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Influence of Culture on Consumer Behavior

1.The total of learned beliefs, values, and customs that direct consumer behavior in a
society is called: culture.

2.Overt behavior that constitutes culturally approved ways of behaving in specific situations
is called: custom.

3. Which of the following is the first level of subjective culture? Supranational level

4. Which level of subjective culture deals with the various divisions of people within a
society?: Group level

5. What type of cultural learning deals with the situation in which an adult teaches a child
"how to behave" in specific situations? Formal learning
6. Which type of cultural learning deals with the situation in which a teacher instructs a child
in school how to act in specific situations? Technical Learning
7. The learning of your own culture is called: enculturation.

8. What type of symbol is based on the words used in a television commercial? Verbal

9. All of the following are examples of nonverbal symbols in television commercials EXCEPT:
Words used in the commercial.
10. A series of behaviors performed in a fixedsequence over and over again is called a(n):
11. Culture can be thought of as the "personality" of a society.True
12. A custom is a type of everyday routine behavior. True
13. The repetition of a television commercial can reinforce a cultural value in the mind of
viewers. True
14. Learning your own culture is called acculturation. False
15. Learning your own culture is called acculturation. True
16. Anything that stands for something else is called a symbol. True
17. A shampoo brand is a symbol of popular culture. True
18. Content analysis can be an objective way of measuring cultural change over time. True
19. Achievement is an important American value within U.S. culture. True
20. The U.S. has become a "shopping" culture. True

Consumer Perception
1. The process by which a consumer selects and interprets stimuli into a meaningful
picture is called: perception.
2. The lowest level at which a consumer can experience a sensation is called the:
absolute threshold.
3. The minimal difference between two similar stimuli is called the: j.n.d.
4. The ________ a consumer's need, the ______ the tendency for that consumer to
ignore unrelated stimuli. stronger greater
5. The idea that consumers seek out messages that they consider pleasant and avoid
messages they consider threatening is called: selective exposure.
6. The idea that consumers have a heightened awareness of stimuli that are relevant to
their needs is called: selective attention.
7. The idea that consumers subconsciously screen out stimuli that they feel are
psychologically threatening is called: perceptual defense.
8. The concept of "figure and ground" is central to: Gestalt psychology.
9. The idea that people remember their own Social Security numbers by grouping them
into "chunks" of digits separately is called: grouping.
10. When a retailer marks a shirt for sale as "Their price $29, our price $15", this is an
example of what type of pricing? Reference pricing
11. Consumers react solely on the basis of objective reality. False
12. Positioning strategy is based on shaping the consumer's perception of the product.
13. As sensory input decreases, the ability of the consumer to detect changes in stimuli
input increases. True
14. Research studies have found considerable evidence of the existence of the
effectiveness of subliminal advertising. False
15. Contrast is an effective attention getting attribute of a stimulus. True
16. Consumers tend to "group stimuli" to form a unified impression. True
17. First impressions rarely are lasting impressions. False
18. Product licensing is based on the halo effect theory. True
19. The internal reference prices of a consumer are subject to change. True
20. Services are first sold, and then produced and consumed. True

Consumer Learning
1. The process of acquiring purchase and consumption knowledge that applies to future
behavior is known as: consumer learning.
2. What increases the probability that a specific response will follow a certain cue?
3. When a consumer's attention and retention start to decline after that consumer has
watched a TV commercial several times, this is called: advertising wearout.
4. When Kellogg's introduces a new cereal as part of its product line of cereals with the
name: "Kellogg's .......," this is an example of: family branding.
5. What type of conditioning refers to the situation in which the stimulus that produces
the most satisfactory response for the consumer is the one that the consumer
learns? Instrumental conditioning
6. Another term for instrumental condition is _____conditioning. Operant
7. What type of stimulus is designed to discourage a specific behavior? Punishment
8. When a learned response is not reinforced and eventually stops, we say that
________ has occurred: extinction
9. When a consumer needs to purchase a new set of tires for her car, the set of tire
brands that she is considering purchasing is called her: evoked set.
10. Another term for cobranding is: double branding.
11. A consumer's response is tied to that consumer's need in a one toone manner. False
12. Repetition increases the association between a conditioned stimulus and an
unconditioned stimulus. True
13. Retailers' private branding frequently produces the same effect as family branding.
14. Stimulus discrimination and stimulus generalization are the same thing. False
15. The events that weaken the likelihood of a specific response are called positive
reinforcement. False
16. Extinction and forgetting are the same thing. False
17. Relationship marketing is a special form of non-product reinforcement. True
18. The process by which a consumer recovers information from longterm memory is
called retrieval. True
19. The degree of personal relevance that a product holds for a consumer is the basis of
involvement theory. True
20. The visual part of a television commercial is the focus of right brain processing. True

Consumer Attitude
1. A learned disposition to act consistently in a favorable or unfavorable way toward
some object is called a(n): Attitude
2. Which component of an attitude refers to a consumer's feelings toward a movie that
she has seen? Affective
3. Which attitude model is best suited toward measuring a consumer's attitude toward
a specific brand? Attitude toward object model
4. Which aspect of the theory of planned behavior deals with a consumer's perception
of whether the behavior is within his control? PBC
5. A delicious brownie has what attribute toward a man who is trying to lose 20
pounds? Personal impediment
6. When Procter & Gamble encloses a 50cent coupon inside a package of one of its
toothpaste brands to try to attract the consumer to purchase one of its new brands
of toothpaste, what type of marketing attempt is this? Direct marketing
7. The simulated perception of direct experience is called: telepresence
8. When CocaCola advertises its Coke soda as "the largest selling brand of soda in the
U.S.," which strategy is CocaCola using? Changing the overall brand rating
9. Which attitude theory studies how consumers assign causality to events on the basis
of their own behavior or on others' behavior? Attribution theory
10. When a consumer is asked during a phone interview only three questions, and after
answering them, the caller asks the consumer to donate three hours of his time to
tutoring a student who needs help with learning English, which technique is being
used? Foot in the door technique
11. Consumer researchers measure the attitudes of consumers by asking them
questions. True
12. Attitudes must be "inferred" from what people do. True
13. Attitudes are learned. True
14. The affective component of an attitude refers to how a consumer feels after the
purchase of a new product. True
15. In attitude measurement, the cognative component is considered to be a measure of
the consumer's intention to buy. True
16. Socialization is an important determinant of a consumer's attitude toward advertising
messages. True
17. Attitudes that are developed through indirect experience tend to be more lasting
than attitudes developed through direct experience. False
18. The most common advertising appeal is to try to change the consumers' attitude
toward his belief about the brand. True
19. Cognitive dissonance deals with a consumer's attitude toward the brands that she did
not purchase. True
20. According to defensive attribution, a consumer is likely to accept personal credit for a
successful purchase of a new product. True

Market Segmentation and Strategic targeting

1. When Henry Ford told prospective customers who wanted to buy his Model T Ford:
"You can have any color you want, as long as it is black," what marketing concept
was he illustrating? Mass marketing
2. When Gillette creates a different marketing mix for men and women for its razors
and blades, what marketing concept is Gillette illustrating? Market segmentation
3. Age and gender represent what type of segmentation variable. Demographic
4. When a marketer says that the number of people in a given market segment has to
be large enough to be profitable for the company to design a marketing mix for that
segment, this is focusing on what aspect of segmentation? Sizeable
5. All of the following are typical variables used to measure "social class" EXCEPT:
6. About how many people are in the U.S. "baby boomer" market segment? 75 millions
7. What type of segmentation assumes that people who live close to one another are
likely to have similar tastes and preferences? Geodemographic
8. The VALS segmentation system is based on the research of: Abraham Maslow.
9. Segmentation based on the amount of usage of the product is called: behavioral
10. When Procter & Gamble designs a different marketing mix for its Tide, Cheer, and
Bold detergents, this is an example of: differentiated marketing.
11. Market segmentation is the same thing as mass marketing. False
12. Services cannot segment their offerings, while products can be segmented. False
13. When marketers say that a segment needs to be consistent in its lifestyle and
consumption patterns for the people in that segment, the marketers are focusing on
the stability of the segment. True
14. Age is an important demographic variable in the marketing of many products and
services. True
15. The assumption that many families pass through similar stages over time is called
demographic segmentation. False
16. Demographic variables frequently explain why consumers make their purchase
decisions. False
17. Understanding both the users and the nonusers of a product is important in
consumer behavior studies. True
18. Benefit segmentation is rarely used to develop a positioning strategy. False
19. It is possible for a company to use a counter segmentation strategy. True
20. Differentiated marketing is frequently used by startup companies that are new to the
marketplace. False