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British refer to mainland Europe as the Continent or Europe
Part of EU since 1973
Semi-detached: opted out of much EU legislations

Referendum, 23 June 2016, 52%:48%
Scotland and Northern Ireland voted Remain
REMAIN: cities with large multi-ethnic population, younger people, economists and business
LEAVE: parts of the country with high unemployment

David Cameron resigned as PM, replaced by Theresa May
Pound fell and estimates for economic growth have been revised sharply downwards
Dramatic increase in in reported hate crime and racial or xenophobic abuse (Polish community)

1.1 What is Britain?

Britain is an Island and for this reason they refer to Europe as The Continent . This proves

1.2 The English Language

At the time of Roman invasion Celtic language

Romans left a little mark on the society
In the 8th and 9th Century Vikings invasion England was devided in : Wessex ( south and east)
and Danelaw (north and east)
The language of the Anglo-Saxons and the Danes was NOT so different combined is similar to
the Modern English
For the next 2 or 3 centuries the main language was The Middle English, although the French
influence was important

1.3 National Stereotypes

They come from novels, television, films - Examples: Mary Poppins ( the English rose- pretty
but not beautiful), Jane Austen (large country houses), England is only London, Oxford,
Cambridge, public schools, Hogwarts.

Stereotypes promoted by the tourist industry: House of Parliament, Big Ben, Buckingham
Palace, the Tower of London
Tourists want to see only the traditional part of the country
British people want to be known for their humour, eccentricity, moderation

Negative stereotypes
Bad food, poor dress sense, lack of cleanliness, snobbishness, hypocrisy, football hooliganism
Kids pick up some germs!

Other stereotypes for:

THE WELSH nation of singers, miners, druids, rugby players
THE IRISH drinkers, talkers, musicians, writers, very religious

1.4 Generalisation
LOVE OF TRADITION The British are describes as conservative because of the Royal family and
because of some conservative politicians. UK is not so traditional ; there is a heavily urbanized
and highly multicultural society. School uniforms are still the norm.

CLASS CONSCIOUSNESS Britain is a class ridden society and people are aware of their social
class. This is because of no revolutions to upset the status quo + the structures have evolved
gradually. Snobbery is present in every society. In Britain INVERTED SNOBBERY ( disdaining
things connected with wealth); intellectuals used to malign middle class and to praise the
honesty of working class life. A lot of people say that they are from the w. class, although their
income is for the middle class. Some claim that Britain is a classless society after the Thatcher
revolution, but facts prove them wrong. Blair and other politicians graduated in Oxbridge and a
lot of people from lower social classes cannot go there because of their income. Social classes
are for people an integral part of British society. The Labour party gets support from workers,
teachers, social and clerical workers. From the 80s a new class has been created rich
entrepreneurial class (people from lower class backgrounds become rich). Another important
thing is the ACCENT. People divide themselves in various classes because of their accent.

LOVE OF THE COUNTRYSIDE The British have a very idealized attachment to the countryside.
They dream to live in a cottage but nowadays the UK is industrial and even the countryside is
full of factories. The only less spoilt zones are not affordable to normal people. The 2 countries,
which are the favorite of the British, are Spain and France. -

A SENSE OF FAIR PLAY good sportsmanship, good sport: accept losing gracefully and the ability
of laughing at themselves. Supporting the underdog means to support the smaller team.
Nowadays this sense of fair play is less used, because of the entertainment industry for big
teams is not important to take part, but to win! -

SUSPICION OF CLEVERNESS The British are down to earth, pragmatic and practical so they have
a great faith in the common sense. There is a less faith in academics and its not tradition to
bring university professors into government. Cleverness is for the British shrewd, sly, furtive,
sneaking, un-English, un-Scottish, un-Welsh. -

A SENSE OF HUMOUR Humour is popular in Britain and forms a large proportion of television
production. In every program is expected a general joking. The British are keen on irony, but it
can be easily spill over into sarcasm. GSOH means: good senso of humour. The British are also
reluctant to complain about poor service and they pretend to be fine, even when they are

ANIMAL LOVERS There are a lot of animal charities in Britain (RSPCA, PDSA, cats Protection).
People give them a lot of money every year. They have a soft spot for donkeys too. The BBC is
famous for its wildlife documentaries. There is also a passion for horses and horse riding. A lot
of teenagers take riding lessons. The British are less attached to pedigree dogs and they are
against the transportation of animals. Another passion is bird watching or birding and the
twitchers travel around the world to see a rare species of birds

Immigration :
In 1948 British Nationality act British citizenship to Commonwealth citizens (they had
the right to live in Britain)
Natural step to move to England after war
A higher standard of living
People from Poland, Italy, Ireland
Other people moved because of an uncertain future in their country or because of
religious/political persecution
The first arrivals : Afro-Caribbeans, then Indians and Pakistanis
Certain cities became known for their ethnical communities

Many immigrants were received with hostility
The law gradually changed difficult to make migration
Britain encourage them to maintain their identity, tradition
General tolerance - In 1987 4 non-white MPs were elected

Ethnic communities
Indians and Chinese integrated most successfully
Pakistanis and Bangladeshis suffer from higher unemployment and lower incomes
The poorest are predominantly Muslims (unqualified)
Bangladeshi youngsters have rapidly improved
The top performing ethnic group in school is the Chinese
Black Africans are most likely to have an university degree

Changed Britain
Racial and ethnic mix on the streets
Certain employment areas with a high proportion of immigrants
Different cultural traditions, languages and religions
Many mosques and temples
Children learn sth about religions
Mark non-Christian festivals
Street festivals associated with ethnic cultures

Great impact on the British diet
Britain absorbs and adapts external influences
Indian food industry! - GO FOR AN INDIAN! -In supermarkets : ready-made Indians

The arts
Greatest influence from the Caribbean reggae and ska
Films set among the British Asian community
Bollywood is te second largest category in Britain
Non-white newsreaders

Has become a widely accepted one in B society, media, education system
Celebrating racial and ethnic diversity
This multiculturalism is likely to become more marked in the future
Those born in Britain call themselves as Britiish
Proud of their mixed heritage

New immigration
The UK population increased half of them were born abroad
The largest immigrant communities are still the Chinese, Irish, South Asian
Now also people from Eastern Europe countries : from Poland!

Community languages spoken by members of minority groups -
The most frequent are: Punjabi, Gujarati, Turkish
Primary schools offer at least 35 languages

1.5 An A-Z of Britishness



Prior the Acts of Union, Scotland had many centuries of INDEPENDENCE
The Scots arrived in the 4th century AD.
With the CELTIC PICTS they fight against the Vikings
Alba = Gaelic name for Scotland

Kingdom of Alba
The wars of Scottish independence 1296, battles against the British, main leaders: William
Wallace, Robert the Bruce (defeated the B. in the Battle of Bannockburn 1314)

Highlands and Lowlands

The Highlands was the clan system, which was derived from both Celtic and Norse traditions
The Lowlands were subject to attack because they were near England
The H. became the centre of the JACOBITE REBELLION 18TH century
When Elizabeth I died, The STUARTS
GLORIOUS REVOLUTION In 1688 James II, the last Catholic monarch of England, Scotland and
Ireland, was deposed by the E. Parliament and replaced by his daughter Mary
James, his son and his grandson tried to return to the throne unsuccessful
His grandson Bonnie Prince Charlie defeated by the English army at the BATTLE OF
His army was from the Highlands so they faced brutal repression
They were: troublesome savages who spoke a foreign language
Very limited rights : HIGHLAND CLEARANCES clearing large areas of Scotland Highlands
What we know about their culture is reinvented by the Romantic revival
Kilts and tartans became fashionable (18th century) as symbol of Scottish national
identity Burns night
On 25th January celebration of the life and work of Scotlands national poet
The Scottish Enlightenment

In the 18th century intellectual and scientific development

First public educational system
Robert Adam, James Boswell, David Hume, James Watt, Mungo Park Devolution
Scotland retained a large measure of autonomy judicial, educational system
Bank of Scotland
Tony Blairs government in 1998 the Scottish parliament was established

General Information
The Scottish live mostly in Edimburgh, Glasgow and Aberdeen
Their flag is blue with the St Andrews cross
His saints day = 30th November Language
Scottish Gaelic Celtic language related to Irish
Scots is recognized as a regional language

Flower or Scotland
Is an unofficial anthem
Its written by Roy Williamson
It refers to the Scottish victory over the English in 1314

No independence period under English nomination since 1284
The last native king was defeated in 1277
King Edward built castles in the North Wales
Rebellions In the next decade
They retained their identity through culture, language
Welsh traditions created in the 19th century
In the 19th century growth of the population because of the coal mining and related industry
Cardiff, Swansea and Newport increased in size
The division between the English-speaking south (industry) and the Welsh-speaking rural north
In the 1955 development of a different political identity
In 1993 Language Act it gave the language equal status to English
In 1997 a referendum only 50.3 voted in favour of a Welsh assembly

General information
The capital : Cardiff
The patron: Saint David 1st March
The flag: the Red Dragon of Cadwallader

The Welsh language

20% of the population speak Welsh
28% understand it
Welsh is the first language in the rural north and west


Northern Ireland separated from Ireland in 1922 with the conflict
The Troubles (20th C.)
The colonisation by the English started in the 16th century
Land was confiscated by the E and given to PLANTERS
This process accelerated in the 17th century Oliver Cromwell
Veterans from wars recieved land and gradually the new settlers formed the new ruling class
BATTLE OF BOYNE victory of the British Protestants against the Irish Catholics
This battle celebrated every year by the ORANGE ORDER
Irish catholics had no rights and their language was supressed
Irish Parliament was abolished and Ireland became part of the UK

The Great Famine

low ebb in the 19th century
Great Famine or Irish Potato Famine of 1845 -1851
Ireland was an agricultural nation, very poor
People had to pay pay rent for their land
Many labourers were without work
The potato was the staple diet
When it struck drammatic effect
Government in London didn't care
The POOR LAWS families were forced to build stone roads
The famine lasted for 6 years
Millions of Irish people left the country America, Canada, Britain Civil war and partition
The Easter Rising in Dublin in 1916 organised by the Republican Brotherhood lasted only 6 days
but it was a turning point for rebellion
Split between Republicans ( only way army) and Nationalist (negotiation)
In 1921 Ireland devided into Northern and Southern parts
Civil war between who accepted it and who saw it as a betrayal
The second group lost
In 1922 the Irish Free State was born
In 1949 it left the Commonwealth and it became the Republic of Ireland or Eire Ulster or the
Six Countries
Unionis supporters of the link with Britain called the province ULSTER
The others nationalist SIX COUNTRIES, because 26 of Irelands' countries formed the Irish Free
State, while 6 of them remained part of Britain

The Troubles
The Unionists were in favour of the union with Britain
The Nationalist or Republicans for the separation - The N.I. government dominated by
the Protestant community + discrimination against the Catholic minority
Electoral boundaries ADJUSTED Protestants' control of town councils
In the 60s Catholic civil rights movement began
Reforms were not allowed
In 69 in Belfast and Derry riots
Army sent there
At first army was welcomed by the Catholics
BLOODY SUNDAY 30th January 1972, unarmed civilians were fired upon the Nationalist turned
against the British army
Paramilitary groups became very active
One of them PROVISIONAL IRA, that had broken away from the IRA
The Ulster side = UDA, UVF
Both sides started shooting, bombing
In the 1972 the N.I parliament was SUSPENDED
Violence for 3 decades
The British government suspended many legal rights
Exstremist groups recruited new members
In the 1998 GOOD FRIDAY Both communities alter its constitution and recognised its right to
In the 21st century official end of violence
Problems still remain

3. From Victoria to the new millenium

After her death, her ideals continued

discontent among ordinary working people very poor conditions
political change : introduction of a salary for MP's


the most dramatic event - over a million B soldiers were killed, 2 millions were injured -
the young men involved : the lost generation
BATTLE OF SOMME from July to November 1916
1. July 16 the bloodiestday in the history of the British Army
The WW1 is remembered on Remembrance Day or Armistice Daz (11th November)
The Armistice Day is called Poppy day - Why poppy? Because it is the colour of blood + it grew
in the trenches


The war brought many social and economic changes
People from different social classes were together in war
The HOUSING ACT the returning soldiers would recieve a house
Women had to take male roles
SUFFRAGE MOVEMENT led by Emmeline Pankhurst


After WW1 1929 - The most significant economic depression
The worst affected North of England and Wales unemployment reached 70%
GENERAL STRIKE in 1926 for coal miners
In October 1936 Jarrow March or Jarrow Crusade PROTEST
The industry improved at the beginning of WW2 need for armaments


Continuation of the previous war
Britain suffered only a half of the casualties
Many more civilian casualties + war closer to home
Britain prepared for total war
Barrage baloons deter low-flying aircraft
Children evaquated, gas masks were issued
When the Nazis conquered France, Belgium, Norway.. Britain stood alone
Neville Chamberlaine resigned, replaced by Winston CHURCHILL - War-time leader
In 1940 the Royal air Force successfully resisted the Nazi's attacks DUNKIRK
The Dunkirk evacuation
Took place between 26 May and 4th June 1940
300.000 soldiers were rescued by assembled fleet of boats.
Miracle of deliverance
The Dunkirk spirit the solidariety of British people

Blitz spirit - It refers to the intensive bombing of Britain by Germans 40/41
A million houses destroyed
Then Hitler turned his attension eastwards Russia

For the English the war was seen in a different perspective
No invasions, occupations, attrocities
Britain was not invaded
They saw themselves as the good guys(no cooperation with the Nazzi's)
A strong sense of common purpose
Single women had an important role : worked in war industries or joined the Women's Land
They bacem rfadar operators, mechanics, truck drivers
Women finally could make a contribution to the war
Government propaganda contributed to the feeling of UNITY

Important - VERA LYNN the Forces' Sweetheart


Churchill was rejected by the voters in 1945
The Labour won because their voters were soldiers
They did not trust a Conservative government
The Labour programme contained many socialist elements nationalisation of key industries,
1/5 economy under public ownership
NHS care for everyone in the country regardless of their income

War debt and economy was struggling
Food rationing, rationing of bread
In the 1951 Churchill came back to power - decline as a leading country( the world was
enetering the cold-war period between two world powers, the soviet union and the USA)
Loss of English colonies
Britain managed to avoid the level of conflict

intergovernmental organisation of 53 independent member states


Grey, conformist period

For women unwelcome return to home
Leisure more significant seaside holiday camps
TV, washing machines, refrigerators, record players
Cars started to become a significant part of British life


Radical social change
Certain trends began
Idea of youth culture and pop culture
Before, young people were like their parents
In the 60s dramatic decline in respect for authority
No respect for elders and betters
The pop music was the dominant form of expression
New subcultures: Rockers, Hippies
American artists influenced the British
Lady Chatterley Trial - symbol of the social changes
It talked about sex - A general relaxation of sexual attituds


sexual revolution
In 1964 Labour came back
Sexual Offences act (homosexuality legal), The Abortion Act, the Divorce Reform Act
Introduction of instructed local authorities to prepare people for the selective grammar
Students' demonstrations in Britain rebellion anti-Vietnam war
Marxism had a great influence

COUNTERCULTURE : The dramatic social changes + drug use + psychedelic music


The message of the Sixties faded
Economic problems, high inflation, unemployment
Increased : Ecology movement and feminism
nuclear power, acid rain, the ozone hole, whale hunting. Greenpeace has enjoyed growing
FEMINISM - Equal Pay Act 1970 + the Sex Discrimination Act 1975 steps forward in the
struggle for equal rights
The Punk movement flourished SEX PISTOLS no future for the society


The decline + crisis peak in the winter of 78/79

Margharet Thatcher became the first female prime Minister power till 1990
A major political figure in the world
After her third election she introduced the POLL TAX financing local government)
Anti- Europeanism, policies of shareholders, her determination to weaken the trade
Largely critisized in the North of England, Scotland, Wales industry closed down
For her the important thing was the INDIVIDUAL RESPONSABILITY
A great distrust of communism and a faith in free-market


In 1997 the Labour Party won again Tony Blair
He called it NEW LABOUR a compromise between liberal and social democracy
Thatcherism continued, he was unsuccessful
He won 3 times because of a booming economy
He resigned in 2007
He put a lot of money in health and education
After him : Gordon Brown


8.1. The state of religion in Britain

Christianity is in a state of decline
Half of Britons have no religious affiliation
Atheists or agnostics
Cultural Christians religion is part of their cultural heritage
Passive Christianity general respect for some tenets of C.
C. is seen as a matter of shared moral values
8.2 The Church of England

Anglican church - Official church headed by the monarchs

The monarch is crowned by the Archbishop
Mixture of Catholic and Reformed elements
High Church : mass in latin
Low Church : teachings of scriptures
Catholics : Gods intermediaries, able to hear confession
Anglicans : more pastoral, they visits the old, sick..
The Anglican church plays a less controversial social role - Liberal view on abortion, not
against contraception
It makes fewer efforts to exert political influence - Church leaders have talked about
important social issues : conflict with the government
Churches : events, groups
Not clear how many members it has
Schools connected with church

8.3 The Catholic Church

5mio Roman Catholics mostly in Northern Ireland
General suspicion of Catholicism in England Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland
Church of Scotland : The KIRK; is Presbyteria
Governed by non-clerical elders and led by a moderator
No set prayer book
Scripture reading or hymn singing


Church of Ireland
Part of the Anglican Communion
The Church of Wales
Anglican, not a significant role
Nonconformist groups encourage individuals to experience God personally
Methodism : unordained preachers

8.5 Other Christian groups

Baptist churches believe in adult baptism by full immersion
Pentecostal churches emphasize inspiration by the Holy spirit
The Quakers is a non-hierarchical sect, they are small but with a great social influence
They are in favour of womens rights, universal education..
Their schools are good, well known scientist, writers and academics
Salvation Army : founded in 1865 to bring material help for the hungry
They wear uniforms

8.6 Other Religions

JUDAISM : second largest Jewish population in Britain

They were expelled, then Cromwell allowed them to come back
In 1858 they were allowed to participate in walks of life, including parliament
Great wave of Jewish migration
Successful in business, media, arts, science, academia..

ISLAM: Wave of large-scale immigration from the Indian subcontinent

80 Muslim primary schools
They are the most marginalized religious group in Britain
HINDUISM: Guajarati or Punjab origin
From East Africas Asian communities
The flourishing ones

SIKHISM: wear turbans, uncut hair and beard.

Buddhism: very popular ; a lot of Britons have converted
Rastafarians : reggae music, Bob Marley, dreadlocks
New Age: spiritual beliefs
Connection with the Eastern cultures
An interest in yoga, veganism, vegetarianism, Chinese medicine, Celtic myths and culture
Dissatisfaction with emptiness and materialism

The houses of parliament
The P is the supreme legislative institution
The Palace of Westminster is known as the Houses of Parliament
The word : parliament used from the 13th century
The Commons representatives are from countries, towns and cities
The Lords : nobility and clergy
The power of the House of Lords is very limited The House of Commons
Has 646 members
It elects its own Speaker (predsednik drzavnega zbora)
He decides who speaks in debates
Once he passed on the Commons opinions to the monarch
Some written rules on how the Parliament works
The H. of C. is not round, but RECTANGULAR
It has 5 rows
The leading members of the two main parties sit on the front
Other members are known as BACKBENCHERS
Not everyone has their own seat not enough place
Only MPs are allowed on the floor of the chamber
Voting is not simple
Members walk into different areas dividing the Hose
Division lobbies
The Speaker asks members to call out whether they agree with the first vote
If its not clear : divison takes place
Members have 8min to vote
Votes are counted by tellers
The result is announced by the Speaker
The main roles of parliament : examine the work of the government, debeate and pass laws
The government has to answer during meetings of the p. committees
Government loses the confidence: PM resigns
The Commons has little control over the government
The PM can ask for dissolution at any time not a minimum term
Government publish detailed proposals for legislation : GREEN PAPERS WHITE PAPERS
The first reading is the formal announcement of the bill
The second reading is when the general principles are debated and a vote is taken
Then the bill goes to committee stage
Then is discussed in the House report stage
The third reading is the final debate
Then is sent to the H of Lords for discussion
Returns to the Commons for the final vote
Royal assent - The parliamentary sessions starts with the State Opening of Parliament
The Sovereign addresses members of both houses
The Queen has a speech written by the Prime Ministers office
The Gentleman Usher of the Black Rod the door is slammed in his face tradition

The Electoral System

646 electoral areas
You need a simple majority not the absolute m
Its possible to win with less than half the votes
It seems unfair
It leads to strong, single-party governments
Coalitions are possible, but not common
Disadvantages : small parties do badly
The Green Party has never win a seat
The two-party system : only main parties in the UK
No party lists so if an MP dies, resign an election has to be held
A lot of media attention The election campaign
The political parties release their manifestos, setting out their programme
Glossy brochures, political broadcasts
Uplifting message from the leader
Travel around the country battles
Before polling day the spin doctors go to everybody asking if they have understood
The voters have to put a cross next to the name of their favourite one
You can be elected with far fewer votes
The date is up to the PM
Candidates: have to have 10 voters and pay 500 punds
No need to be in a party
Voting is not compulsory

Political Parties
The Labour : interests of ordinary working people
The Conservatives : the traditional ruling elite
Now : no differences
Labour is a left of the centre party social service provision, defender of welfare state ,
Conservatives are right centre, believe in reducing income taxes, hierarchical social structure
The Conservatives under Margaret Thatcher introduced free market, radically cut taxes,
privatized large sectors
Labour voters are from the lower social class + small part of the middle class
Cons. Voters: the others
The Liberal Democrats : the only other sizeable party in Britain
They are slightly left of centre, pro-European

The House of Lords - In the 15th century the Commons on the same level as the
Removed the powers of the Lords
They can review the new legislation
Reform : no longer constituted on a hereditary basis
92 of the hereditary peers lost their right to sit and vote
It has 751 members , do not receive a salary
609 life peers retired politicians
Selected representatives from walks of life
The Speaker sits on the Woolsack
The H of L functioned as the final court of appeal in civil cases
Now a separate Supreme Court will be set up

The Government
Is the executive body responsible for running the country
Members selected by the Prime Minister
May be members of House of Lords
No tradition of appointing members from outside parliament
Ministers do not have to be approved by parliament
They have to be from the PMs party
B government has 126 members
Collective responsibility : every member shares responsibility for its decisions and action. If they
want to criticize the government, they must resign

The Prime Minister

Is the leader of the party
The day after the election, he has a meeting with the monarch
Then moves into the official residence
He coordinates its policy
He informs the Queen about government business
He has more power than the Slovene counterpart
No need to compromise with coalition partners

The Cabinet
It is the governments inner committee and decision-making body
Senior government ministers
The main opposition party creates the Shadow Cabinet
The PM is the first among equals
He makes frequent changes - refreshing the government
Cabinet reshuffle
Little emphasize on expertise ministers can change sector
The Cabinet has 23 members
The finance minister is the second most important figure
Then : The Home Office and the Foreign & Commonwealth Office
The Chief Whip runs the Whips Office and is responsible for the party discipline
The whips try to ensure that MPs vote along party lines
The Chief send a letter to the MP how they are to vote
It can be underlined 1, 2 or 3 times
Defiance of the three-line whip -> expulsion from the party
If you are ill, you have to vote, if you are abroad, you have to return home

The Civil Service

Is the public administration in Britain
It covers 66 executive agencies and 23 Whitehall departments
Whitehall : the road running from Parliament to Trafalgar Square
The highest civil servant : THE CABINET SECRETARY
They work behind the scene, politically neutral
They are employees of the Crown
With a new government, they retain their posts
They may exercise a bit of influence or power
Local Government
Britain : centralized system of government
Local authorities has power.. given them by the central g
Local representatives are COUNCILLORS
They meet in the council chamber of the local town hall
Many countries coincide with the old countries or shires
The metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas are divided into districts
Districts are divided into civil parishes

The Monarchy
Not a lot of power
Symbolic role
Head of the Church of England
Its popularity rises and falls

The royal family

The Windsors are German by origin
The current heir to the throne is Charles


The Judicial System

No single unified judicial system
Exceptions : immigration law, employment law
In other countries : Roman law
In England Scotland : civil law
Interpreted by judges
They have to decide in line with previous judges
E. law : solving individual disputes
In civil and criminal cases : 2 sides or parties (the defence and the prosecution)
Crown Prosecution service makes a decision after hearing arguments
Witnesses can be called to witness
After this: cross examination
All the courts are administered by Her Majestys Court service
The main courts : MAGISTRATES courts, country c, crown c
Magistrates courts are not trained by lawyers respected citizens
Not paid
The punishment is not so bad the maximum is 6 month in jail
Serious cases start in the magistrates court but end in a crown court, which is presided over by
a qualified judge

The crown court :

jury of 12 people selected at random
Not paid
10 members must agree to reach a verdict
If not : the process starts again
Court of appeal : CORTE DAPPELLO
The House of Lords has been the final court of appeal
Civil cases involving private disputes : are tried in a country court
In Scotland : law different
15 members in juries rather than 12
The age of legal capacity is 16 not 18
Trial lawyers are called advocates NOT barristers

The legal profession

2 kinds of lawyers : SOLICITORS AND BARRISTERS
Solicitors : handle everyday legal matters (wills, divorce) ; they present casaes in magistrates
They are specialized in special areas
Barristers:: present cases in higher courts
General principles of law
Dressed in wig and gown
In E you can become a lawyer without a law degree
Solicitors have to practice for 1 year in a course
years part-time taining
2 Barristers have more work : degree in law + 1 year conversion course, then you join 1 of the 4
inns of Court in London
When you do this : twelve qualifying sessions
They must do a years pupilage
TAKING SILK - Judges are appointed among barristers
They remain politically independent
Highly paid and they are out of touch with ordinary people

The Police
Not friendly anymore
Police in the 70s were under political and public pressure to get results
Police violence and threats against people
Sometimes they were racist to ethnical groups
Search for black policemen
Problem not really solved
People used to think that police was manipulated by the government
This opinion faded
No national police force only New Scotland Yard
The anti-Terrorist Branch and the Special Branch
Internal counter- intelligence MI 5 and MI 6
Uniformed and plain clothes officers

Crime and fear of crime

People think that crime has increased although the statistic prove it wrong
This opinion : caused by the media
Children are not allowed to play outside unsupervised
There was a increase in the number of burglaries and of cars broken or stolen
New companies supplying security equipment
Slovenia has a slightly higher rate than the Uk in MURDER
Government is emphasizing that crime has fallen
Drinking among young people : increased


The media : the press, television, radio, online media

THE PRESS : British newspaper readers! Online newspapers, free papers ; no kiosks like in
Slovenia but there are small newsstands in cities;
FLEET STREET : Street where newsstands used to be based

Divided into 2 categories
BROADSHEETS (like Delo) and TABLOIDS : Different in size, content and level of seriousness (
The Daily Telegraph, The Independent, The Guardian..). Their online version is very popular.
Differences not so big anymore. They are not connected to any political party.
MAGAZINES AND WEEKLIES 1000 of them. The best known is The Economist

RADIO AND TELEVISION : THE BBC The worlds largest broadcaster. Founded in 1922. Television
broadcasts began in 1936 suspended during the War. The BBC receives no money from the
government. Known : BROADCASTING HOUSE run by the BBC Trust. The major radio stations
are: Radio 1, Radio 2, Radio 3, Radio 4, Radio 5. There are also separated stations for Wales,
Scotland and Northern Ireland. The main television channels are: BBC One and BBC Two
(Educational programs)

COMMERCIAL TELEVISION CHANNELS They rely on advertising for their income. ITV is a
channel. It is similar to BBC Two

TELEVISION PROGRAMMES soap operas (Coronation Street, EastEnders, Emmerdale, The

Bill..). Comedies have a great worldwide reputation. Nowadays : reality shows, chat shows.
Differences B + Slo = in Britain : NO foreign language programs.
The arts: better say arts than culture. Arts: paintings, sculpture, conceptual art, literature, visual
arts (painting and sculpture), performing arts (ballet, music). High culture is patronized by the
social elite. Popular culture is dominated by celebrities. During the Thatcher government,
money wasnt given by the state. Now money comes from National Lottery funds.
THE STAGE the arts are less ideological or politicized than in many countries. Conventional.. In
the British theatre the constant theme is: SOCIAL THEME.

VISUAL ARTS unconventional content and approaches. A massive increase in public interest in

LITERATURE The best artists are novelists. The most famous literary award is the BOOKER

ARTS FESTIVALS the biggest: the Edimburgh Festival. The best known classical music festival is

MUSEUMS AND ART GALLERIES the most visited museum : the British Museum. The most
visited art galleries : The Tate Modern, National Gallery
Sport: important in Britain, strong belief in team sports.

POPULAR SPORTS main sports : football, cricket and rugby (rugby league and rugby union).
Individual sports do not attract crowds: golf, tennis. Swimming Certain sports are spectator
sports: boxing, wrestling.. Bowls is a popular pastime. School sports : rounders, netball, field
hockey. No British teams but teams representing England, Scotland.. No interest in basketball,
hockey, skiing

HUNTING AND FISHING pastimes. Fly fishing and sea fishing. The hunting of foxes is banned.

CRICKET Often described as a national game.

GAMBLING Betting on horses was very popular.

10 Home, sweet home

Sense of privacy = very strong

nation of house dwellers
detached houses, semi-detached houses
in residential areas high fences or hedges (to not overlook), small porch, extra door between
the house and the outside
modern houses are in the North American style
The English are not attached to their houses sell them
flats outside London negative image
right to buy policy : introduced by the Thatcher government all the best public housing was
sold off
the flats built in the 60s in Manchester had heat problems and people could not afford to pay
some flats were declared unfit for habitation
a new trend : transformation of old industrial towns into residential areas with luxury flats
private flats : people living on their own and childless couples
the poorest housing is in the inner city areas

Brick-built, semi-detached or terraced, with a hall, living-room, kitchen, dining room + three
In some parts of the country : local stone better than bricks
the British dont talk about the size of their house each room.
prize of a house position, convenient access to the public transports
it is rare for people to build their houses
built and sold by building companies
the architectural design conservative
first people rent a house, then they buy a starter home
at the beginning they get a tax relief


Dream: a cottage in the country
flowery curtains, chintzysuite

in the country rich farmers or large landowners
small farmers go to the city no money
some schools in the villages closed
village shops closed

When you cannot afford to live in the countryside
lifestyle not bad
streets are quiet, safe..
for young people deadly dull


dcor is fussier than in Slovenes homes
range of colours great
minimalist interiors are rare
DIY = do it yourself
improvements in the house
for larger projects : professional builders

The way we live now

rather move than stay in a place forever
moving because of better schools, new jobs

different circles of friends (sport, school, job)
great degree of independence and self reliance
the typical family : nuclear, grandparents have a marginal role
PATCHWORK FAMILY is a two-generational affair
no dvostanovanjska hisa in Britain
grandparents are NOT babysitting their grandsons
parents leave their kids independence
at the age of 18 they move

healthy process
young people look for support , financial and emotional, away from the family
Elderly people live on their own
when they retire they move to a smaller property


a very few retirement communities
they may end up in a residential home private
care home or nursing home cheaper
state has to provide for basic care for the children


70% of women have paid employment
employed in service industries, part-time
some of them leave their job for their children
they often do part-time or jobs in the voluntary sector


differences are more apparent than in Slovenia
In inner city areas more unemployment, crime, vandalism
social problems : teen pregnancies, excessive under-age drinking, drug abuse among the
the leafy suburbs where the middle-class people live
awareness of social contrast
rich and poor houses can be near
gentrification renovation of a house in bad condition in a poor area

working day : 9 to 5
schools start at 9 oclock
evening rush hour : from 5 to 7
quality time: spending time with kids


the busiest time is Saturday
they dont go away on holiday like in Slovenia
Sunday day to have a lie-in
+ day for sport events
they like buying old and second- hand things
things have been donated by members of the public order
students like vintage things (retro)
bank holidays 3 banks holiday (always on Monday) : May Day, Spring Holiday and Summer


seaside resorts
people go there on weekends + bank holidays
play on the beach, walk, short donkey rides on the beach , funfairs..
the most popular seaside resort is Blackpool
each resort has sth different to offer


Picturesque country village, tearoom, village pub.
stately home
Various theme museums


frequently cooked dishes are spaghetti alla Bolognese, chilly con carne, lasagne
a lot of cookery programs
they try to cook well, they cant
no one has a full English breakfast
afternoon tea offered only in tea room or hotels
lunch = not common , sandwich, snacks..
workplace canteen for those doing more physically demanding work
no malica in Britain
the main meal = in the evening
2 dinners 1 for kids 1 for parents
oriental cuisine is very popular
popularity of fast foods
Italian and Chinese restaurant = Popular
entertaining at home by inviting people
going Dutch = split the bill between them
friends in the garden eating desserts
they buy very often drinks for each other
buying a round
once pubs closed at 10.30 pm, now whenever they want
whisky, dark beer, Bitter, plenty of wine bars
roast beef, Yorkshire pudding, Sunday joints = traditional food
the fry-up = a staple part of the diet similar to the full English breakfast
puddings, fruit pies, crumbles with custard, sponge or steamed suet puddings, bread pudding,
rice pudding.