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Unit 1: Introduction to Science

1.1 The MYP Rubrics


Unit 1: Introduction to Science
1.2.1 The Scientific Method
What is the Scientific Method?
What is Science?
Science is defined as:

the intellectual and practical activity encompassing the systematic study of


the structure and behaviour of the physical and natural world through
observation and experiment

What does that mean?


How the Scientific Method Works
1. If it cannot be tested, it cannot qualify as scientific.
2. Bias exists and needs to be taken into account.
3. A healthy level of skepticism is needed.
4. Imagination
Steps of the Scientific Method
1. Problem / Question you wish explore
a. Research
2. Design a Hypothesis to be tested
a. Variables
3. Lay out an experiment
a. Procedure
4. Data Collection
a. Graphs / Data Tables
5. Conclusions
6. Reflection
Problem / Question
This identifies what you want to find out.

Needs to be clear and concise.

You will state the problem in the form of a question:

How does ___ effect ___?

What is the effect of ___ on ___?

The question is designed to guide your research


Example: Making a Grilled Cheese Sandwich
Example Questions:
Example: Making a Grilled Cheese Sandwich
Example Questions:

What cheeses make the best grilled cheese sandwich?

What condiments enhance the flavor of a grilled cheese?

How do you cook a grilled cheese?


Research
1. Always write down information you already know about the topic.
2. When searching for information online or in books, be sure to cite or mark
down where the information came from.
3. Ask experts.

Be careful not to accidentally plagiarize here.

Not an expert..

Ask 5 people..
Example: Making a Grilled Cheese Sandwich
Research Topics?
Example: Making a Grilled Cheese Sandwich
Research Topics:

Cooking shows / Chefs for their expert opinions on

Different types and styles of cheeses - limit to melting cheeses

Pairing of cheese with sauces


Design a Hypothesis
Hypothesis -

An explanation that is based on prior scientific research or observations and


that can be tested.

is an educated guess about two variables.

Written as an If, then statement.

If the IV does this, then the DV changes like this, because..


Example: Making a Grilled Cheese Sandwich
Optional Hypothesis
Example: Making a Grilled Cheese Sandwich
Optional Hypothesis

If dijon mustard is added to a grilled cheese, then more people with enjoy the
sandwich, because dijon mustard will enhance the flavor of the melting
cheeses.

(The because statement can be short, because all the information will be
located in the research section of your lab reports)
Variables
Independent Variable / Dependent Variable / Control Variable / Control Group
Experimental Variable Measureable Variable Constant Variable
While not commonly
used in physical science
experiments.
What you as the scientist What is expected to What remains the same
are changing. change because of the through all trials. Used to compare results.
experimental variable. This group helps
eliminate bias and other
external factors that may
This is to ensure the
affect the experiment.
independent variable is
what is causing the A Standard of comparison
change.
Experimental Design
Writing a Procedure

Start with a thorough list of materials.

Should only include materials needed to duplicate the experiment.

Include all measuring devices

Include any supporting structures

Will be written so ANYONE can use it.


Example: Making a Grilled Cheese Sandwich
Materials
1. 2 slices of preferred bread (hard crusted)
2. 2oz. Each of Dijon Mustard, yellow
mustard, honey mustard, and deli mustard
3. Buttering knife
4. Fat such as butter or olive oil
5. 3oz. Extra sharp cheddar cheese
6. 3oz. Gruyere cheese
7. Black pepper to taste
8. Medium sized mixing bowl
9. Cooking spatula
10. Medium sized non-stick pan
Example: Making a Grilled Cheese Sandwich
Proper Procedure

1. Gather your materials. 7. Cover the cheese with the second slice of
2. Mix the 3oz. of Gruyere and 3oz of cheddar bread, dijon mustard side touching the
cheese in a bowl with the black pepper. cheese.
3. Apply the fat to 1 face of your bread, both 8. Let cook for 3 minutes.
slices 9. After 3 minutes use the spatula to flip the
4. Apply roughly 1oz of dijon mustard to the sandwich over.
other face of the bread. 10. Let cook for 2 more minutes or until golden
5. Place the bread butter side down in the brown on both sides.
non-stick pan over medium heat. 11. Eat. Record observations and results
6. Immediately load up the cheese mixture, 12. Repeat steps 1-11 with different types of
roughly 3oz of the 6oz mixture. mustards: honey mustard, yellow mustard,
and deli mustard.
Data Collection
Observations - Any use of the senses to gather information.

Qualitative - Descriptive: anything you see, taste, touch, smell, or hear.

Quantitative - Measurable: anything that can be objectively measured. Will include


numbers
Example: Making a Grilled Cheese Sandwich
Observations and Data Table
Example: Making a Grilled Cheese Sandwich
Observations would include:

Texture of the sandwich

Taste

Qualitative / Quantitative data table:

A survey would need to be created to measure taste.

A qualitative table would be difficult to complete for this experiment


Example: Making a Grilled Cheese Sandwich
Survey Ex -

Rate taste from 1-5

Rate texture desirability from 1-5

Raw Table: Processed Table:

Subject Taste Texture Table 1: Grill Cheese Survey Results:


Dijon Mustard
Subject 1 4 1
Average Taste Texture
Subject 2 3 3 Scores

Subject 3 5 4 4 2.67
Analyzing Results/Conclusion
Answer the following in a paragraph.

Only include relevant information. EVERYTHING included must be supported by


data.

- What patterns, trends, and relationships exist?


- Does the data support your hypothesis?
- What errors exist in the procedure?
- What improvements or extensions can be made?
Unit 1: Introduction to Science
1.2.2 Identifying Variables
Practice

If electric lights are switched off during the day,


then the electric bill will be less expensive.
IV:
DV:
CV:
Practice

Students of different ages were given the same


jigsaw puzzle to put together. They were timed to
see how long it took to finish the puzzle.
IV:
DV:
CV:
Practice

An investigation was done with an


electromagnetic system made from a battery and
wire wrapped around a nail. Different sizes of
nails were used. The number of paper clips the
electromagnet could pick up was measured.
IV: DV: CV:
Practice

Elizabeth wanted to test if temperature affected


how fast milk goes bad and curdles. She left milk
in a room temperature closet, a fridge, and a oven
that was turned on low heat. She then measured
how rotten the milk was after 10 days.
IV: DV: CV:
Unit 1: Introduction to Science
1.2.3 Basics of Drawing a Graph
4 Basic Types of Graphs
Line Graph

Bar Graph

Scatter plot Graph

Pie Chart
Making Proper Graphs
What you need to check for:

1. Proper Title:
2. X and Y axis Labels with Units
a. Y axis = DV
b. X axis = IV
3. Determine the proper graph type
4. Plot data
Line Graph
Used to show change over the same period of time.
Bar Graphs
Used when comparing data, very similar to line graphs in what they are
representing.
Scatter Plot Graph
Used to show how much one variables is affected by another. This relationship is
called correlation.
How to find line best fit
Goal is to find 1 line that goes as close to the data points as possible.
Pie Chart
Used mostly when dealing with percentages
Unit 1: Introduction to Science
1.2 Science Terminology
Test, Research, Demonstration, or Model
Test - The gathering of data in which a variable is used and everything is controlled
to stay constant. (Scientific Experiment)

Research - Scientific information gathered through observations, surveys or other


sources to explain a problem. No experiment.

Model - A display of an object of an object that shares important characteristics


with said object. Can be material, visual, mathematical or computational. Often used
in tests and theories.

Demonstration - a model or display that shows HOW something works, but does
not test anything
Scientific Theory vs Scientific Law
Scientific Fact
Scientific facts are statements that are accepted as being true.
These facts have been repeatedly measured or observed.
Here are some scientific facts:
The ocean is salty.
It takes 365.25 Earth days for Earth to orbit around the Sun.
Earth has one moon.
Experimental / Control Group
Experimental Group - Section of the lab that receives the IV

Control Group - Not subjected to the IV. Used as a Comparison


Unit 1: Introduction to Science
1.3 Scientific Measurement
The Metric System and International System of Units
Used by ALL Scientists.

To Measure - Temperature, Length, Mass, Volume, etc.

Why should there be a standard unit of measurement?

Where to the standards come from?


Prefixes of the Metric System
Prefix Meaning Order of Magnitude

kilo- 1,000 10

hecto- 100 10

deka- 10 10

Base Unit 1 100

deci- 0.1 10-1

centi- 0.01 10-2

milli- .001 10-3


Units of the Metric System
Unit Symbol What is Measured? Measured Using?

Grams g Mass of an object Triple Beam


Balance / Scale

Liters L Volume of an object Graduated Cylinder

Kelvin K Temperature of an Digital Thermometer


object
o
Celsius c Temperature of an Thermometer
object

Seconds s Time Clock


Unit 1: Introduction to Science
1.4 Lab Equipment
Few Types of Equipment 6th and 7th Science
Beakers Rubber stoppers Safety glasses

Erlenmeyer flasks Spot plates

Glass collection bottles Glass stirring rod

Graduated cylinders Medicine dropper

Test tubes Litmus paper

Test tube brush Triple beam balance

Test tube racks Ruler