Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 52

Motors and Drives

Part 2
Hydraulic Institute / Pump Systems Matter
Pump Systems Matter (PSM) is a non-profit educational organization
established by the Hydraulic Institute, and leading utilities and energy efficiency
organizations, to educate the industry on the benefits to pump systems
optimization and energy efficiency to improve bottom-line savings of end-user
Hydraulic Institute The mission of the Hydraulic Institute is to be a value-adding
resource to member companies, engineering consulting firms, and pump users
worldwide by developing and delivering comprehensive industry standards,
expanding knowledge by providing education and tools for the effective
application, testing, installation, operation, maintenance, and performance
optimization of pumps and pumping systems, and by serving as a forum for the
exchange of industry information. For more information on the Hydraulic
Institute, its member companies and its Standards Partners, visit

Meet Your Instructor
Currently the Power Generation
Business Development
Manager for WEG Motors
Over 40 years of experience in
the pump industry designing,
field testing, repairing and
troubleshooting mechanical
seals, compressors and
pumping systems
An active Hydraulic Institute
member for a number of years,
including Pump Systems Matter
Train the Trainer expert,
Certified Hydraulic Institute
Pump System Assessor and top
PSO instructor

Motor Designs
The Material and Shape of the Rotor Bars Are the Main
Factors in Obtaining Various Speed / Torque Curves
NEMA Defines 4 Basic Types of Speed/Torque
Characteristics for Induction Motors:
The Stator Has Little to Do With the Shape of the Motors
Speed/Torque Curve
Different Rotors Can Be Used With the Same Stator to
Change the Characteristic Shape

Definitions of Motor Torques
Locked-rotor Torque of a motor is the minimum torque, which it will develop
at rest for all angular positions of the rotor, with rated voltage applied at
rated frequency.

Pull-up Torque of an alternating-current motor is the minimum torque

developed by the motor during the period of acceleration from rest to the
speed at which breakdown torque occurs. For motors, which do not have a
definite breakdown torque, the pull-up torque is the minimum torque up to
Breakdown torque of a motor is the maximum torque which it will develop
with rated voltage applied at rated frequency, without an abrupt drop in

Full-load torque of a motor is the torque necessary to produce its rated

horsepower at full-load speed. In pounds at a foot radius, it is equal to the
horsepower multiplied by 5252 divided by the full-load speed.

Typical Speed - Torque Curve
Motor torque is defined at four points by NEMA on a Speed-Torque curve and they are:

NEMA Design A Speed Torque Curve

Operating to the Right of Breakdown



Comparison of NEMA Designs

Design B
Design B
Standard general purpose design for fans, blowers,
pumps, etc.. (60-70 % of all application)

Design B Motors:
Are the standard general-purpose design. They have low starting current, normal
torque, and normal slip. Their field of application is very broad and includes fans,
blowers, pumps, and machine tools.

Design A
Design A
Same shape as Design B except A will provide higher
Breakdown torque and starting torque (10-15% of all
% Full Load Torque

% Synchronous Speed
Design A
Covers a wide variety of motors similar to Design B except
that their breakdown torque and starting current are higher.

Design C Design C
High locked rotor torque for hard to start
applications, conveyors, compressors

Design C
Motors have high breakaway torque, low starting current, and normal slip. The
higher breakaway torque makes this motor advantageous for hard-to-start
applications, such as plunger pumps, conveyors, and compressors.

Design D
Design D

Motors have a high breakaway torque combined with high slip. Breakaway torque for 4,
6 and 8 pole motors is 275% or more of full load torque. Three slip groups are described

Design D

Motors have 5 8% and 8 13% slip and are recommended for punch presses, shears, and other high inertia machinery,
where it is desired to make use of the energy stored in a flywheel under heavy fluctuating load conditions. They are also
used for multi-motor conveyor drives where motors operate in mechanical parallel.

Motor Starting

Motor Starting Considerations
The motor torque vs. speed curve is usually provided at rated voltage. The torque and current of the motor will
change with voltage. The relationship between torque and voltage is as follows:
Torque Voltage2
If voltage at the motor terminals is low, the torque produced by the motor will drop by approximately the square of
the voltage. Therefore, a motor with 90% rated voltage at the terminals will have about 81% of peak torque. Since
the motor has lower torque, acceleration time will increase. If the torque of the motor drops such that it is not
greater than the torque required to accelerate the load, the motor will not reach rated speed.
Current Voltage
The current of the motor drops proportional to voltage. Therefore, a motor with 90% rated voltage has current
reduced approximately 10% throughout the speed range.

The acceleration time of the motor is dependent on many factors. The motor torque and inertia as well as the load
torque vs. speed curve and inertia have to be known to determine acceleration time. The acceleration time of a
motor can be calculated using the following equation.

Acceleration Time = (WK2M + WK2L) x (RPM (Final)- RPM(Initial))

308 x TAVG
WK2M = Inertia of the motor in lb-ft2.
WK2L = Inertia of the load in lb-ft2.
RPM = Change in speed in rpm.
TAVG = Average acceleration torque in lb.-ft. (Average motor torque less average load torque from minimum to
maximum speed)

Motor Starting - Inrush Currents

Locked Rotor Current typically 600-700%

of full load

Current and torque arent linear until

near full load

Beware of applying ultra high premium

efficiency motors on applications that
require lots of starts (or could frequently
reverse) can be as much as 13x FLA due
to high X/R ratio

Upstream Protection
Motor Starting Methods

Primary Resistance
Electromechanical Starters

Primary Reactance

Variable Speed Drive

Auto transformer

Soft Starter Star Delta

Motor Starting Methods
Variable Frequency Drive
NEMA Design A and B generally acceptable for Adjustable Frequency Drives
NEMA Design C and D may present problems
May produce high peak currents that could trip drive
Design C, high starting torques difficult
Design D, high peak loads cause problems

Starting Motors with Variable Frequency
AFD controls frequency, voltage and current

The volts per hertz ratio is controlled to operate the Motor as if it were already
at full speed

This allows access to maximum torque (breakdown torque) through


Available Starting Torque is high and only limited by the max current capacity of
the drive and the power grid

Motor is operated on the right side of the Breakdown on the motor speed
torque curve

Rotor Heating is minimal due to reduction in slip losses

Motor Design Issues
Added Heating of Winding (Class F Insulation)
Added Winding Insulation stresses
Added chance of Bearing currents
Added chance of Vibration issues
Effect on Sound Levels
Large Motor Concerns
How will VFD be used?
Key details needed to choose Large motors for VFDs

Motor Heating from VFD
The non-sinusoidal VFD waveform contains harmonics and peak
voltage/current in excess of normal sine wave grid power

On LV VFDs it is common for the motor to see an additional 10-15

degrees C temperature rise

On MV VFDs, motors typically see only a 3-5 degree C temp. rise

Motor Selection

AC Motor Selection Criteria
When selecting an AC motor and associated equipment for an application, the following points should be considered:
Environment The environment in which the motor operates is a prime concern. Conditions such as: ambient temperature, air
supply, the presence of gas, moisture or dust should all be considered when choosing a motor. (End User)
Speed Range The minimum and maximum speeds for the application will determine the motor base speed. (OEM)
Speed Variation The allowable amount of speed variation should be considered. Does it require constant speed at all torque
values or will variations be tolerated? (OEM)
Torque Requirements The starting torque and running torque should both be considered when selecting a motor. Starting
torque requirements can vary from a small percentage of the full load to a value several times full-load torque. The starting
torque varies because of a change in load conditions or mechanical nature of the machine. The motor torque supplied to the
driven machine must be more than that required from start to full speed. The greater the excess torque, the more rapid the
acceleration. (OEM)
Acceleration The necessary acceleration time should be considered. Acceleration time is directly proportional to the total
inertia and inversely proportional to the torque. (Motor Vendor)
Duty Cycle (RMS Calculation) Selecting the proper motor depends on whether the load is steady, varies, follows a repetitive
cycle of variation or has pulsating torques. The duty cycle which is defined as a fixed repetitive load pattern over a given
period of time is expressed as the ratio of on-time to the cycle period. When the operating cycle is such that the motor
operates at idle or a reduced load for more than 25% of the time, the duty cycle becomes a factor in selecting the proper
motor. (OEM/Vendor)
Heating The temperature of an AC motor is a function of ventilation and losses in the motor. Losses such as operating self
ventilated motors at reduced speeds may cause above normal temperature rises. De-rating or forced ventilation may be
necessary to achieve the rated torque output at reduced speeds. (Motor Vendor)

Load Considerations
The process of selecting an adjustable speed AC drive is one where the load is
of primary consideration.
It is important to understand the speed and torque characteristics as well as
horsepower requirements of the type of load to be considered.
The demands and economics of a particular application should be matched to
the drive capabilities. After this matching process is completed, the decision
regarding the type of adjustable speed drive can be made.
When considering load characteristics, the following should be evaluated:
What type of load is associated with the application?
Does the load have a shock component?
What is the size of the load?
Are heavy inertial loads involved?
What are the motor considerations?
Over what speed range are heavy loads encountered?
Motor loads are classified into three main groups, depending on how their
torque and horsepower varies with operating speed.

Load Types
Constant Torque Load
This type of load is the one most frequently encountered. In this group, the
torque demanded by the load is constant throughout the speed range. The load
requires the same amount of torque at low speeds as at high speeds. Loads of
this type are essentially friction loads. In other words, the constant torque
characteristic is needed to overcome friction.

Examples of this type of load are conveyors, extruders and surface winders.
Constant torque is also used when shock loads, overloads or high inertia loads are

Load Types
Constant Horsepower load
In this type of load, the horsepower demanded by the load is constant within
the speed range. The load requires high torque at low speeds. From Equation L-
1, you can see that with the horsepower held constant, the torque will decrease
as the speed increases. Put another way, the speed and torque are inversely
proportional to each other.

Examples of this type of load are center-driven winders and machine tool spindles. A
specific example of this application would be a lathe that requires slow speeds for rough
cuts and high speeds for fine cuts where little material is removed. Usually very high
starting torques are required for quick acceleration.

Load Types
Variable Torque Load
With this type of load, the torque is directly proportional to some mathematical
power of speed, usually speed squared (Speed2). Mathematically:

Horsepower is typically proportional to speed cubed (Speed3). The below figure

shows the variable torque and variable horsepower demanded by the load.

Examples of loads that exhibit variable load torque characteristics are centrifugal
fans, pumps and blowers. This type of load requires much lower torque at low
speeds than at high speeds.

What does this look like to the motor?

Motor Insulation
Existence of Corona / PD can quickly degrade insulation
Corona is caused by Voltage TRANSIENTS
Need to ELIMINATE (not just resist) corona for full life
Coordinate Motor - VFD / Installation as a system

Effect of Corona on Motor Insulation Partial Discharge

The corona discharges in insulation

systems result in voltage transients
Corona, also known as partial discharge, is a
type of localized emission resulting from
transient gaseous ionization in an insulation
system when the voltage stress, i.e., voltage 2,400 V PEAKS

gradient, exceeds a critical value. 5000 V/msec The ionization is usually

dV/dt localized over only a portion
of the distance between the
electrodes of the system.

Corona Inception
Corona inception voltage is the lowest voltage at which continuous corona of
specified pulse amplitude occurs as the applied voltage is gradually increased.
Corona inception voltage decreases as the frequency of the applied voltage
Corona can occur in applications as low as 300V

Circulating Current Paths in AC Motors

Because of the transient nature of the common mode voltages and common mode currents, we have to look at
current paths a bit differently than we would for 50 or 60 Hz sinewaves. Specifically, we have to see the transitions
as high frequency events. With high frequencies, there is a greater opportunity for capacitive current flow, so
insulated parts of motors, even air gaps, need to be thought of as capacitors. While these capacitors may be
absolutely negligible in magnitude for 60 Hz waveforms - being down in the nano-farad range - they are not at all
negligible for PWM waveforms. We can see in this sketch, capacitors representing the non-conductors of air gaps,
stator winding to stator core and stator winding to rotor. While the shaft extension is not normally a conductor, it
can in fact end up participating in carrying common mode currents to the coupled equipment such as a pump,
gearbox, or other machinery.
Grounding System
Insulated Bearing

Ceramic Bearing

Low Impendence
Grounding Strap

Grounding Brush

Incorrect Grounding

Bearing Damage Mechanisms from Electrical Current
Fluting in outer race, from prolonged
operation after damage from current flow
Individual arc damage spots

With that brief background, let's look at the topic of just how current flow in a rotating bearing does its damage.
The photo on the left is a section of an outer race of a ball bearing that has progressed to a point where the
surface is said to be "fluted.
This fluting or washboard pattern is commonly associated with current flow, however, as we will see
the existence of fluting does not require a root cause of current flow. The photo on the upper right is a high power
magnification of individual arc damage in a bearing race. In fact, this is taken with a scanning electron microscope,
and these pits are small enough that you would not expect to find them with the naked eye. It is possible,
however, that with sensitive vibration monitoring, an "outer race defect frequency" may show up in association
with these pits - though the amplitude would be expected to be quite low.

Bearing Damage Mechanisms from Electrical Current

Frosting Fluting on inner race,

from prolonged operation after
damage from current flow Fluting in outer race

Motor Windings Coil Head Failure

Did not have

grounding or

Motor / Voltage Spikes Motor Insulation
Possible solutions to the above compatibility issues include:

Keep lead lengths between the VFD and the motor within the motor
manufacturers tolerances
Use a motor designed with insulation specified for VFD use and capable of
handling these peak voltages
Reduced carrier frequency
Apply external RLC filters at the VFDs output terminals
Apply line reactors at the motors input terminals
Motor winding insulation damage from voltage spikes become more prevalent
the higher the system voltage.

NOTE - An RLC filter consist of a resistor (R), an inductor (L), and a capacitor (C).

Checklist for VFD Pump Operation
TDH vs. Static head?
Length of power cables?
Minimum speed
Where on pump curve?
Cooling issues?
Harmonic filters?
Shielded signal cables?
How will control be programmed?

Case Study

Re-circulation Loop 150 HP Pump 250 HP Pump

50 HP Pump


Case Study
Three Pumps

150 hp is the main pump.

With increased demand, the 50 hp is started.

With even more increased demand, 150, 50 shut down, start 250 hp.

Finally, run all three together.

All adjustments done manually.

Circulation loop (blue valve) 6 valve into 2 restriction, back into 6 pipe
controlled with a dump valve.

Lots of Cavitation

Case Study
Making the Business Case

Pump Failures every 6 months -------------- $80,000 year

Motor Failures ----------------------------------- $45,000 year

Cost of Down Time ---------------------Minimum 12 hours, reduced production

Labor Cost ------------------------------------------ $2,000 per failure x 2 = $4,000

Total cost less energy and down time = $129,000

# 5 Water Pump
Case Study 150 hp pump
delivered 1500gpm

Average demand

Pumping more water than required

Case Study

Pressure needed was not 130psi, but 100psi (230 ft. of head).
Retrofitted to use 150hp pump all the time with a VSD.
New average power is 73 kW.

System Implications to Consider
VFD Pump Systems

Select pump duty point to the right of BEP

Consider full speed motor / VFD efficiency?

Motor heat load due to drive wave form ?

Check cable lengths (Critical Cable Length Calculation)

Check if filters are needed (Inlet at drive or termination)

Design VFD for by-pass operation at 60Hz


Understand Application / System Requirements

Develop Drive Specification
Test Motor Drive System (prior to shipping)
Follow Installation Instructions (based on application
Use QA/QC Check List During Installation Process
Monitor System for Proper Operation
Implement Preventive Maintenance Program


Consider System
Demands Decision Tree
Confirm system and
duration curves.
Establish if not
Flow Chart to assess the suitability of retrofitting a
available. VSD to an existing pump system

Consider reducing
system losses

Consider modification
NO Confirm existing fixed NO or replacement
Is duty available? speed pump correctly
VFD potentially useful YES

Retain existing
installation if efficient
Mostly friction Check overall benefits Calculate total annual
(rotodynamic only) include non energy operating cost with
YES items ie: reduced alternative system
maintenance cost solutions
VFD potentially useful
Is VFD suitable? NO

Does pump run most
of the time? Are existing pump
and motor suitable for NO
proposed variable
VFD almost certainly speed

Select drive and perform financial justification

Source Hydraulic Institute LCC Guide Book

Key Points
Use a system approach to design and manage the
pumping system operation, motor, pump, drive,

Understanding the solutions available to improve

performance with help you realize that there may be
more than one solution to solve the problem!

Variable Speed Drives are best applied when demand

varies over time

Closing Thoughts
If you want to improve your pumping systems, follow the plan

Pump systems are big energy users in many plants Know how
much these systems are costing you

Lifetime energy costs can be 25 times the installed cost of a

pumping system Think Life Cycle Costing

Look beyond energy savings

Systems Optimization focuses on improving the reliability of the

system thus reducing total system costs

Closing Thoughts
Need to understand the symptoms that occur to the system when it
operates away from BEP

Many pumping systems are not well designed or controlled

Efficiency and reliability go hand-in-hand

Screening provides valuable information on how many systems

should be further assessed

Build a Business Case, Speak the Language of Management (bottom

line results)

Take Away
Provide Solutions

Listen to the customers issues and concerns

- Ask qualifying questions to establish business case
- Ask the right questions understand the problem(s)
- Think what is the best solution (provide options)
- Solve the Problem using the best solution along
with Life Cycle Cost justification (build business

Where to Go to Get Help
Visit the these Website Resources:
Send your staff to web seminars and courses available from
the DOE, PSM, Hydraulic Institute and others
Explore local efficiency programs and utility rebates!
Bring in a pumping system specialist to help you
Purchase the ASME Energy Assessment for Pumping Systems

Thank you
Questions / Comments