Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 6

HVAC

Air Handling units:


An air handler is usually a large metal box containing a blower, heating or cooling
elements, filter racks or chambers, sound attenuators, and dampers. Air handlers usually connect
to a ductwork ventilation system that distributes the conditioned air through the building and
returns it to the AHU.
An air handler, or air handling unit (often abbreviated to AHU), is a device used to regulate and
circulate air as part of a heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system. An air handler
is usually a large metal box containing a blower, heating or cooling elements, filter racks or
chambers, sound attenuators, and dampers. Air handlers usually connect to a ductwork
ventilation system that distributes the conditioned air through the building and returns it to the
AHU. Sometimes AHUs discharge (supply) and admit (return) air directly to and from the space
served without ductwork
Small air handlers, for local use, are called terminal units, and may only include an air filter, coil,
and blower; these simple terminal units are called blower coils or fan coil units. A larger air
handler that conditions 100% outside air, and no recirculated air, is known as a makeup air
unit (MAU). An air handler designed for outdoor use, typically on roofs, is known as a packaged
unit (PU) or rooftop unit (RTU).
2 types

1. Draw-Through:

In the Draw-Through type, the fan pulls the air through the mixing box,
filters and cooling coil before discharging it from the fan outlet to the space to be
conditioned or to the ducting network. The design can be vertical or horizontal.
In this case, the section before the fan has negative pressure.

2. Blow-Through:
In the Blow-Through type, the fan blows the air through the mixing box,
filters and cooling coil before discharging them to the space being
conditioned or the ducting system. In this case, the section after the fan
has positive pressure.

Components:
1. Housing

The housing that contains all the other components of an AHU is usually make of metal,
some are painted to prevent corrosion.
In sections where the fans and the coil are located, 1-2 inches of polyurethane foam or
PU is used to insulate them to prevent the condensation on the panel. Drain pan is also
used as a precaution in the event of condensation of water.

2. Fans

It is common to classify fans in

Axial and/or propeller fans


Centrifugal (radial) fans
Mixed flow fans
Cross flow fans

Centrifugal fans with forwarded blades are suited for application with higher air flow
volumes and pressures. Axial propeller fans are more suited for applications with lower
volumes and pressures

Axial and Propeller Fans


In an axial fan the air flows in parallel to the shaft. It is common to classify axial fans upon their
wheel like:

C-wheel - Blades can be adjusted when running. High efficiency, small dimensions,
variable air volume
A-wheel - Blades can be adjusted only when the fan is standing still. High efficiency,
small dimensions, adaptive to recommended air volume
K-wheel - Blades cannot be adjusted. Simple, small dimensions

The pressure head developed for single stage is up to 300 N/m2. Axial fans are suited for
relatively large volumes compared to pressure

Centrifugal fans (Radial fans)


In a centrifugal fan the air flows is in a radial direction relative to the shaft. Centrifugal fans can
be classified by their wheel like:

F-wheel - Curved forward blades. High efficiency, small dimensions, changing in


pressure have little influence on pressure head.
B-wheel - Curved backward blades. High efficiency, low energy consumption, changing
in pressure have little influence on air volume. Low noise emission, stable in parallel
running.
P-wheel - Straight backward blades. High efficiency, self-cleaning, changing in pressure
have little influence on air volume
T-wheel - Straight radial blades. Self-cleaning. Suitable for material transport
Types of blades used in centrifugal fans are

Straight steel plate paddle wheel


Forward multi-vane multi-blade
Backward turbo-vane

Mixed flow fans


In a mixed flow fan the air flows in both axial and radial direction relative to the shaft. Mixed flow
fans develops higher pressures than axial fans.

Cross-flow fans
In a cross flow fan the air flows in an inward direction and then in an outward radial direction

3. Blowers

Centrifugal blower:

Centrifugal blowers achieve pressure when kinetic energy, or velocity, is added to a continuous
flow of air through an impellor or a rotor. The kinetic energy created during this process is
converted to static pressure by slowing the flow of air through a diffuser. This type of technology
is not just used in blowers; it is also used in centrifugal compressors and fans.

There are 8 basic types of blower wheels or centrifugal impellers used in industrial blowers.
They are:

1. Shrouded Radial Blade blower wheels are designed to deliver higher pressures for
pressurizing, blow-off systems and long duct or pipe runs.
2. Open Radial Blade with Back Plate blower wheels are designed for conveying powdery or
granular material and long stringy paper trimmings or fibers.
3. Open Paddle Wheel is primarily for conveying powdery or granular material.
4. Backward Inclined blower wheels are available with a flat blade design. These wheel types
are commonly used for general ventilation, forced cooling at higher pressures and in dust
collection systems where the fan is on the clean air side of the dust collector
5. Backward Curved blower wheels provide high efficiency and low noise. They are typically
used for general ventilation, dust collection where the fan is on the clean side of the dust
collector, combustion air, and drying.
6. Airfoil Blade wheels incorporate a blade design with the cross section of an airplane wing.
They are the most efficient design for moving large volumes of air. They are commonly used
for ventilation, forced cooling at higher pressures, and on dust collectors, where the fan is on
the clean side of the collector.
7. Forward Curved Multi-vane (Squirrel Cage) blower wheels are for moving large volumes
of air at lower pressures. Typically selected for general ventilation or forced cooling at slower
speeds.
8. Backward Curved Radial blower wheels are a modified version of the Open Radial Blade
wheel. It is designed to expand the performance ratings of open radial bladed wheels in
some direct driven fans. In some cases, it can be used to convey granular material but
should not be used to convey powdery or stringy material.
Positive displacement blower:

A positive displacement blower, otherwise known as a PD blower or rotary air blower, is a type
of machine that is used to move gas or air for a variety of applications. More specifically, these
devices utilize positive displacement technology by trapping a certain volume of air then
discharging or forcing it out against the system pressure. This air is usually forced into some type
of pipe or hose to propel materials or gas to a destination.

If you were to dissect a PD blower you will notice that the main parts of the machine are two
rotors that are joined together by gears surrounded by a blower casing. Many blowers also
come with a sound absorber, air screen and other parts to improve efficiency, but when
explaining how the apparatus functions we only need to focus on the rotors (often called the
impeller), blower casing, inlet side and outlet side of the machine.
Once a blower is in operation both rotors will rotate at the same speed but in opposite
directions in order to draw air into the blower. One rotor is called the driving rotor because it
is run by an external power supply, while the opposite rotor is called a driven rotor because it
is driven by gears connected to the driving rotor.
As the rotors revolve, air is pulled into the inlet side of the blower and is confined to tight areas
between the rotors and the blower casing. This pocket of air is moved around the rotors and
blower casing to the outlet side. Once the rotors open to the outlet side, the discharge line
equalizes the pressure of the air and is forced out of the blower. The air is unable to come back
due to the small amount of internal clearance between the internals of the machine. This
process enables the blower to overcome line pressure hence the name positive displacement.
Put differently, the volume of air does not change within the device, but is rather displaced
from one end of the machine to the other.
Types: 2 types
a. Two lobes blower
b. Three lobes blower
iii. Semi-hermetic (or semi-sealed) type

4. Fan Coil unit:

A Fan Coil Unit (FCU) is a simple device consisting of a heating and/or cooling heat
exchanger or 'coil' and fan.

Advantages:

1. Water based fan coils


2. Heating medium
3. Renewable energy compatibility
4. Physical size
5. Positioning
6. Sound levels
7. System energy consumption
8. Control
9. Response
10. Terminal unit dehumidification
11. Air distribution
12. Fresh air handling terminal unit
13. Potential for offsite assembly
14. Global warming potential

5. Chillers:

A chiller is a machine that removes heat from a liquid via a vapor-compression or absorption
refrigeration cycle. This liquid can then be circulated through a heat exchanger to cool
equipment, or another process stream (such as air or process water).
A typical chilled water cooling plant is comprised of one or more chiller(s), chilled water
circulation pump(s), condenser water pump(s), and cooling tower(s), plus piping to interconnect
these components. One or more cooling coils are used to transfer heat out of the supply air
stream and into the chilled water.
6. Filters

A particulate air filter is a device composed of fibrous materials which removes


solid particulates such as dust, pollen, mould, and bacteria from the air. Filters containing
an absorbent or catalyst such as charcoal (carbon) may also remove odors and gaseous
pollutants such as volatile organic compounds or ozone.[1] Air filters are used in applications
where air quality is important, notably in building ventilation systems and in engines.
There are different types of air filters available in the market.some are given below
1. Panel filters
2. Electrostatic filters or fiberglass
3. Pleated filters
4. Washable filters
5. HEPA filters
6. Green Filters
7. Heating Coils and cooling coils in AHU:
An air handler is usually a large metal box containing a blower, heating or cooling elements,
filter racks or chambers, sound attenuators, and dampers. Air handlers usually connect to a
ductwork ventilation system that distributes the conditioned air through the building and
returns it to the AHU.
8. Humidifier:
A humidifier is a device that increases humidity (moisture) in a single room or an entire building.
.

9. Mixing box:

In order to maintain indoor air quality, air handling units commonly have provisions to allow the
introduction of outside air into, and the exhausting of air from the building. In temperate
climates, mixing the right amount of cooler outside air with warmer return air can be used to
approach the desired supply air temperature. A mixing chamber is therefore used which has
dampers controlling the ratio between the return, outside, and exhaust air.
10. Economizer:
Economizers are mechanical devices intended to reduce energy consumption, or to perform useful
function such as preheating a fluid. The term economizer is used for other purposes as well. Boiler,
power plant, heating, Refrigeration, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) uses are discussed in
this article. In simple terms, an economizer is a heat exchanger.