big business. The point-of consumption market that involves localised treatment of water by set-
ting up distribution channels is approx. 166 M. Industries in the country require normal to ul-

66 Dewan 2011, p. 37.


67 op. cit., p. 34.

53
tra-purified market (as with pharmaceutical companies) and this segment has business to the
tune of 332 M, growing at 15% annually.
The real growth for the sector will come from the municipal water and wastewater treatment
business, mainly dependent on government allocations and funds from agencies such as Asian
Development Bank, World Bank, JNNURM and Japan Bank of International Cooperation.
Customisation is just one of the many options available that can be selected in view of pressing
factors such as a general space crunch that bothers many industrial and commercial SMEs, while
setting up an effluent plant. The accelerated growth seen in commercial sector (hotels, hospitals,
institutions, shopping malls) and small and medium scale industries (food and beverages, sugar,
chemicals, pharmaceuticals) has imparted thrust into this market.
Due to the pattern of industrial development and the undeniable achievement of the commercial
sector, state governments are drafting specific economic and regulatory policies to attract indus-
trial and Information Technology investments.
The highlights of the wastewater management sector in India are as follows:
Fragmented Market: More than 500 companies, of which around 20 are large and the
rest are small
Unorganised Market: Major part of wastewater treatment and services market in rural
India is unorganised, not regulated and there is little involvement of municipal bodies to
enforce law
Suite of Solutions: Apart from the supply of the equipment, companies are also profiting
themselves by providing consulting and design services to the Indian water industry
Initiatives: Major Initiates are taking-off by GOI / Pvt. Sector, also more and more ULBs
are approaching capital markets
The key trends of the wastewater management sector in India are as follows:
Focus of Govt. and Private Sector
Favourable Economic and Regulatory Policies
Growing health conscious population
Need for customisation
Accelerated growth in Commercial and Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) Sector
Industry moving towards 100% Reuse and Recycle
European MNCs driving market towards environmental compliance
Water requirements of major water-consuming industries has grown by 40 times
Agricultural sector uses 85% of the available fresh water68

2.11.1. Policy Trends in Karnataka


The following policy extracts also highlight the policy shift in Karnataka towards a cleaner envi-
ronment and a bigger focus on water management.
This study shows in various chapters and parts how the tendency from application of
indigenous, out-dated and cheapest technologies towards new and recent innovations and
solutions is about to be manifesting also in the water sector.
The Karnataka Industrial Policy (2009 2014), released from the Department of Industries
and Commerce Karnataka, states proper water management as one key goal. The following
paragraphs underline this objective:
Industries will be encouraged to adopt and implement appropriate measures for rational
use of scarce resources. Thrust will be laid on conservation of water by adopting ap-
propriate technologies.

68 op. cit., p. 36.

54
Industrial water supply schemes will be expedited. Feasibility of desalination plants and
supply of recycled and treated wastewater to industries will be explored to enable better
cost recovery and project feasibility. Government would facilitate implementation of
mega water supply schemes for industries at potential locations through Special Pur-
pose Vehicles (SPVs).
Enterprises are encouraged for recycling of water and treatment of wastewater.
Subsidies for Water harvesting / Conservation Measures for Small and Medium enter-
prises in all Zones.
1. Rain water harvesting: 50% of cost (max. INR 1 lakh)
2. Wastewater recycling: 50% of cost (max. INR 5 lakh)
3. Zero discharge process: 50% of cost (max. INR 5 lakh).69
The paper Karnataka - A Vision for Development, released from the Karnataka State Plan-
ning Board, also states water conservation very clear as high priority goal.
One increased provision of industrial infrastructure is that the industries have to use waste-
water recycling plants.
Focal points of the Bangalore infrastructure provision are adequate availability of water. Since
water could be a limiting factor to Bangalores growth as a city. Steps such as reduction in leak-
ages and unaccounted for water, incentivising / mandating the use of water saving technologies
in industry and households; telescopic pricing to deter abuse etc. will be encouraged.70

2.11.2. Opportunities for NEWATEC Companies


There are new trends in required technologies for treatment of wastewater and water for pota-
ble water supply such as:
Online monitoring (remote sensing, SCADA, etc.)
Use of more sophisticated and reliable test laboratories with modernised equip-
ment and analytical quality control systems
All kind of modern water treatment equipment e. g. for disinfection, and effluent
and wastewater techniques (aeration systems, pumps, etc)
New conceptual solutions (partial and holistic) for treatment of special industrial
effluents or municipal sewerage and for water supply (e.g. distribution systems,
rainwater harvesting or storm water control and treatment)
German companies are considered as competitive by offering those recent technologies. The
market potential is immense, since only 75% of 7,000 municipalities in India have installed
proper wastewater treatment systems. This means that over the coming years about 1,800
treatment plants have to be built, which will need one of the above mentioned technologies or all
of them. The nature of new projects with regard to the technical specifications of the relevant
tender or order will change accordingly.

2.11.2.1. Polluted Groundwater


Groundwater in India is slightly too heavily polluted in urban areas and in agricultural zones.
Most commonly one will find the following pollutants: Fe, F, Al, As (in the east of India), Nitrate,
Nitrite, micro-organisms such as E-coli bacteria, apart from high TDS or TOC.
According to some experts, this represents one of the biggest market chances for German
technology providers since Indian companies do not have yet developed proper techniques for
elimination and removal of those pollutants to remediate groundwater sources.

69cf. Department of Industries and Commerce Karnataka 2008, pp. 4.


70 cf. Karnataka State Planning Board 2008, pp. 21.

55
Since this is a serious and crucial matter, the Government of India as well as relevant State au-
thorities have a vital interest in fostering such urgently needed technologies.

2.11.2.2. Possible applications of analytical services (e.g. for the current drinking water supply in
Bangalore)
Test laboratory services, ad-hoc and periodical monitoring and measuring programmes of
environmental quality, in particular in the field of water quality and wastewater surveillance is a
big market. Accordingly a large number of service providers are active in these fields. Some of
the programmes are undertaken by central and state government laboratories on monthly or
yearly bases and include sampling campaigns on basis of e.g. national monitoring programmes
to collect data on the quality of groundwater resources, water bodies such as lakes, reservoirs,
dams, tanks (small local irrigation dams), rivers, coastal sea waters, etc.
Regular periodic monitoring programmes and ad-hoc measurements of water quality of
industrial effluents (e. g. in the context of consent management), raw water resources for
potable water supply and others are carried out by government laboratories: CPCB and SPCB are
operating more than 150 laboratories in the state capitals and on district levels. Many of these
laboratories are in the process of getting acknowledged by national and private accrediting
bodies. All of them are under quality control surveillance of the CPCB in New Delhi and its 5
zonal offices (ZO) in the different regions of India. The national government accrediting body for
laboratories is the NABL. The National Physics Laboratory (NPL) (a member of the CSIR group
of institutes Centre of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) under the Ministry of Science
and Technology in New Delhi) is the National Metrology Institute, having international contacts
and currently running a project on Metrology in Chemistry (MiC) and improvement of the
national analytical quality control system (AQS) in cooperation with GIZ and Physikalisch-
Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB).
There are large numbers of private test laboratories working as service providers for industries
and the public sector in sampling and analysing water, air and other samples of environmental
concern. Some of them are already accredited by NABL or according to ISO rules or are in the
process to do so. There is a distinct shortage of performance tests (ring tests) carried out by
private or state organisations and a lack of certified reference materials provided for calibration
of methods and equipment.
There are private international laboratory companies running numerous test laboratories in the
field of consumer goods testing (e. g. leather, textile) and testing for industrial purposes.
International accrediting bodies such as the German TUV are also present and active.
With regard to AQC in state and private sector laboratories India is not yet cooperating
internationally. The MiC project of NPL with GIZ/PTB is aiming at making the relevant Indian
organisations aware of the urgent need to install a nationwide AQC system for the public sector
that would include the private laboratories; the key word is traceability on all levels. Also
capacity building of all actors and on different levels is a significant part of this project.
There is a number of private laboratories who are very well equipped with latest technology
analytical instruments and who have skilled personnel. They would need to get in network
contacts with other laboratories (national and abroad) to improve their efforts in enhancing
reliability of results through accuracy and precision, as well as comparison tests and calibration
of devices and procedures.
Large multinational and national chemical, pharmaceutical and petrochemical industries have
excellent laboratories with excellently skilled manpower, however they will not be active in the
field of water and environmental analytics for third parties.
There are private international laboratory companies running test laboratories in the field of
consumer goods testing (e. g. leather, textile) and testing for industrial purposes. International
accrediting bodies such as the German TUV are also present and active.

56
With regard to AQC in state and private sector laboratories India is not yet cooperating interna-
tionally. The MiC project of NPL with GIZ/PTB is aiming at making the relevant Indian organisa-
tions aware of the urgent need to install a nationwide AQC system for the public sector that
would include the private laboratories; the key word is traceability on all levels. Also capacity
building of all actors and on different levels is a significant part of this project.
There is a number of private laboratories who are very well equipped with latest technology
analytical instruments and who have skilled personnel. They would need to get in network con-
tacts with other laboratories (national and abroad) to improve their efforts in enhancing reli-
ability of results through accuracy and precision, as well as comparison tests and calibration of
devices and procedures.
Large multinational and national chemical, pharmaceutical and petrochemical industries have
excellent laboratories with excellently skilled manpower, however they will not be active in the
field of water and environmental analytics for third parties.

2.11.3. Insights of the Indian water market


There are certain particular issues of the Indian water sector that need to be listed as a whole
and in a comprehensive manner, they are rather characteristic and unique and are in technical
fields as well as in administrative context. They are given below in an overview.

Indian wastewater industry is expanding at a tremendous rate, with demand surpassing


supply

The Indian government has legislations and regulations in place to facilitate growth in this
sector

Bureaucracy in India is an area of prime concern, but the scenario is steadily improving

The custom and excise duties are higher than the European average, but the opportunities
are also immense

Technology Transfer is the easiest bit as India has quality engineers

European imports seem expensive in front of equipment sourced locally from China

In India, waste is treated at the end rather than at source, unlike in Europe; this leads to
varying composition of wastewater throughout the geography

Unorganised industry offers stiff competition in standard equipment, but niche technolo-
gies have negligible competition with good margins

Corporate taxes are high in India, but less than rates prevalent in UK and Germany

SME's should follow the following route - Knowledge Transfer, Feasibility Study in India,
and then enter into projects

EU companies only share the scale down version with Indian counterparts, due to risks as-
sociated with IPR

First mover advantage still exists in some niche sectors and geographical locations in India

EU companies should voice their common concerns to the concerned European body,

57
which can further discuss it with the Indian counterpart

ROI / IRR increases with project experience and can go up to 15-17% after completion of
2-3 projects71

2.12. Future Projects


There is a big one-year-project coming up in Bangalore in the context of water quality testing,
funded by BWSSP Bangalore. For a first step the goal is to immediately install four measure-
ment stations at inlets and outlets of two tanks (reservoirs) in the urban area of Bangalore
If this initial project is successful, the city is planning to install inlet and outlet measurement sta-
tions at all 62 major water tanks (maximum 124) which are actually small dams located in the
seven different watersheds in the city plus 50 more at other places. This means, over the coming
years 180 measurement stations will be installed if the undertaking can be started success-
fully.
This will create opportunities for setting up on-line monitoring and measurement systems of
water quality parameters in natural water bodies and wastewater channels or sewerage sys-
tems. However, this is only one example among many projects actually underway or just started
in the recent months in Karnataka. One on-line monitoring system is currently under installation
with SCADA systems that cannot be started nor finalised successfully in Hubli-Dharwad a north
Karnataka urban centre, because the providing company has problems with setting up the sys-
tems.
Many of the existing industrial areas in Bangalore with single type industries (such as Elec-
tronic City in the South, Computer City in the east) or as mixed zones with all types of manu-
facturing companies in the food, metal, plastic, textile or pharmaceutical sector (all sizes from
large scale to medium sized) would need surveillance systems through on-line monitoring with
sensors, probes and transmission of data to the regulating and controlling authority KSPCB.
There is not enough experience yet in setting up and operating such systems.
Furthermore there are as already mentioned 224 municipalities (cities and towns) in Karnataka
of which 18 already have a treatment plant, meaning that another 206 need to be built plus 12
plants alone in the city of Bangalore.
Regarding this the Government of India has created an ambitious plan to install the needed 224
plants in Karnataka and many more in other states of the country until 2012 end. Therefore, a
budget of INR 1,000 B (approx. 16 B) is provided for the entire country.

3. Technological Assessment
The selection of advanced equipment such as reverse osmosis or membrane technologies has in-
creased in the last years due to the greater involvement of local and foreign companies in the
sanitation and water sector. Simultaneously the prices for these products have decreased. Even a
growing standardization in wastewater treatment systems can be observed. According to the
Confederation of Indian Industries (CII) (www.cii.in) the public utilities and companies are in-
creasingly asking for standard solutions, out of cost reasons.
Most Indian waterworks use traditional and conventional methods of water pre-treatment and
wastewater treatment. Most municipal water suppliers use methods such as screening or
sedimentation and flocculation for chemical procedures. In the biological treatment stage mainly
trickling filter and CAS - Conventional Activated Sludge process are used, such as the
anaerobic/aerobic (A/O) or anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic method (A/A/O).

71 Dewan 2011, p. 11.

58
In most water treatment plants Indian technology
is used, since local products are available in most
Figure 12: Technology Transfer
technology areas at very low prices. While domes-
tic products meet the requirements in technically
less sophisticated parts of the system, they are still
inferior to foreign products in fields such as meas-
urement technologies or special pumps. These
products are either supplied through imports or
locally produced, using foreign know-how. Certain
technologies have just been introduced to the In-
dian market and not yet standardized. This is a
field where manifold opportunities exist for NE-
WATEC since Indias authorities and officials are
increasingly fostering technology transfer and do-
mestic companies are trying to catch up.
72

The changing policy is creating interesting delivery and investment opportunities for foreign
companies. While introducing new and stricter environmental rules and regulations the gov-
ernment is creating demand in new fields. The demand for wastewater treatment equipment in
the field of coal washing has risen, because plants where only allowed to burn coal treated with
an ash content of 34%.
It seems to be no problem in India that the quality, durability and maintenance requirements of
local facilities often do not meet the international standards. As long as the water sector is
mainly controlled by the public sector, the most important award criterion in the tender will be
the price. This makes it difficult for foreign companies to be competitive in the "low-tech" seg-
ment. Delivery opportunities therefore arise when it comes to major or pilot projects for specific
procedures or treatment plants with high capacity.
The growing demand for wastewater treatment technologies can be traced to the requirements
of water treatment laid down in the "Environmental Protection Act" of 1986. This Act defines
which water treatment methods are supposed to be used. These are however minimum re-
quirements. Technical equipment for wastewater treatment is subject to the specifications and
standards of the BIS.
A list of accredited testing facilities is available on the BIS website (www.bis.org.in). The Na-
tional Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories (NABL) is the only govern-
ment agency that may accredit on behalf of the Department of Science and Technology (DoST)
(www.nabl-india.org).73

3.1. Existing Technical Standards and Minimum Requirements


Technical minimum requirements and building standards are laid down in the manual of the
CPHEEO. All other standards provided by the State Pollution Control Boards, in Karnataka, the
KSPCB (on the water outlet of ETPs of certain industries), BIS (on the quality of water) and can
be found also in the CPHEEO manual, in Annex II in the Folder 3 Technial Standards.

3.2. Water and Wastewater Technologies


All technologies which meet the minimum technical requirements and standards of CPHEEO
regarding water quality etc. can be applied in the Indian wastewater market. Altough these
technologies must be proven and established.

72 Dewan 2011, p. 27.


73 Boris 2007, pp. 48.

59
Indian urban water supply and wastewater management are in transition from unsustainable
centralised model to a sustainable and rational decentralised one. The Goverment is therfore
targeting decentralized treatment plants, which should not exceed 50 MLD .
Indias wastewater sector has developed various indigenous methods in the last few decades,
which have made it extremely productive and efficient. Typically the following effluent and
wastewater/sewerage treatment systems are in use:
Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) process and aerated lagoon
Conventional Aerated Sludge Process (ASP)
Cyclic Activated sludge Process
Sequenced Batch Reactor (SBR) Systems
Prominent best practices prevalent in this sector are as follows:
Recycling of Wastewater:
Wastewater was recycled including sewage effluent for aquaculture or for reuse e.g. in the textile
industry. In some states zero-effluent and zero-waste regulations have to be followed and re-
quire higher technology levels for treatment such as membranes, reverse osmosis, etc. The
treated wastewater is then either reused in the factory or for irrigation or other minor applica-
tions.
Water Management at a Household and Residential layout-level: This is followed in Banga-
lore e.g. and involved roofing and plumbing practices, water efficiency and fixtures, rainwater
harvesting, recharge wells and sumps, groundwater use and wastewater treatment, solid waste
management, landscaping and behavioural changes. Rainwater harvesting is made mandatory
now in Bangalore for new building s and industries.
Development of Wastewater Lake into Recreational Area: In Orissa an amusement park was
set up on an area that was previously flooded by wastewater. An Indo-Canadian Agency funded
this project.
Designing Flexible Wastewater Systems: These systems allow efficient and seamless usage of
utilities during peak tourist loadings as well as off-season. Such initiatives have been taken in
various Indian cities.
Municipal Wastewater Recycling and Reuse: USAID offered technical assistance to the Nag-
pur Municipal Corporation (NMC) and Mahagenco to design, develop, and implement highly in-
novative wastewater recycling and reuse project in Nagpur. The project was designed to develop
large scale industrial applications for treated municipal wastewater. It allowed NMC to meet en-
vironmental compliance to treat municipal sewerage and Mahagenco to purchase the treated
water for its power plant operations.74

3.3. Monitoring and Control Technologies Applied


In small cities or towns with 0.1 to 0. 2 M population there are only government funds available.
Consequently financial means are small and it would be difficult to install modern high-tech
controlling technologies. It can be expected that those municipalities will purchase only lower
standard equipment
Cities with 0.2 to 5.0 M population and mega cities with 5 to 10 M population in general while
have the resources to install monitoring equipment. Although the following requirements must
be meet according to the standards mentioned:
Skilled workforce should be made available,
Professional operation and maintenance is needed
Land availability, etc.

74 Dewan 2011, p. 35.

60
3.4. Possibilities of using Remote Control and Online Measurement
ICT-based methods become more and more important. They will be used for billing and tariff
purposes, for water quality surveillance, e.g. based on GIS. Cities above 1 M inhabitants will have
to run remote supervision systems installed for 4-5 parameters (flow, pH, total dissolved solids,
temperature, selected anions and cations).

4. Assessment
4.1. SWOT Analysis

Strength Weakness

Core Sustainable: Critical:


Wastewater treatment in India is funda-
mentally different when compared to EU;
o In Europe treatment is done at source
where as in India it is done at the end;
hence compatibility of technology to
Indian settings may undergo a change

Core: Core:

Advanced technology that is commercially Lack of experience in India usually leads to


viable considering the scale India would disqualification based on municipal ten-
offer ders requirements and inability of EU
companies to choose alternate routes to
Environmentally conforming solutions in get the work done
EU would help India build robust regula-
tion and norms to enable economically
and environmentally sustainable solutions
o Also this would assist EU companies
build a strong relationship with gov-
ernment departments and regulators
Basic: Basic:
Conformation to stringent international Suite of solutions required to cater to var-
quality standards ied climatic and usage requirements
Technological expertise with strong R&D
capability

61
Opportunity Threat

Long Term: High:


Trend building to move towards 100% re- Highly bureaucratic and slow procedures
use and recycle; however the scale is cur- with multiple levels hamper speed of mar-
rently limited and is expected to grow in ket entry and business operations
the next 2-3 years Cost driven tender mechanism, discour-
Agricultural sector consumes approx. 85% ages expensive EU technology
freshwater; however availability of the o Projects approved at lowest bidder
same a key challenge owning to rapid in- level
dustrialisation and urbanisation Indian and Chinese solutions are popular
o Thus government promoting need for as overall costs are less as compared to EU
water treatment at rural sites average
Demand for sophisticated technology is o Cost of production in China is ex-
increasing at 17% per year tremely low
Medium Term: Medium:
approx. 62% of untreated wastewater pre- Weak IPR implementation resulting in
sents immense opportunities corporate malpractices
Financial assistance available from trade Inadequate wastewater treatment infra-
promotion bodies and local embassy structure creates functional bottlenecks
Short Term: Low:
Incentives offered by government e.g. Tax Fragile legal and regulatory environment
Holidays, FDI, other subsidies hampers operations
High tariffs and corporate taxes (32%) put
pressure on operating margins of compa-
nies75
4.2. TOWS Analysis (internal)

Strength (Internal Factors)

Opportunity Leverage on superior technology and experience to cater to Indian waste-


(External water sector. Utilise financial assistance to reduce initial expenditure and
Factors) increase viability
o Employ advanced technology in the largely untapped tertiary sector
(reuse / recycle)
o Access financial assistance from respective embassy and trade promo-
tion bodies
o Run marketing campaigns and participate in seminars and industry
events to demonstrate technological competence

75 Dewan 2011: pp. 41.

62
Weakness (Internal Factors)

Threat (Ex- Compete with low cost Indian and Chinese technology providers by part-
ternal Fac- nering with local companies. Indigenise technology to achieve higher ROI
tors) o Ride on experience of local partner to successfully bid for municipal
projects
o Employ local partner to overcome bureaucratic hassles
o Customise offerings as per varied climatic / usage considerations
o Proactively protect IPR by scrutinising partners and ensure timely fil-
ing of patents and trademarks76

4.3. Identification Resolution Matrix


The Identification-Resolution matrix clearly enumerates the challenges faced by network com-
panies in the wastewater sector and the intensity of the respective impacts.

Identification Resolution Matrix

Challenge Issues faced by Impact Severity Solution


European Cos

Red Tapism: Delays decision Start the regulatory


Excessive regulations making process process early
and unnecessary pa- Creates disin- Keep all necessary
perwork terest documents / satisfy
formalities
Partner with a local
player
Lack of Transpar- Delays opera-
Approach consult-
ency: tions
ants / Chamber of
BUREAUCRACY

Untapped in- Commerce for


Unclear policies centives and
HIGH

comprehensive in-
Unavailability of benefits formation
critical informa- Confusion in fil- Contact local em-
tion / miscom- ing tenders bassy and trade fa-
munication
cilitation bodies
Seek approval from Delays in start- Utilise local Liaon-
various regulatory ing operations ing Partner to ex-
bodies Creates confu- pedite approvals
sion
Untimely payment in Hampers work- Can select local
government project ing capital re- partner with suffi-
quirements cient funds

76 Dewan 2011: p. 43.

63
Challenge Issues faced by Impact Severity Solution
European Cos

Low Demand: EUs EU goods suffer Formulate India


high-tech solutions from low de- specific business
approx.30-50% ex- mand model strategies
pensive than ones Tenders in- (product, value,
available locally variably go to pricing)
lowest bidder; Initially, import
making EU cos. only niche products
Uncompetitive from home country
Fierce Competition: Difficult to
Localise parts of
compete for
value-chain to de-
Expensive EU general tenders
rive cost benefit
products fail to Low demand for
Opportunity for
COST SENSTIVITY

compete with lo- EU products


cal and Chinese SMEs in:
products o Tertiary sector

HIGH
of Class A cities
Poor consumer
o Class B cities
awareness dimin-
lacking adequate
ishes value of su-
treatment infra-
perior EU tech-
structures
nology
Tap high potential
regions such as
South India, Ma-
harashtra and arid
and semi arid sec-
tion of North India
Compete in niche
areas, which offer
premium for tech-
nology, after a fea-
sibility check

Challenge Issues faced by Impact Severity Solution


European Cos

Weak Implementa- Loss of business


Patent products /
IPR ISSUES / TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER

tion of IPR regula- and reputation


technology in India
tions: Avoid importing
Difficulty in safe- best technology
guarding IPR Receive upfront
Slow judicial re- payment to protect
misuse of technol-
HIGH

dressal
ogy
by partner
Increase IPR May get ex- Sign non disclosure
(TRIPSPLUS Protec- ploited by local agreement before
tion): partners and ex- sharing technology
EU companies dont ternal infringers / products etc.
get same level of pro- Concern wrt6 Enter into legally

64
tection in India safeguarding binding contracts
IPR with local partners
Scrutinise partners
credentials
Watermark designs
Procedural delays Frauds File for IPR early
in getting IP regis- Misuse of tech- Use product /
tered, leads to use of nology / design technology com-
unprotected technol- / product mercially only after
ogy patenting

Challenge Issues faced by Impact Severity Solution


European Cos

Tender related chal- Unable to suc-


Conduct a feasibil-
lenges: cessfully bid
ity analysis of the
and win all pro-
target market /
Inability to meet jects (GOI / Pri-
project to know cri-
tender criterias vate)
teria's, from an in-
due to no / lim-
dependent agency
ited experience in
India Gain experience in
sector and build
Short notice for
reputation
submission dead-
lines Have presence
through subsidiary
/ local partner
Disparity and com- Impacts busi- Do cost benefit
plexity in interstate ness strategy, analysis for region
rules and regulations cost mechanism specific considera-
and profitability tions
MARKET ENTRY


MODERATE

Delays opera- Hire consultants


tions for exhaustive list
of Interstate rules /
regulations / incen-
tives
Challenges in con- Few buyers for Attend conferences
cept selling w.r.t. the technology / networking
utility of the technol- events to showcase
ogy product / technol-
ogy benefit
Provide reference
w.r.t. live projects
undertaken and
benefits accrued
Highlight advan-
tages of unique
services offered
Highlight Return on
Time through ex-
tended life cycle
benefit of product
65
Huge scale of opera- SMEs may find
Start with private /
tions for govern- it hard to com-
Indian consulting
ment projects: pete for GOI
projects (lower
projects
scale)
High cost Unable to meet
Work as a part of
Long gestation high fixed costs
project consortium
period
Raise funds
through financial
institutions and re-
spective local em-
bassy / trade bod-
ies
Operate under
BOOT model
Partner Identifica- Challenge in in- Do a feasibility
tion: dependently analysis and part-
Highly complex and conducting ner identification
difficult market business study through ex-
ternal agency
Choose a partner of
similar size / scale
/ expertise
Have a project spe-
cific partnership
initially

Challenge Issues faced by Impact Severity Solution


European Cos

Varied climatic Unable to suc- Indigenise prod-


conditions: High cessfully bid for ucts as per Indian
proportion of EU various projects climatic conditions
FEASIBILITY OF EUROPEAN

technology is unsuit- due to techno- Evaluate techno-


MACHINERY IN INDIA

able for varied Indian logical mis- logical requirement


climatic conditions match for different geog-
raphies
HIGH

Technical standards Some EU tech- Have a balanced


/ specification vary nologies are un- portfolio, which
from project to pro- adoptable as finds application in
ject e.g. sewage, de- they fail to meet different projects
salination etc requisite crite- Offer complete
ria range of solutions
Lower technical
specifications be-
fore entering India

66
Challenge Issues faced by Impact Severity Solution
European Cos

High customs and Reduction in Avail custom / ex-


corporate taxes: In- profit margins cise subsidies
dias average tariff is Difficulty in Invest through SEZ
17% while EUs aver- competing with corridor
age tariff is 2%
CUSTOMS / DUTIES / TAXES

inexpensive lo- Minimise imports


cal and Chinese Operate as a do-
products mestic company

MODERATE
Adopt long term
perspective in India
Offer after-sales
support to encour-
age repeat pur-
chase
Initially bid for
AMCs
revenue through
by-products
Utilise carbon
credit

Challenge Issues faced by Euro- Impact Severity Solution


pean Cos

Difficulty in raising Difficulty in Tap grants avail-


capital for project executing pro- able from:
execution / busi- jects Home country
ness operations: Increases Unilateral bodies
Unable to meet / COC10 by rais- e.g. World Bank,
CAPITAL RAISING

maintain WC and ex- ing money ADB etc.


MODERATE

pansion require- through expen- Local Embassy /


ments sive mediums
HIGH

Trade promotion
bodies
Complex capital Inexperienced Minimise capital
raising criterias: cos. face diffi- expenditure, part-
Complex eligibility culties in raising ner with local firms
for raising capital i.e. capital; impacts to invest
Indian experience / sustainability / Pitch as technology
reputation profitability suppliers / service
providers77

77 Dewan 2011: pp. 44.

67
4.4. PESTILE Analysis
The Macro landscape in India indicates that government is consciously promoting the growth
of wastewater sector. Necessary funds are made available through lending bodies and bureau-
cratic bottlenecks are getting resolved. EUs sophisticated technology has high demand in India;
however it needs to be customised as per local requirements due to cost sensitivity and climatic
considerations. The same factors have been highlighted in the model below.

PESTLE: Indian Wastewater Sector

Relative Impor-
FACTORS

Factors Affecting EU Implications of Factors for EU


MACRO

tance of Factors
Wastewater Companies in Wastewater Companies in In-
for EU Wastewater
India dia
Companies

Relative importance
Dynamics (=,>,<)
Time (N,F,N / F)

Type (-,+)

(C, vi, I, s)
Free Trade Agreement (FTA)

FTA talks will have major Reduce or eliminate tariff


bearing on Tariff, Non- barriers between EU-India
Tariff Barriers and IPR Trade, which is an entry bar-
Regulations rier
F + > I
Agreement could open up Stringent IPR norms (TRIPS-
new export opportunities PLUS Protection) will help
worth approx. 6.6 B for safeguard rights of EU com-
Indian industries panies
POLITICAL

Reason: India - EU FTA talks are extremely important to address disputes related to en-
try barriers and IPR regulations. EU wastewater companies are economically and opera-
tionally impacted by this.

Government led funding

GOI has significantly in- Increased funding will ease


N/ +
creased funding for availability of capital thereby > I
JNNURM and other waste benefitting EU companies F
management initiatives
Reason: Funding needs depend on solutions offered by various companies. Wastewater
product manufacturers are mainly impacted by this.

68
High Growth Sector

Indian Wastewater sector EU companies can tap into


growing at a CAGR of 15- this high growth sector and N + > vi
20%, is one of the fastest increase their overall revenue
growing in the economy
Reason: Primarily, slowing / stagnating growth of EU companies in local markets and
huge potential in India; is a driver for prospective wastewater companies

KOLs Perception
Sophisticated EU machinery
Low cost machines have is more expensive than the
ECONOMIC

high demand in India Indian version, this can be a


Maximum municipal ten- problem area N - > vi
ders are approved at low Technological specifications
cost can pose a challenge in get-
ting projects
Reason: EU companies will not get value for their sophisticated technology. This can have
a bearing on getting projects.

High Tariff

India has a high tariff re- High Import Tariffs remain a


gime, although it was re- concern and can discourage N - < I
ducing gradually foreign investments

Reason: Indian tariff rates are higher than the EU average. Thus it would be a compara-
tively expensive proposition for technology importers.

Trade Association

Wastewater sector does Reduced bargaining power


SOCIAL

not have a strong single and promotional support to N - > I


trade association wastewater companies

Reason: Wastewater companies would not have a body that could promote their interest
in the short term, although this has a limited impact on operations

Multiple Technologies

India with diverse geo-


TECHNOLOGICAL

graphical regions, varied EU companies need to cus-


climatic conditions and tomise their technology N/
+ = vi
levels of urbanisation re- Offer multiple technologies F
quires a suite of techno- for Indian operations
logical solutions
Reason: EU companies need to customise their offerings in order to operate successfully.
However, this may sometimes be a tedious process and impacts nearly all solution pro-
viders.

69
Rising Demand of Sophisticated Machinery

Demand for advanced


waste management tech-
nologies such as Ultra Fil-
tration and Membrane
Bioreactor is rising espe- Good opportunity for EU
cially in highly polluted companies to cater to new
and urban regions. Sector regulatory requirements and F + > I
may grow by approx. 18% growing environmental re-
each year sponsibilities
Market gradually shifting
from chemical treatment /
DM plants to membrane
technology
Reason: Increase in demand for sophisticated machinery has direct impact on the appli-
cability of EU technology increase significantly

Strict Regulatory Policies

Strict environmental regu- EU companies may benefit


latory policies for waste- because of their highly envi- N/
LEGAL

water management + > I


ronmentally conforming solu- F
Adherence to various na- tions
tional and regional rules
Reason: EU companies have a major advantage vis-a-vis their Indian counterparts own-
ing to their commitment to meet stringent environmental norms

Varied Climate

Varied and extreme cli-


matic conditions due to
ENVIRONMENTAL

Indias vast geographical EU companies need to offer a


expanse will impact portfolio of offerings depend- N/
Wastewater industry - = vi
ing upon regional / climatic F
Technology applicable at consideration
one location may not be
applicable across another
location
Reason: Europe has different environmental conditions as compared to India. EU compa-
nies need to alter their specifications based on local needs. 78

78 Dewan 2011: pp. 38.

70
4.5. Exemplified Strategies
The NEWATEC network companies can take reference from the strategies adopted by many
European wastewater companies in the Indian context. Various companies are manufacturing in
India and offering a portfolio of solutions to effectively cater to Indian needs.

Top Scenario Based Solution

Bureaucracy Information not available in the public domain, solutions vary from case to
case basis

Cost Sensitivity Wartsila a European Company decided to import critical parts and manufac-
ture others locally in India. The company started importing high capacity
diesel engines from European suppliers and manufactured less critical parts
in India.

Market Entry REMONDIS, a German waste and water management company entered India
in 2009 by acquiring a local company called Shrushti Consultants. RE-
MONDIS carefully screened the Indian market, did its initial due diligence
and feasibility analysis and choose Shrushti, which had over 11 ongoing
wastewater contracts and catered to clients such as Tata, VW and Seco
Tools. By following this mechanism REMONDIS reduced its market entry
challenge.

Feasibility of EIMCO Water Tech. offers a complete suite of water management solutions.
European Ma- The company services Municipal and Industrial sectors, thereby catering to
chinery in In- varied needs and requirements. It also offers a complete range of water
dia management offering such as Sludge, Reuse, Waste to Energy, Water Treat-
ment products and services. In addition, it provides Engineering, Manufac-
turing, and Installation services.

Capital Raising Degremont, a subsidiary of the French water giant Suez was awarded a 33
M agreement by Delhi Jal Board (DJB) for a drinking water treatment plant,
the project was externally funded. Degremont was provided with land,
electricity and treatment cost. Kept free from transmission losses and
revenue collection with assured purchase of treated water and produc-
tivity incentives once the plant begins operations. 79

4.6. Recommendations
4.6.1. Water Management in Bangalore City
BWSSB and the Government of Karnataka have to take necessary actions to solve the water
problems in the city. With respect to demand and supply BWSSB should find alternative and
economical ways to solve the water scarcity of the city. The water losses due to UFW in the dis-
tribution system have to be minimized so that not only more revenue will be generated but also
more water will be available to serve more population.
BWSSB should execute the UFW project successfully to reduce the UFW from 37% to 16% as
planned and in the future they should maintain the lowest leakage level possible in the system.
To achieve this NEWATEC might have solutions.

79 Dewan 2011: p. 50.

71
BWSSB should provide training to its manpower and workers in using new techniques and
equipment to minimize UFW. Here NEWATEC could offer solutions as well.
Reuse of water schemes have to be implemented by BWSSB fast to get the additional supply into
the system. There are tertiary treatment plants in the city, so BWSSB should increase their ca-
pacity and number to meet the maximum industrial demand. Otherwise, water application for
indirect potable and non-potable use has to be considered.
Public awareness and education of people to conserve water should be properly done and ex-
tended. BWSSB have already done many activities in rain water harvesting; now they should
emphasize more on this and spread the public awareness all over the city to save water.

4.6.2. Contacts at Public Institutions


Bangalore Water supply and Sewerage Board
M.S. Narahavi, Executive Engineer
V.C. Kumar, Executive Engineer
Karnataka Urban Water Supply and Sewerage Board
M. Nagesh, Deputy Chief Engineer
M. Rangadamaiah, Additional Chief Engineer

72
Annex I

Table 14: Basin wise Presentation of Water Pollution Areas

Problems River Basins

Krishna Basin Cauvery Basin Godavari Ba- West Flowing River Other Basins
sin Basin (Palar, South and North Pennar)

i. Inequity and inadequacy

Pressure on exist- Dharwad, Bellary, Ba- Bangalore (U), - Uttar Kannada Kolar
ing water re- galkot, Bijapur, Tumkur, Kodagu, Hassan,
source- surface Gulbarga, Belgaum, CR. Nagar
Haveri

ii. Inefficiency in water use

Salinity and wa- Bellary, Bijapur, Chi- Bangalore (U), Bidar (Chulki- Kali, Pavenje, Netra- -
terlogging tradurga, Raichur, Gul- Mysore nala) vati, Gurpura (UK
barga, Dharwad, Shi- and DK)
moga, Belgaum, Da- D. Kannada,
vangere U. Kannada

iii. Deteriorating water quality

Surface Water Davangere (Tungab- Mandya (Hebbal river), Ban- - Uttar Kannada -
Ground Water hadra river Da- galore (Arkavathi Kanaka- (Kali river-
Seepage of Fer- vangere and Harihar) pura town), Mysore (Kabini Dandeli), Dakshin
tilizers and Pes- Shimoga, Belgaum, river- Nanjangud and Cau- Kannada
ticides Davangere very Srirangapattana and (Netravati and
K.R. Nagar) C.R. Nagar (Cau- Sullia)
very-Kollegal)

XII
Tumkur, Chitradurga, Bangalore (R&U), Mandya, Kolar
Gadag, Bagalkot, Da- Tumkur (Kunigal), C.R.
vangere, Dharwad, Nagar
Haveri, Bellary
Raichur, Koppal, Bel- Bangalore (U&R), Mysore, - D. Kannada Kolar
gaum, Dharwad, Kodagu, Mandya, Mandya,
Chikmagalur, Shi- Hassan
moga, Bellary

iv. Depleting ground water resources

Decline in depth Bagalkot, Bellary, Chi- Chamarajanagar , Bidar - Kolar


and low water tradurga, Haveri, Belgaum, Bangalore (R&U),
table (1990- Gadag, Davangere, Tumkur, Hassan, Mandya
2000) Dharwad, Koppal, Gulbarga
and 2002
v. Drought prone area-need for watershed treatment

Chitradurga, Tumkur, Dhar- Bangalore (R), My- - Kolar


wad, Gulbarga, Haveri, Gadag, sore
Bellary, Bijapur

vi. Siltation in reservoir, river beds and estuaries

Belgaum (Ghataprabha and - - Linganmakki reser- -


Malaprabha reservoir); Bel- voir (Shimoga), Kali
lary (Tungabhadra reservoir), (U.K.) Netravati and
Shimoga (Bhadra reservoir) Gurpur (D.K.)

XIII
Sectors having impact on water resources

Environmental Pressures Sectors impacting the water resources

Agriculture (Irriga- Industry In adequate urban Household sector Mining


tion major, medium planning and waste,
and minor) water- management
sheds, etc.,
I. Depletion of water resources

(i) Surface High - Medium High -

(ii) Ground High Low Medium High -

II. Inequity in distribution and inadequate High Low Medium High -


water availability
III. Water Pollution

(i) Surface High High High High High

(ii) Ground Medium High Medium High High

IV. Degradation of tanks High High High High Low

V. Inefficiency in water use High - High High -

VI. Drought prone areas High Medium - Low -

XIV
VII. Siltation High - - Low High

Total High High Medium High High

Prioritization matrix

Problems Socio-Economic / Ecological impact

Urgency of the

Total Scoring
Irreversibility
Biodiversity

Vulnerable

reversibility
Impact on

Impact on

problem
Ecosystem

Impact on
groups
Health

Loss of

Productivity
Public

critical
Loss
1. Depleting Ground Water Resources 5 5 5 5 3 3 5 31

2. Inequity in distribution / inadequate availability 5 5 5 5 3 3 5 31


of water
3. Deteriorating water quality

(i) Surface 5 3 5 3 3 3 5 27

(ii) Ground 5 3 5 3 3 3 5 27

4. Degradation of tanks 3 3 5 3 3 3 5 25

5. Inefficiency in Water Use 3 1 3 5 5 3 3 23

6. Drought prone Area Need for Watershed treatm. 1 3 5 5 3 1 3 21

Total 27 23 33 29 23 19 31 185

XV
Impact of other sectors on water supply and Sanitation

Problems Sectors

Household Agriculture Urban Planning Mining and Quar- Industry


rying
Inadequate Drinking Water Supply High High High Medium Medium

Depletion of Ground Water High Medium High Medium Low

Deteriorating Drinking Water Quality High High High High High

Lack of Household Toilet Facility High Low High NA NA


Lack of Sewerage System and Dis- High Low High NA High
posal Facilities
Lack of Community Sanitation High Medium High NA NA

Increasing Number of Slums High NA High NA NA

Total High High High Medium High

XVI
Table 15: List of all KIADB Industrial Areas and Zonal Offices in Karnataka

List of Industrial Areas in Karnataka


BAGALKOT DIST. BIJAPUR DIST. KOLAR DIST.
Assangi Aliabad (Mini G.C.) Bangarpet
Bogolkote - Navnogar Aliabad -H Stage Malur I & II Phase
Bogolkote Food Par k Mahalbagayat Malur III Phase
Malur IV Phase
BENGALURU URBAN DIST. CHIKKABALLAPUR DIST. Tamaka
Attibele Chikkaballapur
Bommasandra I, II & III Phases Bagepalli KOPPAL DIST.
Bammasandra IV Phase Gowribidanur Kustagi
Bommosandra-Jigani Link
Road CHIKMAGALUR DIST. MANDYA DIST.
Doddennakkundi I & II Phase Amble I Phase Mandya(Tubinakere)
Dyavasandra I & II Phase Amble II Phase Somanahally
Electronic City Phase II Gejjalagere
Electron le City Phase III CHITRADURGA DIST. Kalinganahalli
EOIZ Kelkote Hebbal II Phase
EPIP I & II Phase
Jigani I & II Phases DAKSHINA KANNADA DIST. MYSORE DIST.
Kadugodi-Sadaramangala Baikampady Belagola
Kumbalagudu I & II Phase Karnad Belawadi
Peenya I to IV Phases Thannirbhavi Hebbal/Eleclronic City
Veerasandra Puttur Hootagalli
Yarandahalli Sub-layout EPIP, Ganjimutt IA Nanjangud I & II Phase
Kachanayakanahalli Sub-Iayout IT, SEZ, Mangalore. Thandya
Koorgally
BENGALURU RURAL DIST. DAVANAGERE DIST. Hebbal II Phase
Aerospace Components Davonagere Kadakola Kochanahalli-Textile
Aerospace Components SEZ Harlapur Park
IT / BT Park, Devenahalli Hanagavadi
Doddaballapura Apparel Park I Karur RAICHUR DIST.
Ph. Deosugur
Doddaballapura Apparel Park DHARWAD DIST. Raichur
II Ph. Dharwad G.C. Raichur Growth Centre
Dobaspet l Phase Belur I, II & III Phase Manvi
Dobaspet II Phose Gokul
Sompura Lakkammanahally RAMANAGAR DlST.
Doddaballapura Rayapura I & 11 Phase Bidadi I Phase
Hoskote Sattur Bidadi II Phase Sector-l
Tarihal I & II Phase Bidadi II Phase Sector-II
BELGAUM DIST. Mummigatti & Narendra Harohally I Phase
Gokak Harohally II Phase
Honaga GADAG DIST.
Kakati Narasapura (Mini GC) SHIMOGA DlST.
Kanabargi Auto Complex & Gen. Auto Complex Kallahalli
lA GULBURGA DIST. Mandli-Kallur
Kangrali Kapnoor I & II Phase Shimoga-Bhadravathi
BEllARY DIST. Nandur Kesartigi Nidige
Ananthpur Road Sanda
Mundaragi I Phase HASSAN DIST.

XVII
Mundaragi II Phase B Kattihalli TUMKUR DIST.
Mundaragi III Phase Growth Centre- Sub- Antharasanahally I Ph.
Mundaragi IV Phase [Apparel Layout Antharasanahally 11 Ph.
Park] Hassan Growth Centre Hirehally
Hospef (Sanklapura) Sub Layout (IOCL land) Kunigal I Phase
Textile Zone Kunigal II Phase
BIDAR DIST. Food Processing Zone Sathyamangala
Basavakalyan Bio-Technology & Pharma Vasanthe Narasapura
Basavakalyan Aulonagar IT/ITES SEZ
Humnabad Holenarasipur UDUPI DIST.
Kolhar Thimmenahalli Shivally
Naubad
Naubad Auto Nagar KODAGU DIST. UTTARA KANNADA DIST.
Naubad Housing Kushalnagar Shirwad

YADGIR DIST.
Yodgir

List of KIADB Zonal Offices


Development Officer I Development Officer II
KIADB Zonal Office, Aravinda Bhovcn, 14/3, KIADB Zonal Office, Aravinda Bhavan,
Nrupathunga Road, Bengaluru -560001 14/3, Nrupathunga Road, Bengaluru -560
Ph. 080-22117372 001. Ph.080-22485068

Development Officer III Development Officer


KIADB Zonal Office, Kheny Building, KIADB Zonal Office, Plot No. 92-B, 1st
Gandhinagar, Bengaluru - 560 009 Phase, Antharasanahally, Industrial Area,
Ph. 080-22371925 Tumkur - 572 106 Ph: 0816-2211350

Developmenl Officer Development Officer


K.IAD.B. Zonal Office, Metagalli Industrial Area, KIADB Zonal Office, Holenarasipur
K.R.S. Road, (Near Vikranth Tyres), Road, Hassan Ph. 08172-243110
Mysore - 570 016. Ph. 0821-2582450
Development Officer
Development Officer KIADB Zonal Office, Davanagere Indl.
K.I.A.D.B. Zonal Office, Baikampady Indus- Area, Lokikere Road, Davanagere - 5,
trial Area, New Mangalore - 575 011. Ph.08192-262001
Ph. 0824-2407779
Development Officer
Development Officer K.I.A.D.S. Zonal Office, Plot No. 7/B,
K.LA.D.B. Zonal Office. Lakkammanahalli I.A. B.K. Kangrali IA, Belgaum.
Poona-Bengaluru Road, Dharwad- 580 004. Ph.0831-2475963
Ph.0836-2468697
Dy. Development Officer
Development Officer K.LA.D.B. Zonal Office, Plot No. 43 (E).
K.I.A.D.B. Zonal Office, Kapanoor Industrial Naubad Industrial Area, Bidar - 585462.
Area, Humnabad Rood, Gulburga - 585 102. Ph.08482232048
Ph.08472258048
Spl.Land Acquisition Officer II
Spl.Land Acquisition Officer- 1 KIADB Zonal Office, Kheny Building,
KIADB Zonal Office, Kheny Building, Gandhinagar, Bengaluru 560 009
Gandhinagar; Bengaluru - 560 009 Ph: 080-22371050

XVIII
Ph: 080-22371884
Spl.Land Acquisition Officer
Spl.Land Acquisition Officer K.I.A.D.B. Zonal Office, Baikampady Industrial
K.I.A.D.B. Zonal Office, Metagalli Industrial Area, New Mangalore - 575 011.
Area, K.R.S. Road, (Near Vikranlh Tyres), Ph.0824-2408160
Mysore - 570 016. Ph.0821-2582081
Spl.Land Acquisition Officer
Spl.Land Acquisition Officer
K.I.A.D.B. Zonal Office, Kapanoor Industrial
K.I.A.D.B. Zonal Office, Lakkammanahalli I.A.
Area, Humnabad Road, Gulburgo - 585 102.
Poona-Bengaluru Rood, Dharwad- 580004.
Ph.08352-258048
Ph.0836-2462953
80

Draft National Water Policy 2012 Extract (GOI)


(Bolded highlights by the authors)
Problems
The existing water resources infrastructure is not being maintained properly resulting in
under-utilization of available resources
Growing pollution affects the availability of safe drinking water besides causing envi-
ronmental and health hazards
Availability of water is limited but the demand of water is increasing rapidly due to rapid
urbanization, rapid industrialization, growing population and economic development
Low public consciousness about the overall scarcity and economic value of water results
in its wastage and inefficient use
lack of adequate trained personnel
Basic principles of public policies on water resources
equity and social justice must inform use and allocation of water
Good governance through informed decision making
Water needs to be managed as a community resource
Access to safe and clean drinking water and sanitation should be regarded as a right to
life
Water, over and above the pre-emptive need for safe drinking water and sanitation,
should be treated as an economic good so as to promote its conservation and efficient
use
Use of water
State needs to ensure access to a minimum quantity of potable water for essential health
and hygiene to all its citizens
After meeting the minimum quantity of water required for survival of human be-
ings and ecosystem, water must be used as an economic good with higher priority
towards basic livelihood support to the poor and ensuring national food security
Water framework law
A broad over-arching national legal framework of general principles on water needs to
lead the way for essential legislation on water governance in every State of the Union
Demand management and water use efficiency
System to evolve benchmarks for water uses for different purposes, i.e., water footprints,
and water auditing should be developed to promote incentivize efficient use of water
80 KIADB 2010: p. 1.

XIX
An institutional arrangement for promotion, regulation and controlling efficient
use of water will be established for this purpose at the national level
Recycle and reuse of water, including return flows, should be encouraged to the
extent possible
Project financing should be structured to incentivize efficient and economic use of water
and facilitate early completion of ongoing projects
Water pricing
Over and above the pre-emptive uses for sustaining life and eco-system, water needs to
be treated as an economic good and therefore, may be priced to promote efficient use
and maximizing value from water. While the practice of administered prices may have to
be continued, economic principles need to increasingly guide the administered
prices
every State should establish a water tariff system and fix the criteria for water charges,
preferably on volumetric basis, based on the principle that the water charges shall re-
flect the full recovery of the cost of administration, operation and maintenance of
water resources projects taking into account the cross subsidy, if any.
Recycle and reuse of water, after treatment to specified standards, should be en-
couraged through a properly planned tariff system, in which there is a cost for the
quantity withdrawn, a refund for properly treated water returned for reuse, and
heavy fines for returning polluted waters.
Preservation of river corridors, water bodies and infrastructure
Sources of water and water bodies should not be allowed to get polluted. System of third
party periodic inspection should be evolved and heavy penalty should be imposed on
the basis of polluter pays principle. The money recovered from penalty may be put in a
fund for facilitating water treatment.
It needs to be ensured that industrial effluents, local cess pools, residues of fertilizers
and chemicals, etc., do not reach the ground water
The water resources infrastructure shall be maintained properly to continue to get the
intended benefits. A suitable percentage of the costs of infrastructure development may
be set aside along with collected water charges, for repair and maintenance. Contract for
construction of projects should have inbuilt provision for longer periods of proper main-
tenance and handing over back the infrastructure in good condition.
Water supply and sanitation
Improved water supply in rural areas needs to be provided with proper sewerage
facilities
Reuse of urban water effluents from kitchens and bathrooms, after primary treat-
ment, in flush toilets should be encouraged
In urban and industrial areas, de-salinization, wherever techno-economically feasible,
should be encouraged to increase availability of utilizable water
Urban water supply and sewage treatment schemes should be integrated and exe-
cuted simultaneously. Water supply bills should include sewerage charges
Industries in water short regions have an obligation to return treated effluent to a
specified standard back to the hydrologic system
Subsidies and incentives should be implemented to encourage recovery of indus-
trial pollutants and recycling / reuse, which are otherwise capital intensive
Institutional arrangements
Water Regulatory Authority should be established in each State. The Authority, inter-alia,
will fix and regulate the water tariff system and charges, regulate allocations, monitoring
operations, reviewing performance and suggesting policy changes, etc.

XX
The Service Provider role of the state has to be gradually shifted to that of a regu-
lator of services and facilitator for strengthening the institutions responsible for
planning, implementation and management of water resources. The water related
services should be transferred to community and / or private sector with appro-
priate Public Private Partnership model
Database and Information system
All water related data, should be integrated with well defined procedures and formats to
ensure online updating and transfer of data to facilitate development of database
for informed decision making in the management of water

Legislation on Rainwater Harvesting


Himachal Pradesh
All commercial and institutional buildings, tourist and industrial complexes, hotels etc, existing
or coming up and having a plinth area of more than 1000 m will have rain water storage facili-
ties commensurate with the size of roof area. No objection certificates, required under different
statutes, will not be issued to the owners of the buildings-unless they produce satisfactory proof
of compliance of the new law. Toilet flush systems will have to be connected with the rainwater
storage tank. It was recommended that the buildings will have rain water storage facility com-
mensurate with the size of roof in the open and set back area of the plot at the rate of 0.24 m of
the roof area.

Ahmedabad
In 2002, the Ahmedabad Urban Development Authority (AUDA) had made rainwater harvesting
mandatory for all buildings covering an area of over 1,500 m. According to the rule, for a cover
area of over 1,500 m, one percolation well is mandatory to ensure ground water recharge. For
every additional 4,000 m cover area, another well needs to be built.

Bangalore
In order to conserve water and ensure ground water recharge, the Karnataka government in
February 2009 announced that buildings, constructed in the city will have to compulsorily adopt
rain water harvesting facility. Residential sites, which exceed an area of 240 m (4 x 6 m), shall
create rain harvesting facility according to the new law.

Port Blair
In 2007, Port Blair Municipal Council (PBMC) directed all the persons related to construction
work to provide a proper spout or tank for the collection of rain water to be utilised for various
domestic purposes other than drinking. As per the existing building by-laws 1999 the slab or
roof of the building would have to be provided with a proper spout or gutter for collection of
rain water, which would be beneficial for the residents of the municipal area during water crisis.
The PBMC had advised all the owners of buildings in the Municipal area to comply with the pro-
visions within four months failing which action would be taken against them by the Council.

Chennai
Rainwater harvesting was made mandatory in three storied buildings (irrespective of the size of
the rooftop area). All new water and sewer connections are provided only after the installation
of rainwater harvesting systems.

XXI
Kerala
The Kerala Municipality Building Rules, 1999 was amended by a notification dated January 12,
2004 issued by the Government of Kerala to include rainwater harvesting structures in new con-
struction.

New Delhi
Since June 2001, the Ministry of Urban affairs and Poverty Alleviation has made rainwater har-
vesting mandatory in all new buildings with a roof area of more than 100 m and in all plots with
an area of more than 1000 m that are being developed.
The Central Ground Water Authority (CGWA) has made rainwater harvesting mandatory in all
institutions and residential colonies in notified areas (South and southwest Delhi and adjoining
areas like Faridabad, Gurgaon and Ghaziabad). This is also applicable to all the buildings in noti-
fied areas that have tubewells. The deadline for this was for March 31, 2002.
The CGWA has also banned drilling of tubewells in notified areas.

Indore (Madhya Pradesh)


Rainwater harvesting was made mandatory in all new buildings with an area of 250 m or more.
A rebate of 6% on property tax was offered as an incentive for implementing rainwater harvest-
ing systems.

Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh)


Rainwater harvesting was made mandatory in all new buildings with an area of 1000 m or
more.

Hyderabad (Andhra Pradesh)


Rainwater harvesting was made mandatory in all new buildings with an area of 300 m or more.

Tamil Nadu
Through an ordinance titled Tamilnadu Muncipal Laws ordinance, 2003, dated July 19, 2003, the
government of Tamil Nadu has made rainwater harvesting mandatory for all the buildings, both
public and private, in the state. The deadline to construct rainwater harvesting structures is Au-
gust 31, 2003. The ordinance cautions, "Where the rain water harvesting structure is not pro-
vided as required, the Commissioner or any person authorised by him in this behalf may, after
giving notice to the owner or occupier of the building, cause rain water harvesting structure to
be provided in such building and recover the cost of such provision along with the incidental ex-
pense thereof in the same manner as property tax". It also warns the citizens on disconnection of
water supply connection provided rainwater harvesting structures are not provided.

Haryana
Haryana Urban Development Authority (HUDA) has made rainwater harvesting mandatory in all
new buildings irrespective of roof area.
In the notified areas in Gurgaon town and the adjoining industrial areas all the institutions and
residential colonies have been asked to adopt water harvesting by the CGWA. This is also appli-
cable to all the buildings in notified areas having a tubewell, deadline was for March 31, 2002.
The CGWA has also banned drilling of tubewells in notified areas.

XXII
Rajasthan
The state government has made rainwater harvesting mandatory for all public and establish-
ments and all properties in plots covering more than 500 m in urban areas.

Mumbai
The state government has made rainwater harvesting mandatory for all buildings that are being
constructed on plots that are more than 1,000 m in size.
The deadline set for this was October, 2002.

Gujarat
The state roads and buildings department has made rainwater harvesting mandatory for all gov-
ernment buildings.

XXIII
Table 16: Competitors and Potential Partners in the Indian Market

National Water Companies

Company General Company Profile and Core Working Field Contact


TSR Towers,
1 1 Ramky Enviro The Company has experience in water supply, waste water treatment, underground *
Rajbhavan Road, Somajiguda,
Engineers Ltd. drainage systems and related areas. Ramky currently has a significant market share in the
Hyderabad 500 082, A.P.
segment and has a major share of water related projects tendered by the Government and
quasi-Government bodies.
Tel: 040-4442 2222
The corporation has subsidiaries and daughter companies in nearly all parts of India and E-mail: info@ramky.com
all major cities.
Ramky has several operational plants in water and waste water treatment. The Company www.ramky.com
has capabilities in membrane technology (MBR/UF/RO), high TDS effluent evaporation as
well as sea water desalination. http://ramkyenviroengineers.
com
Ramky has now embarked on the mobile water business, where a fleet of water treatment
equipment carrying trucks are always available. This fleet can produce pure water as and
when and where it is needed. This can meet requirements arising out of seasonal or
supplemental requirements, emergencies, delays in plant start-ups etc.
Services Offered:
ETPs/CTPs
Water Treatment Plants
Zero liquid Discharge Plants
Desalination Plants
Mobile Water Supply
Ramky was in cooperation with GIZ, HAWA Project (Bangalore) and other German
organisations for a couple of years already.
Gammon House
2 3 Gammon Gammon is active in many different fields; inter alia ground engineering and water supply.
Veer Savarkar Marg,
India Ltd. The company has subsidiaries and daughter companies in other parts of India and major
Prabhadevi,

XXIV
National Water Companies

Company General Company Profile and Core Working Field Contact


cities. Mumbai 400 025 India.
Gammon works on reservoirs, pumping stations, water intake works and desalination
plants. Tel: +91 22 6111 4000
Fax: +91 22 2430 0221
Two exemplifying projects are Email:
1. Surendranagar Water Supply, Gujarat, India gammon@gammonindia.com ,
Client: Gujarat Water Supply & Sewerage Board, marketing@gammonindia.co
Project Detail: Water supply for 216 villages for a length of 1016km. m
2. Haldia River Water Supply Scheme, Haldia, West Bengal, India
http://www.gammonindia.co
m/
Nayagara Water Solutions
3 5 Nayagara Nayagara manufactures a wide range of water treatment plants and waste water treatment
Private Ltd
Water systems:
No. 36 / 1, 1st Floor, Model
Solutions Pvt.
De-Mineralized Water Treatment Plant School Road, Thousand Lights
Ltd.
Desalination Plants Chennai, Tamil Nadu - 600
Ultra Filtration Plant 006, India
Sand and Carbon Filters
Industrial Water Softener Tel +(91)-(44)-28295103/
Water Ozonator 28295104
Wastewater Plant Maintenance Services Email:
Wastewater Treatment Plant & Zero Liquid discharge systems nayagarawater@gmail.com ,
Domestic Reverse Osmosis Systems sales@nayagara.in
Industrial Reverse Osmosis Systems
http://www.indiamart.com/n
Membrane Bio Reactor
ayagara/
Next to all his technical solutions Nayagara provides engineering consultancy services for
undertaking complete turnkey projects including surveying, designing, engineering,
equipment manufacturing, testing, erection and commissioning of various water treatment

XXV
National Water Companies

Company General Company Profile and Core Working Field Contact


and environment management systems
As a Private Limited Company, they are a part of Incense Group a multi-crore turnover
company with branches all over the world.
Cooperate Office
4 6 Thermax Ltd. Thermax is covering a big range of products/services, one of them being water and
Thermax House,14 Mumbai-
wastewater treatment. The company has subsidiaries and daughter companies in nearly all
Pune Road
parts of India and all major cities.
Wakdewadi, Pune 411 003
Their solutions contain:
Tel: 91-20-
Water treatment: Pre-treatment of water, treatment of water for boiler feed & cool-
66051200/25542122
ing towers, water treatment for process application, treatment of water for domes-
Fax: 91-20-25542242
tic use, drinking water systems
Waste water treatment: Industrial effluent treatment, sewage treatment, water re- http://www.thermaxindia.co
cycling m/
Thermax value-added offerings consist of:
Annual service/planned service
Operation and maintenance
Plant audits and life cycle analysis
Resource recovery
Augmentation/revamp and retrofit
Training and consultancy
Real time performance and condition monitoring
Their technical solutions include:
Raw Water Clarification
Filtration
Softening
Demineralisation
Reverse Osmosis
XXVI
National Water Companies

Company General Company Profile and Core Working Field Contact


Ultrafiltration
Nano Filtration
UltraPure Application
High Rate Filtration
Sea Water Desalination
Industrial Effluent Treatment & Recycling
Sewage Treatment & Recycling (Fluidised Aerobic Bio-Reactor, Membrane Bio-
Reactor)
Incineration
Registered Office
5 9 A2Z A2Z is part of a bigger company offering technical solutions for environmental issues It **
0116, First Floor, Shopping
started its Water and Waste Water Division in April 2010.
Mall, Arjun Marg, DLF City,
The services/products offered contain: Phase 1, Gurgaon - 122002
Engineering Procurement & Construction/Turn Key Works.
Tel: +91-124-4517600,
Service contracts for Metering & Billing Services, Operation and Maintenance Con-
4776100
tracts.
Fax: +91-124-4380014
Operation and Maintenance of Water Supply System, Waste water System, Waste
Water treatment plants, Water Treatment Plants on "as is where basis".
http://www.a2zgroup.co.in/
Recycling (Zero Discharge) of Sewage Water, Industrial Effluent etc.
Pipeline laying and Network for Water Supply and Sewage
A2Z offer innovative solutions for distribution and management of domestic Water
Supply System by reducing water losses, 24/7 quality water supply, Metering, dis-
tribution of bills to end users and collection of revenue on behalf of the local
Govt./Municipalities.
5/2 Jamna Chambers,
6 1 Indocan Indocan offers the following products:
Aundh Road, Kirkee,
1 Engineering Pollution Control Systems Pune - 411003
Systems Ltd.
Water Treatment Plant & Accessories
Condensafe Polishing System Mrs N Mathews

XXVII
National Water Companies

Company General Company Profile and Core Working Field Contact


Water Treatment Plant Tel: +(91)-(20)-52350
Pollution Control Systems Fax: +(91)-(20)-323203
Driplex House
7 1 Driplex Water Driplex is building water treatment plants, especially for the power sector and is therefore
1, Panchsheel Community Cen-
2 Engineering the largest water treatment plant provider to the power sector in India.
tre
Municipal New Delhi - 110017, India
Portable Water Treatment Plant
Tel: 91-11-26499 - 625 / 698
Sewage Treatement Plant
/ 699/701
Industrial 91-11-49007 - 700
Fax: +91- 11- 26496427
Pre-Treatment Plant
Email:
Condensate Polishing Plant
dwel@driplexwater.com
Demineralisation Plant
Effluent Treatement Plant http://www.driplexwater.com
Reverse Osmosis Plant
Ash Handling Plant
Ultra Filtration Plant
8 1 Eco Green 48/A, KIADB Industrial Area,
Eco Green Solution works in the field of effluent treatment for electroplating, powder *
3 Solution Doddaballapur Road, Banga-
coating and other industries. The company offers a state-of-the-art laboratory to undertake
lore
Systems (P) routine and non-routine chemical analysis. It also provides a wet chemical laboratory
Ltd UVVIS Spectrophotometer and AAS.
Tel: 08056972455
The company established for example a Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) at
KIADB Industrial Area, Doddaballapur, Bangalore. The CETP designed by Eco Green Mr Srinivas
Solution treats non Biodegradable waste with an installed capacity of 1.5 lakhs liters per Tel: +91-98455 41243
day.
The Company is interested to cooperate with NEWATEC http://egsspl.com/

9 #438/1, 20th Main, 1st block,


Pai and Pai Pai and Pai Chemicals collects effluents from across a vast spectrum of small, medium and *
Rajajinagar,
XXVIII
National Water Companies

Company General Company Profile and Core Working Field Contact


Chemicals Pvt large scale industries at its plant in Kumbalgudu, Bangalore, for treatment of: Bangalore 560 010, India
Ltd
Acids
Tel: +91-80-43433000
Alkalis
Fax: +91-80-43433020
Cyanide Mobile: 9980912035
HF Email: info@paienron.com
Chrome
Rinse Mr Shashi Ranjan
Biological Waste. Tel: +91-99647 64221
The waste water treatment plant is ISO 14001 certified. Pai Pai has over 2 decades of Email: kuwar-
experience in treatment of waste water and with their outsourcing model for waste water shashis@yahoo.co.in
treatment quite successful.
www.paienron.com
The Company is interested to cooperate with NEWATEC
10 No 29/3, New Bank Colony
Murali Sesh Murali Sesh Enviro Engineers especially devoted to wastewater engineering consultancy *
Konanakunte
Enviro and project execution in the following areas:
560062 Bangalore
Engineers Pvt
Wastewater treatment plants India
Ltd
Water treatment plants
Coarse bubble diffuser system Tel:+91 80 26324120
Fine pore tubular aeration Fax:+91 80 26324123
Package plants Email: contact@msenviro.com
Feasibility Studies
Project reports http://www.msenviro.com/
EIA / EMP
Consulting services
Guidance on plant operation
Plant maintenance
The company is working for twenty years and implemented operations at more than 300

XXIX
National Water Companies

Company General Company Profile and Core Working Field Contact


locations.
Some products from Murali Sesh include:
Agitators & Mixers
Surface Aerators
Clarifiers & Clarifloculators
Pressure Sand Filters
Activated Carbon Filter
Wastewater and Effluent Treatment Plants
Activated Sludge Waste Water Treatment Plants
Advanced Waste Water Treatment Plants
Fine Pore Aeration Devices
Fine Pore Membrane Diffusers
Biological Nutrient Removal Units
Moving Bed Bia-Reactors
11 #39, Dodsworth, Enclare,
ECOTECH ECOTECH was established in the year 1986. The company works in many different *
White Field, Bangalore, 560
Engineer environmental projects and offers sewage treatment, recycle and reuse services for
066
Consultancy apartment complexes. ECOTECH is working for 24 years in this field and has nearly 220
Pvt Ltd personnel in various aspects of STP O&M.
Tel: 080-28454760
Services offered: Fax: 080-28454760
Email:
Water Resources Management
ecotech.bangalore@gmail.com
Wastewater Management
kodavaas@bgl.vsnl.net.in
Pilot Treatability Studies/ Plant Upgradation
Operation & Maintenance Services General Manager
Equipment Development & Evaluation Mr Vishal N. Wadkar
References for Apartment complexes include for example: Tel: +91-98454 49839
Email: vis-
Purva Riviera 800 Flats ( Mr. Jagan 9845542011) hal.ecotech@gmail.com

XXX
National Water Companies

Company General Company Profile and Core Working Field Contact


Purva Fountainsquare 1200 Flats ( Mr. Somesh 9880822804 ) vishalsim@yahoo.com
Purva Park Ridge 149 villas ( Mr. Sivan Menon 9845069742)
Sobha Jasmine 400 Flats ( Mr. Sarath 9845745993 )
Prestige Langleigh 120 Flats ( Mr. Bharat Kaul 9845069789 )
Sterling Terraces 280 Flats ( Ms. Anuprita 9945360260 )
Sobha Dahlia 240 Flats ( Mr. Anindo 9980018095 )
12 No. 797, 1st Fl, Behind Sony
Seamak Hi Seamak Hitech Products was established in the year 1982. The company is a domestic *
Service Centre, 1st Cross, 12th
Tech Products service provider of products from pollution control systems for air over water to noise
Main, HAL 2nd Stage, In-
pollution. Seamak has technical tie-ups with companies from U.S.A, Russia, Singapore and
diranagar, Bangalore
Germany.
560008
In the water sector Seamak designs and supplies ETPs, WTPs, Water Purification Systems,
RO Water Treatment Plants, Water Pollution Control Plants and STPs. Branch Manager
Sewage Treatment Plant Application include: Ms Pooja Raslana
Tel: +91-80-66490853
Industries Email: seamak@vsnl.com
Colonies
Hotels http://seamak-hitech-
Resorts and products.b2b.sulekha.com/
Other domestic sectors.
Seamak offers STP from 5 cum/day to 1000 cum/day. Seamak range also offers pre-
fabricated sewage treatment plants of 10 KLD to 50 KLD.
Various technologies adopted in treating the sewage:
Extended Aeration System
Membrane Bioreactor (MBR)
Submerged Aerobic fixed film (SAFF)
Moving Bed Bio Reactor (MBBR)
Sequential Batch Reactor (SBR)

XXXI
National Water Companies

Company General Company Profile and Core Working Field Contact


Effluent Treatment Plant Application:
Textile washing unit and decolourisation.
Heavy metal waste treatment, phosphating and degreasing operations
Paper industry waste treatment recovery fibres and recycling
Battery manufacturing industries
Food and Water Treatment Plant comprises of:
Water Softener
Pressure Sand Filter
Activated Carbon Filter
Iron and Arsenic Removal Filter
Demineralization plants Reverse Osmosis
13 16/2-13 Pratheeksha behind
Paradigm Paradigm Environmental Strategies (p) Ltd. is a consulting firm implementing sustainable *
gym, Near Vijaya Enclave, Ko-
Environmenta developmental projects. It undertakes consultancy in the field of optimization of the
dichikanahalli, Bangalore
l Strategies utilization of resources and conservation of Environment. Paradigm has core competence
560076
Pvt. Ltd in carrying out management consultancy, techno-economic feasibility studies, market
potential studies and financial analysis of Projects.
Tel: 91 80 25633390
Paradigm has been operational since 2006 and executed about 25 projects in the field of Fax: 91 80 25633390
environment, energy and engineering. The on-going projects are located in different states
of India. Managing Director
Paradigm works inter alia in the field of rain water management and rainwater harvesting, Pravinjith K.P.
treatment of effluents, wastewater from hospitals and domestic WWTP. Email: pravinjith@gmail.com

The Company is interested to cooperate with NEWATEC http://www.ecoparadigm.com


14 1st Floor, Infantry Techno
KIVAR Kivar Environ is part of the diversified Kivar Group. It is the environmental business arm of **
Park, No. 104, Infantry Road,
Environ Pvt the group and operates in two critical areas namely solid waste management as well as
Bangalore 560001
Ltd water and wastewater management.
Kivar Environ offers end-to-end solutions through a variety of models like PPP; Build, Own, Tel: 91 80 40814242
XXXII
National Water Companies

Company General Company Profile and Core Working Field Contact


Operate & Transfer/Maintenance (BOOT/M) and Turnkey contracts. Fax: 91 80 40814243
Email: : info@kivar.com
Services offered:
Water Management: Chairman
Subash Menon
Design and Development of Bulk Water Supply projects for potable and industrial
Email: sud-
purposes (new and augmentation) covering Water Intake at source, Raw water
heesh.pv@kivar.com
transmission, Water Treatment, Storage and delivery system
Development and Implementation of 24/7 distribution management projects for
http://www.kivarenviron.com
Town/City water distribution with institutionalised system for:
asset management, demand management, network management involving rehabili-
tation and optimisation
Kivar Environ is promoted by
leakage management, reduction of non-revenue water (NRW) plans, billing and Kivar Holdings
customer information management
Wastewater Management: www.kivarholdings.com
Design, development and operation of Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) and Effluent
Treatment Plant (ETP)
Design, development and operation of Water Reuse management projects
One exemplifying project of Kivar Environ is the evaluation, operation and maintenance of
a bulk water supply in Bhilai. The Services provided include evaluation of the existing
water supply scheme, operation and maintenance of 77 Mld Water treatment plant, raw
water and clear water pumping stations, clear / raw water rising mains and the OHTs.
G.K. TOWER
15 Electrosteel Elcotrosteel Casting is one of Indias leading pipeline solution providers. The company can
19, Camac Street
Casting Ltd render the following technical services:
Kolkata 700 017
Conceptualization of new schemes, preliminary design and feasibility report of pro-
spective water supply & sewerage schemes. Tel: +91-33-22839990
Detailed engineering of water supply systems, including preparation of Detailed 40090600
Project Report (DPR), and Bill of Quantity (BOQ) etc.

XXXIII
National Water Companies

Company General Company Profile and Core Working Field Contact


Guidance on laying/jointing of DI pipes to customers and training the contractors http://electrosteel.com/
and laying gangs about checking of the pipes at site of handling damages and care-
ful corrective measures of coating and lining and proper pipe installation.
Jain Plastic Park, NH No. 6, P.O.
16 Jain Irrigation Jain Irrigation has a multi product industrial profile and manufacturers Drip and Sprinkler
Box : 72, Jalgaon - 425 001
Irrigation Systems and Components; PVC, Polyethylene (HDPE, MDPE) and Polypropylene
(Maharashtra)
Piping Systems; Plastic Sheets (PVC & PC sheets); Agro Processed Products includes
Dehydrated Onions and Vegetables; Processed Fruits (Purees, Concentrates & Juices);
Tel: +91 - 257 - 225 8011
Tissue Culture, Hybrid & Grafted Plants; Greenhouses, Poly and Shade Houses; Bio-
Fax: +91 - 257 - 225 8111
fertilizers; Green Energy includes Solar Photovoltaic (Solar lighting and appliances, Solar
pumping systems), Solar water heating systems and Bio-Energy sources.
http://www.jains.com/
The company renders consultancy for complete or partial project planning and
implementation e.g. Watershed or Wasteland and / or Crop Selection and Rotation.
Kailash, 5th Floor,
17 WAPCO (GOI WAPCOS Limited is a MINI RATNA Public Sector Enterprise under the aegis of the Union
26, Kasturba Gandhi Marg,
under taking), Ministry of Water Resources. WAPCOS provides consultancy services in all facets of Water
New Delhi - 110 001.
Resources, Power and Infrastructure sectors in India and Abroad. Furthermore
WAPCOS provide Concept to Commissioning services for developmental projects across
Tel: +91-11 23313131-3
the globe.
Fax: +91-11 23313134
Email: wapcos@vsnl.com

www.wapcos.gov.in
Hindustan Dorr-Oliver Ltd.,
18 Hindustan Hindustan Dorr-Oliver Limited is a leader in the industrial EPC market. The Company has a
GGR TOWERS, Ground Floor,
Dara Oliver pan India presence, with offices in every major city in India - Mumbai, Bangalore, Chennai,
F18/2B, Ambali Pura, Sar-
Kolkota, Delhi and Ahmedabad.
japura Road, Bengaluru-
HDO has been involved in major industrial projects in areas of Mining and Minerals, Water 560103, India.
and Wastewater, Fertilizers, Chemicals, Pulp and Paper. The company has done water
management and effluent treatment for many major refineries in India in the past five Tel: 080 - 42465500
years.

XXXIV
National Water Companies

Company General Company Profile and Core Working Field Contact


Email: hdotbanga-
lore@hdotech.in
Larsen & Toubro Limited L&T
19 Larson and L&T is a technology, engineering, construction and manufacturing company. L&T is active
House, Ballard Estate P. O.
Toubro in India since more than seven decades. The company has an international presence, with a
Box: 278, Mumbai 400 001,
global spread of offices.
India
The company is active in:
Email: ccdpr@lth.ltindia.com
power projects,
electrical, electronic products and systems,
http://www.larsentoubro.com
IT and engineering services,
machinery and industrial products,
railway projects,
shipbuilding
water and wastewater sector.
Construction House, 5, Wal-
20 Indian Hume Indian Hume Pipe Co. Ltd. (IHP) was established in 1926. The company developed
chand Hirachand Marg, Bal-
Pipe Prestressed Concrete inter alia Water Supply and Sewerage Projects. Today the Company
lard Estate, Mumbai - 400 001,
has over twenty factories and 100 projects under execution in India.
India
The Company is actively involved infrastructure sector offering: Water Supply, Irrigation,
Drainage, Power Generation and Rail transport, pipeline projects for Water Supply, Tel: +91 - 22 - 40748181 /
Sewerage and Hydroelectric Power Generation and supplying Concrete Sleepers for the 22618091
track modernization of Railways. Fax: +91 - 22 - 22656863
IHP has also executed projects in neighboring countries like Nepal, Srilanka, Burma, Email:
Malaysia and Republic of Iraq. info@indianhumepipe.com

http://www.indianhumepipe.
com/
1004 & 5, Raheja Chambers,
21 STUP STUP is a full service project delivery consultancy company offering integrated planning,
10th Floor, Nariman Point,
architectural, engineering and project management services for power, transportation,
XXXV
National Water Companies

Company General Company Profile and Core Working Field Contact


Consultants telecommunications, commercial, institutional, recreational and manufacturing facility Mumbai - 400 021
infrastructure and is an international firm with over 1200 professionals in more than 20
offices and global project locations. Tel.: 91-22-40868686
Fax:91-22-22048424
STUP has served in 28 countries on projects such as road master plans in Bangladesh,
Email: mumbai@stupmail.com
water supply in Laos, highways in Kuwait, sports facilities in UAE, offshore facilities and
hospitals in Oman, nuclear reactors, airports, and power plants in India, the presidential
http://www.stupco.com
palace complex in Ghana, etc.
Voltas House, 'A' Block, Dr.
22 Voltas Voltas is a engineering solutions provider. Founded in India in 1954, Voltas Limited offers
Babasaheb Ambedkar Road,
engineering solutions for a wide spectrum of industries in areas such as heating,
Chinchpokli, Mumbai 400 033
ventilation and air conditioning, refrigeration, electro-mechanical projects, textile
machinery, mining and construction equipment, materials handling equipment, water
Tel: 022-66656 666
management & treatment, cold chain solutions, building management systems, and indoor
Fax: 022-66656 311
air quality.
The Company's core expertise lie in: www.voltas.com/index.asp
management and execution of electro-mechanical projects, including air condition-
ing and refrigeration
the design and manufacture of industrial equipment, cooling appliances and mate-
rials handling equipment
sourcing, installation and servicing of diverse technology-based systems serving
Indian industry through representation of global technology leaders
Mfar Silverline Tech park, No
23 SPML Established in 1981, SPML Infra Limited is a leading publicly listed infrastructure
180, 2nd floor, EPIP zone - 2nd
development company that has managed and implemented over 400 projects across India
stage, Whitefield, Bangalore-
on an EPC (Engineering, Procurement and Construction), PPP and BOOT basis.
560066
SPML offers engineering, process technology, project management, procurement,
fabrication and erection, construction and commissioning. Tel: +91 80 39445555
The company is executing infrastructure projects for water treatment and transmission, Fax: +91 80 40956701
wastewater handling, treatment and recycling, solid waste management, power Email: info@spml.co.in

XXXVI
National Water Companies

Company General Company Profile and Core Working Field Contact


transmission and distribution and civil infrastructure development.
http://spml.co.in
SPML provides water management solutions such as canals, irrigation network, hydrology,
reservoirs - storage facilities and distribution; components such as intake water, weirs,
pumping machinery, pipeline works, pipeline distribution networks and associated civil
works.
NCC House, Madhapur , Hy-
24 NCC NCC is a construction company from India. Its water division was established in the year
derabad - 500 081, Andhra
1999, executing projects to the country's urban and rural areas. Pradesh, INDIA.
Key Areas :
Tel.: +91-40-23268888
Water Supply Projects Fax.: +91-40-23125555.
Water Treatment plants
Underground Drainage Works http://www.ncclimited.co
Sewerage Treatment Projects
P. B. No. 5555, Malleswaram
25 Kirloskar Kirloskar Electric Company Limited is an Engineering and Manufacturing companies in
West, Bangalore - 560055, In-
India, established in 1946.
dia
Kirloskar Electric makes more than 70 products under 8 different product groups in Tel : +91-80-23374865,
sectors like Power Generation, Transmission and Distribution, Industrial Power, 23377727
Transportation, Renewable Energy, etc. Fax : +91-80-23377706

http://www.kirloskar-
electric.com
G.K. TOWER
26 Electrosteel Elcotrosteel Casting is one of Indias leading pipeline solution providers. The company can
19, Camac Street
Casting Ltd render the following technical services:
Kolkata 700 017
Conceptualization of new schemes, preliminary design and feasibility report of pro-
spective water supply & sewerage schemes. Tel: +91-33-22839990
Detailed engineering of water supply systems, including preparation of Detailed 40090600
Project Report (DPR), and Bill of Quantity (BOQ) etc.
XXXVII
National Water Companies

Company General Company Profile and Core Working Field Contact


Guidance on laying/jointing of DI pipes to customers and training the contractors http://electrosteel.com/
and laying gangs about checking of the pipes at site of handling damages and care-
ful corrective measures of coating and lining and proper pipe installation.
Jain Plastic Park, NH No. 6, P.O.
27 Jain Irrigation Jain Irrigation has a multi product industrial profile and manufacturers Drip and Sprinkler
Box : 72, Jalgaon - 425 001
Irrigation Systems and Components; PVC, Polyethylene (HDPE, MDPE) and Polypropylene
(Maharashtra)
Piping Systems; Plastic Sheets (PVC & PC sheets); Agro Processed Products includes
Dehydrated Onions and Vegetables; Processed Fruits (Purees, Concentrates & Juices);
Tel: +91 - 257 - 225 8011
Tissue Culture, Hybrid & Grafted Plants; Greenhouses, Poly and Shade Houses; Bio-
Fax: +91 - 257 - 225 8111
fertilizers; Green Energy includes Solar Photovoltaic (Solar lighting and appliances, Solar
pumping systems), Solar water heating systems and Bio-Energy sources.
http://www.jains.com/
The company renders consultancy for complete or partial project planning and
implementation e.g. Watershed or Wasteland and / or Crop Selection and Rotation.
Kailash, 5th Floor,
28 WAPCO (GOI WAPCOS Limited is a MINI RATNA Public Sector Enterprise under the aegis of the Union
26, Kasturba Gandhi Marg,
under taking), Ministry of Water Resources. WAPCOS provides consultancy services in all facets of Water
New Delhi - 110 001.
Resources, Power and Infrastructure sectors in India and Abroad. Furthermore
WAPCOS provide Concept to Commissioning services for developmental projects across
Tel: +91-11 23313131-3
the globe.
Fax: +91-11 23313134
Email: wapcos@vsnl.com

www.wapcos.gov.in
Hindustan Dorr-Oliver Ltd.,
29 Hindustan Hindustan Dorr-Oliver Limited is a leader in the industrial EPC market. The Company has a
GGR TOWERS, Ground Floor,
Dara Oliver pan India presence, with offices in every major city in India - Mumbai, Bangalore, Chennai,
F18/2B, Ambali Pura, Sar-
Kolkota, Delhi and Ahmedabad.
japura Road, Bengaluru-
HDO has been involved in major industrial projects in areas of Mining and Minerals, Water 560103, India.
and Wastewater, Fertilizers, Chemicals, Pulp and Paper. The company has done water
management and effluent treatment for many major refineries in India in the past five Tel: 080 - 42465500
years.

XXXVIII
National Water Companies

Company General Company Profile and Core Working Field Contact


Email: hdotbanga-
lore@hdotech.in
Larsen & Toubro Limited L&T
30 Larson and L&T is a technology, engineering, construction and manufacturing company. L&T is active
House, Ballard Estate P. O.
Toubro in India since more than seven decades. The company has an international presence, with a
Box: 278, Mumbai 400 001,
global spread of offices.
India
The company is active in:
Email: ccdpr@lth.ltindia.com
power projects,
electrical, electronic products and systems,
http://www.larsentoubro.com
IT and engineering services,
machinery and industrial products,
railway projects,
shipbuilding
water and wastewater sector.
Construction House, 5, Wal-
31 Indian Hume Indian Hume Pipe Co. Ltd. (IHP) was established in 1926. The company developed
chand Hirachand Marg, Bal-
Pipe Prestressed Concrete inter alia Water Supply and Sewerage Projects. Today the Company
lard Estate, Mumbai - 400 001,
has over twenty factories and 100 projects under execution in India.
India
The Company is actively involved infrastructure sector offering: Water Supply, Irrigation,
Drainage, Power Generation and Rail transport, pipeline projects for Water Supply, Tel: +91 - 22 - 40748181 /
Sewerage and Hydroelectric Power Generation and supplying Concrete Sleepers for the 22618091
track modernization of Railways. Fax: +91 - 22 - 22656863
IHP has also executed projects in neighboring countries like Nepal, Srilanka, Burma, Email:
Malaysia and Republic of Iraq. info@indianhumepipe.com

http://www.indianhumepipe.
com/
1004 & 5, Raheja Chambers,
32 STUP STUP is a full service project delivery consultancy company offering integrated planning,
10th Floor, Nariman Point,
architectural, engineering and project management services for power, transportation,
XXXIX
National Water Companies

Company General Company Profile and Core Working Field Contact


Consultants telecommunications, commercial, institutional, recreational and manufacturing facility Mumbai - 400 021
infrastructure and is an international firm with over 1200 professionals in more than 20
offices and global project locations. Tel.: 91-22-40868686
Fax:91-22-22048424
STUP has served in 28 countries on projects such as road master plans in Bangladesh,
Email: mumbai@stupmail.com
water supply in Laos, highways in Kuwait, sports facilities in UAE, offshore facilities and
hospitals in Oman, nuclear reactors, airports, and power plants in India, the presidential
http://www.stupco.com
palace complex in Ghana, etc.
Voltas House, 'A' Block, Dr.
33 Voltas Voltas is a engineering solutions provider. Founded in India in 1954, Voltas Limited offers
Babasaheb Ambedkar Road,
engineering solutions for a wide spectrum of industries in areas such as heating,
Chinchpokli, Mumbai 400 033
ventilation and air conditioning, refrigeration, electro-mechanical projects, textile
machinery, mining and construction equipment, materials handling equipment, water
Tel: 022-66656 666
management & treatment, cold chain solutions, building management systems, and indoor
Fax: 022-66656 311
air quality.
The Company's core expertise lie in: www.voltas.com/index.asp
management and execution of electro-mechanical projects, including air condition-
ing and refrigeration
the design and manufacture of industrial equipment, cooling appliances and mate-
rials handling equipment
sourcing, installation and servicing of diverse technology-based systems serving
Indian industry through representation of global technology leaders
Mfar Silverline Tech park, No
34 SPML Established in 1981, SPML Infra Limited is a leading publicly listed infrastructure
180, 2nd floor, EPIP zone - 2nd
development company that has managed and implemented over 400 projects across India
stage, Whitefield, Bangalore-
on an EPC (Engineering, Procurement and Construction), PPP and BOOT basis.
560066
SPML offers engineering, process technology, project management, procurement,
fabrication and erection, construction and commissioning. Tel: +91 80 39445555
The company is executing infrastructure projects for water treatment and transmission, Fax: +91 80 40956701
wastewater handling, treatment and recycling, solid waste management, power Email: info@spml.co.in

XL
National Water Companies

Company General Company Profile and Core Working Field Contact


transmission and distribution and civil infrastructure development.
http://spml.co.in
SPML provides water management solutions such as canals, irrigation network, hydrology,
reservoirs - storage facilities and distribution; components such as intake water, weirs,
pumping machinery, pipeline works and pipeline distribution networks.
Sri Ram Tubes Pvt. Ltd., 4/5 B,
35 Sriram PPR The SRI RAM TUBES PVT. LTD. is a business conglomerates. The Group moved its core
IInd Floor, Asaf Ali Road, New
competence into fields such as: PPR-C Pipes, PE-X Plumbing Pipes, HDPE Pipes & Coils &
Delhi - 110002 (India)
Granules.
Tel : +91 11 2327 4215,
Email : info@sriramgroup.in

http://www.sriramgroup.in
NCC House, Madhapur , Hy-
36 NCC NCC is a construction company from India. Its water division was established in the year
derabad - 500 081, Andhra
1999, executing projects to the country's urban and rural areas. Pradesh, INDIA.
Key Areas :
Tel.: +91-40-23268888
Water Supply Projects Fax.: +91-40-23125555.
Water Treatment plants /Sewerage Treatment Projects
Underground Drainage Works http://www.ncclimited.co
P. B. No. 5555, Malleswaram
37 Kirloskar Kirloskar Electric Company Limited is an Engineering and Manufacturing companies in
West, Bangalore - 560055,
India, established in 1946.
Kirloskar Electric makes more than 70 products under 8 different product groups in Tel : +91-80-23374865,
sectors like Power Generation, Transmission and Distribution, Industrial Power, Fax : +91-80-23377706
Transportation, Renewable Energy, etc.
http://www.kirloskar-
electric.com

XLI
International Water Companies

Company General Company Profile and Core Working Field Contact


India Office
1 GE Power & GEs presence in India dates back to 1902 when GE installed Indias first hydro power plant
53/C, Hoskote Industrial Area,
Water in the country. GE has works in transportation, energy, healthcare and financial services.
Hoskote, Bangalore-562114
The company has a technology centre at Hyderabad and Bangalore. GE employs over 14,
India
000 people in India.
GE's Water & Process Technologies provides water treatment, wastewater treatment and Tel: +91-080-27971661/ 1662
process systems solutions. Fax: +91-080-27971663
GE's portfolio of water and process technologies includes:
http://www.ge.com/in/
separation equipment
o ED / EDR / EDI
o UF / MBR
o Reverse Osmosis Equipment
o Thermal/Zero-Liquid Discharge (ZLD)
Complete spectrum of membrane and filtration including: Microfiltration (MF), Ul-
trafiltration (UF), Nanofiltration (NF), Reverse Osmosis (RO)
o Spiral Membrane Elements - Pure Water Applications
o Spiral Membrane Elements - Industrial Process Applications
o Spiral Membrane Elements - Sanitary Food and Beverage Applications
monitoring solutions
analytical instruments
specialty chemicals to remove pollutants, minimize sludge handling and disposal
costs, improving effluent quality, and promote water savings and recycling
o Clarification
o Biological Control
o Metals Removal
o Odor Control
mobile water capabilities (QuickShip Water Treatment Equipment)
Chemical Feed and Control Equipment
Components / Replacement Parts

XLII
International Water Companies

Company General Company Profile and Core Working Field Contact


Wock-Oliver Limited
2 Wock-Oliver The company has technical backup from WOCK OLIVER CWT IP PVT LTD, Australia. Wock
#321-22, Sukhna Enclave
Ltd. Oliver delivers following services:
(Behind Rock Garden)
Turnkey water treatment plant projects Kaimbwala Road, Sector 1
Turnkey wastewater treatment plant projects Extension
Design, engineering and consultation Chandigarh, India - 160103
Complete fabrication, erection and commissioning
Up gradation & modernization of treatment plants Tel: +91-172-2746321,
Air Pollution control /Solid waste Management. 6535344,
Environmental consultancy- Consultation, documentation and liasioning for Envi- Email:
ronmental Clearance wockoliverindia@sify.com
Products:
http://www.wockoliver.com/
Packaged Treatment Plant / MBBR
DAF/ Floatation Clarifiers
Sewage Treatment Plants (STP)
Recycling / Zero Discharge
Reverse Osmosis (RO)
Filteration Systems (UT /NF/ TF)
MBR / RBC / SBR Systems
Evaporators / Filter Press
Mineral Water Plants
Industrial Waste Water Treatment
VA TECH WABAG Limited
3 Va Tech Wabagh is active in the Indian market since 1996 holds a big market share in the Indian
11, Murray's Gate Road, Al-
Wabagh water technology market.
warpet,
Its performance ranges from: Chennai 600018. India
Drinking water treatment
Tel: +91 44 42232323
Industrial water treatment
Fax: +91 44 42232324

XLIII
International Water Companies

Company General Company Profile and Core Working Field Contact


Desalination Email: wabag@wabag.in
Water Reuse
Municipal wastewater treatment http://www.wabag.com
Industrial wastewater treatment
Sludge treatment
Operations to
Processes and technologies
Some examples of completed projects in India embrace:
Asias largest wastewater treatment plant at the Jamnagar Refinery
Indias first wastewater recycling plant for IOCL Panipat
Indias largest lamella wastewater treatment plant for the Brihan Mumbai Munici-
pal Corp. (BMC)
The worlds largest tannery wastewater treatment plant for the Calcutta leather
complex
One of the worlds largest MBR technology wastewater treatment plants for Al-
Ansab, Muscat
Indias first ultra-filtration plant for treated wastewater for the Vizag Steel Plant
Indias first wastewater treatment plant based on a BOOT model for Alandur
Veolia Water India Pvt-Ltd
4 Veolia Water Veolia is active in the areas of drinking water production and distribution. They provide
B-1, Marble Arch, 9 Prithviraj
India their services to towns such as Jamshedpur, Chennai or Nagpur, and to the state of
Road
Karnataka.
New Delhi - 110 011
Their pilot water distribution programme took place in Gulbargh, Hubli-Dharwad and
Belgaum, Karnatka. Tel. + 91 11 2465 1465
Veolia offers: Fax + 91 11 2465 3458

Wastewater Service
o Municipal wastewater
o Treatment sludge

XLIV
International Water Companies

Company General Company Profile and Core Working Field Contact


Drinking Water
o Management of services
o Water treatment
o Water distribution
Seawater Desalination
Recycling Wastewater
Aquifer recharge
Industrial Process Water
Headquarters Nalco Water In-
5 Nalco Water Nalco became a presence in India during the late 1970s and incorporated Nalco Chemicals
dia Ltd.
India India Limited 1987. Nowadays the company has subsidiaries and daughter companies in
S. No. 238/239, 3rd Floor,
nearly all parts of India and many major cities.
Quadra 1,
Nalco provides water treatment, process-focused programs, and emissions reduction Panchshil, Magarpatta Road,
across a broad range of end users. The company leads the industry in water treatment for Sade Satra Nali, Pune - 411
refineries and petrochemical plants. 028.
Programs in India are developed to focus on the local needs and conditions of each India
geographical area. Their manufacturing plant in Konnagar, West Bengal is the only
specialty chemical company in India to be ISO 9001:2008 certified. Tel: +91-20-3939-4000
Fax: +91-20-3939-4380
Nalco products include:
3D TRASAR Boiler Technology for Refineries and Petrochemical http://www.nalco.com/
3D TRASAR Cooling Water Technology for Refineries and Petrrochemical
3D TRASAR Technology for Boilers
3D TRASAR Technology for Cooling Water
3D TRASAR Technology for Membranes
3D TRASAR Technology for Once Through Cooling Systems
3D TRASAR for Once Through Cooling prevents operational problems scale,
corrosion and microbial fouling
3D TRASAR Web

XLV
International Water Companies

Company General Company Profile and Core Working Field Contact


Core Shell Polymer Technology
Envirox Chlorine Dioxide Systems
FastPath Legionella Detection Test
Integrated Water Management for Paper
Membrane Performance Enhancer Technology
NALMET Technology
Nalco 360 Service
Nalco ACT Condensate Corrosion Inhibitor
NexGuard Technology
PARETO Mixing Technology
STABREX Antimicrobial Technology
TRASAR Pen Fluorometer for Reverse Osmosis
ULTIMER Polymer Technology
ULTRION Coagulants
VELOX Technology for Dewatering Applications
Degrmont, a French company in Water and Waste Water Technologies started its Indian Unitech Business Park, Tower-
6 Degremont
operations in 1954. During the early 70s and 80s Degremont designed and constructed the A, Ground Floor, South City-1,
1910 MLD plant at Bhandup Mumbai, which was then Asias largest Water Treatment Plant. Gurgaon 122001, Haryana,
India
Based in Gurgaon, the company is nowadays active in all fields of water and liquid waste
water treatment, thus expanding a long standing association with the Indian water Phone : 0124-4680100
industry; both in Public utilities and the Private sector. The company has subsidiaries and Fax : 0124-4080103
daughter companies in nearly all parts of India and all major cities. Email :
pramod.bapna@degremont.co
Degrmont Limited is offering a full range of contracting services, including conceptual m
design and process origination, project implementation, construction and
installation/performance testing. Post contract assistance available includes operation- http://www.degremontindia.n
maintenance and servicing agreements, provision of spares, plant updating and et/

XLVI
International Water Companies

Company General Company Profile and Core Working Field Contact


refurbishing and plant operation.

Recent Project include:

Bhandup Complex Water Treatment Plant, Mumbai


Client: Municipal Corporation of Brihan Mumbai
Capacity: 900 MLD
Technology: Pulsatube and Aquazur V

Okhla Sewage Treatment Plant, Delhi


Client: Delhi Jal Board
Capacity: 136.4 MLD
Technology: Activated Sludge Process

Kozhikode Water Treatment Plant, Kerala


Client: Kerala Water Authority
Capacity: 174 MLD
Technology: Pulsator, Clarifier, Aquazur V Filters

Trivandrum Water Treatment Plant, Kerala


Client: Kerala Water Authority
Capacity: 74 MLD
Technology: Pulsator Clarifier, Aquazur V Filters
Corporate Office
7 Pentair Pentair Water India offers Water & Waste management systems, Water flow solutions and
Green Boulevard,
swimming pool & spa solutions in-Industrial applications, Commercial installations,
B-9/A, 7th Floor, Tower B
Municipal requirements and Residential water solutions.
Sector 62, Noida-201301
Since 1997, Pentair Water India, a 100% subsidiary of Pentair Inc and currently employs
over 600 driven people. Phone: + 91 120 419 9444
The business serves a variety of markets, including commercial, industrial, hospitality, Fax: +91 120 419 9400

XLVII
International Water Companies

Company General Company Profile and Core Working Field Contact


healthcare, and energy. Products range from:
http://pentairwaterindia.com
pressure vessels
filtration systems
various filtration media
separation technologies and related components
Pentair Filtration Solutions brands include Everpure, SHURflo, CodeLine and
Porous Media
8 Mir Projects & Mir Group is engaged in diverse business sectors: Township development, Consultancy, ** MIR Projects & Consultants
Consultants International trade, Biotechnology, Infrastructure, Energy solutions and Education. Door #41/2073D, Kalabhavan
Headquartered in Cochin, Kerala the Group has a wide network of operations in India and a road, Ernakulum north, Cochin
strong presence in UK, USA, Middle East, Europe & other Asian countries. The Group
directly employs close to 400 people in India. Tel: +91 484 4128444
Fax: +91 484236161
Mir Projects & Consultants is the Groups Consultancy and Project Management wing with
expertise in sectors such as Seaports & Airports, Seaplane Operations, Heliports &
Director
Vertiport, Project Management & Consultancy, Urban Infrastructure, Environment
Jay S Damodaran
Management, Energy Audit and Carbon Credit.
Email: jay@mirprojects.in,
The company is a leading Consultancy organization in the development of Greenfield jay@mirgroup.in
Ports under the PPP model of investment.
The company is interested in further cooperation. http://www.mirprojects.in/

9 Metamorphosi Metamorphosis is a multi-disciplinary consultancy firm working with industrial, ** #143, 39th Main, 4th Cross,
s infrastructural, developmental, mining and mineral-based industries. There competences Behind Silk Board, BTM Lay-
lie in areas such as Environment, Geology, Mine Planning and Surveying. out II Stage, Bangalore
560068
Metamorphosis is operating across four offices in Karnataka, India. They undertake
environmental-related assignments of various industrial projects focusing on preparation
Tel: + 91 80 26783006
of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) & Environmental Management Plan (EMP) and
Fax: + 91 80 26783006
amendments thereafter and the Evaluation, exploration, design, planning and management
Email: mail@metamorphosis-

XLVIII
International Water Companies

Company General Company Profile and Core Working Field Contact


of mining projects. india.com
The company is interested in further cooperation with NEWATEC.
Director
Shanth Averahally Thimmaiah
Email: shanth@metamorphos
is-india.com

http://www.metamorphosis-
india.com/
10 Garden City The company is new in the market and active among others in water management and well ** # 37(S), Unnati, 2nd A Main
Environmenta organised and has a promising performance Road, 1st Stage, 2nd Phase,
l Services Chandra Layout, Vijaynagar,
The company is interested in further cooperation with NEWATEC.
Bangalore - 560040.

Chief Executive
K.S. Prabhu
Email: prabhu@gardencity in-
dia.com
Mott MacDonald, 44 Dr R G
11 Mott The Mott MacDonald Group is a diverse management, engineering and development
Thadani Marg, Worli, Mumbai
MacDonald consultancy delivering solutions for public and private clients world-wide.
400 018, India
Ltd The company has been present in India over 40 years in management, engineering and
development consultancy. Tel: +91 (0)22 3981 0100
They are one of the country's largest engineering and management consultancies with Fax: +91 (0)22 2495 0539
1,400 staff and offices in Ahmedabad, Cochin, Bangalore, Kolkata, Chennai, Hyderbad, Delhi Email: mumbai@mottmac-
and Mumbai. india.com

Mott MacDonald provides many services - from business advice to development planning http://www.mottmac.in/
to engineering design to project management. From business case preparation and advice
on key issues to design, implementation and ongoing support.

XLIX
International Water Companies

Company General Company Profile and Core Working Field Contact


Unit 7A & 7B, Doshi Towers
12 Hyflux, Hyflux provides a comprehensive suite of integrated services in water and renewable
156 Poonamallee High Road
resources, from R&D, membrane manufacturing, process engineering, engineering,
Kilpauk Chennai 600010
procurement and construction to operations and maintenance.
India
The companys business lines are:
Tel: 91 44 4542 8888
Membrane & System sales
Fax: 91 44 4542 8889
Consumer Products
Turnkey water project design and EPC
http://www.hyflux.com/
Renewable resource solutions
Operation & Maintenance of water plants
Their key markets are in Singapore, China, India, Southeast Asia, the Middle East and
North Africa region.
Delhi Halcrow, B-1D, Sector
13 Halcrow Halcrow has been working in India for nearly a century. HCIPL has offices in New Delhi,
10, Noida, Uttar Pradesh, 201
Mumbai and Hyderabad and works all over India on the development of infrastructure.
301, India
Their current areas of operations include transport planning, roads, bridges, airports, rail,
ports, urban planning, building & structures, hydropower, water resources, urban water,
Tel: +91 120 468 2500
oil and gas, environment and climate change. Halcrow has 275 staff employed by HCIPL in
Fax: +91 120 468 2534
New Delhi, Mumbai, Hyderabad and project offices throughout India.
The company provides a full range of engineering, planning and environmental http://www.halcrow.com/
consultancy services for the development, operation and maintenance of water and
sanitation projects. These services include:
Sewage treatment
Water pumping status
Distribution networks
Water demand management
Instrumentation, control and automation/SCADA
Sewerage analysis, design and rehabilitation

L
International Water Companies

Company General Company Profile and Core Working Field Contact


Water quality studies and water treatment
Utility restructuring, independent validation and asset management
Technopolis Building, Tower A
14 CH2M HILL CH2M HILL is working in consulting, design, design-build, operations, and program
3rd Floor, Sector-54, Golf
management.
Course Sector Road, Gurgaon,
CH2M HILL provides total water solutions with from water supplies to treatment, India 122002
conveyance, wastewater treatment, reuse and recovery, and return to the natural
environment. Tel: +91 124 272 7000
Their services range from master planning to engineering, program management, Fax: +91 124 272 7022
construction, design/build and other alternative delivery methods, operations and
maintenance. http://www.ch2m.com

Selection of Water Sector Equipment Supplier

Company General Company Profile and Core Working Field Contact


Grundfos Pumps India Private
1 Grundfos Grundfos India is a part of an international company with global presence.
Ltd.
Grundfos annually manufactures16 million pump units. Circulator pumps for heating and 118 Old Mahabalipuram Road,
air-conditioning as well as other centrifugal pumps for the industry, water supply, sewage Thoraipakkam, Chennai 600
and dosing are the main products. In addition to pumps Grundfos produces standard and 097
submersible motors as well as state-of-the-art electronics for monitoring and controlling
pumps. Tel. +91 44 2496 6800
Some of their products take in: Fax +91 44 2496 6969
Multistage centrifugal pumps
http://www.grundfos.in/
Booster modules

LI
Selection of Water Sector Equipment Supplier

Company General Company Profile and Core Working Field Contact


CH Water pressure boosting systems
Single-stage standard pumps
Submersible pumps
NETZSCH Technologies India
2 Netzsch The NETZSCH Group is a globally active family-owned enterprise headquartered in the
Priv Ltd
Bavarian town of Selb, Germany. Their international presence is backed by 127 sales and
No: 39, 2nd Street,
production centers in 23 countries on three continents.
Spartan Nagar, Mogappair,
NETZSCH Technologies India is a subsidiary of NETZSCH Group with three independent Chennai - 600 037
business units, Pumps & Systems, Grinding & Dispersing, and Analyzing & Testing.
Pumps & Systems is manufacturing in Goa, India. NETZSCH Pumps and Grinding Systems Tel:+91 44 4296 5100
offer: Fax: +91 44 4296 5150
Email: info.nti@netzsch.com
NEMO Progressing Cavity Pumps
NETZSCH TORNADO Rotary Lobe Pumps www.netzschindia.com
NEMO M-Ovas
NEMO Twin Shaft Macerator grinding systems
Guindy House, II Floor,
3 KSB Pumpen KSB pumps and valves provide and distribute water to private, public and industrial
#92 Anna Salai,
buildings. The company with a total of 13,300 employees is active around the globe.KSB
Chennai 600 032, Tamil Nadu
solves heating and air-conditioning problems. Chemical, petrochemical and many other
companies use their pumps to transport aggressive, corrosive, explosive, solids-laden and
Mr. N. K Manoj Dy.
viscous liquids. KSB products deals also with industrial and municipal waste water.
General Manager
In charge for business devel-
Product Description Technical Detail
opment in Andhra Pradesh,
KRTU Single stage, submersible, Pump Size DN 65 & 100 mm Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu
centrifugal pumps of closed s
Capacity Q up to 200 m3/hr
coupled (monobloc)
construction Head H up to 24 m Tel: +91 44 22352572-2
Email: nkmanoj@ksb.co.in
Discharge pressure p up to 9.5 kW

LII
Selection of Water Sector Equipment Supplier

Company General Company Profile and Core Working Field Contact

Temperature t up to 70 C http://www.ksbindia.co.in/

Speed n up to 2760 rpm

WP Horizontal, end suction pump Pump Size DN 65 to 250 mm


in back pull-out design with Capacity Q up to 1300 m3/hr
radial flow impellers of single,
double, or multivane, closed or Head H up to 100 m
semi-closed type. Discharge pressure p up to 10 bar
Temperature t -10 to 200 C
Speed n up to 2900 rpm

Ama Vertical, monobloc pumpset, Pump Size DN 50 mm


Porter free flow impeller of two sizes,
1 and 3 motors with IP 68 Capacity Q up to 29 m3/hr
protection, 1 motor with
built-in thermal overload Head H up to 16 m
protection and float switch, bi-
directional mechanical seal. Motor Rating p up to 1.1 kW (1)
up to 1.5 (3)

Temperature t up to 40 C

Ama- Ama-Drainer 300 & 400 series Pump Size DN 40 mm


Drainer Vertical fully floodable Capacity Q up to 550 lpm
submersible motor with In built
swing check valve. Jacket Head H up to 19 m
cooled single phase motor with Available in 1 &
Motor
integrated temperature switch. 3
Float switch for automatic

LIII
Selection of Water Sector Equipment Supplier

Company General Company Profile and Core Working Field Contact


operation. Max. immersion Temperature t up to 50 C
depth up to 10 m.

KRT Single stage, submersible Pump Size DN up to 350 mm


centrifugal pumps of closed Capacity Q up to 3000 m3/hr
coupled (monobloc)
construction Head H up to 55 m
Motor Rating p up to 160 kW
Temperature t up to 40 C
KMS is a developer and manufacturer of innovative membrane filtration systems. KMS Koch Membrane Systems
4 Koch
installed 20,000 systems worldwide. Their solutions are at work in a wide variety of (A Division of Koch Chemical
Membrane
markets including municipal and industrial water and wastewater processing; dairy, juice, Technology Group India)
and wine processing and industrial biotechnology. 911, Dev Plaza, S.V. Road,
Andheri
KMS wastewater technologies contain: Mumbai 400 058
PURON MBR submerged modules and systems
Tel: +91-22-6725 3301 / 6725
TARGA II hollow fiber ultrafiltration
3302
high-solid KONSOLIDATOR tubular systems
Fax: +91-22-2623-6740
SUPER-COR Systems for your juice and beverage processing
SUPER-G Systems for beverage clarification
http://www.kochmembrane.c
Reverse Osmosis Systems
om/
WINEFILTER Systems
KPAK E-Coat Systems (electrocoating)
KMS also provides membrane filtration technologies to treat a variety of source waters
(surface Water, brackish water, ground water and seawater destillation) to provide potable
water
Forbes Marshall Pvt. Ltd.
5 Forbes For over six decades, Forbes Marshall has been building steam engineering and control
P.O. BOX # 29 Mumbai Pune

LIV
Selection of Water Sector Equipment Supplier

Company General Company Profile and Core Working Field Contact


Marshal instrumentation solutions that work for process industry. Forbes Marschal offers water Road.
and wastewater quality analysis consisting of the following: Kasarwadi.Pune-411034
Transmitters with up to 10 different measuring ranges:
Tel: +91 (0) 20 39858555/ -
Aqua 2-wire series SMARTPro transmitter 27145595
Aqua series 4-wire transmitter model Aquamon pH/Redox transmitter & controller Fax: + 91 (0) 20 27147413
Aqua series 4-wire transmitter model Aquacon conductivity transmitter & control- E-mail:
ler exp@forbesmarshall.com
Aqua series 4-wire DO transmitter model AquaDO 4000
TDS transmitters AquaTDS 4000 http://www.forbesmarshall.co
9125 Conductivity Analyser m/
9135 pH Analyser
Process Sensors for the range of
pH & ORP Electrodes
Conductivity Electrodes
Dissolved Oxygen Electrodes
Special Water and Gas Analysers for Pure, Waste & Drinking Water Applications. Analysers
for ETPs, STPs
9210 Silkosat Silica Analyzer
9245 Sodium Analyser
9240 Multichannel Sodium Analyzer
9186 Hydrazine Analyser
9211 Phosphate Analyser
9184 Chlorine Analyser
9185 Ozone Analyser
9182 Dissolved Oxygen Analyser
9181 DO
9123 Calculated pH

LV
Selection of Water Sector Equipment Supplier

Company General Company Profile and Core Working Field Contact


8810 Sulphide Analyser
9120 Dual Channel Conductivity transmitter
G1100 Optical DO
3655 Portable DO Analyzer
FM TOC Analyzer
FM SC-T3 Turbidity Analyzer
Oil in Water Analyzer
COD Analyser
NMR Analyzer
NIR Analyzer
Shelters
9125 Conductivity Analyser
Aquamax
Turbidity Analyser FMTSC-10(E)
Metrohm India Limited is a subsidiary of Metrohm AG, Switzerland, world leader in Ion Metrohm Office
6 Metrohm
Analysis. Metrohm is a renowned name in Ion Analysis and is the only company to offer the Thoraipakkam,
complete range of Ion Analysis Instrumentation- Titration, Ion Chromatography and Chennai- 600096
Voltammetry. Metrohm also have world class pH / Ion / Conductivity meters and Stability
Measuring Instruments in its comprehensive product portfolio. Tel: 40440440

Metrohm is active in the Indian Market for more than 2 decades. The company headquarter http://www.metrohm.in/
is at Chennai plus 10 offices across the country. Their Application Laboratory in Chennai
offers Application Support, Method Development and technical trainings.
Emerson & Fisher Rosemount offers measurement and analytical instruments, final-control Emerson
7 Emerson
devices systems and software for pressure, temperature, flow, level, and safety Delphi B Wing, 601 & 602
Process
measurement instrumentation. Their services encompass: 6th Floor, Central Avenue,
Management
Hiranandani Business Park,
& Fisher-
Custom Computer Programming Services Powai, Mumbai 400 076.
Rosemount
(India) Ltd Engineering Services
Instruments and Related Products Manufacturing for Measuring, Displaying, and Tel: (022) 6662 0566

LVI
Selection of Water Sector Equipment Supplier

Company General Company Profile and Core Working Field Contact


Controlling Industrial Process Variables Fax: (022) 6662 0500
Process control instruments
Pressure, temperature, level, and flow measurement
Fisher-Rosemount
Control Valves 60, Zone II, Opposite Amber
Differential Pressure Transmitters Complex
Flow Regulators & Flow Transmitters Maharana Pratap Nagar
Gas Analyzers Bhopal 462 011
Level Transmitters
Liquid Analyzers Tel: (755) 552-375
Magnetic-, Mass, Orifice, Thermal Mass & Positive Displacement Flowmeters Fax: (755) 555-751
Pressure Transmitters
http://www.emerson.com
Process Control Systems
Batch Control
Temperature Transmitters
The Saudi Arabian Amiantit CompanyS core business activities comprise: Amiantit Fiberglass Industries
8 Amiantit
India
Manufacture and sale of pipe systems Navelim (near Amona),
Ownership and sale of pipe technologies Bicholim
The provision of water management consultancy and engineering services North Goa 403505
Manufacture and supply of polymer products India

The Group serves municipal, civil engineering, industrial, energy, and agricultural markets Phone: + 91 832 661 99 99
worldwide, supporting global infrastructure development. The comprehensive range of Fax: + 91 832 661 99 00
Amiantit products includes pipes and accessories for water, sewage, hydro-power, gas, oil Email: amiantit@amiantit-
services, construction, engineering, municipal, industrial, agricultural and marine india.com
applications.
www.amiantit.in

LVII
Selection of Water Sector Equipment Supplier

Company General Company Profile and Core Working Field Contact


Pipe System Products:

Glass reinforced polyester (GRP) pipes


Glass reinforced epoxy (GRE) pipes
Thermoplastic Pipes
Ductile Iron Pipes
Concrete Pipes
Hydranautics entered the reverse osmosis (RO) water treatment field in 1970, and is now Raj Kapoor
9 Hydranautics
one of the most respected and experienced firms in the membrane separations industry of- Country Manager- India
fering: Sales & Marketing
407, Palm Springs Center Link
Superior Microfiltration Road
hardness rejection for softening application Malad (West)
energy-saving polyamide membrane Mumbai 400 064
Superior Ultrafiltration
Phone: +91-22-40030500
Fax: +91-22-40030496

rkapoor@hydranautics.com
In 2000 Endress + Hauser has set up a 100 % EOU state-of-the-art Flowmeter factory at Endress+Hauser (India) Pvt.
10 Endress +
Aurangabad, India which is one of the companys global manufacturing facility called Ltd.
Hauser
Endress+Hauser Flowtec (India) Pvt. Ltd. In October 2008 the Associated Production Raj Plaza, Wing A & B, 5th
Center Maulburg at Aurangabad started its operation. Floor,
L.B.S.Marg, Vikhroli West,
Endress+Hauser offers a number of services and solutions centered on their calibration Mumbai 400 083
management software CompuCal reaching from comprehensive process solutions for flow,
level, pressure, analysis, temperature, recording and digital communications across a wide Tel.: 022-6648 1111
range of industries, optimizing processes in regards to economic efficiency, safety and en- 022-6648 1272
vironmental protection. Fax: 022-6693 8330
Email: info@in.endress.com

LVIII
Selection of Water Sector Equipment Supplier

Company General Company Profile and Core Working Field Contact


They offer systems for:
http://www.endress.com
Raw water supply
Water treatment
Automation - Production - Water treatment
Water purification
ION House,
11 Ion Exchange Ion Exchange is present all over Indian with 27 offices, offering products like:
No. C-72 & 83, Devasandra In-
Services
INDION Resins dustrial Area, ITI Ancillary In-
(India) Ltd
INDION Antiscalants dustrial Estate, ITPL White-
Filter Media field Road, Mahadevapura
Activated Carbon Post, Bangalore 560 048 IN-
Resin and Media Cleaning Chemicals DIA
Boiler and Cooling Tower Chemicals
SERCON RO Cleaners Tel: +91 80 22043888
SERCON RO Speciality Cleaners Email: bngho-
SERCON Polymers croser@ionexchange.co.in
SERCON Biologicals
http://www.ionexchangeservi
Reverse Osmosis Chemical Additives
ces.com/
Sanitization Chemicals
Contact already established
* GIZ Contact
** India-Bavaria Cooperation
*** Private Contact

LIX
Abbreviations

AMC Annual Maintenance Contract KfW Kreditanstalt fr Wiederaufbau


AQS Analytical quality control system KIADB Karnataka Industrial Areas Devel-
opment Board
ASP Conventional Aerated Sludge Proc- KSCB Karnataka Slum Clearance Boards
ess
B Billion KSPCB Karnataka State Pollution Control
Board
BBMP Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara KSWSDB Karnataka State Water Supply and
Palike Sewerage Development Board
BCM Billion Cubic Meter KUIDFC Karnataka Urban infrastructure
development and Finance Corpo-
ration
BDA Bangalore Development Authority LPCD Litres per capita per day
BIAL Bangalore International Airport LPD Litres per day
Limited
BIS Bureau of Indian Standards M Million
BMRDA Bangalore Metropolitan Region De- MiC Metrology in Chemistry
velopment Authority
BOO Build Operate and Own Contract MLD Million litres per day
BOOT Build Operate Own Transfer MNF Minimum Night Flow
BOT Build Operate Transfer MoEF Ministry of Environment and For-
ests
BWSSB Bangalore Water Supply and Sew- MoWR Ministry of Water Resources
erage Board
CAGR Compounded Average Growth Rate MPN Most probable number
CBI Central Bank of India MPN Most Probable Number
CDP Comprehensive Development Plan NABL National Accreditation Board for
Testing and Calibration Laborato-
ries
CETP Common Effluent Treatment Plant NGOs Non-Governmental Organizations
CETP Common Effluent Treatment Plant NMC Nagpur Municipal Corporation
CGWA Central Ground Water Authority NPL National Physics Laboratory
CII Confederation of Indian Industries NRW Non Revenue Water
CPCB Central Pollution Control Board O&M Operation and Maintenance Con-
tracts
CPHEEO Central Public Health and Envi- PAB Project Approval Board
ronmental Engineering Organisa-
tion
CSIR Centre of Scientific and Industrial PE Permanent Establishment
Research
CST Central Sales Tax PESTLE Political, Economic, Social, Tech-
nological, Legal
and Environmental analysis
CWSS Cauvery Water Supply Scheme POP Persistent Organic Pollutant
DBOOT Design Build Own Operate Transfer PPP Public Private Partnership
DMA District Metering Area PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundes-
anstalt
DoST Department of Science and Tech- PZT Pressure Zero Test
nology
LX
DTAA Double Taxation Avoidance Agree- RBI Reserve Bank of India
ments
ELROT Equipment, Lease, Run, Own and ROC Registrar of Companies
Transfer Contract
EPA Environment Protection Act ROI Return on Investment
EPC Engineering, Procurement and SBR Sequenced Batch Reactor
Construction
FDI Foreign Direct Investments SEBI Securities and Exchange Board of
India
FIPB Foreign Investment Promotion SEZ Special Economic Zones
Board
FIPB Foreign Investment Promotion SIA Secretariat for Industrial Assis-
Board tance
FTA Free Trade Agreement SME Small and Medium Enterprises
GDP Gross Domestic Product SPCB State Pollution Control Boards
GIZ Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Interna- STP Sewage Water Treatment Plant
tionale Zusammenarbeit GmbH
GOI Government of India SWOT Strength, Weaknesses, Opportuni-
ties and Threats analysis
ICT Information and Communication TMC Thousand Million Cubic Feet
Technology
INR Indian Rupee TOWS Threats, Opportunities, Weakness,
and Strengths internal analysis
IPR Intellectual Property Right UASB Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Bed
IREDA Indian Renewable Energy Devel- UFW Unaccounted for Water
opment Agency
IRR Internal Rate of Return ULBs Urban Local Bodies
IT Information Technology VAT Value Added Tax
JNNURM Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban WTO World Trade Organization
Renewal Mission

LXI
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LXIII