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lnt~oduction to ~i

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Wireline Log Ana sis BakerAtlas
,-

Introduction to Wireline Log Analysis


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Baker Atlas - The Best Choice for


Advanced Well Logging and Completion Services

Baker Atlas provides a wide range of services and


information, allowing oil and gas companies to define,
reduce and manage their risks. Downhole well logging
services for every environment are offered, including
advanced formation evaluation, production and reservoir
engineering, petrophysical and geophysical data
acquisition services. Perforating and completion
technologies, pipe recovery, and processing and analysis
of open and cased hole data complete the service range.
Baker Atlas delivers new-generation technologies,
analysis techniques, and a dynamic geoscience capability
worldwide, helping oil and gas producers evaluate and
access reservoirs more efficiently and reliably, resulting
in maximum hydrocarbon recovery and reduced risk.

Baker Atlas firmly believes in efficient, reliable wellsite


operations, data accuracy from leading edge technology,
and people-oriented services. We are committed to
delivering better value from every minute of rig time,
and reducing the overall time spent on the well through
efficient logging with experienced crews. Not for just
one well, but job after job. Baker Atlas - The Best Choice
for advanced well logging and completion services.

Acknowledgements:

Ed L. Bigelow is recognized for his contribution and


efforts in creating this text. lntroduction to Wireline Log
Analysis has become an industry standard vehicle for
learning the basic techniques of log interpretation and
formation evaluation.

CCopyright 2002 Baker Hughes lnc. Ali nghts reserved


ATL-02-2531 2M
Foreword

lntroduction to Wireline Lag Analysis is intended for that many persons who use this text material have no
those who have little or no experience in log analysis background in specific areas. It is meant to be a basic
methods, petrophysics, and perhaps the petroleum indus- course of instruction in log analysis, but it is important
try. The material contained in this book is not intended to that the interrelationship with other specialties be under-
be used as a self-teaching course, but instead contains stood. Many of the more difficult problems encountered
practica! questions/problems that are intended to be used in wireline log acquisition, processing of data, and the
as a review of the material being presented. It is strongly interpretation of logs are not covered here, but are
recommended that any who choose to use this text for intended for more advanced instruction.
classroom instruction supplement the printed material
with actual logs, core data, and other pertinent petrophys-
ical information. When it is possible, local examples
should be implemented.

The chapters are organized to provide a gradual introduc-


tion and leaming environment for the novice. The text
begins with a short introductory discussion of explora-
tion methods, reservoir engineering parameters, and
drilling fluids, followed by a general description of the
duties and responsibilities of various disciplines in the
petroleum industry. A description of most openhole log-
ging services and their purposes follows, including the
importance of basic measurements fundamental to the
interpretation of log data. The intent is to slowly piece
together the parts that directly or indirectly affect results
of measurements and their interpretation.

The effects of temperature, invasion of drilling fluids,


gas, oil, water, lithology, pore structures, nature of satura-
tion, and analysis of results are gradually fitted together.
The intent is to cover the majority of the elements that
form the whole; however, time and space limit the possi-
bility of covering everything in an introductory course.
Where it is deemed important to do so, measurement
theory is discussed, but these discussions are not meant
to be in-depth hardware pointers - that being a course in
itself.

Computerized acquisition and processing are both com-


monplace today. Therefore, it was considered important
to discuss sorne of the more complicated computer-
related interpretative methods - but only philosophically.
It is considered important that those new to well log anal-
ysis be aware of the reasons for performing complex rou-
tines on the computer.

The text is intended to introduce well log analysis to


entry-level logging engineers, geologists, reservoir engi-
neers, production engineers, or whomever has an abiding
interest in learning about formation evaluation. Undoubt-
edly, those from certain disciplines will find sorne of the
basic material (as it relates to their specialty or back-
ground) too general; e.g. , a geologist may find the gen-
eral discussion of geology very basic. Consider, however,
Contents

Introduction .. ............ ...... ... ..... ...... .... ...... ... ...... .... .. ............ .... .. .... ........ .......... .. ... ..... .... ...... .... ..... .......... .... .. ....... ............... 1

1 Fundamentals of Petroleum Reservoirs


RESERVOIR ROCK PROPERTIES ....................................................................................................................................... 3
Porosity ... .................................................... .......................................... ......................................................................... 3
Permeability .................................................................................................................................................................. 4
Reservoir Content of Fluids and Gas .................................................... .................................................... .................... 6
RESERVOIR THICKNESS .......................... .......................................................................................................................... 7
Wireline Depth Control ................................................. .......... ...................................................................................... 7
RESERVOIR GEOMETRY .................................................................................................................................................... 7
DRAINAGE AREA AND IN-PLACE RESERVE ESTIMATION ........................................................................................ 8
WELL DRILLING OBJECTIVES AND OPERATION ........................... ...................................... ...................................... 8
ROTARY RIG COMPONENTS .............................................................................. .......................... ..................................... 9
DRILLING FLUIDS ............................................................................................................................................................... 9
Viscosity ...................................................................................................................................................................... 17
pH .......................... ...................................................................................................................................................... 18
FluidLoss .................................................................................................................................................................... 18
Freshwater-Based Drilling Fluids .................................................... ........................................................................... 18
Oil-Based Drilling Fluids ............................................................................................................................................ 18
Salt-Based Drilling Fluids ..................................................... ...................................................................................... 18
Potassium Chloride (KCI) Drilling Fluids .................................................................................................................. 19
Air- or Gas-Drilled Holes ....... .......... ........................................................ ................................................................... 19
Mud Additives of Concem to Wireline Logging .......................... .............................................................................. 19
Directional Drilling ........................................................................................................ ............................................. 20
LOG MEASUREMEN T-WHILE-DRIL LING (MWD) ....................................................................................................... 20
MUD RETURN LOGS (MUD LOGS) .............................................................................. .................................................. 20
ROLE OF GEOPHYSICS AND PETROLEUM GEOLOGY .............................................................................. ................ 2 1
Remote Frontier Wildcats ........................................................................................................................................... 23
Conventional Exploration .......................................................................... ................................................................. 23
Appraisal or Confirmation Wells ................................................. ............................................................................... 24
Development Wells ..................................................................................................................................................... 26
Injection Wells .................................................... ........... ............................................................................................. 26
Relief Wells .................................... ...................................................................................................... ....................... 26
Waste-Disposal Wells ........................................................................................................ ......................................... 27
Wells Used for Mining Exploration ............................................................................................................................ 28
Wells U sed for Underground Storage of Gas .............................................................................................................. 28
Water Supply Wells .................................................................................................................................. .................. 28
Wells Drilled for Geothermal Energy .............................................................................. ........................................... 29
GEOLOGICAL TRAPS .............................................................................. ......................................................................... 29
Structural Geology ...................................................................................................................................................... 29
Stratigraphy and Sedimentology ................................................................................................................................. 31
Clastic Rocks.............................................................................................. .................................................... ............. 31
Carbonate Rocks ......................................................................................................................................................... 36
CORING ............................................................................................................................................................................. .. 38
Conventional Core Recovery ...................................................................................................................................... 38
Wireline Mechanical Coring ....................................................................................................................................... 38
Core Analysis ............................... ............................................................................................................................... 40
PRACTICAL WORK SESSION .......................................................................................................................................... 41
2 Wireline Log Measurements and Supportive Information
WIRELINE LOGGING MEASUREMENTS ...................................................................................................................... 43
DEPTH MEASUREMENT .................................................................................................................................................. 43
IMPORTANT DATA FOR LOG HEADERS ....................................................................................................................... 44
BASIC RESISTIVITY CONCEPT ...................................................................................................................................... 46
Effects of Temperature......... ... ............ .............................. ............. .............. ..... ......... ...... .. ..... .......... .... .... .......... ..... ... 4 7
Mud Cup Principie ...................................................................................................................................................... 47
Mud Measurements ..................................................................................................................................................... 49
CALIPER MEASUREMENTS ............................................................................................................................................. 52
RESISTIVITY AND CONDUCTIVITY .............................................................................................................................. 52
Induction Devices........................................................................................................................................................ 57
Dual Induction-Focused Logs ..................................................................................................................................... 57
Laterolog or Focused Electrode Devices .................................................................................................................... 58
CORRECTIONS TO RESISTIYITY/CONDUCTIVITY LOGS FOR BOREHOLE SIZE AND BED THICKNESS ...... 60
Resistivity Bed-Thickness Correction ......................................................................................................................... 60
Corrections to Resistivity for Borehole Size ............................................................................................................... 60
EFFECTS OF INVASION ON RESISTIVITY MEASUREMENTS .................................................................................. 65
Resistivity Profiles of lnvasion ................................................................................................................................... 65
Step Profile of lnvasion ............................................................................................................................................... 67
Transition Profile of lnvasion ..................................................................................................................................... 69
Annulus Profile of Invasion ........................................................................................................................................ 69
Invasion Corrections to the Dual Induction-Focused Log .......................................................................................... 70
lnvasion Corrections to the Dual Laterolog andan R xo Device .................................................................................. 71
Reminders About Correction Charts ........................................................................................................................... 75
SPONTANEOUS POTENTIAL (SP) ................................................................................................................................... 75
NATURAL GAMMA RAY (GR) ......................................................................................................................................... 76
WIRELINE DENSITY MEASUREMENTS ....................................................................................................................... 78
WIRELINE ACOUSTIC MEASUREMENTS ..................................................................................................................... 78
WIRELINE NEUTRON LOGS ............................................................................................................................................ 79
WIRELINE DIELECTRIC MEASUREMENTS ................................................................................................................. 80
WIRELINE PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS AND FORMATION FLUID SAMPLING ................................................. 80
LOG MEASUREMENTS FOR BOREHOLE IMAGING AND FORMATION DIP DETERMINATION ........................ 81
PRACTICAL WORK SESSION .......................................................................................................................................... 84

3 Basic Openhole Log Analysis


PERMEABLE BED IDENTIFICATION ............................................................................................................................. 87
DEFLECTIONS OF THE SP ............................................................................................................................................... 87
DIFFERENT RESISTIVITY VALUES WITH DIFFERENT RESISTIVITY MEASUREMENTS ................................... 89
MINILOG INDICATIONS OF PERMEABILITY .............................................................................................................. 90
CALIPER INDICATION OF PERMEABILITY ................................................................................................................. 90
PRACTICAL WORK SESSION .......................................................................................................................................... 91
BED BOUNDARIES AND BED THICKNESS ................................................................................................................... 92
SPTRACE ............................................................................................................................................................................ 92
RESISTIVITY AND CONDUCTIYITY TRACES .............................................................................................................. 93
Short Normal ............................................................................................................................................................... 93
Focused Log ................................................................................................................................................................ 94
Spherically Focused Logs (SFL) ................................................................................................................................. 94
Laterolog Devices ....................................................................................................................................................... 95
Induction Logs ............................................................................................................................................................. 95
Dual-Phase Induction Logs (DPIL) ............................................................................................................................. 95
Microresistivity Devices ............................................................................................................................................. 96
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Thin-Bed Resistivity Too! (TBRT) ............................................................................................................................. 96
Micro Spherically Focused Log .................................................................................................................................. 98
Diplog Microresistivity Pad Traces ....................................................................................................... ...................... 98
DIELECTRIC MEASUREMENTS ...................................................................................................................................... 99
GAMMA RAY MEASUREMENTS ............ ......... ............................................................................................................... 99
Natural Gamma Ray Measurements ...................................................................................................... ..................... 99
Natural Gamma Ray Spectroscopy Tools ................................................................................................................. 100
ACOUSTIC MEASUREMENTS ....................................................................................................................................... 10 1
NEUTRON MEASUREMENTS ........ ...... .... ......... ..... ..... .... ....... ....... ...... ... .... .. ............. ......... .. ......... ..... ......... .... ............... 1O1
DENSITY MEASUREMENTS .......................................................................................................................................... 10 1
COMBINATIONS OF POROSITY/ LITHOLOGY-DEVICES ......................................................................................... 102
PRACTICAL WORK SESSION .... .. .... .... .......... .... .. .. .................... ....................... .... .................... ........ ............... ........ .. .... 107
CONNATE WATER RESISTIVITY (R..,) .......................................................................................................................... 108
R.., Catalogs ..... ......... .............. ...... .... .... .......... .... .. .... .......... ............. ... ......... ............ .... .... ..... .... ................... ..... .... ..... 109
Resistivity and Temperature of Produced Water .................................................................. .................................... 109
Rw from Chemical Analysis ...................................................................................................................................... 112
R.., from the SP Curve ............................................................................................................................................... 113
R.., Calculation in a Water-Bearing Horizon ........................... .................................................................................. 117
R.., in Adjacent Shale Beds ......................................................................................................................................... 118
Summary of R.., Determination Methods ....................................................................... ........................................... 118
PRACTICAL WORK SESSION ... ..... .... .. .. .. .. ... ... ...... .... .............. .............. ...... .... ....... ....... ............... ............ ..... .... .......... .. 121
TRUE FORMATION RESISTIVITY (R 1 or R0 ) ... .......................... ....... .... ...... .... ......... ... .................... ...... ..... .. .. ........ ....... 12 1
Resistivitylndex ................................... ....................................................................................................... .............. 123
Saturation Exponent Considerations .... ... ...... .... ..... . ........ ..... .......... .... ...... .... ....... ..... .. .... ...... ... ..... .... ....... .... ........ ... .. . 123
Formation Resistivity Factor (F)......... .... ...... ...... .... ....................... ..... ......... ......... ......... .......... .. .. .... ..... .............. ... ... 123
Sumrnary of Resistivity Index Method ..................................................................................................................... 124
RESISTIVITY RATIO METHODS TO DETERMINE SATURATION ....................... .................................................... 124
Rocky Mountain Method .......................................................................................................................................... 125
Flushed-Zone Resistivity Ratio Method ................................................................................................................... 125
Induction Electrical Resistivity Ratio Method ............................................................. ,.. ....................... ........ ...... ..... 129
Saturation Determination by Nomogram ... ......... .............. ........................................................................................ 129
PRACTICAL WORK SESSION. ...... ....... .. .... ... .. ......... ...... ... ..... ...... ..................... .. .... ........ .... ...................................... .... . 136

4 Determining Porosity, Formation Factor, and Shaliness


BASIC METHODS FOR ASSESSING SHALE CONTENT IN RESERVOIR ROCKS ................... ............................... 137
SHALE VOLUME DETERMINATION BY GAMMA RAY MEASUREMENTS ....................... ................................... 137
Units of Gamma Ray Measurements ...... ................................. ................................................................................. 140
Principie of Measurement ......................................................................................................................................... 142
Time Constants and Filtering .................................................................................................................................... 142
Logging Speed ....... ......... ..... ...... ... ...... .................. ..................................... ................................ ......... ...................... 142
Determination of Shale Percentage from Gamma Ray Data ..................................................................................... 144
PRACTICAL WORK SESSION ..... .. .. .. .. .............. .................. ................... .... ............................... ..................................... 146
DETERMINATION OF SHALE VOLUME USING SP .................................................................................................... 147
Sta tic SP . ................................. ............. ... .. .... ..... .... ..... ....................... .... ..... .... ..... .. ........................... ......... ............... 148
Pseudostatic SP .... ......... ..... ......... .... ..... .... .. ... .... .. ........ .... ........... .... ........ .......... ........ .. .... ......... .............. .................... 149
Shale Volume Calculation .. ....................................................................................................................................... 149
Consideration before Using SP for V51i ................................. ............... ... ..... .. .. ..... ........... ................. .......... .............. 149
PRACTICAL WORK SESSION ...... ... ...... .............. ...... ........ .... ......... .................... ............ .. ................................ ... ...... ..... 149
LOG-DERIVED POROSITY (qi) ..... ............................... ..................... ............. ............. ..... ..... ............. ........... ... ..... ...... .... 149
ESTIMATING POROSITY FROM NEUTRON DATA ..................................................................................................... 149
Applications of Neutron Logs. .... ...... ... ........... .... ....................... ........ ...... ..... .... ... .. .... ..... .... .. ............ ...... ........ ...... .... 149
Neutron Applications to Petrophysics ....................................................................................................................... 149
Scaling of the Neutron Log ...... .... .............. .... ........... ... ............... ........ ............... ... ...... ..... .... ..... ..... .................. ......... 150
,,
PROPERTIES MEASURED BY NEUTRON TOOLS ...................................................................................................... 150
NEUTRON CALIBRATION .............................................................................................................................................. 153
SIDEWALL NEUTRON TOOL ......................................................................................................................................... 153
COMPENSATED NEUTRON TOOL ................................................................................................................................ 153
Effects of Borehole Size and Borehole Salinity ........................................................................................................ 153
Effects of Mud Weight and Mudcake Thickness ...................................................................................................... 153
Standoff Effects .... ......... .... ..... ..... .... .............. .... .. ... .... ..... ........... ........ ..... ......... ......... ...... ... .. .................. ... ...... ........ .. 153
Temperature and Pressure Effects ......... .... ..... ........... ............ .... ...... ............ ........... ... .......... .............. ..... ................ ... 153
Lithology Effects .................................................................................................................................................... ... 153
Formation Salinity Effects ... ..................... ......... ... ...... ........ ........................ ............. ........... ................. .......... ........ ... l 60
Compensated Neutron in Air-Filled Boreholes ......................................................................................................... 160
Casing and/or Cement Effects ...... ......... ..... .... ........... .... .............. .... .......... .... ...... ... ..... .......... ... ..... ...... ... ...... ........ ..... 160
Effects of Hydrocarbons on Hydrogen Index ........................................................................................................... 160
NEUTRON SHALE EFFECT AND SHALE VOLUME DETERMINATION ....... ........................ ... .......................... .. .... 163
PRACTICAL WORK SESSION ............ ......... ..... .... .... .. ... .... ..... ............................. ............ .. ........ ..... ..... ..................... .. .... l 63
ESTIMATING POROSITY FROM ACOUSTIC TRANSIT TIME................................................................................... 164
USES OF ACOUSTIC LOG DATA .................................................................................................................................... 164
ACOUSTIC LOGGING SYSTEMS .................................................................................................................................. 164
The First Acoustic Logging Tool ....................................................... ,...................................................................... 164
Devices with Two Receivers and One Transmitter ................................................................................................... 165
Borehole Compensation Devices ..... .... .. .. ..... ..... .... ...... ... ..... ............. ... .. ...... ......... ......... ..... .... .............. ......... ........ ... 165
Specifications of Most Conventional Acoustic Log Systems ................................................................................... 167
DISTURBING FACTORS WITH CONVENTIONAL ACOUSTIC DEVICES ............................................................... 167
Noise .......................................................................................................................................................................... 167
Cycle Skips ................................................................................................................................................................ 167
/j,t Stretch .................................................................................................................................................................... 168
Velocity Inversion ...................................................................................................................................................... 168
Shallow Gas Zones - A Special Case of Velocity Inversion .. .... .......... ......... ............................................. .............. 168
Dip Angle with Respect to the Borehole ................................................................................................................... 168
EVOLUTION OF LONG-SPACED ACOUSTIC LOGS ...................... ............................................................................ 169
Advantages of Long-Spaced Devices ....................................................................................................................... 169
Disadvantages of Long-Spaced Acoustic Devices .................................................................................................... 171
WYLLIE TIME AVERAGE EQUATION TO DERIVE POROSITY FROM ACOUSTIC LOGS .................................... 171
Compaction Correction in Unconsolidated Sands .................................................................................................... 172
ACOUSTIC POROSITY IN CARBONATE AND COMPLEX RESERVOIRS ................................................................ 173
Velocity Variation in Sandstones .. .. .. .. .... ... .. .... ... .. .... ..... ..... .... ..... .... ..... ........ ....... ...................... .......... .... ... .............. 173
PRACTICAL WORK SESSION ........................................................................................................................................ 174
CORRECTING ACOUSTIC-DERIVED POROSITY FOR SHALINESS ...................................................................... 174
Correcting Acoustic-Derived Porosity for Laminated Shales .... ............................................................................... 174
Correcting Acoustic-Derived Porosity for Dispersed Shales ................................................................................... 174
DISTURBING FACTS WITH ACOUSTIC MEASUREMENTS ..................................................................................... 175
DETERMINING POROSITY BY DENSITY METHODS .............................................................................................. 175
LOG MEASUREMENTS OF DENSITY .......................................................................................................................... 175
Uses of Density Log Data.......................................................................... ............................................................... 175
THEORY OF DENSITY MEASUREMENTS ................................................................................................................... 176
Bulk Density (pb) .................................................................................... .. ................................................................ 176
Spine and Ribs Corrections ........................................................................................................................................ 177
Bulk Density Calibration ........................................................................................................................................... 178
Peak Monitoring and Full-Spectrum Recording ....................................................................................................... 178
Photoelectric Absorption (Pe).................................................................................................................................... 178
Density Log Units of Measurement .......................................................................................................................... 180
Interpretati ve Aspects of Density Logs ..................................................................................................................... 180
Too! Resolution .... ...... ... ........... ............. ..... ... ...... .... .......... .... .............. .... ........... .... ..... .... ..... .. .. .... .... ...... ............ .. .... . 181
lnfluence of Fluids .................................................................................................................................................... 181
Z-Density Values ....................................................................................................................................................... 181
PRACTICAL WORK SESSION ............ .... ...... ............ .................... ......... ... .. ......... .... ..... .... ......... .......... .... .... ..... .... ..... ..... 18 l
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DEVELOPMENT OF THE POROSITY-TO-FORMATION FACTOR RELATIONSHIPS ............................................. 184
CEMENTATION FACTOR, PORE GEOMETRY, OR PORE-SHAPE EXPONENT ........................................................ 184
WATER SATURATION DETERMINATION ....................................................................................................... ............. 184

5 Crossplot Methods for Porosity, Lithology, and Gas Determination


DUAL-MINERAL LITHOLOGY-POROSITY CROSSPLOTS ........................................................................................ 185
ARBITRARY MATHEMATICAL SOLUTIONS FROM CROSSPLOT DATA ............. ...... .... .... .. ... ...... .... .............. ....... 186
FUNDAMENTALS OF CROSSPLOT CONSTRUCTION ........ .... .......... ...... .... ..... .... ..... .... ........................ ...... ... ......... ... 186
Shale Volume Determination .................................................................................................................................... 187
Gas Correction on Density-Neutron Crossplots ....................................................................................................... . 187
DENSfTY-NEUTRON CROSSPLOT VERSATILITY ..................................................................................................... 189
SHALY SANOS ANO ACOUSTIC-DENSITY CROSSPLOTS ....................................................................................... 192
Laminar Sand-Shale Model ... .......... ..... ............. ...... .............. ................................ .... ................................................ 193
Dispersed Clay Model .. ..... .... .... ...... .... .............. ...................................... ......... ..... .... .. ................ .......... .......... .......... 193
ACOUSTIC-NEUTRON CROSSPLOT ............ .... ................................................... ................ .............. .... ........................ 194
Gas Affect on Acoustic-Neutron Crossplots .................................................................................................... ......... 194
PRACTICAL WORK SESSION ........................................................................................................................................ 197
M-N CROSSPLOTS ......................................................................................................... .................................................. 202
MINERAL IDENTIFICATION (MIO) PLOT ............................................................................................. ...................... 203
Z-DENSITY DATA ............................................................................................................................................................ 203
DEFINING LITHOLOGY TRIANGLES ...................... ........................ ............................................................................ 208
PRACTICAL WORK SESSION ........................................................................................................................................ 21 O
PLOTTING DATA ON A Z-AXIS ..................................................................................................................................... 2 16
NATURAL GAMMA RAY SPECTROSCOPY ....................................................... .......................................................... 217
SHALE, SILT, AND CLAY ............................................................... ................................................................................. 221
Determination of Clay Type and Amount... .............................................................................................................. 222
CLAY ANALYSIS USING SPECTRALOG DATA ........................................................................................................... 222
ANALYZING COMPLEX LITHOLOGY WITH SPECTRAL GAMMA RAY, Z-DENSITY, ANO NEUTRON DATA 223
Spectralog Mineral Estimates .............................................................................................. ...................................... 224
Z-Density and Neutron Estimates of Lithology ........................................................................................................ 226
SPECIAL CROSSPLOTS OCCASIONALLY NEEDED TO DISTINGUISH LITHOLOGY .......................................... 229
SPECIAL CROSSPLOTS .................................................................................................................. ................................. 229
Jurassic Sandstones, North Sea ................................................................................... .............................................. 229
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS CONCERNING CROSSPLOT METHODS ........................................................... 23 1
PRACTICAL WORK SESSION ........................................................................................................................................ 23 1

6 Saturation Determination
SATURATION VALUES .................................................................................................................................................... 234
TAKING A CLOSER LOOK AT SATURATION IMPONDERABLES ............................................................................ 235
Saturation Behavior to Reservoir Variables .............................................................................................. ................ 235
SATURATION IN CLEAN FORMATIONS ................................. ..................................................................................... 235
SATURATION NOMOGRAMS ........................................................................................................................................ 237
RESISTIVITY VS. POROSITY CROSSPLOTS ............................... ................................................................................ 237
Ringle Plot. .......................................................................................................................................................... ...... 237
Pickett Plot ...................................................................................................................... .......................................... 240
QUICK-LOOK METHODS TO DETERMINE SATURATIONS ........................................................................... .......... 243
R wa Technique .......................................................................................... .............................................. ......... ........... 243
Formation Factor Ratios as a Quick-Look Technique ...................................................................... ......................... 246
SATURATION BY THE WAXMAN-SMITS EQUATION ............................................................................................... 246
DUAL-WATER MODEL .............................................................................. ...................................................................... 247
INDONESIAN MODEL ..................................................................................................................................................... 248
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SATURATION DETERMINATION IN LOW-SALINITY RESERVOIRS ....................................................................... 248
tpl Saturation Technique ............................................................................................................................................ 251
Calculation of Phase Water (P w) from Rw ................................................................................................................. 252
Phase Angle (cp) and Sw Determination Method ........................................................................................................ 254
Emprica) Fluid Resistivity vs. Phase Fluid Method for Saturation Determination .................................................. 254
Salinity Determination .............................................................................................................................................. 255
Simplified Shale Corrections .................................................................................................................................... 256
Determining m and n from Dielectric Data ............................................................................................................... 256
DETERMINATION OF POROSITY AND SATURATION FROM MAGNETIC RESONANCE LOGS (MRL) ............ 257
CONSIDERING THE SATURATION EXPONENT ......................................................................................................... 257
SATURATION SUMMARY .............................................................................................................................................. 260
PRACTICAL WORK SESSION ........................................................................................................................................ 260

7 Analyzing Porosity/Saturation Results and Estimating Permeability and Productivity


METHODS USED TO CHECK THE ANSWERS ............................................................................................................ 263
Rw and Sw Determination ........................................................................................................................................... 263
Rwa versus Gamma Ray ............................................................................................................................................ 263
log Rwa versus SP ...................................................................................................................................................... 263
log cp versus log R1 .. . .... . .. ...... . .. . . ... .. ..... . ....... . ....... . ... . ..... . ..... .... ...... 263
Hingle Plots ............................................................................................................................................................... 264
Movable Hydrocarbons ............................................................................................................................................. 264
Tabular Lists of the Processed Log Data .................................................................................................................. 264
INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS ................................................................................................................................... 265
Sw versus <p to Determine S;w .................................................................................................................................... 265
Permeability Estimates .............................................................................................................................................. 267
Water-Oil and Water-Gas Ratios .............................................................................................................................. 268
Water-Cut Estimates ................................................................................................................................................. 270
DETERMINATION OF HYDROCARBON TYPE ........................................................................................................... 271
PRACTICAL WORK SESSION ........................................................................................................................................ 272

AppendixA
BAKER LOGGING SERVICES DEPTH-CONTROL SYSTEM ...................................................................................... 275
WIRELINE TENSION CHARACTERISTICS ............................................. ..................................................................... 276
DEPTH-MEASURING SYSTEMS .................................................................................................................................... 276
WIRELINE LENGTH CALIBRATION ............................................................................................................................. 277
WIRELINE STRETCH CHARACTERISTICS ............................................................................................................ .. ... 277
STRETCH REGIMES AND RELATIVE STRETCH ........................................................................................................ 279
DEPTH DETERMINATION .............................................................................................................................................. 279
DEPTH ACCURACY ......................................................................................................................................................... 281
PROCEDURES WHILE LOGGING .................................................................................................................................. 281
LIMITATIONS TO THE SYSTEM .................................................................................................................................... 281
DEPTH-CONTROL EXAMPLE ........................................................................................................................................ 282

Work Session Solutions


CHAPTER 1 WORK SESSION ......................................................................................................................................... 285
CHAPTER 2 WORK SESSION ......................................................................................................................................... 286
CHAPTER 3 WORK SESSION ......................................................................................................................................... 288
CHAPTER 4 WORK SESSION ........................................................................................................................................ 290
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CHAPTER 5 WORK SESSION ........................................................................................................................................ 293
CHAPTER 6 WORK SESSION ................................................ ......................................................................................... 296
CHAPTER 7 WORK SESSION ......................................................................................................................................... 297

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................... 299

Index .................................................................................................................................................................................. 309


Introduction

Wireline well logging operations provide measurements (2) Log quality control
of borehole and formation properties at accurately mea-
sured depths. Virtually ali of the measurements are made (3) Basic log interpretation principies
under pseudo-dynamic conditions; i.e., although the
borehole fluid is typically static during logging opera- (4) Geophysics and petroleum geology
tions, the measuring device is ascending the borehole
while the measurements are being recorded. There are (5) Fundamental principies of petroleum reservoirs
exceptions; e.g., sorne tools are held stationary while
measurements are made, sorne tools are moving while This text is intended to be an introduction to well log
fluids or gases enter or exit the borehole, and sorne tools analysis for engineers, geologists, and geophysicists with
are descending the borehole while the measurements are little or no training in the subject. Sorne of the material
made. can be considered more advanced conventional log anal-
ysis. Specialized areas of log analysis and integration of
The most fundamental data obtained by wireline opera- log data to other specialty areas, such as seismic, core
tions are measured depth and identification of the pene- analysis, geology, reservoir engineering, production
trated strata. Logs are frequently the only permanent engineering, are intended to be presented in a subsequent
record of ali the formations traversed by the borehole; course. Although many participants may have previous
i.e., top, bottom, and apparent thickness of each zone formal or practica! training in geology, petroleum engi-
versus measured depth. Caliper data are also very impor- neering, or geophysics, it is important that sorne very
tant in log analysis for openhole and subsequent cased basic principies, concepts, and uses of those disciplines
hole evaluations. Other measurements, often obtained be explained to other participants who have not had train-
from wireline operations, can correct measured depths, ing in one or more of those areas.
formation tops and bottoms, and thicknesses to true verti-
cal depth. Determining true stratigraphic thickness often A complete evaluation of petroleum-bearing reservoirs
requires a knowledge of formation dip angle and direc- includes data from severa] sources - coring, wireline well
tion in addition to borehole drift data. Other formation logging, mud logging, pressure tests, and sampling. A
evaluation techniques make measurements and allow thorough geological evaluation of a reservoir also typi-
observations that are often necessary for accurate and cally includes seismic interpretation. The science of for-
effective interpretations of log data. mation evaluation encompasses a general knowledge of
all these disciplines, while certain individuals may be
With few exceptions, oil company personnel are inter- specialized in a specific discipline such as seismic inter-
ested in how wireline measurements relate to information pretation, log analysis, or core analysis. Many oil com-
they need; i.e., a geologist has little interest in the physics pany, service company, governmental, and academic
of tool functions or how the measurements are obtained. research and development projects are devoted to the
For example, resistivity, conductivity, bulk density, and investigation of the physical properties of rocks and how
acoustic travel time are not data that coincide with the they relate to measurable properties; i.e., petrophysics.
needs of most oil company personnel; however, the rela-
tionship of log measurements to the amount of porosity
and oil, water, or gas present within certain reservoir
rocks is important. The purpose of this textbook is to
emphasize those relationships. Hardware descriptions,
including tool physics, are limited in scope, and dis-
cussed in general terms only to provide an understanding
of how the log measurements are made. Emphasis is
placed on using, and in most cases, converting the log
measurements into practica! terms for use in reservoir
description.

Considering ali the above, it remains essential that the


formation evaluation specialist understand:

(l) Fundamental measurement theory of the various


devices

-1 -
Fundamentals of Petroleum Reservoirs 1

Virtually ali of the world's petroleum is produced from


sedimentary rocks. Locating the reservoirs that contain Source
Rock
petroleum requires an understanding of the nature of sed-
iments, and well logs are one important method of
acquiring such information. Wireline well logs are partic- Chemical Mechanical
Weathering Weathering
ularly useful in describing and characterizing sedimen-
tary rocks and the fluids or gasses that occupy their pores.
Plan! Solution New
Extraction Minerals
Global tectonic activity has altered and continues to alter
the earth's crust. Tectonic activity is the process that dis-
tills out the lighter, low melting point materials that accu-
mulated on the surface and form the continents today.
Sedimentary rocks evolved from the mechanical and
chemical alteration caused by exposure to the surface
nra"oo
Biologic Extraction
and Precipitation
environment. A thin veneer of sediments almost entirely
covers the earth's surface. Since the evolution of life Shale
Peat
forms, petroleum has been generated in sedimentary Conglomerate
Goal Evaporites Sandstone
environments. When organ ic remains escape oxidation (Sorne Limestone)
by early burial or depth of burial, anda sufficient concen- Chert
tration of organi sms are subjected to moderate levels of Limestones
Diatomaceous Shales
geothermal heat and overburden pressure, petroleum is
Phosphates
believed to be formed. When these fluids migrate from
source rock to porous and permeable reservoir rocks, Fig. 1-1 -A hierarchy of sedimentary rocks by origin
they are eventually trapped and the hydrocarbon accumu-
lates to form an oil or gas reservoir.
are often used as an extension from core analysis and log
Mechanical and chemical weathering processes of the comparisons on other wells. Log measurements can
earth's surface result in the alteration and creation of sed- define or at least infer petrophysical properties such as
imentary rocks. Sedirnents are either transported by porosity, shale volume, lithology, and water, oil, or gas
winds and fluids or dissolved in a fluid followed by saturation. Estimates of permeability, predictions of
mechanical deposition or chemical or biological precipi- water cut, detection of overpressured zones, and calcula-
tation. Sedimentary rocks are composed mostly of miner- tions of residual oil can also be made. Log analysis is pri-
als that remain stable under normal conditions of stress, marily used to describe petrophysical properties in a
temperature, and pressure. Minerals usually associated single well. However, when a suite of logs is run in sev-
with igneous or metamorphic rocks were formed in era! wells representative of a specific geographical area,
abnormal conditions of stress, temperature, and pressure, it can be used as a geological too! to describe local struc-
and sorne of these rninerals are found in sediments. ture, stratigraphy, facies relationships, environrnents of
Nearly 3,000 rninerals are known to exist, but fewer than deposition, and reservoir geometry.
200 are sufficiently abundant to be considered comrnon
rock-forming minerals. Most sedimentary rocks are char- RESERVOI R ROCK PROPERTI ES
acterized by 25 or fewer minerals.
Reliable economic evaluation of a reservoir requires rea-
A convenient means for classification of sedimentary sonable knowledge of certain fundamental reservoir
rocks is to divide them into mechanically derived rocks properties. Although the rock recovered by coring meth-
and chemically precipitated rocks, with a number of sub- ods is the cornerstone of formation evaluation, wireline
divisions for the chemical division (Fig. 1-1 ). data are more universally available for determining the
fundamental reservoir properties.
Well log data are the result of measurements of the phys-
ical properties of rock matrix material and the fluids Porosity
occupying the pores. Otherwise, these data are accessible
only by core analysis. Quite naturally, log and core data The ratio of a volume of void spaces within a rock to the
are often compared and used in conjunction to define res- total bulk volume of that rock is commonly expressed as
ervoir properties. When cores are not available, log data a percentage; i.e., ali the collective void space is referred

-3-
to as pore volume so that percent porosity (<I>) is calcu-
lated as

<I> = Pare Volume x IOO .


Total Volume

[n practice, severa( descriptions of porosity exist, but the


two most common are total porosity and effective poros-
ity (Fig. 1-2). Total porosity represents the ratio of total
pore volume within a rock to the total bulk volume
including voids as given in the previous equation. Effec-
tive porosity represents the ratio of the interconnected
pore space to the total bulk volume. Other terminology
such as secondary porosity, water-filled porosity, vuggy
porosity, and fracture porosity are discussed later.
Fig. 1-4 - Variation in the size of spheres can affect porosity
Sand Grain type and volume.

Porosity 36% Porosity 20%


Horiz Perm 1000 md Horiz Perm 100 md
lnterconnected or
Vert Perm 600 md Vert Perm 25 md
Effective Porosity
25%

~-")F..tk~l-- - 1solated or
Noneffective
Porosity
5%

Total Porosity
30%

Sand Grains without Clay Sand Grains with Clay


Fig. 1-2 - Graphic depiction of effective, noneffective, and total Cementing Material Cementing Material
porosity

Fig. 1-5- Clay cement can affect porosity and permeability.


The amount of porosity is principally caused by the
arrangement and shape of the rock grains (Fig. 1-3), the
mixing of grains of different sizes and shapes (Fig. 1-4),
and the amount of cementing material present (Fig. 1-5).

Permeability

A measure of the ease with which a fluid (or gas) flows


through connecting pore spaces of reservoir rock is called
Containers with Large Spheres permeability. This natural plumbing system conducts
fluids toward the borehole and is very important in pre-
dicting the rate of production from a reservoir.

Permeability depends largely on:

Containers with Small Spheres


( 1) Size of pore openings
Cubic Arrangement Rhombohedral
of Spheres Arrangement
48% Porosity of Spheres (2) Degree and size of pore connectivity
26% Porosity

Fig. 1-3 - Porosity relation to arrangement and shape of rock (3) Degree and type of cementing material between
grains rock grains

- 4-
,
Based on laboratory flow tests, Henri d'Arcy (1856)
deterrnined that permeability (k) could be expressed by
the equation
Large F lat Grains
,,
Small Flat Grains

k = QIA(t:i.PIL)

where k = permeability (darcy),


...
Horiz Perm 2000 md Horiz Perm 800 md
Q = flow per unit time (cm/s), Vert Perm 800 md Vert Perm 50 md

= viscosity of flowing medium (cp), Large Rounded Grains Very Small Irregular Grains

A = cross section of rock (cm2),

L = length of rock (cm),

and ,11' = pressure differential (drop).


Horiz Perm 2000 md Horiz Perm 150 md
The unit of measurement was anglicized and is known as Vert Perm 1500 md Vert Perm 15 md
the darcy. Rock measurements of permeability are typi-
cally expressed as rnillidarcies (md). Graphics (Figs. 1-6 Fig. 1-7 - Shape and size of grains affect permeability.
and 1-7) demonstrate severa! variables that can affect
permeability horizonta)ly and vertical\y.

Horiz Perm 800 md Horiz Perm 1500 md 1000


Vert Perm 500 md Vert Perm 1000 md

100

Porosity 15% Porosity 40%

Fig. 1-6 - Arrangement of sand grains and pore structure


affects permeability.
0.1 L----'----'----''-----'---- '----''-----'---..J.._---'-_ J
O 2 4 6 8 1 O 12 14 16 18 20
Porosity (%)
Potentially petroleum-bearing rocks exhibit a wide range
of permeabilities (Fig. 1-8). Often, permeability
increases with porosity; however, rocks with very low
porosity have exhibited high permeability characteristics, Fig. 1-8 - Reservoi r rocks demonstrate a wide range of
and sorne high porosity rocks have very low matrix per- permeability that may not follow porosity t rends.
meability. Permeability values can be determined by sev-
era! means; e.g., well tests, wireline formation tests, drill flow into a wellbore if the interna! well pressure is 10 psi
stem tests, transient well testing, or analysis of different less than the reservoir pressure. A formation 100 ft
types of recovered core. Core data are accepted as the (30 m) thick that averages 2 md can be said to have
most accurate method for deterrnining permeability 200 md-ft (60 md-m) permeability, whereas a formation
(Fig. 1-9). Permeability is a fundamental parameter in 10 ft (3 m) thick that averages 200 md can be said to have
reservoir engineering work. For example, a reservoir 2,000 md-ft (600 md-m) of permeability. The thin zone
rock 10 ft thick having I darcy of effective permeability obviously has better qualities of deliverability than the
will permit about 15 barreis of oil per day (BOPD) to thick zone.

-5-
High vertical permeability does occasionally occur, usu-
ally in clean, coarse, unconsolidated sands or where ver-
Rock tical fractures, fissures, or joints are well developed. Ver-

-
Area
tical joints and fissures often act as horizontal barriers if
they are filled with clay or other minerals. Bypassing and
coning effects occur in such reservoirs, and high vertical
---L---
Length permeability can therefore be detrimental.

Permeability Area of Core Fractures are nothing more than cracks or fi ssures that
"-... / . -Pressure Orop occur due to the stresses and strains of rock or pore pres-
k A - --
Flow O= -x- (P1 -P2) sure realigning to stability. Most fractures occur not as a
Rate - - - - L
large crack in the rock, but as several small fissures. Ori-
Fluid J' ""- Core Length
Viscosity entation is usually normal, or parallel to the forces that
caused the fracture. The type of rock matrix influences
the preferred direction. Major catastrophic events in geo-
Fig. 1-9 - Permeability determination from core
logic time (called revolutions, disturbances, etc. depend-
ing on the extent) are one major cause of fracturing,
while redistributions of pore fluid or gas from an area of
high pressure to an area of low pressure are also attrib-
uted to fracturing.
A reservoir's productive capacity is largely determined
by its permeability. If a 100 ft (30 m) thick reservoir is
Other terms, such as absolute, effective, and relative per-
perforated with 4 shots per foot in 4.8-in. (12.2-cm) ID
meability, are used for detailed reservoir parameters, but
casing, the well's productivity is restricted to the capacity
are beyond the scope of this basic course. If only a single
of the casing, tubing, and wellhead apparatus. If a 0.7-in. medium (ol, water, or gas) flows through the rock, the
(1.75-cm) choke is placed at the surface, the well's pro- term absolute permeability is used. When a reservoir
duction capability is more severely reduced. Within the contains any two or ali of the media, the effective perme-
cased well itself, productivity is restricted to the size of ability (k0 , kw, k8 ) for each is considered. When flow of
tubular goods, and wellhead restrictions diminish the more than one of the media through a permeable reser-
producing capability of the pipe string. Each individual voir rock is present, it becomes necessary to determine
perforation will only produce if the well has the capacity relative permeability (kr0 , krw ,kr8). Relative permeability
to accept flow into it and the ability to produce the fluids is defined as the ratio of relative permeability of one
or gas at the surface. In this set of circumstances, a large phase, during multiphase flow, to the absolute permeabil-
number of perforations would not contribute any increase ity of that fluid during single phase flow or
to the rate of production. The perforations in the most
permeable depth intervals would contribute the vast
majority of fluids or gas, and as permeability behind indi-
vidual perforations diminishes, their ability to contribute
Methods relating wireline data to permeability are dis-
to flow would also diminish.
cussed in other chapters.

Horizontal permeability is generally accepted as the Reservoir Content of Fluids and Gas
rock's permeability in a more-or-less horizontal direction,
while vertical permeability is generally accepted as the
Fluid (or gas) saturation is defined as the volume of fluid
component perpendicular to horizontal permeability. A
(or gas) divided by the volume of pores in which the fluid
core from a near-vertical borehole in steeply dipping
(or gas) resides. Total saturation is always 100%;
beds may yield misleading permeability estimates for therefore,
vertical and horizontal orientation if the core analyst is
not aware of the circumstances. Vertical permeability (kv)
S o + S g + S w = 100%,
is usually somewhat less than horizontal permeability
because of the layering effect of sedimentation; i.e., clay
laminae, platy minerals, etc. Horizontal permeability where S0 = oil saturation (%),
(kh), measured parallel to bedding, is the major contribu-
tor of fluid flow into a typical wellbore. The ratio of khfkv s8 = gas saturation (%),
generally ranges from 1.5 to 3.0 but might exceed 10.0 in
sorne reservoirs (Figs. 1-6 and 1-7). and Sw = water saturation (% ).

-6-
-- Depending on the existing conditions in any particular
reservoir, the hydrocarbon content may be in the form of
vertical and formations are relatively flat (horizontal), the
measured thickness of different geological units is suffi-
oil, free gas, or both. Air is also a gas. In reservoirs that ciently accurate. However, when wells are deviated more
produce hydrocarbons, the water is generally a film coat- than about 5, it becomes necessary to correct the
ing on the rock surfaces within pores, while the hydrocar- measured reservoir thickness to true vertical thickness by
bons occupy the center portions of the pore spaces. A utilizing measurements of the borehole drift angle and
simplified sketch of the three phases in an oil and gas res- directions (Fig. 1- 1lA). When the reservoir rock dips
ervoir is illustrated in Fig. 1-10. steeply as a result of folding or faulting, the formation
thickness must often be corrected to its true stratigraphic
thickness, and information pertaining to post-deposi-
Water tional structural dip is required (Fig. 1-11 B). When the
well is deviated and formations dip steeply, additional
data are required to correct the log measurements to true
vertical thickness (Fig. 1-11 C).
Oil
Wireline Depth Control

Depth is one of the most fundamental and important mea-


surements performed by wireline logging crews, and log
Sand Grains data are commonly used to resolve reservoir thickness.
Wireline logs offer a geological information source for
Fig. 1-10 - Simplified sketch of three phases in a petroleum- the entire length of a wellbore, and a major use of log
bearing reservoir data is to make well-to-well geological correlations.

The depth-control system relies upon calibration and ver-


For example, if a rock with total bulk volume of 50 cm3 ification. Calibration is based on known and measurable
was found to contain 3 cm3 of water, 5 cm3 of oil, and properties relating to cable stretch characteristics, and the
2 cm3 of free gas, then verification procedure ensures accurate compensation for
variations in the effective length of the cable as a func-
Pore Volume = 3 + 5 + 2 = JO cm3; tion of variations in the tension. Using present technolo-
gies, severa) important assumptions are made in defining
therefore, the system's accuracy. A detailed discussion of wireline
depth control systems is found in Appendix A.
q> = 10/50 = 20%,
RESERVOIR GEOMETR Y
and Sw = 3/10 X 100 = 30%,

So = 5/10 X 100 = 50%, The reservoir engineer must know the reservoir's areal
extent and shape in addition to its thickness. Logs or core
and Sg = 2/10 X 100 = 20%. data from a single well cannot provide this information,
but the combined data from a number of wells allow
inference of the outlying limits of the reservoir. Surface
seismic data provide horizontal stratigraphic coverage,
RESERVOIR THICKNES S which is extremely useful in determining the lateral res-
ervoir extent and identifying lateral permeability barriers.
The reservoir engineer also requires an accurate measure Three dimensional (3-D) seismic information is even
of reservoir thickness, generally, the current true vertical more valuable, but two or more seismic lines in different
thickness of the reser-. oir rock in place. Original orienta- directions can help in 3-D reservoir modelling. When
tion of reservoirs and the effects of subsequent folding, only well data are available to the engineer, the produc-
faulting, uplifting, or downwarping also influence reser- tion geologist must provide reasonably accurate cross
voir parameters and are discussed later. The most basic sections, maps, and perhaps fence diagrams to model the
information provided by wireline logging is measured reservoir in 3-D. This requires data from a number of
well depth and identifiable top and bottom depths of tra- wells that are not in a straight line and sufficient lateral
versed geological formations. If the borehole is nearly coverage to estmate the reservoir boundary limits.

-7 -
,.

"
DRAINAGE AREA ANO IN-PLACE RESERVE
& ESTIMATION

\ Deviated Wellbore

r
Data from a single well can be used to calculate reserves
~\( in place, but as previously described, the reservoir engi-
neer must have sorne idea of the area that a single well
TVD ' could drain. A commonly used equaton for calculating
''
' barreis of oil in place is
TVD Top ,. Horizontal Bed
BOIP=7758 bbl/acre-ft x h (ft) x A (acres)4) x Sh

where h = reservoir thickness (ft),

TVD Base A = drainage area (acres),

$ = effectve porosity (%),


Fig. 1-11 A - TVD principie for a vertical well and horizontal bed
and sh = pore space portion filled with hydro-
carbon (%).

Actual reservor engineerng work requires much more


data. Permeability and reservoir temperature and pres-
Vertical Wellbore sure are mportant consideratons in determining produc-
iblty behavior, accurate volumetrics, pressure mainte-
nance procedures, etc. The API gravty of eructe ol,
bubble point pressure, type of reservor, etc. are all
mportant considerations. Sorne of this informaton is
obtained with specialty log measurements.

WELL DRILLING OBJECTIVES ANO


OPERATION

The objective of an ol company's drillng department is


to drll a hole of specfied sze to a specfied depth, run
casing, cement designated portons of the penetrated
Fig. 1-11 B - TVD principie for a vertical well and a dipping bed horizons, and perhaps run producton casing to total
depth, ali in the most economcally efficient manner pos-
sible. Most drilling personnel consder the hole to be the
eptomy of the industry, and to a certain degree ths is
correct because no oil or gas wll be produced until that
borehole is drilled and completed successfully. Surface
and subsurface geophysics and geology may dictate
where to drill a well, but it is the drilling personnel who
place the hole in the target.

Large ol and gas companes often have a vice president


of drilling or manager of drilling who has a staff of spe-
calzed drilling personnel. Smaller ndependents gener-
ally rely on a drllng contractor. Drilling engineers, drill-
ing superntendents, or drilling technicians are often
employees of the operating company, whle a drilling
contractor may have a toolpusher in charge of one or
more rigs. A drller is usually in charge of the drilling
crew, whch is made up of three or more roughnecks.
Fig. 1-11 C - TVD principie for a deviated well and a dipping bed Drilling crews usually work "tours" (often pronounced
"towers"). Eight-hour shifts are common, but longer

-8-
-- shifts may occur. Larger land rigs and offshore rigs have
additional personnel who serve a number of functions.
know ali about drilling rigs, but it is irnportant to be
fami liar with the areas where they are to be at times and
More expensive drilling to deeper well depths, in deeper to recognize the potential dangers. The mechanical and
offshore waters, or in more frontier locations has become electrical equipment associated with a drilling rig can be
much more sophisticated in the past 15 to 20 years. dangerous to human life and logging operations. Severa!
Computer technology, including high-technology com- types of drilling rigs are i llustrated (Figs. 1- 12 through 1-
munications systems, etc., is not unusual where high-cost 16). The layout of the mud circulation system may differ,
drilling operations are taking place. but the scheme for mud circulation in and out of the bore-
hole generally follows the schematic (Fig. 1- 17). Well-
In rnost cases, drilling consumes the majority of the costs head pressure apparatus is often present beneath the rig
of a well. The drilling budget is typically the largest floor and the pipe string configuration duri ng drilling
expenditure for the exploration and production depart- operations includes severa! compo nents (Fig. 1-18). Drill
ments in an oil company. Few oil cornpanies own their strings that include measurement apparatus are becorning
own rigs; they contract the drilling rig, drill ship, or drill- more common (Fig. 1-19); they are referred to as mea-
ing platform through a drilling contractor, just as they surement-while-drilling (MWD).
contract wireline companies to perform logging and per-
forating services. However, sorne companies do own DRILLING FLUIDS
rigs, and sorne drilling contractors occasionaJly promote
and drill wells. Drilling mud is possibly the one factor that is rnost
ignored or misunderstood relative to forrnation evalua-
Most drilling contracts are written to include a certain fee
tion. Nevertheless, ali borehole measurernents are
for a specified, completed borehole of a certain size and
affected somewhat by the particular attributes of the drill-
perhaps, quality and specific targeted controls through
ing fluid. Rotary rigs require fluid for two basic purposes
the penetrated formations of the subsurface. Casing of
- to cool and lubricare the bit, and to c irculate the drilled
various sizes, weight, and type are specified to be set and
cuttings back to the surface. From the engineering stand-
cemented over selected intervals of the borehole. Drilling
point, it is usually important to rnaintain a pressure in the
mud is also specified, and its cost can vary considerably
borehole slightly above the pressures in the formations to
depending on mud type, its reusability, and the hole
be penetrated; this is a safety factor to avoid well blow-
volume. It is not the norm, but rnud costs can approach
outs. In many situations, water is the fluid used, and the
40% of the total cost of a well.
hydrostatic head is sufficient to provide a slight overbal-
Logging, testing, and coring operations, and times when ance. Sorne situations require an increase in mud weight
drilling is halted to circulate cuttings to the surface from because of formation pressures known to be abnorrnally
a specified zone, are often referred to as downtime. These high. In the case of an exploration wildcat drilled in a
are charged to the oil company at "day work rates," remote area, the drilling contractor and ol company may
which are often expensive. Rig breakdown time is the choose to "mud up" as a precautionary measure. Differ-
problem of the drilling contractor. ent units of mud weight are used in different operating
areas (Fig. 1-20).
Logging operations often consume a number of hours,
and altho ugh the oil company budgets time for this in a Drilling with overbalanced pressure can be damaging to
well proposal, they rarely plan for any extensive logging reservoir properties immediately adjacent to the bore-
contractor breakdown time. This is why ol company per- hole. With sufficient well pressure, the drilling fluid can
sonnel become upset when logging operation "lost time" invade deeply into the reservoir or deep enough to cause
becomes significant. They know the downtime can add a clay swelling or o ther problems that deter or forbid drain-
great deal of cost to the driller's invoice. Well-trained log- age access for hydrocarbons when the well is put on pro-
ging crews, extensive tool maintenance, and carefully duction (Fig. 1-2 1). Freshwater-based rnuds often cause a
planned maintenance methods are the logging contrac- chemical reaction with clay materials disseminated in the
tors' only recourse to avoid technical problems that can formation, which results in clay swelling o r clay removal
directly affect future business. and transport to other areas of the pore throats. Either cir-
cumstance can result in effectively eliminating the per-
ROTARY RIG COMPONENTS meable avenue. Mud solids or particles injected into the
pore throats with the invading fluids cause a similar dam-
Virtually ali wells in the o l industry are drilled by using aging effect. Forrnation damage immediately surround-
the rotary method. A few isolated areas still have cable ing the borehole can severely diminish the forrnation's
too) rigs, but only rotary drilling rigs will be described in ability to produce into the wellbore. Rheology of dri lling
any detail. It is not so important that the logging fluids has therefore become an important specialty area
engineer, well-site geologist, or other service personnel in the petroleum industry.

- 9-
SPRING POLE - The "spring pole", first used in this country for
digging salt wells, was adopted for early oil well drilling. The Spring Pole,
device consisted of a limber pole, anchored at one end and
passing over a post. Men pulled down on the rape, causing the
drilling tools to strike bottom and to be lifted alter each stroke by
the spring of the pole.
Rape

Chain

Hale
.:.-+--~

CABLE TOOL (Percussion) DRILLING RIG

The band wheel receives power from an engine and


operates in turn:

The walking beam, set on the sampson post, is used


for raising and dropping the "string" of drilling tools to
drill the well.

The bull wheel (driven by a bull rape), on which is


wound the wire drilling line, raises or lowers the
drilling tools in the well.

The calf wheel, on which is wound the wire casing Traveling


line, raises or lowers casing in the well. ..,..,...'M"1'r Block
The sand wheel, driven from band wheel - bails out
the cut-away material by means of the sand line and
bailer.

As the well is drilled deeper, its walls are


progressively "cased" with lengths of steel casing pipe.
This prevents cave-ins and the seepage of water, oil, or Casing - 1st String

1
gas into the unfinished well. Rape Socket
Casing - 2nd String
"Fishing" is the name given to methods of recovering Jars - permit bit to fall free -
bits, or parts of the drilling "strings," which accidentally also used to jar tools loase
break off and become lodged in the well. lf they cannot
be recovered, or drilled around, the well is abandoned.

Bits are of various designs to meet the different types


of underground formations being drilled. From time to
time, the entire drill string is brought to the surface and
the bit replaced.

Fig. 1-12 - Early spring pole drilling method and cable tool drilling rig
l Stem - adds weight to bit

Open Hale
Bit

- 10-
-,,

ROTARY DRILLING RIG

"Draw Works" - the collective name for !he hoisting


drum, shaft, and clutches. Power is received from
the engine.

The rotary table is driven by chain from the draw


works and rotales the hollow drill stem, which drills
the well.

The drill stem, consisting of drill pipe, drill collar, and


bit, is raised or lowered into the well by a cable that
is wound on the hoisting drum and passes through a
series of pulleys in the crown block.

Casing, or lining, for the well is raised or lowered by


the same method.

Cuttings are removed by pumping drilling mud,


obtained from a slush pit, down through the hollow
drill pipe. lt passes out through hales in the bit and,
forced upward by pump pressure, carries the
cuttings to the surface. Here, the liquid passes through
settling troughs in which heavier particles sink to the
bottom. The cleansed mud flows back into the slush
pit and is used again, not only for removing cuttings,
but as a plaster on the walls of the well to preven!
caving until the casing is set.

Stand Pipe
(Carries high-pressure
mud from pumps)

Drawworks Hook
Swivel

-+-ff-----1 Mlt-- Kelly


'-9----u -Rotary Table

Fig. 1-13- Rotary drilling rig

- 11 -
lllt1~1~
1,d._ _ _ _ Racking Platform
(Monkey Boards)
11 . Wireline

13. Rotary

roq:!11------ 10.Traveling Block


9. Hook
8. Swivel
7. Rotary Hose and Standpipe
6. Kelly
Kelly Bushing
17. Mud Pit 20. Blowout Preventer (BOP) Stack
19. Substructure

6. Kelly

5. Kelly Saver Sub

4. Drill Pipe

Rotary Rig System Components


1ffi- 3. Drill Collars

2. Bit Sub
HoistingSystem-9, 10, 11 , 12, 14, 15, 18
Circulating System - 2, 3, 4 , 6, 8, 15, 16, 17
Rotating System - 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 13, 15 1. Bit

Fig. 1-14 - Schematic of rotary drilling system (from Fundamentals of Petroleum, 2nd ed. , Copyright 1981, Petroleum Extension Service,
The University of Texas at Austin)

- 12 -
-

- 13 -
Key to lllustration

Air chambers (1) Mud line manifold (28)


Blowout preventer (2) Mud mixing hopper (29)
Base plate (3) Mud return ditch (30)
Casing head (4) Mud return line (31)
Compound (5) Mud tank connections (32)
Cross tee (6) Platform, engine (33)
Crown block (7) Rathole (34)
Derrick (8) Rotary hook (35)
Derrick brace (9) Rotary hose (36)
Derrick !loor (10) Rotary hose safety chain (37)
Derrick leg (11) Rotary table (38)
Drawworks (12) Runaround (39)
Engines, diesel or gas (13) Settling pit (40)
Gin pole (14) Shale shaker (41)
Girt (15) Slush pump (42)
Goose neck (16) Standpipe (43)
Guard, drive chain (17) Steps (44)
Guard, rotary drive (18) Substructure, derrick (45)
Guard, pump drive (19) Substructure, drawworks (46)
Hydraulic brake (20) Substructure, ramp (47)
Kelly (21) Suction line (48)
Line, fill-up {22) Suction tank (49)
Line, pump discharge (23) Surge chamber (50)
Line, rotary (24) Swivel (51 )
Mouse hole (25) Swivel ball (52)
Mud gun, lixed (26) Traveling block (53)
Mud gun, movable (27) Water supply line (54)

Fig. 1-16- Components of a rotary drilling rig

- 14-
"

Swivel

Standpipe
1
Mud House

Kelly

Discharge

Suction Line

~
Drill Pipe

Annulus

Mud Pit

Fig. 1-17 - Mud circulation system (from Fundamentals of Petroleum, 2nd ed., Copyright 1981 , Petroleum Extension Service, The
University of Texas at Austin)

- 15-
There are special circumstances where the fluid is main-
Drilling Mud Pumped Back to Kelly tained at an underbalanced pressure condition, particu-
Kelly ~ larly when formation damage can be expected from inva-
Rotary Table sion of drilling fluids. Many of the Mesa Verde gas sands
e'---::::,, ..._ across Wyoming (U.S.A.) were dril led underbaJanced to
keep water off of swelling clays as muchas possible; i.e.,
clay swelling would inhibit production from the reser-
voirs that already had low permeability and low flow
rates. Most formation damage occurs near the borehole
and creates a permeable barrier between the gas or oil
and the perforated entries into the well bore. Drilling
with underbalanced pressure to avoid formation damage
Preventers Slush Pit can inadvertently affect log responses if gas bleeds from
the formation into the borehole fluid. Measurements most
affected are the SP, neutrons, and acoustic logs.

Flow properties of drilling fluids often influence the


success or fai lure of a drilling operation. The particular
properties are primarily responsible for removal of rock
Fig. 1-18 -Typical setup of wellhead pressure apparatus

Directional Display
lnclination
Azimuth

MWD Skid Unit


Pulse Detection Gamma Log (Optional)
Pulse Decoding Geological Horizons
Formation ldentification

MWD

Position Monitoring Sensors


Magnetometers
Accelerometers

Formation ldentification Sensor


Gamma Sensor

Drilling Motor

Dril/ Strin

,,,,---
..-
/
------
--
------ -~
_______ , .........
......_
'-...

Fig. 1-19 - Typical scheme for measurement-while-drilling (MWD)

- 16 -
cuttings, but also influence drilling progress in severa!
additional ways. Poor flow performance can cause hole
Mud Welght or Preuure Gradlent
bridging, bottomhole fi ll up, reduced penetration rate,
g/cm3 lb/cu ft lb/gal psi/ft
hole enlargement, stuck pipe, loss of circulation, and pos-
1.0 62.4 8,345 0.433 sibly result in a well blowout. Flow behavior is governed
0.45 by flow regimes that are dictated by pressure and veloc-
9
1.1 ity. The two main flow regimes are laminar flow, which
70
o.so prevails at low velocities and is a direct function of the
1.2 10 viscous properties of the fluid; turbulent flow is governed
by the interna( properties of the fluid and is only indi-
80 0.55
1.3 rectly influenced by the viscosity. Pressure increases with
11
velocity much more rapidly when flow is turbulent than
1.4 0.60 when it is laminar.
90 12

1.5 0.65 Viscosity


13
1.6 100
0.70
Viscosity is a measure of a fluid's resistance to flow; e.g.,
molasses is more resistant to flow than water. The viscos-
14
1,7 ity of drilling fluid is typically reported on wireline log
0 .75
110 headers, and the number reported is taken from the mud
1.8 15 report or driller's record (marsh funnel viscosity). Viscos-
0 .80 ity typically varies from the low to mid 40s to the mid to
1.9
16
high 50s, but much higher viscosities are occasionally
120
o.es encountered. Viscosity might be reported from either of
2.0 two methods:
17
130 0.90
2 .1 (1 ) Marsh funnel seconds, which represents the time
18 it takes for an efflux of one quart (946 cm 3) of drill-
2.2 0.95 ing fluid to flow through a specified funnel. The
140
longer (in seconds) it takes to drain the funnel, the
19
2.3 1.00 higher the viscosity. The number obtained depends
partly on the effective viscosity at the rate of shear
2.4 20 prevailing in the funnel orfice and partly on the
rate of gelation. For benchmark reference, the time
of efflux of fresh water at 70 5F (21 3C) is
26 0.5 seconds. Marsh funnel viscosity is a
Fg. 1-20 - Comparison of difieren! mud weight units

Barehale Axis Barehale Axis

\ \
Particle Surface ln-depth Salid
Pare Thraat Size Penetratian
lmmediate Surface
Filler-cake Buildup

~ Bridging Lacatian

Fig. 1-21 - Drilling overbalanced can cause formation damage near the borehole.

- 17 -
,.

simplified method that enables the drilling crew to 1920s. Drilling mud research began in earnest by the late
periodically report the consistency of the mud. This I 920s, and different technical society meetings witnessed
value is normally found in the driller's report and is more papers on mud properties being presented in the
the value commonly reported on log headers. early 1930s than the total for the previous 40 years. The
types of mud additives are widely varied and are used for
(2) Yield point viscosity indicates flow characteristics different purposes. Gels were introduced to eliminate or
when the fluid is moving slowly or is at rest, and at least reduce caving and forro mud cakes to prevent for-
plastic viscosity represents the flow characteristics mation damage. Barite is the most common weighting
of the fluid when it is moving rapidl y. Both viscos- material.
ities are measured in centipoise. Mud engineers and
laboratory chemists and technicians use more so- Different wireline devices are used to make measure-
phisticated viscometers to measure these properties. ments of formation resistivity. The type of drilling fluid
and its comparative relation to the formation water are
pH important criteria to the accuracy of the measurement. As
a rule of thumb for the purposes of well logging, fresh
Another parameter measured by the mud engineer is the muds are generally those having a resistivity (at compa-
pH factor of the drilling fluid. pH values are a measure of rable temperature to the formation temperature) of > 3.5
the acid or alkaline condition of a substance. A neutral times that of the formation water. Electrode-resistivi ty
solution, such as pure water, has a pH of 7; acid solutions devices were first developed to perform measurements in
are< 7; basic or alkaline solutions are> 7. pH is scaled water-filled boreholes. The induction log was later devel-
logarithmically, therefore a fluid with a pH of 4 is more oped for oil-based drilling fluids, but it was soon found
than twice as acidic as a substance with a pH of 7, and a that the induction also performed exceptionally well in
substance with a pH of 9 is much more than twice as fresh muds.
alkaline as a substance with a pH of 8. pH is an important
parameter in mud quality, and occasionally to particular Oil-Based Drilling Fluids
rock cuttings that need to be investigated by the well-site
geologist. Numerous types of drilling fluids have been used and
called oil-based, but variations in oil percentages and
Fluid Loss other fluid additives exist. For example, the oil-based
muds used in the North Sea number well above 60, and
Water loss, measured in cubic centimeters, plays a very approximately 80% of the wells drilled in the North Sea
important part in obtaining accurate log data that are crit- in the past 7 to 8 years ( l 983-1 991) have utilized oil-
ica( to an analysis. High-water-loss muds tend to invade based muds to sorne extent. In 1990, ol-bases accounted
and flush deeper into the formation, which influences log foras much as 10% of the drilling fluids used throughout
measurements used to evaluate the types and amounts of the world. Emulsions, inverted systems, etc. are included
fluid or gas saturation. Because the drilling fluid was among the nomenclature. For the purposes of this discus-
probably not of the same consistency throughout the sion, oil-based fluids are virtually always nonconductive;
drilling process, high-water-loss muds effecti vely flush i.e., they are electrical insulators. These fluids are used to
and invade different reservoirs with filtrate of different achieve better borehole conditions (avoid excessive
salinities, since most flu shing takes place as a spurt with washouts, possibly keep water away from swelling mate-
the initial penetration of the bit. Massive loss of mud into rials) and also for their reusable qualities. The presence of
the formation seldom occurs because the mud solids are illite, smectite, and mixed !ayer illite/smectite clays, in
filtered out onto the borehole wall. Muds should be particular, causes problems when water-based drilling
treated to keep cake permeability as low as possible, fluids are used. In the past, the base material of oil-based
thereby maintaining a stable borehole and minimizing fil - fluids was usually a diesel oil that required weighting,
trate invasion and possible formation damage of potential which is an expensive process. In recent years, diese! has
reservoirs. Hig h-mud-cake permeability results in thick been abandoned largely because of the environmental and
filter cake that reduces borehole diameter, causes severa! occupational hazards caused by high aromatic content.
potential problems for the driller, and also inhibits many Today's oil-based fl uids are made up of very expensive,
log measurements. specially refi ned oil s that are less toxic (<5% aromatics).

Freshwater-Based Drilling Fluids Salt-Based Drilling Fluids

The most common drilling fluid is water-based, usuall y Early well-drilling experience established bentonite as
somewhat less saline than the connate formation waters. the most practica! material for improving viscosity and
Mud was first introduced as a fluid additive in the early wall-building properties of freshwater muds; however, as
1900s, but did not find widespread usage until the early dissolved salt content within the fluid increased,

- 18 -
bentonite became less effective. Bentonite does not swell by fluids. To avoid clay swelling or other formation
in saturated salt water; therefore, it contributes essen- damage immediately adjacent to the borehole, operators
tially nothing to filtration in salty fluid conditions. Drill- may choose to dril! with air. Cable-too] drilling is slow
ers in the Permian Basin of west Texas encountered thick but less expensive; it often takes as much as 3 months to
salt beds, and saJt domes created problems in the U.S. dril! to a depth of 3,000 ft (915 m). Boreholes drilled with
gulf coast area. Gelatinized starch was found to be a reli- cable tools typically maintain wall stability, and rock cut-
able substitute and eliminated many of the problems with tings bailed from the holeare usually of excellent quality
thick mud cakes and excess filtration that had previously because they are not contaminated by drilling fluids. Fur-
occurred in salty fluids. thermore, the geologist does not have to allow for lag
time for sample retums. The first 60 to 70 years of the
Salt muds are commonly used in salt basins, which are petroleum industry were dorninated by cable-too( drill-
geological basins having thick beds of salt and other ing. Rotary rigs are also used in air-drilling operations,
evaporites. Fresh water leaches the salt beds, creating and in "hard-rock" country. They provide a secondary
enormous washouts or cavities that create problems for benefit as a result of a faster drilling rate.
drilling, running casing, logging, testing, coring, and just
about every operation that is performed in a wellbore. Many of the gas fields today in Appalachia and Arkansas
Most of these problems are alleviated if high-salinity (U.S.A .) are drilled with air; reefs in southwest Ontario
drilling fluids are used. (Canada) and shallow production wells in Michigan
(U.S.A.) are often drilled with cable tools. Economics
High-salinity drilling fluids also cause excessive prob- and formation properties are the primary factors that
lems for certain wireline measurements. The fluid is determine the drilling technique.
exceptionally conductive and the borehole signa! from
any logging device influenced by conductivity will be Air-drilled holes also limit logging capabilities. Induc-
severely affected. For this reason, induction devices are tion tools perform in the air-filled borehole, as do density,
not commonly used in salt-based drilling fluids. The lat- gamma ray, and neutron devices. Electrode resistivity,
erolog, a focused resistivity logging system, was specifi- SP, and acoustic measurements cannot be recorded. Side-
cally designed for use in salt-based muds. Short-circuit- wall neutron devices are preferred. Production from the
ing problems in the logging string can occur if ali connec- tight reservoirs is usually gas, and temperature surveys
tions in the wireline network are not well-insulated from are often a component of logging programs. Modifica-
the conductive fluid. Equipment that works satisfactorily tions to the air-drilling process are also attempted by
in a fresh-mud environment may fail in salt-mud condi- using foam agents or aerated muds.
tions because of the highly conductive borehole fluid.
More extensive maintenance and preparation programs Mud Additives of Concern to Wireline Logging
are necessary if successful operations are to be routinely
performed. From the well logging standpoint, salt-based KCI muds hamper the use of the Spectralog instrument,
logging conditions are generally considered to be those a logging device that differentiates the portions of potas-
where the resistivity of a water-based drilling fluid is <3.5 sium, thorium, and uranium products that constitute the
times as great as the formation fluid. The term super-sat- total gamma ray measurement. lf potassium is a constitu-
urated is often used when the drilling fluid resistivity is ent of the borehole fluid (e.g., KCI drilling fluid), even
much less than the resistivity of the formation water. with a well-circulated mud system, the potassium con-
centration vares with borehole size variations.
Potassium Chloride (KCI) Drilling Fluids
Weighting agents include galena, hematite, magnetite,
Muds containing potassium chloride (KCI) and a suitable ilmenite, barite, siderite, celestite, dolomite, calcite, syn-
polymer are often used to improve borehole stability. The thetic iron oxides, etc. Each of these materials is dense
potassium ion replaces the commonly used sodium or and, with the exception of perhaps dolomite and calcite,
calcium ions to inhibit clay swelling in the shales. Oil- has a severe effect on log responses that are susceptible
based muds sometime curtail formation evaluation to heavy minerals or iron minerals.
efforts, and KCI muds can be substituted for oil-based
muds if other circumstances perrnit. Sorne of the iron-bearing minerals are often used as hy-
drogen sulfide (H 2S) scavengers. H 2S is a very corrosive,
Air- or Gas-Drilled Boles dangerous, and deadly gas. Many species of bacteria exist
in water-base drilling fluids and contribute to corrosion by
In areas where air drilling occurs, the producing horizons forming patches of slime under which corrosion cells be-
are typically low-porosity, low-permeability reservoirs come well established. Specific species react with ca-
that often contain clays that swell badly when contacted thodic hydrogen and reduce sulfates in the drilling fluid to

- 19-
form H 2S. Degrading additives such as lignosulfonate can tools are suspended below the drill pipe to log the desired
resu lt in the bacteria adversely affecting the rheological intervals. Wireline tools are also conveyed by coiled
and filtration properties of the mud. Biocides are used to tubing into highly deviatcd boreholes.
control the problem, and c hlorin ated phenols a nd
paraformaldehydes appear to be the most suitable agents. LOG MEASUREMENT-WHILE-DRILLING
Unfortunately, formaldehyde has an ad verse affect o n (MWD)
propylene copolymer, which is used as conductor insula-
tion in many wireline logging cables. Serious problems MWD is an alternative to wireline logging in many cir-
with short circuiting often occur during logging jobs if the cumstances, especially offshore where rig costs are
formaldehyde reacts with the insulation. extremely high. Severa! measurements including gamma
ray, temperature, resistivity, dielectric, and neutron are
Directional Drilling available. Other MWD measurements that relate to reser-
voir characteristics are rate of penetration (ROP) and
A well is often drilled at sorne angle from vertical toward
weight on bit (WOB). MWD navigational measurements
a specific subsea horizon. Reasons for directing bore-
are critica! in directing deviated boreholes.
holes are numerous:
Not that long ago, wireline logging was typically per-
( l) Offshore wells are often drilled from a stationary
formed prior to casing any portion of the borehole.
platform to certain geographical coordinates and
Today, MWD Iogs are often recorded over long borehole
then g raduall y straightened to vertical to penetrate
intervals that will be cased with an intermediate pipe
the potentially productive horizons. Directional
string. lf no potentially productive intervals are realized
information becomes important to correct forma-
by the MWD devices, wireline measurements might not
tion tops and thicknesses to true vertical depth,
be recorded over that interval. When potential zones are
and/or true stratigraphic thickness.
spotted, however, wireline logging can still be performed
(2) Land wells are drilled directionally to avoid a drill- prior to running pipe. Although MWD logs provide basic
ing location in difficult terrain; e.g., swamps, data on bit direction, weight on bit, rate of penetration,
rugged mountains, under a lake or an urban area. temperature, etc., (Fig. 1-22), MWD data and analysis
or to avoid land-use constraints, such as environ- are becoming more sophisticated (Fig. 1-23). Density
mental damage to a sensitive environmental measurements are being recorded and acoustic measure-
reserve. Log data requirements are similar to those ments are in the planning stages.
for offshore needs.
It is not difficult to visualize the importance of dri lling
(3) Relief wells are drilled directionally to intersect methods and fluids to MWD applications. MWD
wells that have blown out and typically caught fire. personnel are more profoundly exposed to the aspects of
Once the relief well is within an effective radius of drilling than conventional wireline logging personnel and
the problem well, the hole is straightened to dril! can offer special insight and detail into the subjects dis-
into the reservoir. At that time, the proper materials cussed above.
will be injected from the relief wel l into the source
reservoir to "snuff out" the problem. Wireline log- MUO RETURN LOGS (MUO LOGS)
ging services become very important in directing
the relief well toward the problem well. Another specialty area in the petroleum services industry
(4) Sorne wells are gradually directed toward the hori- is mud logging. Data presentations vary considerably
zontal to take full advantage of the drainage pat- depending on contractor, cl ient, and the nature of the
terns in a reservoir; e.g., fractured reservoirs have measurements. A description of the rock cuttings is part
low matrix porosity. of the log and very useful. Certain minerals are often
identified under the microscope that provide clues to the
(5) Occasionally, wells drift away from vertical and environmental seuing of speci fi c reservoirs. Information
cither climb updip or follow steeply dipping beds; is usually provided on dril! penetration rates. A "hot-
i.e., geological conditions can control the direction wire" reading (gas detector) is always recorded, but can
of the bit. be misleading to those not well trained in mud log analy-
sis. Chromatograph readings are also recorded, almost
Special preparations and procedures are necessary to log always with C 1, C2, C 3 , and C4 measure ments. A C 5
highly deviated boreholes including types of centralizers, measurement is often available. A typical setup for mud
knuckle joints between makeup portions of the tool log apparatus to detect "hot wire" and chromatograph
string, and occasionally special weights. Pipe-conveyed readings is shown (Fig. 1-24) with a mud log presenta-
logging methods are also employed in which the logging tion (Fig. 1-25).

-20-
-,,

GR Oepth ROP GRAV1MAG


0 ____________ 150 H0+H+H-+H-+H-+H>+1-+-00H.-9_ _ _ _ ___,1.1

MWOGR2
' Bell Nipple
Shale
Shaker

,-J-

Mud Tank

Sample Cup

Cuttings - Mud Separator


{Elutriator)

Discharge Stack

Clear Acrylic
Plastic Tube

Transition
Pinch Valve

SampleCup

Side View Front View


Fig. 1-22 - MWD presentation of navigational measurements

Fig. 1-24 - Setup scenario for "hot wire" and chromatograph


measurements
0M CAtWtA U,Y
.2 ____ ---------- ltltCO - - - - - - - -
ntoJun USUTl\l'lTY
_____ 2ooc
Ignorance of the acqu1s1t1on system and interpretative
.2 2~(
SHALLOV FOCU$ t0 LOC
200(
methods causes many oil industry personnel to downplay
200C
mud log data, but when understood and interpreted prop-
:j. ~
-- -
erly, mud logs offer a variety of informative data. Many
g e=.-. _.;_;,; - workers in the oil industry were first employed by mud
log contractors.
t=L.t:::.
~ ...
'" ROLE OF GEOPHYSICS ANO PETROLEUM
= . . . ....,._
GEOLOGY

,- Site selection for drilling a well involves considerable


~ .... ... geological study and commences long before a logging

..:::-:.
1-=
i - --~
E~
f-
--.....-;-,

;~-
program is even considered. Situations vary consider-
ably, depending on geographical locale and economics.

g
Exploration wells, confirmation wells, development
~t
wells, injection wells, water supply wells, disposal wells,
IJ and exploratory holes for underground mining ali
~
-+-
-.t:. i-,-
E=_' require unique geological considerations. Decision-tree
analysis and associated risk factors play a significant role
in selecting frontier ventures, offshore concessions,
Fig. 1-23 - Comparison of MWD and wireline data leases, partnership ventures, governmental exploration

- 21 -
D111ona,:r-a,:1an Nll

1
n
e

-...
~
Sca111 1 : 1200
...,... . es .,..:
J,..
-
.. z

-.. ..
~
~

o :z ,.. o 2 a
ll
o ... ,- Jiten . . . ~
::
,t,,,,.. = :: i,.. u,uc
;
o o
o
~
~ o

~
.
o oo .
CI
o
j
o

o "
o 0 , HC lt -
.,, rne ,cz. tr
,,. U' 111, "

so.a
...
IN vt tlll
,, 7. ~ u
CI.- ~ UI
"" 111 ,.,.

- ff, .,t. Dlt-111'1. _., latl',


al cal. U' .,,.. ,,. , . , . _

I1111 C:H 1 - ...


L&Mo,,,-u.a ft

390 1 cat 1.111 nra


ta 11.1D / . lOO~a
JOOO Da& , / 1ft
TS as 1
- tt-.. .,. eltY. au,y, auy
l at,.. al cal.tr .,,.

ID: si--. '"" ,.t.-


Ytt lV-. \Ulaene.cr . .1
fle tlar. ne cut

- l t - C H , llltY... 111.Y, aCftY


letr. al cal.
ti' .,,.
t t ,~-.

,.,

Fig. 1-25 -A mud log example (courtesy of EXLOG, lnc.)

-22-
,,

Fig. 1-26 - Satellite reconnaissance photo

requirements, etc. Land locations can also be diverse, Magnetometer data often encompass large areas and pro-
depending on locale. Both environmental and political vide magnetic maps of very remote regions (Fig. 1-28).
climate are factors, as is ownership of surface and sub- These technologies have their own unique niche in the
surface rights. An oil company manager is responsible exploratory business, but are generally used as a starting
for the ultimate technical and economical decision. point in the search for hydrocarbon entrapments. Positive
indications from the satellite imagery and aerial survey
Remote Frontier Wildcats disciplines lead to more detailed surface geophysics and
geology work.
In frontier regions of the world, the fi rst data used to
target potentiaJ reserves are often acquired from satellite The acquisition and interpretation of surface seismic is
information (Fig. 1-26). Satellite reconnaissance is of the most common surface geophysical method, but grav-
such gigantic scope that it generally delineares a sedi- ity and magnetic surveys also provide important informa-
mentary basin and targets a geographical area for more tion about the subsurface (Fig. 1-29). Field geologists
detailed work. investigate surface exposures of the basin sediments
around the rim of the basin to determine the general geol-
Aerial surveys are an important reconnaissance vehicle ogy, including stratigraphy, sedimentation, paleontology,
in most areas of the world. Sensitive, total intensity data tectonic attributes, etc. Ali of the gathered data is then
are acquired by using a highl y sensitive vertical gradiom- studied, often for a considerable length of time, prior to
eter and by towing two optically pumped cesium vapor selection of the first drill site, but most of the carly char-
magnetometers that are suspended from one another by a acterization of a reservoir revolves around seismic inter-
considerable vertical distance. Digital recordings make it pretation (Fig. 1-30). Additional seismic data are occa-
possible to detect and define subtle magnetic changes, sionally recommended fol lowing the initial study.
and the gradiometer information assists in defining weak
anomalies that may be caused by small but dense shallow Conventional Exploration
sources or deep basement rocks. Accurate geographical
location of the survey measurements is essential, and a An exploration or wildcat well can be described as any
variety of navigational systems are employed to control well that is drilled into a newly described structure or
location accuracy. Radar imagery is particularly effective stratigraphic trap, including deeper targets in well-devel-
in locating subtle, extensive linear features that are often oped fields. In a sense, wildcat wells are simply high-risk
overlooked on conventional geological maps (Fig. 1-27). ventures; i.e., wells drilled on speculatio n that oil or ga

- 23-
Microwaves

f? 11
~,vy,,v,NV'~N',N',I\

?40 ~

~-
,., ~,.,,;

lnterference Radar Fig. 1-28 -Aerial surveys also implement magnetometer data.
Signal Hologram

projected limits of the reservoir as determined from geo-


logical and geophysical studies. Data acquired from the
discovery well and any dry exploratory holes previously
Fig. 1-27 - Radar imagery is effective from aerial surveys. drilled are studied extensively to recalibrate previous
geological and geophysical work and improve the risks
will be found in a certain location. Conventional wildcats of appraisal wells. Property or concession rights are also
are not nearly as expensive as the frontier ventures, but a prerequisite to determining offset well locations.
nevertheless carry a high-risk factor for success. As an
example, a well drilled in the Norton basin of Alaska
would be considered a remote frontier wildcat, while an lf a discovery is made by Company A, and their geology
exploration well in the Permian Basin of west Texas data lead them to believe the reservoir extends under
would be considered more conventional. Costs to drill Company B's property holdings, sorne type of deal is
either well would differ considerably. Seismic data, usually made prior to drilling a confirmation well in that
sometimes additional seismic including severa] new lines extension of the reservoir. In geographical locales where
and/or 3-D work (Fig. 1-3 l ), are typically acquired and many independent oil operators domnate drilling
interpreted prior to drilling a well that is of high eco- activity, Company B might drill the said well without a
nomic risk. deal. In any case, where equity considerations are split
between two or more oil companies, a legal settlement on
Appraisal or Confirmation Wells the split is eventually agreed on by ali parties, either by
agreement between the parties oran independent arbitra-
Once a discovery is made, oil operators usually attempt tor. Eventually, one company often becomes the unit
to define the reservoir limits by drilling wells near the operator.

-24-
Total-intensity magnetic contour map Water depth contour map

Bouguer gravity contour map Geophysical interpretation map

Fig. 1-29 - Surface gravity and magnetic surveys can provide importan! information about the subsurface.

- 25 -
minimum spacing between wells in particular reservoirs;
West East a 660-ft (200-m) offset is a common well spacing in
o.o sorne areas of the United States.

Production geologists play a large roll in planning infill-


drilling operations. Their work is typically devoted to
structure maps, isopachs of formation thickness, isopo-
rosity maps, numerous cross sections, fence diagrams,
etc. A production geologist may devote severa! years to
the same reservoir and become a leading geological
expert on particular formations found in specific fields.

Further surface geophysical work seldom occurs at this


stage because the expense does not justify the additional
information. When the unexpected happens on a devel-
opment well, additional surface seismic data are often
requested to help resolve the lateral geological
Fig. 1-30 - Horst-graben structure identified by surface seismic. peculiarities that led to the unexpected. However, in
many situations, dipmeter, borehole imaging, and/or
borehole seisrnic data resolve the problem effectively.

Injection Wells

During the development and life of a producing oil reser-


voir, injection wells are often drilled. In field~ that have a
gas drive mechanism forcing the oil into producing well
bores, pressure depletion can become a severe problem
early in the life of the field. Reservoir managers make
effective use of the produced gas by reinjecting for pres-
sure maintenance (Fig. 1-32).

In reservoirs with a strong water drive, a waterflood oper-


ation is often implemented as oil production declines.
The purpose is to force much of the remaining oil into the
producing wells. Different well patterns are designed to
meet the needs and conditions of the flood (Fig. 1-33).

Tertiary floods involve the injection of rnicellar, polymer,


C02, or other materials to remove as much of the remain-
ing oil as possible (Fig. 1-34). Injection wells of ali types
must be planned and located properly to take full
advantage of the drai nage patterns of a reservoir. If the
Vertical Slicing Time Slicing injection wells are not spotted properly, effective drain-
3-D Seismic Capabilities age will not occur because the driving force is not
directed properly. Many of the petrophysical attributes of
Fig. 1-31 - 3-D seismic increases subsurface mapping the reservoir must be examined carefully to take full
capabilities. advantage of injection wells in any type of enhanced
recovery operation.

Development Wells Relief Wells

Infill-development drilling is meant to provide drainage As discussed earlier, directional holes are often drilled
of the entire reservoir, extracting the hydrocarbons and toward a well that has blown out and perhaps caught fire,
bring them to the surface where they are gathered in a penetrating the reservoir within a tolerable radius of the
collection system and transported elsewhere for refining problem well. Then, materials designed to squelch the
and marketing. Government agencies often require a fire are injected into the reservoir by way of the relief

-26-
-,,

Gas Cap Expands during


Production

11 you consider each oil well as the center of a square, there


is a water well at each comer of the square. The water, torced
Top view of gas cap drive reservoir down and into the producing sand, carries oil with it from
each point of injection toward the oil well , thus flushing the
reservoir. Pumps lift water and oil for separation on the surface.
Gas Cap Expands during Production
Fig. 1-33 - "Five spot" waterflood
Gas

011 for successful drilling of relief wells. Other wireline mea-


suring systems are used to determine when the relief well
is within a certain radius of the problem well.

Waste-Disposal Wells

Another type of injection well is one used for disposing


Side view of gas cap drive reservoir of unwanted materials. In many oil fields, it may simply
be disposal of produced salt water. The geologist sug-
gests a porous, permeable saltwater-bearing formation as
the vessel for disposing of the unwanted water. Locating
such a formation from log data requires an ability to dis-
tinguish saltwater reservoirs from brackish water reser-
voirs and freshwater reservoirs. Freshwater reservoirs are
of particular concern because they may currently, or in
the future, be a source of water supply for human con-
sumption and other needs, and must not be contaminated
with brine.

Other types of waste are also disposed of in wells. Chem-


Side view of reinjection of gas to maintain pressure ical companies often dispose of their waste in this
manner. Nuclear waste can be legally disposed of in this
way in sorne countries. Unwanted byproducts of many
Fig. 1-32 - Reinjection of gas maintains pressure. industries are often dispersed in underground formations,
including byproducts from the steel industry and from
automobi le manufacturers and their subcontractors. Well
log data are virtually always used to identify the porous,
well. The Bay of Campeche well disaster off the Mexican permeable saltwater horizons that are used for disposal
coastline in 1980 burned for severa! weeks until two purposes. Government agencies often require that pota-
relief wells were drilled into the reservoir near the prob- ble water supplies in such wells be identified and pro-
lem well. Both relief wells were logged almost daily as tected from pollution. Data from pipe and cement evalua-
they approached the targeted well and reservoir. Naviga- tion services play an important role in the maintenance of
tional guidance systems and devices are very necessary these types of wells.

-27-
lnjection Separation
co 2 Pipeline Well Production and Storage
Water
Well Facilities To
Pump
Refinery

Miscible Zone

Oil
Banks
Stabilized
by
Gravity

Fig. 1-34 - Enhanced recovery operations are designed to force the remaining oil into producing wells.

Wells Used for Mining Exploration Depleted hydrocarbon-producing reservoirs are utilized
for storage in sorne areas, while salt-water aquifers are
Underground rnining for coal, uraniurn, luorite, trona, used in other locales. Dry gas is injected into porous, per-
and other rare rninerals often uses boreholes to confirrn meable reservoir rock and withdrawn as needed. The
the lirnits and direction of their underground veins. Well injection cycle is typically frorn about April until late
log data are often used to recognize the depth and October. Withdrawal cycles begin with cold weather
thickness of the ore, and subsequently correlate to the ore usage about the end of October and last until spri ng.
zones identified on similar log data frorn nearby wells. Liquid gas is often stored in subsurface caverns.
More accurate rnaps of the ore distribution result, adding Leached-out salt cavities are used in rnany areas, such as
to both the technical and econornic efficiency of the the U. S. gulf coast, Michigan basin, northern Gerrnany,
rnining operation. and Holland. Wireline log data are used to characterize
storage reservoirs as well as petroleum-producing reser-
Core data often play a major role for rnining work, but voirs. The cased wel ls are periodically monitored for gas
econornic considerations limit the use of coring. Many inventory purposes. Well rnaintenance also includes the
types of data are irnportant to the rnining engineer, use of corrosion logs to monitor the condition of tubular
including ash content of coal, potential water problerns, goods throughout the life of storage wells.
assay quality of uraniurn ore, and the strength of overbur-
den rock. Delineation of the deposits is very irnportant. Water Supply Wells
Log analysis can provide rnany of these indices if the
nece sary rneasurernents are rnade and calibrated to
available core data. Many wells are used to supply water. In frontier areas, a
shallow water supply well is often drilled to provide
Wells Used for Underground Storage of Gas water for use in drilling a deeper wildcat well. Potable
water supplies are often needed for personnel.
Gas in both the dry and liquid forrn are stored under-
ground in rnany areas of the world. These hydrocarbons In rnany areas, freshwater supplies are provided for
are transponed by ship or pipeline frorn producing fields industrial and dornestic use. This includes irrigation for
to large industrial and metropolitan areas for industrial or farrn ing, water for srnelters, milis, and various other
consurner use. It is rnuch safer to store the gas under- users. Much of the potable water supply in the Houston
ground, and usually more econornical in the long terrn. (U.S.A.) area comes frorn shallow water supply wells.

- 28 -
,..

- Wells Drilled for Geothermal Energy trap might be structural , stratigraphic, or a combination
(Fig. 1-35).
In severa! areas of the world, energy is provided from
geothermal methods; extreme heat creates energy. Well
Structural traps include anticlines, faults, and domes.
log data are also used to evaluate many aspects of the
Stratigraphic traps can be formed by lateral lithology
geothermal reservoir. Unusually high temperatures are
variations; e.g., unconformities, lateral or updip pinch-
encountered in gcothermal wells, and hostile logging
outs, or fractured limestone stringers within impermeable
equipment is almost always required. Hostile conditions
shales.
generally require tools that can perform above 400F
(204 C), and many situations require tools rated for
SOO F (260 C) or more. Igneous or metamorphic rocks Structural Geology
are usually the source rocks for thermal energy and
require a completely different set of rules for log Folding, faulting, unconformities, salt intrusions, and
applications. other tectonic-controlled events generally occur follow-
ing the deposition and burial of reservoir rocks. These
GEOLOGICAL TRAPS structural events tend lo warp or distort the original ori-
entation and habitat of the reservoir, often separating por-
Petroleum reservoirs must have sufficient economic tions of rock strata that were originally connected.
potential to justify investing large sums of money, Diagenesis, changes in the rock and mineral structure,
people, and equipment to produce that hydrocarbon. can occur more than once after burial. Bedding features
Petroleum accumulations occur where an organically are often destroyed. Different connate water may replace
rich source rock, a porous and permeable reservoir rock, ali or part of the original waters that occupied pore space,
and a sealing mechanism are found. Geologically, the and pore space may be altered or destroyed.

Facies Change
==========--
<::::::::.:::~============-

Salt Dome

Gas Cap

Sill, Laccolith

Reef
. - oike

Fig. 1-35 - Mosaic of different geologic trap mechanisms

-29-
Major changes in climate can affect rocks at or near the (3) Comparisons of porosity estimates from well to
surface. When major geotectonic events occur, buried well
rocks may be exposed to the surface (atmosphere or sea
waters) where they can be eroded, reworked, altered, or
(4) Comparisons of saturations, oil-water contacts,
transported elsewhere. Studying and resolving the events
gas-oil contacts, and gas-water contacts from well
that have affected subsurface reservoirs is the responsi-
to well
bility of the geologist, and core, logs, and seismic data
are among his most important tools. Certain types of log
data are used to help the geologist compare borehole (5) Comparison of wireline-derived pressure gradients
information to surface data, and in sorne cases, to recali- from one well to other wells
brate the surface data. Geologists use log data in the fol-
lowing ways: (6) Comparison of synthetic seismograms derived
from log data to surface seismic data
( 1) Well-to-well correlations of the base correlation
Iog in the penetrated strata: e.g., induction logs
(Fig. 1-36) (7) Comparison of wireline depth-controlled velocity
check-shot data to surface seismic data
(2) Correlations of the apparent thickness, true vertical
thickness, or true formation thickness from well to (8) Utilizing wireline dip data to locate, define, and
well to determine directions of thickening or thin- orient structural features and compare them to sur-
ning (Fig. 1-36) face seismic data

WELL 1 WELL 2 WELL 3

A-----195911- -- ---A ---------- --3260 ft--- --- -----


N40E - N40E -

Datum

Fig. 1-36 - Well-to-well correlations of log data are used to describe subsurface geological scenarios.

- 30-
,.

,,
Stratigraphy and Sedimentology Clastic Rocks

Usually, specialized geologists become involved in reser- Rock fragments (detrital material) that have been eroded,
voir evaluation after a discovery has been made. The first perhaps reworked, and transported to the eventual
full core is usually recovered from one or more of the depositional site and then buried, subjected to diagenesis,
early confirmation wells. It is important that certain res- folding, faulting, and numerous other events are called
ervoir properties be recognized and defined from the rock clastics. In the petroleum industry, sands and sandstones
record. This provides a chance to compare available logs are generally called clastic material. Sand deposits occur
to core description, thereby "calibrating the logs" to rec- on continents, at coastlines, and beneath the water. The
ognize geological events in we ll s when no core is avail- nature of sedimentation for the numerous depositional
able (Fig. 1-37). Detailed descriptions of the rock, its environments is diverse and often complex (Fig. l-38).
constituent minerals, porosity, porosity type and varia- Many specialty areas of geology are directed toward
tions, permeability, saturation data, and many special defining clastic reservoir models to eventually reach an
properties can be obtained from the actual rock in labora- accurate geological description of producing reservoirs.
tory conditions. These special data are used to help
reconstruct the morphology of the reservoir, suggest the Clays, silts, and sand-size grains make up the majority of
scenario of events that occurred since sediment was orig-. rock fragments in clastic petroleum reservoirs; however,
inally deposited, and identify any subsequent diagenesis. larger rocks in the form of conglomerates, pebbles, grav-
Depositional environment can be inferred from recogni- els, and breccias are often found. Minerals of the mica,
tion of many of these descriptions. clay, feldspar, and iron groups are found in different envi-

1
(9369")

1----"
SP'..,_
. ;;.;;MleLL
;.:::.:
IVc.:::
O:::. S'---_-J, LITH - 1
L Tc.::: RESISTIVITY, OHM-M
SCALE -, 20 .- . OLOGY_
2
(9383')
..
)
8" NORMAL ~ -
60 ---++----;h"'-+- 1 3
(9387)

4
(9395)

5
(9403')

6
(9408')

7
(941 2")

8
(9431")

CONGLOMERA TE CONGLOMERATIC SANOSTONE SILTSTONE SHALE


SANDSTONE

M ED IAN GRAIN SIZE


o 2 ,n
VERY COARSE MEDIUM VERY FINE 1 1
COARSE FINE
FUSULINIDS

Fig. 1-37- Log data are often "calibrated" to core data to recognize geological events from logs in other wells (courtesy of the Society of
Petroleum Engineers).

- 31-
ronments, and in sorne cases, metamorphic or igneous
debris is found intermixed with clastic material. Grain
size, shape, orientation, composition, packing, cement
distribution, and nature of fluid content in the pore
system are ali used to describe the rock character.

Grain size and sorting affect texture to a large degree


(Fig. 1-39). Grain shape is a function of the environmen-
tal energy that transported, reworked, and deposited the
grain. Grains near their source area tend to be very angu-
lar, while grains that have been transported sorne distance
and possibly been reworked severa) times tend to be
more rounded. Moderate-to-high energy environments
tend to be well sorted; low-energy environments usually
have poor sorting.

Source area, transport mechanism, climate, and other


environmenta l considerations affect composition. Sand-
stones are usually composed of quartz, but many sand-
Fig. 1-38 - Generalized schematic of sedimentary clastic stones contain igneous or metamorphic rock fragments.
environments
carbonate grains, or feldspar minerals. Severa) minerals

Sortin_g Grain Shape

VeryWell

Angular: having sharp corners and edges
and therefore showing little or no effects
of abrasion or wear.


Well
O Oo
QO

Subangular: having edges and corners
slightly rounded, so that wear is evident.
o
ao

Moderately

a; 0a
Subround: having most of the corners and
edges worn down to smooth curves, thus
showing extensive abrasion.
G(]C J
e:::=)

o
Poorly
20
()

0 Cl
C)
Round: having ali edges and corners
smoothed off to gentle curves by prolonged


C)
wear.

Fig. 1-39 - Rock texture is affected by grain size and sorting.



-32-
,,
occasionally serve as cementing material such as silica Brown (West Virginia) shales have also produced hydro-
and calcite. High concentrations of other cementing mate- carbons.
rial are definite clues to the depositional environment.
Sand-size particles (0.0625 mm to 2.0 mm) form the
Shale is rock composed mostly of clay minerals, quartz overwhelming majority of clastic petroleum reservoirs.
silts, occasional feldspar, and possibly as much as 20% Grain size, shape, sorting, and energy leve! at the time of
organic matter. The term shale is an often abused term, deposition determine how the grains are arranged or
but is basically determined by grain size and chemical packed together, and this affects porosity and permeabil-
makeup. Carbonate equivalents of shale-size particles ity distribution throughout the rock (Fig. 1-40). Gener-
include micrites and sorne marls, but differ chemically ally, fine-grained sands with poorly sorted grains demon-
from shale. Clay minerals are the finest grain size classi- strate lower porosity than sands with coarse, well-sorted
fication and are mostly hydrous aluminum silicates, but grains. Angular grains tend to fil together and develop a
magnesium and/or iron often substitute for aluminum, more intimate grain-to-grain contact. Poorly sorted sands
and aluminum may substitute for silica within the clay usually exhibit small grains intermixed with the larger
structure. Although clays virtually always consist of iso- grains so that packing is independent of absolute grain
lated, noneffective pores, they contain a significant size. Theoretically, well-sorted grains of the same size
amount of bound water in the pores. Noneffective poros- will have similar porosity; however, sediments which
ity values as high as 40% to 50% are common. Particular range from silt to very fi ne-grained sand often have low
types of clay can cause severe producibility problems porosity because smaller grains have lower sphericity
when they are mixed with reservoir rocks. Sorne clays and form small pores that can be cemented easily. The
swell when contacted with water, which results in degree of sorting and average grain size are intimately
damage or destruction of effective porosity and perme- related to the energy leve! during the time of deposition
ability. Sorne clays produce mobile fines that can eventu- and the process that caused the deposit.
ally plug pore tunnels; others precipitate minerals that
Compaction and cementation occur after deposition and
cause problems. Choice of drilling fluid (pH consider-
lead to lower porosity. Shales suffer the greatest degree
ations and use of KCI or oil-based drilling fluids) and
of compaction and expulse fluids from the interstitial
completion fluid (acetic acids, iron chelating agents,
layers. Expulsion of such fluids by compaction and
CaF2 acids, HF acids , HCI acids, surfactants, polymers,
increased temperature is the likely mechanism for pri-
etc.) becomes important.
mary petroleum migration from source rock to porous,
Shales are said to comprise more than half of the sedi- permeable reservoir-quality rock. Compaction in sand
mentary record. Much of the shale is deposited in a near- and larger size debris is less significant. Sands wi ll com-
shore marine environment along the continental margins. pact no more than about 10% to 15% with increased
Shales, the colors of which might be yellow, brown, red, overburden pressure, and this compaction is caused
green, gray, or black, are also deposited as deep marine mostly by rearrangement of grains (grain slippage and
muds, in river systems, and in lake environments. Yellow rotation) (Fig. 1-41 ). When pressure is greatly increased
and brown shales have low iron and low organic content; in combination with a temperature increase, pressure
red and green shales have high iron content but low solution tends to occur at stress points.
organic content; gray to black shales owe their colora- Porosity reduction in clastics is caused primarily by
tion mostly to organic carbon content. Although shales cementation and crystallization of certain minerals in
typically have virtually no effective poros ity and very pore space (Fig. 1-42). Clean sands and carbonates are
little to no permeability, brittle zones are occasionally relativcly stable, but clays in pore tunnels react physi-
fractured, and when this occurs in organic-rich shales, cally and chemically to fluids - natural percolating fluids,
gas or oil is sometimes produced. drilling fluids, or completion fluids - and reduce perme-
ability. The type of clay mineral lining the pores can seri-
The Woodford shale of Oklahoma and west Texas is a
ously inhibit permeability (Fig. 1-43).
black organic-rich shale containing dark pyritic chert,
siliceous shale, and sorne si ltstone. It is the correlative The formation of mud filter cake on the borehole wall is
equivalen! of the Bakken shale in the Williston Basin, the very desirable because the mud cake effectively prohibits
Chattanooga, Antrim, New Albany, and Brown shales of filtrate particle invasion. Particles that manage to invade
the northeast United States, ali of which are highly the formation with fil trate (Fig. 1-44) en ter pore-throat
organic dark-colored shales. Horizontal drilling has constrictions and begin to trap and bind other particles
become advantageous for locating and producing frac- until the pore tunnel is bridged (Fig. 1-45). If water-sen-
tured reservoirs, and the Bakken shale is being drilled sitive authigenic clays occupy the pore system, invasion
with horizontal or highly deviated wells today because of freshwater mud filtrate causes swelling and movement
the shale produces through a system of fissures and frac- of the clay, which blocks pores and seriously impairs
tures. Shallow depth wells in the Antrim (Michigan) and effective permeability (Fig. 1-46).

-33-
C)loo 2000 md
Horiz Perm
~ ~\ ~
f ~
~\~
~~~J
2000md
Horiz Perm ~ ,t ~
1500 md Vert Perm
800 md Vert Perm
Large Rounded Grains Large Flat Grains

150 md
Horiz Perm

Horiz Perm

50 md Vert Perm
15 md Vert Perm

Very Small Angular Grains Small Flat Grains

Fig. 1-40 - Permeability and porosity distribution are affected by the size, shape, and sorting of grains, and depositional energy.


00

Rotation and Closer Packing of Platy (left) and Deformation of Breakage of Brittle Grains
88
Pressure Solution
Nonplaty (right) Grains Ductile Grains at Grain Contacts

Fig. 1-41 - Changes in texture and fabric associated with various compaction mechanisms (modified alter Janes and McBride, 1971)

-34-
,..---

--,
@ 2,000

1,000
Areas Marked Represen!
the Main Concentrations
of Points I
/,,
,,
,,.,.
.,.,
_... \

I
1
1
I

/ I
Cubic Packing Orthorhornbic Packing I I
/ I
/ I
/ I
/ I
/ I
100 / I
I I
Kaolinite
I ,'
Cernented ,' ,
Well ---,;' ,'
Cubic Packing Orthorhornbic Packing /
I
I
I

Rotated 45 / I
Rotated 30 I I
/ I
I I
I I
I I
I I
Orthorhornbic I /
I ,
22 I ,
I ,
20 I
I
,,
/

18 I /
I ,
I /
16 I /
I /
I 1
14 1 /
;g-
~ 12
e
~ 10
Orthorhornbic
\
Cubic-Vertical
1
1
\ , ____ ... ,/
1

~ 8 2 Directions
of Pressure
6
4
2
ol_L....11!!:E:::::::t=::::r::_L_L_L_L_L_ L_L_L_J 0.1 '----'-----'-- - - ' - ----'----'-- -..,___ _,
O 4 8 12 16 20 24 28
O 2 4 6 8 1O 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26
Porosity Loss Dueto Solution (%) Porosity, (% Bulk Volurne)

Fig. 1-42 - Loss of porosity by solution versus that lost by Fig. 1-43 - Effect of the clay-rnineral cernen! type on
precipitation of cernen! far spheres in difieren! packing and perrneability of porous Rotliegendes sandstones on the North
orientations Sea (rnodified alter Stalder, Geologic en Mijnbouw, 1973)

Q)
oI

Fig. 1-45 - A downhole view of particle invasion dernonstrates


Fig. 1-44 - Pare bridging (rnodified alter Darley, 1975) how initial flushing can clog pare throats.

- 35-
11

Abundance of Production by
Rock Types Rock Type
Fines Bridged at
Pore Restriction
60%
--
37%
42% -
37%
-- - f-

wDD D
f-

--- -
=
3% f-

- -

Carbonates Shale Miscellaneous Carbonates


Sandstone Sandstone

Fig. 1-47 - Comparison of rock type population to rock type


production

Fig. 1-46 - Mobile fines can severely deter production into the U.S. gulf coast, northern Germany, and Iran. Evaporitic
wellbore. gypsum and anhydrite are common sulfate deposits, but
gypsum is usually altered to anhydrite following burial.
Evaporites are easily distinguished marker beds, and
Clastic environmental criteria are usually considered their log responses often require that a "porosity-sensi-
more simple to understand than carbonates, but shaly- tive" log be used for correlation purposes (Fig. 1-48).
sand reservoirs are often more difficult to analyze from
log data than carbonates. Numerous methods for inter- Phosphate rocks occur in sorne complex mixtures that
preting logs in shaly-sand reservoirs have been sug-
typically include carbonates and clastics. Their high
gested, and those that have been implemented and are of organic content is thought to be source rock for severa!
interest will be discussed later.
major oil fields.

Carbonate Rocks
Chert is a siliceous rock that is generally not porous or
Produced by precipitation of organic tissues and subse- permeable unless fractured, but exceptions do occur. The
quent organic derivatives beneath the surface of a body Mississippian chert zone in south central Kansas and
of water, sorne carbonate rocks are occasionally exposed northern Oklahoma is a weathered chert that occasionally
to the atmosphere where drastic changes in rock proper- has more than 30% porosity, with fractures increasing
ties occur. Sorne carbonates occur in lakes or similar con- permeability. Chert has been formed in deep marine
tinental environs, but virtually ali econornic carbonate .basins from the remains of si liceous, marine micro-
reservoirs were formed in marine environments. A mys- organisms, but more commonly occurs as a replacement
tique has endured with carbonate reservoirs. Today, more for shale and limestones. Diatomaceous earth or diatoms
than half of the world's ol production comes from car- provide important producing horizons in California.
bonate rocks, and approximately 40% of the oil produced Thin-walled unicellular siliceous micro-organisms with
in the history of the petroleum industry has come from varying amounts of shale make up the material. Porosi-
carbonate reservoirs; yet carbonates comprise only about ties from 25% to 65% are not unusual, but permeability is
20% of the world's sediments (Fig. 1-47). Many of the extremely low.
statements directed to carbonate reservoir geology and
log analysis are unfortunately misguided and usually Physical compaction is not usually significant in carbon-
originate from ill-informed sources. ate rocks. Since the rocks are cemented quickly during
and after deposition, porosity reduction is due mostly to
Evaporite sequences occur in basins that have restricted continued cement growth in the pore space. Secondary
circulation. Halite salt (NaCI) beds as thick as 3,000 ft porosity is developed following original deposition, com-
(> 900 m) are found in the subsurface. Polyhalite, sylvite, paction, and cementation and includes fracture porosity,
and other salts occur in smaller volumes. Salt intrusions solution porosity, and pore space created by matrix
in the form of domes occur in severa( locales such as the shrinkage during dolomitization (Fig. 1-49).

- 36-
,..

WELLB WELLA 61
t

Salt
D&A GR

-4100
Carbonate

-4200

Evaporite

-4300 -4300

Fig. 1-48 - Acoustic t.t and gamma ray used for well-to-well correlation (after Bigelow, 1973)

Carbonate rocks are complex in a sense, but in many


ways are more simple to evaluate than clastics. The rock
itself is usually a mixture of no more than two types.
Mineraliza tion is typically not as complex as with clas-
tics. Shaliness does not usually presenta problem within
reservoir-quality rock. Complexity is usually sequential
but predictable geologically in both vertical and lateral
directions. When the environment, subenvironment, or
facies are defined and distinguish able from one another,
log analysis can be accurate and efficient.

Carbonate depositional environments include subenvir-


onments and often various facies changes that for the
Fig. 1-49- A type of solution porosity in carbonates most part are the cause of their description as complex.

-37-
Borehole conditions for wireline logging are usually
better in carbonates because the rocks are typically more
Short Upper Sub
competent; i.e., the borehole is in gauge. Log responses
are not usually affected seriously by hole conditions, but Drop Ball Valve:
very high resistivities and a wide range of resistivity and l e ~ -- Body
,.,,___..,,..-__ Ball
porosity values are not unusual. Selection of the proper
logs to define the reservoir properties is essential.

CORING

Rock can be recovered during the drill ing process or by


wireline recovery methods. In addition to the circulated
well cuttings, a core barre] and core bit can be added to Working Barrel
the drill string to obtain a full core. Severa! wireline
coring methods have been utilized, but two methods are lnner Barrel
currently marketed.
Lower Section
Conventional Core Recovery
Upper Catcher

Obtaining a full core requires circulating the hole until


clean, then tripping the drill pipe out of the hole, attach-
ing the core barrel and the special core bit, tripping back
Fig. 1-50 - Rotary core barrel (from PennWell Publishing
to bottom, and then slowly recoveri ng the next few feet
Company)
(meters) of rock within the core barrel while drilling
(Fig. J-50). Once the coring operation is completed, pipe
is pulled once again, and the core is retrieved. One of the
well-site geologist's duties is to see that the core is boxed
and labeled correctly for depth, right side up, perhaps for
orientation, and to provide a "quick and dirty" optical
description of porosity, permeability, and saturation. lf a
pressured core is obtained, proper steps must be taken to
preserve the in-si tu state of the recovered core for trans-
port to the laboratory. In the meantime, the drilling crew
is probably tripping back into the hole to continue the
drilling operation. The renta) of the core barre], use of a
special core bit, and the ensuing rig time bears the brunt
of the acquisition cost. This type of core recovery has
been che standard for obtaining a rock record that can be
analyzed in detail, and it is still considered "the corner-
stone of petrophysics."

Wireline Mechanical Coring

Wireline coring has been available in sorne form for


nearly 50 years, but traditional percussion sidewall
coring has not provided acceptable recovery in the harder
carbonate reservoirs (Fig. 1-5 1). Today, mechanical
coring tools are capable of drilling into the borehole wall
and retrieving a core similar in size to the plugs taken
from full core in the laboratory, but the tools have tem- Fig. 1-51 - Percussion Corgun for sampling the borehole wall
perature limits and are time-consuming and expensive to
operate (Fig. 1-52). Plugs obtained by wireline mechani-
cal coring tools can be analyzed with the same degree of saturation, but perrneability and saturation values are typ-
confidence as full-core plugs. Percussion-type cores are ically suspect. Rotary coring is usually targeted for hard-
generally analyzed only for porosity, permeability, sorne rock formations, whereas percussion coring is employed
rock and mineral observation, and observations of more for soft-rock acquisition.

-38 -
Core Extrae!
Field Break Joinl
Ol Reservoir
Electronics Pressure Comp.
\
,--- -- -- --
1
-------- - ,---- ----, ,----- - --- ---------,
I 1 11 1
~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - __ J I_________ I I __ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

4 ft 9 ft
4.38 in. 0D 4.50 in. 0D
100 lb 250Ib

... 1823 EA

9 ft
... 1823 PA

13 ft
... 1823 MA

10 ft
...
3.63 in. 0D 350Ib 250Ib
150Ib

32 ft
750Ib

Fig. 1-52 - Schematic drawing of a rotary coring tool and comparisons/examples of full-core plugs and rotary core plugs

- 39-
Core Analysis more emphasis when the rock record is not available.
Log data must be closely tied to core data at sorne point if
Occasionally, a "whole core analysis" is performed in the electrofacies fingerprints are to be accepted as legitimate.
Iaboratory. This means a specific length of the full core
diameter is used for analytical purposes (Fig. 1-53). The state of and preparation of core data are important to
More often, plugs are taken from selected intervals of the the ability to analyze the rock. Confidence in lab results
full core for analysis (Fig. 1-53). varies depending on the methods employed to analyze
the rock. Terms such as steady state, restored state, in-situ
Conventional cores are routinely analyzed for porosity,
pressure, etc. are commonplace, while core preparation
fluid saturations, and permeability, but different measur-
might vary from mercury injection to water or kerosene
ing methods can lead to different results. Lab inspections
injection. Also, there are a number of methods available
of full-core data can involve optical observations, con-
for measuring porosity and permeability.
trolled measurements, thin-sections, petrographic analy-
sis, identification of flora and fauna, geochemical analy- Core analysis is not unlike the other disciplines in that it
sis, and detailed scanning electron microscope work. In also has its limitations. Porosity, fluid saturations, and
short, geological examinations can require the attention permeability are not measured without difficulty. Prob-
of numerous specialized areas of geology. These types of lems occurring in these areas are:
data are seldom made available to the logging contractor,
and quite often the oil company log analyst sees little of (l) Acquiring and retrieving the rock
the information. The lab work is normally performed by
specialized personnel. (2) Preserving the core

Log data are typically studied in more detail within and (3) Preparing the core for analysis
immediately adjacent to the important reservoir rocks.
Clues from logs are used when core is available, but gain (4) Measuring petrophysical properties

Saturation Measurement Sample Part Measurement Technique Primary Application


Technique Measured

Lf sat.
Whole Core Analysis

Oil-base cores cut from


Dean-Stark, whole core Porosity: Boyle's Law (helium injection) heterogeneous or fractured
k and <:>
Permeability: Steady-state gas flow reservoirs

Dean-Stark, end piece


ITSat. k ande, Porosity: Boyle's Law (helium injection)
Permeability: Steady-state gas flow
Oil-base cores cut from
heterogeneous or fractured
reservoirs

Retort, end piece


[t~t. (retor!)
k andel>
Porosity: Boyle's Law (helium injection)
Permeability: Steady-state gas flow
Water-base cores cut from
heterogeneous or fractured
reservoirs

Conventional Plug Analysis

Dean-Stark, plug
ITtSat.....,-Sat.
k ande,
Porosity: Boyle's Law (helium injection)
Permeability: Steady-state gas flow
Oil-base cores cut from
homogeneous reservoirs

Retort, end piece


~Sat. Porosity: Boyle's Law (helium injection)
Permeability: Steady-state gas flow
Water-base cores cut from
homogeneous reservoirs
1--k andel>

Retort ~Sat.aod; Carbonate cores or when


Porosity: Summation of fluids method
(Summation of fluids extremely fast turnaround time
Permeability: Steady-state gas flow
method) o-k is essential

Fig. 1-53 - Description of core analysis

- 40 -
,,
Nevertheless, core data (the rock itselt) remain the bed- Problem 4
rock of petrophysics and will continue to provide the
burden of proof in support of log analysis. What are the fundamental responsibilities of the follow-
ing individuals insofar as wireline logging engineers are
concemed?

PRACTICA L WORK SESSION Reservoir engineer

Problem 1

Define porosity. Exploration geologist

Production geologist

Drilling superintende nt
Problem 2

Define permeability.
Toolpusher

Roughneck

Problem 3
Mud logging engineer
Describe the meaning of the following terms -

Appraisal or confirmation well


Mud engineer

Exploration well Problem 5

What is the most common use of log data by a geologist?

Frontier wildcat

Rotary drilling rig

Problem 6

What is the most common use of log data by a reservoir


Carbonate reservoir
engineer?

Clastic reservoir

- 41 -
,,
Problem 7 Problem 11

What types of information other than wireline logs are Logs cannot identify color, but observance of the rock
used by oil company personnel to analyze potential reser- (cuttings or core) can identify a rock's color. The color of
voirs? shales is informative. Describe the meaning of the fol-
lowing shale colors.

Yellow or brown

Green or red
Problem 8

Hypothetically, consider why a 6-ft thick ol sand at


10,000-ft depth in a well would be considered noncom- Black or gray
mercial, but a 6-ft thick ol sand at J ,000-ft depth in a
well would be considered commercial?

Problem 9

How would you describe the buildup of fil ter cake and its
purpose?

Problem 10

How can the pH of the drilling fluid affect formation


evaluation?

-42-
" Wireline Log Measurements and Supportive Information 2

In order to understand the applications of log rneasure- including cherts, are called sandstones; calciurn carbon-
rnents and the methods of obtaining these data, there ate rocks are called lirnestones; calcium magnesium car-
rnust also be a general knowledge of other data associ- bonates are called dolornites. Rocks that are made up
ated with logs. Well logs are considered by rnost courts of rnostly of clay and silt are called shales. For lack of a
law to be legal docurnents; i.e., they are a record of the better description, a silt index is often used as the calcu-
events leading up to and during the drilling and cornple- lated difference between shale volurne and clay volurne.
tion of a borehole. Sorne of the inforrnation recorded on Anhydrite, gypsurn, halite, and coal have rather unique
log headers is not data from measurements taken by the log responses that are usually identified easily.
wireline contractor, but instead is data taken frorn other
records and recorded on the logs (Fig. 2-1 ). Such infor-
Wireline service contractors offer a number of measure-
rnation is often useful in deterrnining why sorne log
rnents to clients. Sorne instrurnents measure rock proper-
responses are questionable, why the logging instrurnent
could not reach total driller depth, or why a logging ties, and others rneasure fluid properties. Sorne rneasure
both. Certain rneasurernents are very sensitive to gas, and
instrurnent becarne stuck ata certain depth. The inforrna-
sorne are sensitive to borehole ftuids or lack of borehole
tion should be acquired and reported accurately. Sorne of
the data entered on the header is rneasured at the surface fluid. No logging device measures porosity, saturation,
by the logging crew and can have great irnportance in permeability, or fluid type directly. Logs do not identify
forrnation evaluation. color of rock or define the texture of rock. However, sorne
logging devices respond to properties that can be related
to these features of rocks and their interstitial fluids
(Table 2-1). The ability to interpret the relationship
c=,,rED between rock and fluid properties and log data has been
DENSILOG christened petrophysics.
GAMMA RAY
FIL.E ICl. CONPANY JYZ, Oll ClJfltlY

1-,,FP'""tra'c=ICl~.- --;'-EL!.. Hl. lJ. I


DEPTH MEASUREMENT
F' 1 ElJJ WIUI!IT
1------1cauNTY 9UTH STATE.m.__
The most fundamental rneasurernent provided by wire-
FHft. PRtHT
01~
line logging contractors is depth. A description of subsur-
SEC TWP ROE face reservoirs is not of rnuch value if an accurate refer-
""9E)IT CJ!I\JIIQllHJ LLl'll. !J.EV, '.J,l
UC:ll& IEBJAED F1UI f:!,__ ~ F T. Pl!DiE P.D.
ence to depth location is not available. Depth control is
!J!IU.II& IEBRD F1UI S.S. therefore extrernely irnportant to the success of any log-
ging or cornpletion operation. A more detailed descrip-
tbli7b7
!'!2T tion of the depth control rnethods ernployed by Baker
l'llll
IS'll
Atlas Logging Services is presented as Appendix A.
8518" 11
!S11
1 118'
<nJCElJ.D
q_4 bS Contractors specify standards as a function of well depth,
9. 11 9.2
ltO'IT wireline cable size, and rnud weight. However, in gen-
2.57 1 '12
1.'!l 1 ,z eral, ali recorded logs are expected to be within 1 ft
(0.3 rn) of one another (or equivalent metric parameter),
and the base log is expected to be within a controlled tol-
erance of I ft/10,000 ft (0.3 rn/3000 m) of rneasured
depth. Methods for rnarking the wireline (usually with
magnetic rnarks), knowing the exact distance of the cable
makeup to a tool's rneasure point (including logging
Flg. 2-1 - Example of log heading information
head, bridle, etc.), and the distance to the first rnark frorn
the downhole end of the cable are ali part of the rneasur-
WIRELINE LOGGING MEASUREMENTS ing systern. In addition, stretch charts for different cable
sizes, rnud weights, etc. are given for borehole depth, and
Logging instrurnentation responds rnostly to pore rnateri- logging engineers are expected to dedicate thernselves to
als and the chernical rnakeup of the rock rnatrix. As a performing depth rneasurernents as accurately as possi-
result, a chernical rock classification is rnost suitable for ble. Wireline log depths are considered the standard for
use in log analysis. Rocks cornposed rnostly of silica, well depth accuracy.

-43 -
TABLE 2-1 - Electrofacies Comparative Links to Facies Recognition
(after Bigelow, 1985)

Log Measurements Log Measurements


Strongly Affected Somewhat lnfluenced

Spontaneous Potential
Gamma Ray
Neutron Hydrogen lndex
Spectral Gamma Ray
Acoustic Transit Time
Bulk Density
Rock Composition Dielectric Propagation
Photoelectric Capture
Dielectric Attenuation
lnelastic Gamma Ray
Pulsed Neutron Capture
Caliper
Microresistivity

Spontanteous Potential
Acoustic Transit Time Neutron Hydrogen lndex
Resistivity Acoustic Attenuation
Bulk Density
Texture Caliper
Pulsed Neutron Capture
lnelastic Gamma Ray
Dielectric Propagation
Microresistivity

Resistivity
Interna! Spontaneous Potential
Microresistivity
Structure Dielectric Propagation
Acoustic Attenuation

Resistivity Acoustic Transit Time


Neutron Hydrogen lndex
Bulk Density
Spontaneous Potential
Pulsed Neutron Capture
Fluid
lnelastic Gamma Ray
Acoustic Attenuation
Dielectric Propagation
Dielectric Attenuation
Temperature

Today, the presentation of logs vares as a function of the used to indicate logging speed. This marker is important
type and number of services recorded. The common pre- to log quality control and should be checked periodically
sentations are demonstrated as Table 2-2. Tracks repre- for accuracy. Furthermore, a controlled and constant log-
sent portions of the log reserved for certain linear or log-
ging speed is important to severa! log measurements.
arithmic scales and grid. Logarithmic scales are generally
used for resistivity data and may occupy one or two
tracks. Other log data are generally recorded linearl y and IMPORTANT DATA FOR LOG HEADERS
may occupy one or two tracks. Track I is generally used
for control curves (SP, GR, caliper. etc.), but it is also
Hole sizes to certain depths are recorded on the driller's
used for quick-look interpretation information. Porosity-
log. Driller depths for casing strings already in the well
sensitive data such as density, neutron, and acoustic are
often recorded linearly across two tracks. Resistivity can are also recorded. T hese data should be printed clearly on
occupy one or two tracks but is generally recorded on a wireline log headers (Fig. 2-3). It is also common prac-
logarithmic scale and grid. tice for the logging engineer to record the logged depth of
casing strings. Log depths should never be intentionally
An important parameter related to depth is the time falsified for any reason. If the log is not recorded to a
marker (Fig. 2-2). To the left ofTrack I, a small flag, pip, depth sufficiently shallow to determine the logged casing
or gap in the grid is used to indicate time. If calibrated depth, the designated block on the header should be left
properly, the time marker occurs every 60 sec and can be blank.

-44 -
,
TABLE 2-2 - Sorne Common Log Presentation Formats

Linear Grid
SP 0EPTH RESISTIVITY CONDUCTIVITY o
Ohmsm2/m M1lllmhos/m --.1
SP 16" Normal o
o 2 lnduction Conductiv1ty o
M11hvolts
o 1 4,vv, 40" Spacmg o
20 e
Rm=0.7 o 1s o 1
Rm 0.64 O 78 4""'
lnduchon ResisbV1ty
BHT 100- O 10.500
Mean Surtacr Temp. 80 F Q. -_ _ .!O:.S~
- _ _____ - 1 !~
1;1o-u lnduction
1 1 1
11 1 1\
v-Amp 16" Normal
"
1-'

r. .... 1-- SP
I
,_
1
(
11111 ~-Conductivity ~
r--,-

l.b 1
1--1-- ,-16' Normal
-<- 1 1 1 1
'-:::p F

Logarithmic Grid
SP DEPTH RESISTIVITY
M111ivolts Ohms m 2t m

SHALL0W FOCUSED LOG o

I
~.2 1O 10 100 1000 --.1
~

o
o
MEOIUM INDUCTION LOG
0.2
____11O_______ J10_______ 100 1000
j ________ L_ 60 seooods
-l20I-
DEEP INDUCTION LOG
0.2 10 10 100 1000
- - J - - L - - .J - - L.

Fig. 2-2 - Minute time markers indicate the logging speed


MD/UM
' versus depth (ft/min or m/min).
V
i(
11
l, lo- SP
I<: s~~l l o FOCUSED
DEPTH - DRILLER
11 o
,
. 1,
DEPTH LOGGER
7927

llt--
kl 8 DEEP ~-. I
BOTTOM LOGGED INTERVAL
7922
7920
Split 3-Cycle Grid TOPLOGGEDINTERVA L 1530
SP RESISTIVITY
CASING DRILLER 8 5/8" @ 1525
GR DEPTH CONDUCTIVITY
Ohmsm2tm M1lhmhos/m
CASING - LOGGER 1530
lnduction Conductiv1ty
-!101+- 40"fSpacmg BIT SIZE 7 7/8"
16" Normal
4000 (
0.2 10 10 2C TYPE FLUID IN HOLE GEL /CELLEX
GAMMARAY
lnducbon ResistMty
8000 BID 4nn.- DENSITY / VISCOSITY 9.4 1 65
40" Spac,ng
~ - - - - - - - - 130 0.2 _ 1.0 ____ 1020 PH / FLUID LOSS 9.0 1 9.2
SOURCE OF SAMPLE MUDPIT
~ v f1 11 J1
( - \ ~ 1IN UC~ll' r...- ~ coN'oJd1v1'n
RM AT MEAS. TEMP. 2.57 @ 92
' RMF AT MEAS. TEMP. 1.93 @ 92
-.;:::- SP
' 1 11 I<~
RMC AT MEAS. TEMP. 3.21 @ 92
\s NOAM~L
- , '\
~ \ 1 11111, 1 111 \ SOURCE OF RMF / RMC Meas 1 Cale
I'
GAMMARAY _.; #111 1111
lllll 1 111
RM AT BHT 1.26 @ 187
.1
TIME SINCE CIRCULATION 5 HAS.
MAX. REC. TEMP. DEG.F 187

The driller's total well depth should also be recorded. Fig. 2-3 - Importan! borehole information that should always be
recorded on log headings
Date and times for each logging run after circulation
should also be recorded on the header. Bottomhole tem-
perature should be recorded with maximum reading ther- surements, should be recorded on the log header. It is
mometers on each logging run , and these data should be important that these data be accurate because the logs can
recorded on the log header (Fig. 2-3). be subpoenaed as legal documents. These data are also
commonly placed on a log tail. The completeness and
Other data, such as the surveyed elevations of ground accuracy of header information is a fundamental respon-
leve!, derrick floor, sea floor, height above mean sea level, sibility ofthe field logging engineer. That engineer's name
kelly bushing, or similar reference points to depth mea- is also permanently recorded on the header (Fig. 2-1).

-45-
,,
The REMARKS section of the log header is used to
record any unusual circumstances observed during the
logging operation. This includes reasons for a poor qual-
.
~ ---,r/
ity log not being rerun, why an SP curve was not
recorded, etc. It is the logging engineer's space for
explaining any unusual circumstance (Fig. 2-4). Perhaps
the properties of the drilling fluid adversely affect the log
measurements. If so, it should be mentioned in the
REMARKS section.

It is also important to record too! series numbers, any


additional components, and too! numbers on the header.
This information is often a helpful clue to interpretative
questions and troubleshooting too! problems (Fig. 2-4).
Scales for ali log traces must be recorded accurately on
the header, and the traces should be identified on the log
as well as by heading codes. 1----"r---+--
_,__,..,
P"~4'~f"..i~
,,.,,.,,,-..,1,,1.
,,,
_

---

1
11

,n
,U
,,,me U1~1ae f7 ux:s
8'\.0lm wtu. CIVE amao M 111>1:
r, MIR tDT JIIIZJIJfl, ILIT SIN%
C11t

INffMlmfflCNS fllll[ CPIION l'l!ED


CII URJIIJCD FllJI D.!Ctlta\. at OMJI:
11::.~.
~l~~
lfJll!UIDTS, \E CFNGT. 1M> wE D:I d
QIIRllll'TEE l')( fUllllCT Clt tDll[tTlC!
r:, llff INl'DPl'!fflTICN. li( 9fU. NOT !E
LUIU 0llt IU'OISULE Rlt ltff u&,
CDST, CftlliD, at EXl"Om ~
1111.IIEl Qlt SlSffl11G>8'nt:CJffllEI
OLUJC FU fWt TfflJl'llrnn'ICN 1111:
8f"" "u OPI.Ol'ID.
z
a: : ~ 5
g~-
...
~ z
r
~-
i
i
~
. =
i
W!
Fig. 2-5 - The first electrical log (Pechelbronn Field, Alsace,
- 1i
~
France, September 1927 (courtesy SPWLA)
~

z 5
..'' ~
~
i
1 "' o !. electromotive force, called voltage. Ohm's law is
~ t
11!
~
z expressed mathematically as follows,
1 i1

V = Ir ,
Fig. 2-4 - Remarks section and equipment data on log headings
are often critica! to judging log quality, isolating tool malfunctions, where V = voltage (volts),
etc.

I = cun-ent (amperes),
BASIC RESISTIVITY CONCEPT
and r = resistance (ohms).
In combination with recorded depth, resistivity was the
first formation parameter measured by wireline logging The term conductance is used to define the ability of a
techniques. The first electric log was recorded nearly material to conduct electricity and is given in units called
70 years ago (Fig. 2-5). Stationary measurements were mho (ohm spelled backwards).
made in a borehole, and the data recorded manually at the
surface. That rather crude device (by today's standards) Resistance is related not only to the type of material but
evolved into modern wireline logging, a multibillion- also to the length and area or geometrical shape of the
dollar industry annually. material. In order to describe a material's ability (regard-
less of size, shape, or geometry) to conduct electricity,
Electrical resistance, measured in ohms, is defined as the another term is needed. This term, which is very
ability of a material or substance to obstruct the flow of important to well logging, is called resistivity (R). Well
electrical current. Electtical current is generated by an log resistivity measurement devices use different

- 46 -
,
electrode spacings, different configurations, different and D = depth of formation of interest (ft).
electrode sizes, and perform measurements in an envir-
onment surrounded by a water-based drilling fluid . This equation can also be written as
Metric units are used for the resistivity measurement, and
the log trace is scaled as ohm-meters2/meter. Throughout Tf = Tm+GG(D/ 100),
this text, resistivity values are referred to as ohm-m.
Resistivity is mathematically related to resistance since it and it allows an estmate of formation temperature if the
is equal to the resistance (in ohms) between two parallel geothermal gradient and mean surface temperature are
sides of a volume I meter in area and 1 meter in length known.
along the current path.
Mean surface temperature data are usually provided by
Ohm's law can be written severa] ways, governmental agencies (Fig. 2-7). In many countries.
maps for different seasons are available (Fig. 2-8). Obvi-
V= Ir r = V/I I = Y/r ously, extreme cold at the surface will affect temperature
at very shallow depths ( < 1,000 ft), but extreme heat at
and r =R(l/a) and K = (ali); the surface wi ll also affect the temperature gradient in
very shallow wells.
therefore, R= rK,
The geothermal gradient is a function of the thermal con-
where R = resisti vity (ohm-m), ductivity of the rocks in the subsurface (Table 2-3). A
chart with severa] gradients is provided for estimating
r = resistance (ohms), temperature (Fig. 2-9), but recall that gradients are
seldom constant. Temperature surveys have been used
= length (meter), effectively to identify different lithology layers from
temperatu re gradient changes (Fig. 2-10). Certain geo-
a = area (meters2), logical structures, such as salt domes or reefs, overpres-
sured zones, and different geological ages are factors that
cause changes in the geothermal gradient. In o ne area of
and K = geometrical factor.
the Rocky M ountains (U.S.A.), the gradient increases
from 1.1 to 1.4 when going into Paleozoic rocks from the
As an example, a cube I meter on a side has a resistance,
younger rocks above.
r, equal to the resistivity between any two opposite faces
of the six faces of the cube. The cube would also have a
Formation temperature and heat conductivity are impor-
resistance equal to the resistivity of the material between
tant to formation evaluation because ali resistivity data
the indicated faces, but in any other direction, resistance
are temperature dependent. Heat conductivity decreases
differs from resistivity.
hyperbolicall y with temperature. Thermal conductivity
of water does not change appreciably with increasing salt
Resistivity vares with temperature. When comparing
concentration, and the effects of pore fluids on gross con-
resistivities, it is therefore very important that the tem-
ductivity is relatively small for rocks of low to moderate
perature be equal, or that re istivities be converted to a
porosity. Thermal conductivity of clays tends to vary
common temperature (Fig. 2-6).
inversely with the water content. In overpressured zones,
the higher pore pressure causes higher porosity that
Effects of Temperature
accounts for more fluid volume. As a result, geothermal
gradients are typically larger in massive shale formations
Subsurface temperatures normally increase with depth,
that overlay reservoir rocks, and gradients are usually
and the rate of increase with depth is called the geother-
reduced considerably in aquifers. Ovcrpressurcd, high-
mal gradient, defined as porosity shales represent a geothermal anomaly, and
because of this circumstance, flowline temperature mea-
surements are used as a supplementary pressure indicator
by rig personnel.
where GG = geothermal gradient (F/ 100 ft),
Mud Cup Principie
T = formation temperature ('F),
The mud cup and the mud cell provide a simple way to
T 111 = mean surface temperature for a given describe resistivity measurements. Samples of drilling
area ('F), mud, preferably circulated samples, are measured at the

- 47 -
Temperature R
(F) (C) (Qm)
500 260 20
240
Equivalen! NaCI
220 Concentration
400 10
~kppm) (@gr/gal
200
24C ) a
180 or 75F
0.2 6
160 5
300 0.3
4
140 20
0.4
30 3
250 120 0.6
40
o.a 50 2
100
200 100
90 2

80 3
200 o.a
70 4
300 0.6
150
6 400 0.5
60
a 500 0.4
10
50 0.3

1000
20
0.2
40
100 30 2000
40
90 3000
30 60 4000 0.1
80 80 5000 0.08
100
10,000 0.06
70
20 200 13,000 0.05
300 17,500
0.04
60
0.03

50 10 0.02

0.01
English: Salinity (ppm at 75F) = 10 x
T 1 + 6.77) ; F
Rw2 = Rw1 ( 3.562 - log (Rw - 0.0123)
T2 + 6.77 X~
75
0.955
Metric:
TI + 21.5) 3647.5
( T + 21.5 ; C
2
Rw
75
~ 0.0123 +
[NaCl(ppm)J-955
Example
Given: Temperature = 250F and NaCI concentration = 100,000 ppm. Determine: Resistivity
R=0.024Qm

Fig. 2-6 - Resistivities of different fluids must be converted to a common temperature for log analysis.

-48-
,,

Fig. 2-7 - Average annual temperature (F) in the continental United States (from U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1941 )

well site prior to logging. A cylindrically shaped mud cup


(Fig. 2-11) is filled with the fluid sample and a current is K= - -
vi
sent through the insulated cylinder of diameter (d) by 4MN
means of electrodes A and B. Because of the current where d2 = area
flowing from A to B, the electrical potential between M
and N can be measured by a voltmeter. Resistance (r ) is and 4MN = length .
the actual measurement, but it is converted to resistivity
(R) with known geometric factor (K) values. From O hm's It is interesting to note that K is nota dimensionless con-
law, stant but is in meters2/meter. The diameter (d) and spac-
ing (MN) must both be g iven in meters. Mud cups can be
V= Ir, but r = R(lla); provided with different constants by changing the MN
spacing or cup diameter. Ali other things being equal, a
therefore, larger electrode spacing (MN) wi ll yield a higher voltage
and lower value for geometric factor (K).
r = Mud Measurements
Solving for resistivity, Logging contractors are expected to measure the resistiv-
ity of a representative sample of the drilling fluid (R111)
r = and record the temperature of the fluid at the time of its
measurement. The method of collecting this mud sample
is very important. It should be a circulated sample that is
Since K is defined as geometrical factor, and R = rK, it collected just prior to tripping the drill pipe o ut of the
follows that K for the mud cup is hole in preparation for wireline logging operations. The

- 49 -
operation. A 1-gal sample is adequate. Mud collected
January Mean Daily Temperature from the return pit is often not representative of that in
the borehole because mud solids settle out in the pit.
Samples collected two or three days prior to logging are
not representative either.

Mud filtrate is collected from beneath the mud cup vessel


by applying 100 psi pressure to the fluid in the mud cup
and forcing it through a filter. Because the filtered fluid
simulates what occurs downhole, it is also measured for
resistivity and temperature at the surface. The tempera-
ture must be measured at the time the resistivity measure-
ments are recorded. The resistivity data can be converted
to formation conditions by making the proper tempera-
ture correction. Mud filtrate resistivity (R,n) is an impor-
tant parameter in log analysis, and the accuracy of both
resistivity and temperature measurements is critica!. The
amount of filtrate collected over a fixed time period
(30 min) can also be measured in a properly scaled
July Mean Da1ly Temperatura beaker to determine water loss.

The mudcake that builds up on the filter paper can also be


measured; however, the quantity of material collected to
measure mudcake resistivity (RmcJ in field operations
severely limits measurement accuracy. More time, larger
volumes of mudcake, and more elaborate measuring
apparatus are needed to perform the measurement accu-
rately. Temperature of the mudcake is also a problem
because different solids that formed the cake can affect
temperature differently. Rmc is used with density data in
sorne computed log analysis programs, but the resistivity
and temperature effects are not as significant as mud den-
sity. The mud measurements are made at surface temper-
atures, while logging devices measure resistivity of mate-
rials in place at downhole temperatures. Maximum-read-
ing thermometers usually record their maximum temper-
ature at maximum borehole depth. Therefore, a gradient
Fig. 2-8 - Seasonal geothermal (F) maps of Ganada can be estimated between surface and bottomhole tem-
perature conditions, and temperature can be estimated
with reasonable accuracy at any depth between the two
sample should be collected at the flowline near the extremes (Fig. 2-12). Mud measurements of resistivity
"shale-shaker" to ensure that it is mud with properties are typically corrected to formation temperature for log
used in drilling and that remain there during the logging evaluation purposes.

TABLE 2-3 -Thermal Conductivities

Thermal Conductivity (1 o3 calories/cm/C)

Shale 2 .8 - 5.6 Gypsum 3.1 Water 1.2 - 1.4


Sandstone 3.5 - 7.7 Anhydrite 13 Air 0.06
Porous Limestone 4-7 Salt 12.75 Gas 0.065
Dense Limestone 6-8 Sulphur 0.6 Oil 0.35
Oolomite 9- 13 Steel 110
Quartzite 13 Cement 0.7

-50-
,.

Mean Surface
Temperature, T ms Formation Temperature, T1 (C)

\ :~ :; 27
1 11
1 1
25
1

,,
1

11
50
50
1 1 J 11 11
50
1

75
1
1 1 1

75
1 11 11 11
75
1

1
1

/
100
1
1 1

100
1 11 11 11
100
1

125
1 1 i

1
125
1
1
1

11
125
1

'' 150
1
1 1 1 1

150
1
1 11
150
1 1

'
' 175
175
1
1 1
1
175

1
1 1 1 1

200
1
1 1
1
200
1
1 1
1
200

1
1 1 1 1

225
1
1 1
1
225
1
1 11
225
1 1

1'
1 1'
250


o o

~ ~
"'"' ...... ,.
5
' ..." ,~ ''-: ... ""~-
'\'l..',..,:~
['\,
~

~~
~ '\.
~"- ,~,,,
~
,-;.. 1,~.. -:: 2
-.....
",, "'~- '\,I'\.,.,, ..... ~
:::,.. .._
10
i\
'\
~ I' \. ,'-,
~
~
".....:- -: 3
\ ~, '\,.
1, ',, ' "'-.~ .... .. oo
,\ ',,
' -~ .. "r-,,.._' ...
,, 4 ~

$
X
15
\,
,,
,1\
\
'\.

I'\. ''
\.,, --~i'" ' .. ,
I'\.
i' '
1,

...,,
X

.s
C)
' '\ ', I'\.
i'.' .., ' i'-.' -:: 5 C)

...,, -- 3.
,s::;
a. .O\ " .e
Ql
"
b.
I'\. ', ' 'I ,,
.5
.. ,
'\,. 2
.... .. -.
C10 Drn 25 ~
a.
C) \

' 1\. I'\ ' ' , .. ',[',. 6


Ql
C)

'
,I
20 - -"' ,I \~ ,", 1'- ...,,
.... r~a en , ~G ' ' ', ,.
i-,
uo
\ '', '\,
' ,
U.! ,
.. ,-....
.u
--~- 11.< 1.1 ' t-1 IUI l

' "'r,-. 7
\ i-, ~

25
"
\ '
\. '
1\.'
'\,
I'\
' '
'
,, '-'... ..
,"!'..
,.
\ 1\. ,, I'\ ..... " ...,,

' ''
\
, I'\ ' .._'...... 8

\ I'\.
' ,, '
\
'I '

30
\

\
i\
'
\.'' ,
\. '
'\
'\,. r-..
' - ~- ',_" 9
80 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 ' 450 500

L
1 ,l,11l111I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
60 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
~ 40 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450
Mean Surface Formation Temperature, T ( F)
1
Temperature, Tms
Example
Tr = Tms + ~ x D/ 100
Given: Total Well Depth = 10,000 ft
Tr - Tms Bonom Hole Temperarure 200F
---.c: x 100
D Mean Surface Temperarure = 80F

From Chart: Geothermal Gradient 1.2 F/100 ft


Temperature Gradient Conversions
Formation Temperarure
at 7.000 ft 164F
lF l .823C
100 ft 100 m Note: To convert the formation temperature scale. Tr
(F). to a mean surface temperarure. T ms not shown.
add or subtract the appropriate value to the entire
lC 0.549F
scale. For example. if T 111s = 40F. the 60 tick
100 m 100 ft mark corresponds to 40 F. the 150 tick corresponds
to 130 F. the 300 F tick corresponds to 280 F. etc.

Fig. 2-9 - Chart used for estimating geothermal gradient

- 51 -
contact with the borehole wall (Fig. 2-15). Dipmeter
Temperature lncreases
... tools provide diameter measurements from opposite pads
with a four-pad device (Fig. 2-16) or distance measure-
ments of radii for each individual pad with six-arm
devices or four-pad devices with independent arm actua-
tion (Fig. 2-17). Acoustic pulse-echo imaging tools pro-
vide complete 360 circumferential coverage of the bore-
hole size and shape.

When four pads are available, an x and y caliper distance


measurement is performed that allows for sorne degree of
borehole geometrical estimation (Fig. 2-18). Calipers
contacting three points around the borehole are often
thought to be more accurate than those contacting two
points, but quite often, the spring actuation of acoustic
caliper devices is fouled by drilling mud or cuttings clog-
ging the sliding mechanism in the caliper mandrel. Two-
point density calipers generally show little or no mud-
cake buildup on the borehole wall because the skid
design and pad force tend to wipe the filter cake away
from the wall. Two-point microresistivity calipers gener-
ally provide the best indications of mudcake thickness
across permeable strata because pad force is only about
15 psi.

Six-pad radii offer a more accurate description of the


hole size and shape, and resistivity imaging devices offer
Fig. 2-10 - Comparison of temperature gradient steepness and more than the six-arm dip devices. However, the superior
lithology instrument for measuring borehole geometrical shape
and size is the acoustic imaging device, which provides
complete 360 coverage (Fig. 2-1 9).

1-
----0 f-----I Hole volume can be integrated from caliper data and is
very useful to the completion engineer. If casing is to be
A M: :
run, the engineer knows the vol u me of borehole that the
casing will use, and by subtracting that value from the
integrated hole volume, the engineer can determine the
amount of annular space available for cementing. lnte-
grated hole volume is presented as pips on the left side of
Fig. 2-11 - A mud cup for measuring liquid resistivity the depth track in either English or metric units.

RESISTIVITY AND CONDUCTIVITY

Resistivity and depth were the first logging measure-


CALIPER MEASUREMENTS ments ever recorded, and resistivity or its reci procal, con-
ductivity, is virtually always recorded as part of openhole
Several different types of calipers are available for use logging operations. Log-measured resistivity values are
with well logging downhole hardware. Acoustic devices generally a function of the amount of porosity and the
typically employ a three-arm, spring-actuated caliper that water occupying the pore space. In simpler terms, the
also serves as a tool centralizer (Fig. 2-13). Density measurement generally responds to the type and amount
instruments measure the distance between the skid face of water in the formation. Generally, a resi stivity log is
containing the radiation source and detectors and the the base correlation Iog of most boreholes; i.e., it is the
backup shoe that forces the skid face against the borehole log used to pick formation tops, bottoms, thicknesses,
wall with relatively high pad pressure (Fig. 2-14). etc., and then to correlate these data to other wells,
Microresistivity devices make a distance measurement develop cross sections, fence diagrams, structure maps,
between two pads that are opened electrically to make isopach maps, etc.

-52-
240
115

235
u:-
~

~ .e
D
t-
.e
D
t- i
:::,
i
:::,
;
; ai
o.
ai
o.
E
E 225 ~
~
Q)

Q)
o
.e
o.e E
o
E
f?
~
220 Cil
o
Cil

215

100
210
0.1 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
ti.t/(t + ti.t)

This chart is used to predict the static bottomhole formation temperature by recording the bottomhole temperature
on each successive trip in the well. Each bottomhole temperature is plotted vs. the borehole fluid circulation time
relationship on a semilog graph. Passing a straight line through the plotted points to the right ordinate will provide
an estimation of the static bottomhole formation temperature.

Example

Dimensionless Bottomholc
Time Te mperature

6t 7
Run 1 0.538 220F (104 C)
+ 6t 6 + 7

Run 2
6t 7 + 4.5
0.657 225F (107C)
t + 6t 6 + 7 + 4.5

Run 3
6t 7 + 4.5 + 8
0.765 228F (109C)
+ 6t 6 + 7 + 4.5 + 8
t = circulation time (hr)
6t = time after circulation stopped (hr)

Static Temperature = 234F (112C)

Fig. 2-12-The Horner plot technique can be used to estimate static formation temperature.

- 53 -
M.P.

7 ft 8.25 in.
(2.34m)

4 ft 5 in.
(1.35 m)
4.25 in.
(108 mm)

Fig. 2-15 - Caliper type that is run with microresistivity devices


Fig. 2-13 - Caliper run with acoustic devices

Mud Cake

I \fg----==--~-~=====-=-
----- -------
--
Formatio n

Fig. 2-16 - Standard Diplog pad assembly with gauge ring


calibrator

r . . - - - - Short Space
Detector

ha==---- Long Space


Detector

Fig. 2-14 - Caliper run with density devices Fig. 2-17 - Swing-arm pad section

-54-
BIT 1
........................... , j
6 VOL (CUFT) 26

O CAL (INCH) 100


6 26
TEN (LBS) C24 (INCH)
5ooo GR (API) O C13 (INCH) 6 26
4 in. ___,,. !------------~
O 150 26 6
(101.6 mm)

CJ

D
~

a>
1\)
o
o

10 ft
1
(3.05m)

1
e
- ~

a>
)
o
.!. o

-.-
1 ft
(304.8 mm)
' -
-
V
T.D.
~

a>
.i:.

'
r i== o
\__,
o

Fig. 2-18 - Dual calipers recorded with a four-arm device

-55-
o
Transmitted Pressure Level

-...
-12.5

... 9 _
lbrn1ga1
-25
o
~
Shale _______ _. _______________ ______________ ~To_~lb/~:9at
. .
V)
V)
o . ,, ,b
...J
e -37.5 ~.?~~~~~e_____ ____ ___ __ ____ _____ --------.--- ----- ___ _____ ..._rn/ga
. .
.Q
caOl . . . . .
Noise Level
"'ea. ...
Q.
-50

-62.5

6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
Borehole Diameter (in.)

Fig. 2-19A - Theoretical CBIL5M transducer response vs. borehole diameter fer barite oil-base mud (acceptable signal recovered in area
above the corresponding lithology lines). Note: The positions of the sandstone and limestone lithology lines lie between shale and
dolomite.

Depth Menu Scale Proc . Quit

Fig. 2-198 - Typical CRT display of CBIL reflectance amplitude and travel time with 360 borehole caliper measurements (from calibrated
travel time) al four selected depths

- 56-
,,
Conventional e lectrode res1st1v1ty devices such as the
Electrolog are not commonly used today but are still SP RESISTIVITY
o,-.,.,.., CONDUCTIVITY

run in many areas of the world (Fig. 2-20). The short ..!:.,.
,.
normal, a conventional device, was usually run with con-
ventional induction devices. (Fig. 2-2 1). Since the earli-
"-,, -01111
...... o... ,
.,u- ''".''
........s;;.~T-1!~,.
INOUCTION.:$19TrVtTV

, ___________
____ .o
,.,
.'2
SP.IGINO _
' - -
est days of well logging, tens of thousands of resistivity 1 1
1
logs have been recorded throughout the world, and today, 1 )
many geologists spend much of their time correlating and ,~ t--l.
attempting to interpret old resistivity logs. For that t> R ti:> ""
reason, this course devotes sorne attention to old log ! F,
analysis. ...
,_
! .
r-
.,
F
Old electric logs were recorded by passing cun-ents ,.
through the formation from specific electrodes on the ,- .,-

tool mandrel, and voltages were measured between other .1

electrodes on the tool string. The measured voltages pro-


vided a means to determine resistivity. An electrically l
conductive drilling fluid is necessary for this measure-
ment. More than half the resistivity/conductivity logs run ~1
to date are electrode recordings.
Fig. 2-21 - lnduction Electrolog 5t.A linear presentation example

'
-H
-
SM>NTANEOUS POTENTIAl DEPTH

o
o
RESISTIVITY
""-
16~~{'i1NAL.
1
AO
---
RESISTIVITY

LATERAL
= 18 FT-8 IN.
Induction Devices

Conductivity devices were first constructed for use in oil-


" o
' based drilling fluids. Electrode devices will not function
64 IN. NORMAL
o AM =
64 IN. in oil-based muds because the drilling fluid acts as an
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - }O
e lectrical insulator. The propensity of old electrode mea-
surements led to the linear presentation of resistivity on
- ~

-! lJ 1~ : <
r--- 'd +- induction logs. Although induction measurements are
Jfhl
1--i- -1--

1--i-i -

- -~. ,,. 8
-t
fl{
"a~
6s:

1
....

_,_,...
-- 1
t--

lt'l ' ---- p .


I.J
1-

, - 1-
made in conductivity units, they are reciprocated to resis-
tivity values. Induction logs utilize severa! coi Is arranged

Ll
;> ,-.
,_t-:
1-f--i-
l'-
__1<
~1
1.
1 1
-- ._,_
~,-.
L !( ::,
>
:

:
physically to focus an induced current into the formation
(Fig. 2-22) .
_,_

1- ,_
1~ 1 8
L
1 1
-_e;

- ~ .,...-
,::,.

::-: h
~
_,_ .:::
I<: - 1 - l'ip,
l l>
;;:=
1
1
-
T he following is a simple explanation of a two-coil mea-
r
r--, 1 1~
- i
) ~~ surement system (Fig. 2-23). The high-frequency alter-
- - --
-1-

~
,_ { J_ r--._ :_L_ ....) 1 - nating current sent through the transmitter coi! sets up a
_:< :e::;: .::; -~1>
>
,-1:::
'[\.
<>- I> -
magnetic field that induces secondary currents into the
surrounding formation. Induced currents flow in circular
t-+-- --
~ = ;,
ground loop paths coaxial with the transmitter coi!, and
c.
1-- i?, 5~ >
- r~,
, __ ,::: )
r-<"""'"
::: :1
/
)
t._
in turn, create magnetic fields that induce signals in the
receiver coi!. Received signals are essentially propor-
(I>
- - - tional to the formation's conductivity, and the induction
~ ~ ,.t:::1:> )

-- -l 1 inslruments can be called conductivity-seeking devices.


- ' '
.,)>

- -
'-
i' \
I'- . 1
'
Effects of direct coupling between transmitter and
receiver coi! are balanced by the measuring circuitry.
< 1
!<::::~
H1
-1-

~::i:-- ( 1
1--
-Is--1 - >
~ Dual Induction-Focused Logs
8 .,..J..1
-- L 1 1
>
--
1-1-

,_.__...._. i
=R 1
,-..._
1--'
1 1 -
}
Introduced in the early 1960s, dual induction logs were
the first resistivity logs presented on a logarithmic scale.
Logarithmic scaling essentially eliminated backup (off
Fig. 2-20 - Electrolog example scale) traces, enhanced the resolution of resistivity

-57 -
(-)
~ RlT-
--Y J~r:_
1 Gm G Gt Gs
-=-+-+-+-
Ra Rm R Rt Rs

(+) Amplifier and


Oscillator
Housing - - + .

Receiver

Receiver-1---~
Amplifier
..-----------..
Coils

Eddy
Curren!--..,....
--
---.--,--
--

_ __ _fv1e9 ~u_r~ __ _
Point

Transmitter
Coils

Transmitter
Oscillator

Fig. 2-22 - lnduction coil schematic

Fig. 2-23 - Explanation of simple two-coil induction measuring


change, permitted a universal scale from very Jow to very
system
high values of resistivity, and provided an innovative
mechanism for quick-look log evaluations. The original
logarithmic scales were three cycles (0.3 to 3000 ohm-
m), but they were soon replaced by the split four-cycle Laterolog tools provide better vertical resolution than
grid (0.2 to 1, 1 to 1O, 1O to 100, 100 to 1000, and 1000 to induction devices in thin beds and are focused in such a
2000 ohm-m). As technology developed, combination way as to greatly minimize the conductive nature of
tools became more common, with the logarithmic resis- saline drilling fluids (Fig. 2-26).
tivity scales being confined to Track II (typically scaled
0.2 to 1, 1 to 10, 10 to 20 ohm-m). The instrumentation employs a small current electrode
between two long guard electrodes. A constant current is
The dual induction device utilizes deep and medium applied to the small electrode in the center while auxil-
induction measuring systems. Both measurements can iary current of similar polarity is applied to the long
be recorded in oil-based muds and empty holes, as well guards. Current to the guard electrodes is automatically
as in water-based mud systems. SP and a shallow, and continually adjusted to maintain a zero potential dif-
focused electrode device measurement are recorded with ference between the center electrode and guard elec-
the two induction measurements in water-based muds trodes, and forces the current from the center electrode to
(Fig. 2-24). flow into the surrounding formation. A drop in potential
is caused by the flow of current through the formation to
Laterolog or Focused Electrode Devices remole current-return electrodes. The potential difference
is then related to formation resistivity.
Laterolog instruments are focused electrode devices
designed to minimize influences from the borehole fluid The laterolog current path is basically a series circuit
and adjacent formations (Fig. 2-25). Laterolog and spher- consisting of the drilling fluid, mudcake, flushed zone,
ically focused devices belong to this family of tools. invaded zone, and virgin zone (Fig. 2-27). The largest

-58-
RILO (ohmm)

1~-----------------------~
SP 2 RILM (ohmm) 2000
20mV
- - 1 1-+ ~~;;,;;~:~;-2 ~
0 2 ~

0.2 2000
Dual Laterolog

Simultaneous
Shallow and t / Sal! Mud
Deep Measurements , 1 /~
-, \ .... .,...,,,.
Shallow - A; ~ '-, ........ :::_:::_=::::::_-_::_-:__.,. Deep _ A,

1
@ 128 Hz ', -- - - -
" - - ' - - - -:, :::::::::::::::::.::: @ 32 Hz

T ~--~~~~-
~~~~~~~~
==========-==-
/--------------
24-in. ~-- - - - - ,~ , ----------~
Bea:._:th ::::::::.~ ::::::::::::=
1
~:::::j '::~:::::~~7
:-;:=~:~=,E ~i~~~~~~~==::
-------,f-'--------:-(--, '..
1 1 '
'.. '

'

Fig. 2-24 - Dual lnduction-Focused Log logarithmic presentation Fig. 2-26 - The Dual Laterolog is focused to minimize the
effects of conductive drilling fluids.

Mud


Cake

Mud Flushed lnvaded Undisturbed


Zone Zone Formation
Ao _ .,_ _ _ _ - -..
Rm Ame Axo A, R1 B

Fig. 2-27 - Laterolog curren! path is basically a series circuit.

Fig. 2-25 - Laterolog focusing minimizes borehole and adjacent


bed effects.
Invasion and the type of water-based mud can severely
affect laterolog measurements. Fresh muds cause the log
measurements to be overly inftuenced by the resistivity
voltage drop occurs where higher resistance occurs; of the invaded zone. Salt-based muds are generally of
therefore, laterologs can be described as resistivity-seek- similar salinity to formation waters, and the conductive
ing devices. In contrast, induction measurements "see" inftuence does not severely retard the instrument's ability
the different zones as parallel electrical c ircuits. to measure beyond the invaded zone. Laterolog tools are

-59-
,,
generally recommended for use in salt muds, lower induction device is more influenced by the mud column
porosities, and high-resistivity formations. Their superi- as hole size increases, but it is more severely affected by
ority to induction devices in high-resistivity formations thin beds than the focused device. Microresistivity
holds true in fresh muds because the contribution of the devices essentially eliminate borehole effects because the
lower salinity mud system diminishes in the laterolog pads contact the formation directly, but they are also
series circuit. However, enlarged boreholes hamper the severely influenced by borehole fluids if pad contact to
too! because the contribution of high mud resistivity the formation wall is lost.
becomes more significant. Today, laterolog data are pre-
sented on a logarithmic grid scale (Fig. 2-28). Resistivity Bed-Thickness Correction

Corrections to measured resistivity values for bed thick-


GAMMA RAY
Radlation lntensity lncreases DEPTH
RESIST1VJTY ness are given for the deep induction (RD) and laterolog
deep devices (Rw), but ali resistivity devices are
(API Units) affected somewhat if the right conditions exist.
o 120 0.2 1.0 10 100 1000

The deep induction instrument has a 40-in. (102-cm) span


between the main transmitter and receiver coils, and its
vertical resolution is therefore limited to no less distance
l..~
,
~
,..

than the spacing. Complicating the picture is the fact that


':i~ ....... adjacent formations (shale beds and sand reservoirs) can
~

> -1--
have a large variance in resistivity. Therefore, to correct
)' R 1w for bed thickness, the resistivity of adjacent shale
_j ~ beds must be known. Severa! empirical charts are pro-
_..fo- I' vided to make proper adjustment to the measured values
., (Figs. 2-29 and 2-30). In general, logs of 5 to 6-ft (1.8 to

-~
,r 2-m) thick beds require no serious correction to RILD but
.,,1 the adjacent bed resistivity generally becomes more
important as the adjacent bed resistivity increases.
/

~-- ,i..-
@
-
...
Bed-thickness corrections to the laterolog deep (RLLD)
and laterolog shallow (RLS) measurements are not nor-
__,fo-) "' mally prohibitive down to beds as thin as 3 ft (1 m); how-
-e::;?"
t--
_.._ ever, the dual laterolog device is specified for high-resis-
..... ~
tivity formations, salt-mud environments, etc. Resistivity
... I< of the adjacent beds and the drilling fluid influence the
"
corrections, but the corrections become more significant
Fig. 2-28 - Laterolog logarithmic presentation in beds less than 5 ft (1.5 m) thick (Fig. 2-3 1).

Corrections to Resistivity for Borehole Size


CORRECTIONS TO RESISTIVITY/
CONDUCTIVITY LOGS FOR BOREHOLE Borehole size influences ali resistivity measurements.
SIZE AND BED THICKNESS The number of charts required to correct each and every
device from ali the logging contractors would result in an
Most resistivity and microresistivity devices are influ- almost unmanageable volume of data. For that reason,
enced by borehole fluids to different degrees; therefore, only the basic Baker Atlas charts for the Dual Induction-
borehole size and tool position are important. Bed thick- Focused Log and Dual Laterolog are presented and
ness is more prohibitive to sorne devices than others. discussed here. Those who need to make such correc-
Depth of invasion can seriously affect the response of tions for other too! types should refer to the appropriate
any resistivity device. chart book. Corrections for tools from other contractors
must be made from charts provided by those contractors.
A shallow, focused log is affected by borehole size more
than by bed thickness, whereas the deep induction is A chart for deep induction (R1w) borehole correction
more severely affected by bed thickness. The reason for demonstrates that more correction is needed as the bore-
this difference is that the focused system is surrounded hole size increases and/or as the mud resistivity (R,n)
by a larger volume of the drilling fluid, and most of the decreases (Fig. 2-32). The effects of borehole signa! on
measured signa! comes from the borehole itself. A deep the medium induction measurement (RLM) are more

-60-
20 20
..

10 10

5
Rs =1
5
e 4 e 4
9- 3 9- 3
1
a:
1
a:
2 2

I
I
..

0.5 a:;.&.!i...&.......u..---'---''--' ---''--.....................-.,............_......., 0.5 ................_ _ ___,__ __,_...._........................._ ____,


0.5 1.0 2 3 4 5 10 20 0.5 1.0 2 3 4 5 10 20
Reo, (Q m) R(X)( (Q m)

20 l--..;.....-+--,---:-+-i-;-,r+---..;.... --
.. ._~l---
..+ ---'----,j"'-,,__ _~
..._ ... , ..

15 i.--+--+--_ _--+----+ -- -- - - - - ' - ----i


~
E e 15 ,1 t
1

9, 9-
a:110 ~ _;________,~-~,c__....,..._,,...-.q=----- - - t - - - - i 1
a: 10 ,_.._ _ _ __

10 15
R(X)( (Q m)

Fig. 2-29 - Bed thickness corrections for deep lnduction Log

-6 1 -
,.

100 100 ,-

80 As= 5 80

E 60 E 60

~ O> a
o
-g,
<O <O
a: a:
40 40

20 20

o o
o 20 40 60 80 100 o 20 40 60 80 100
F\:or (Q m) Acor (Qm)

100 100

80 80

As= 20

E 60 E 60
~ ~ O>
O>
o .,-o
<O
a: a:
40 40

20 20

o o
o 20 40 60 80 100 o 20 40 60 80 100

F\:or (Q m) Acor (Q m)

Fig. 2-30 - Bed thickness corrections for deep lnduction Log

-62-
,,

Bed Thickness Correction for Dual Laterolog (Deep)


2.4

500 Conductive Beds R1/Rm = 20


2.0 Resistive Beds R5 h/Rm = 20
100

o
1.6
1
5
1 \
....__
\ ( ,,,,,,,-- --..._--- - --= -
_--
1.2
RLuJRsh
\
1
\_ _,,,,..,-
A ~
r---_
---- - ~

r-- r---
t--
--
o.a
,.
0.5 ~ VV
o 1 1/
/
o.os/V-
---
- -t:--r--.

-
r--:: ......
r----
- .......
-
----- ::::::-::::
~
-
;....---
-=
-,::;:::: :::;::;...-

0.4 1
2 3 4 5 6 7 a 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90100
Bed Thickness (ft)

0.5 2 3 4 5 10 15 20 30
Bed Thickness (m)

Bed Thickness Correction for Dual Laterolog (Shallow)


2.4
1
500
1 1 1

100
Conductive Beds RifRm = 20
2.0 Resistive Beds R5 h/Rm = 20
o
1
5
1
1.6

\ 1

1.2
1 \
~ =---
--.
:;;.--- F=:::::
R~ R ~ f:::::: ~

/
,.,, ---
V"" ~
-----
o.a
0.5 / ~,,.,
- __ ~
~
..,,.,.. _....,
0.1
v .vo /
/
0.005
0.4
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 a 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Bed Thickness (ft)

Fig. 2-31 - Bed thickness corrections for Dual Laterolog

-63 -
,.

,.

15

14

13

12 .........:................................... j...................................l..............

11
~
=... 1Sta~doff On.) 1
!!l
CD

!a
10
! i . i i
o
31 9
o
.e
CD
o
ID
8 : ' : ' :
7 .- .... . .........................!...................................!. - : :
................... .................................. ...................................

6 : :
......................... - ............ ............ -. ............... ................................... ...................................
_

i
5 +~..j!+ .....................

4
-2 -1 2 3 4 5 6
Radial Geometric Factor (x 1000)

40 55 30 25 20 15 10 5 o
Signa! from Hole (mmho/m)

Example

Given: Borehole diameter = 14 in.; Rm = 0.1 0-m; standoff = 1.5 in.; RILD = 10 Q.m

Detennine: Signal from Hole = 16 mmho/m


CIL =1,000/10 Q.m =100 mmho/m
Borehole
CILcor = 100 mmho/m -16 mmho/m = 84 mmho/m Radial Geometrical Factor (x 1,000)\
correction
(
RILcor = 1,000/80 mmho/m = 11.9 Q.m (mmholm) Mud Resistivity (Rm) )

Fig. 2-32 - Borehole size correction for deep induction log (for series 1503/1506 Dual lnduction-Focused Log)

-64-
severe (Fig. 2-33). Standoffs are very important to R1LM saturations of 15% to 40% , but trapped residual wate rs
signals, and very large bore ho les rende r the measurement are not unco mmon, especially in carbonate reservoirs.
almost useless. A c hart to correct the focused log data
(Rmc) is also provided (Fig. 2-34). As time p asses, sorne o f the mud fil trate continues to
migrate laterall y into the formation; i.e., it begins to com -
Bore ho le size correction charts for the dual laterolog mingle with nati ve reservoir fluids and form a transitio n
demonstrate that more serious corrections are required as zone between the flushed zone and undisturbed reservoir
borehole sizes increase, and that cente ring is very impor- rock (Figs. 2-36, 2-37). Water satu ration in this transition
tan!. The laterolog shallow device (Ru,5) is mo re zone (S) can vary conside rably if the reservoir contains
seve re ly affected , but the deep late rolog (RLLD) is increa- hydrocarbo ns. A water-bearing ho ri zon w ill continue to
ingly affected as hole enlargeme nt occurs (Fig. 2-35). O f exhibi t 100 % wate r saturation, but the commi ngled
course, these statements refer to conditions whe re beds waters have di ffering salinities or resistivities (Rz)- The
are suffic iently thic k for laterolog responses. resistivity of the invaded zone (R) will therefore di ffer
fro m that o f the flushed zone and virgin zone beyond.
EFFECTS OF INVASION ON RESISTIVITY The length of time the fo rmation is exposed to the bore-
MEASUREME NTS ho le fluid pressures influe nces the depth of invasion, but
permeability and poros ity also influe nce the lateral dis-
As the drill bit pe netrates geological hori zons in the sub- tance of invasion. A hypothetical view of the diameter of
surface, drilling !luid is introduced to that formation for invasion in formations that are somewhat hete rogeneous
the first time. Mud pressure, pene tration rate, and the illustrates the effects of porosity and permeability
porous, permeable nature o f the rock be ing penetrated are (Fig. 2-38). Dia meter o f invasion (d) represents the lat-
variables largely responsible fo r the eventua l profile of e ral interval encompassing the bore ho le that is affected
invasion. In general , wells are drilled with pressure by invading drilling fl uid, whereas the diameter of fl ush-
slightly overbalanced to conta in reservoir po re pressure ing (d.w) is much sma ller.
and avoid pote ntia l blowouts. Impermeable rocks do not
experience invasion; however, low-porosity rocks with The virgin reservoir rock has a resisti vity (R0 ) if it is 100 %
sorne pe rmeability are ofte n invaded deeply because water bearing, but if the formation contains any hydrocar-
available pore spaces to accept the penetrating flui ds are bon, it has a higher value of resistivity (R1). The native
widely spread around the borehole. Rock w ith high connate water has its unique resistivity (Rw) or salinity
porosity and high permeability normally de mo nstrates that affects resul tant calculations ofwater saturation (Sw);
shallow invasion because the re is more pore volume near i.e., S,v decreases as the volume of o il or gas increases.
the borehole to accept invading fl uids. Pressure di ffe re n- Resistivity increases as nonconduc tive hydrocarbon
tial causes flushing to occur, and solid particles of the replaces conductive formation waters in the pore space.
mud syste m are deposited o n the boreho le wall where
they form a filter cake (h 111c) Fi lter cake is normally Resistivity Profiles of lnvasion
impermeable a nd curta ils fu rther flushing (Fig. 2-36).
The time required to build up sufficie nt mudcake is a Whe n freshwate r-based drilling fluids are used, the mud
func tion of specific formation properties and drilling fluid resistivity (R111 ) is norma lly higher than the fo rmatio n
properties, especially solid particles w ithin the mud water resisti vity (Rw)- In permeable water-bearing rocks,
system. These explanations are no more than rationa liza- the formation resisti vi ty in the flushed zone (Rxo) is
tions, and in specific circ umstances, the rule is violated. higher than fo rmation resistivity of the virgin zone (R )
0
Formation of filte r cake is desirable to prevent furthe r fil - because R,,if > Rw, and formation resistivity gradually
trate invasion, fo rmation damage, and mainta in sorne decreases outward from the flushed zone (Fig. 2-39).
wall stability. Most flushing is believed to occur during
the drilling process. As the bit initia lly penetrates the If the formatio n contains hydrocarbo n a nd is dri lled w ith
rock, the sudden mud pressure causes a spurt of invasion freshwater-based mud, the resistivity beyond the flushed
that virtually flushes a li the na tive fo rmation fluids fa rthe r zone may be highe r or lower, depe nding on the water sat-
into thc formation a nd replaces the m w ith mud filtrate. uration (Sw) a nd the connate water res isti vity (Rw)- Re la-
The flushed zone immediately adjacent to the borehole is tive position s of deep- , med ium- , and sha llow-reading
at most, a few inches (centimeters) beyond the borehole resistivity devices are used to indicate the expected inva-
wall and essentially conta ins only mud fi ltrate (R111) as sio n profiles (Fig. 2-39). T he assumptions forming the
occupying fluid (Figs. 2-36, 2-37). The flushed zone has basis for the fig ures are that the shallow-investig ating
unique resistivity (Rx0 ) and saturation (Sx0 ) values. Most device respo nds mostly to the flushed zone, the medium-
native fluids a nd gases are flushe d farther into the fo rma- investigating device responds mostly to the transition
tion, and those that re main are called res idua l or immov- zone, and the deep-investigatio n device responds mostl y
able. Oil reservoirs typically demonstrate residua l oil to the undisturbed zone.

- 65-
,,

15

14
. --~--- .
,_._ _1.................... : ...........-............................ .
13 ; _ i_ __ , . _ _ _, _ __

12
-1staaooff

o,.


1l- [ --l-
:

. . . . . . ... . ... ... . . . . ~ . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . :
.
1
n~
. "

11
?
=...
~
G) 10
E
ca
o
.l!1 9
o
.i::;
G)

o
IXI
8 ;->---------i.---

7 .... --: : : l l
6 :-...... ................................... ................... . i ..t ; .. . .
: :
5 + i t i .:1j1r-j--!

4
-1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Radial Geometric Factor (x 1000)

50 40 30 20 10 o -10
Signal from Hole (mmho/m)

Example

This chart provides a method for determining how much of the recorded signal is
the borehole.

Given: Borehole diameter = 10 in.; Rm = 0.1 0-m; standoff = 1.5 in.

Determine: Signal from Hole = 27 mmho/m Boreholc


( Radial Geometrical Factor (x 1,000)\
correction
(mmho/m) \ Mud Resistivity (Rm) )

Fig. 2-33 - Borehole size correction for medium induction log (for series 1503/ 1506 Dual lnduction-Focused Log)

- 66 -
K = tool calibration factor ("K-factor") in ohmm/ohm

Normalized to:
8-in. borehole
1.4 RFOCapp/Rm = 20
Homogeneous medium

0.9

o.e 1
. . '! 1 ' l
: :i"
0.7 L....-~JL...L.Ll.lU.lLL .1..u.J._ ___L...J....J....J...L.L.1 ..L_--1..__--1.....L.J... J....L.l..L_...J....--1...... .1.....w...1...U.J....__.J. ..._...J.....J..:l:,._J.J.J.J
0.1 10 100 1000 10000

Fig. 2-34 - Borehole size correction for focused log (for series 1503/ 1506 Dual lnduction-Focused Log)

If the drilling fluid is saltwater based, the flushed zone are impermeable (essentially no flushing or invasion) and
norrnally has lower resistivity (Rx0 ) than its fresh rnud contain a large amount of bound water.
counterpart. Resistivity of the invaded zone (R) and the
virgin zone (R0 ) rnay be very simi lar in a water-bearing lnduction measurement s can also be made in air- or gas-
horizon. If hydrocarbons are present, the virgin zone will drilled boreholes. Although the borehole acts asan insu-
demonstrate higher resistivity (R1). The positions of the lator, the waters of the uninvaded formation will exhibit a
deep-, medium-, and shallow-resistivity curves are conductive influence, and valid formation conductivity/-
reversed because of the reversa! of the resistivity profile resistivity measurement s can be obtained.
(Fig. 2-39).
Step Profile of lnvasion
Oil-based mud systems elimjnate electrode measure- A simple geometric pattern to profile invasion, the step
ments; however, the deep- and medium-induction data profile, considers only the flushed and virgin zones. A
can be recorded in combination with a gamma ray curve. cylindrical interface moving laterally into porous and
The shallow dielectric measurement is useful in estirnat- permeable homogeneou s rock is projected. The diameter
ing Rxo in oil-based systems. lnduction devices are inftu- (d) of the cylinder encompasses the flushed zone (Rx ),
0
enced by the most conductive substance surrounding the and the undisturbed formation (R0 or R1) lies outside the
measuring system, and permeable water-bearing hori- cylinder. A schematic of the step profile is a two-dimen-
zons (virtually ali rock is partially water bearing) can be sional (2-D) projection of resistivity vs. distance from the
distinguished from zones containing mostly hydrocar- wellbore (Fig. 2-40). In reality, this condition virtually
bon. Shales will demonstrate low resistivity because they never exists.

-67-
K = tool calibration factor ("K-factor") in ohmm/ohm

Tool Centered Thick Beds


u
l 1 [i . i , i
Nonnalized to:
''I
i .
1 1 8-in. borehole r

-----""-.......... ;--
1 11
1.3
l r

1
.............L...
1.2

r
__ __
1.1
~
!e:
111
l
a:

0.9

o.e

0.7
0.1 10 100 1000 10000

Tool Centered Thick Beds


u ,-----------,-,---------------,---------,----,
Normalizad 10:
e-m. borehole 1 i 1
RLLSapp l Rm 100
1.3 Homogeneous medium ~~- .. - - +-

~
1.2

1.1
~i -: --
r

.. ..,. ' ,.(.. ; ___

1
!e: .,' i 11 1
~ 1
~
a:

0.9

o.e
111

~7 '--''---'-"u.L..<-'-'-'L..1....1...L..U..'----'----'-'--..1....1...L..U..'----'----'-'--..l....1...'--'-'-''----'---'--'--..1....1...L..LU'----'----'-'--..1....1...U..U
0 .1 10 100 1000 10000

These charts provide a method to correct the log value for the influence of the borehole. The chart is entered from the
horizontal axis (RLLs/Rm) by projecting a line upward to the appropriate borehole size curve. From that point, a
line is projected to the left to derive a correction factor along the vertical axis, which is then multiplied by the actual
log value (RLLS) to determine the corrected log value (RLLS co~

Fig. 2-35 - Borehole size correction for Dual Laterolog

-68-
"

Q)
o.e
(\ 1.. ~ ~ - - d-- - 1 J
\ ,' 11 ___I _
1
1 1 '. 1
J! :~o
>
I 1- r.-- - - J. 1 'l
o
CI)
C o~
lL
( \ , : '

Fig. 2-38 - Flushing and invasion distance into the formation


usually vares due to pressure differential, fluid loss, porosity,
permeability, time of exposure, etc.

Fig. 2-36 - ldeally, an impermeable filler cake builds up on the


wall of permeable strata.

Rs
Transition Profile of Invasion
~ Mud Cake !

Rm
- 1-hmc
1
Transition profiles are more representative of real condi-
Flushed Zone Undisturbed tions. These profiles ass ume that a mjx of native and
RoorRt R 0

Sxo\ Form ation invading fluids exists between the flushed zone and
lnvaded Zone sw virgin zone. Conductivity is assumed to vary linearly
S between the two boundaries of the transition zone
--------d ~-
Rs dh
i
Rmf

Rs
Rz 1
Rw
(Fig. 2-41 ). Width of the transition zone depends on the
rock characteristics, rate of invasion, and length of time
Lateral View Across Borehole the formation is exposed to invading fluids.

R1 or R0 Annulus Profile of Invasion

R In oil-bearing zones, it is possible for the filtrate to flush


connate water to the lead of the invading front by
miscible drive processes, thereby creating a conductive
ring around the more resistive flushed zone (Fig. 2-42).
Beyond the conductive annular ring is the higher
Sw resistivity oil-bearing virgin zone. Detection of the salt-
water annulus depends on the responses of the particular
logging devices. Existence of such a low-resistivity zone
or annulus is strong indication of movable oil. However,
annulus occurrence is very rare, and when it is found, the
View Down Borehole
reservoir is usually at virgin conditions.
R - Resistivity xo - Flushed zone
S - Saturation me - Mud cake Electric current patterns of resistivity/condu ctivity
s - Shoulder bed h - Thickness devices show that induction measurements are more
i - lnvaded zone w - Formation water affected by the low-resistivity annular ring, and the
t - Non-invaded zone d - Diameter medium-inductio n experiences the more severe effect.
o - 100% Water saturated z - Mixed water
non-invaded zone Experience and computations have shown that the
medium-induction device (RILM) can record lower resis-
Fig. 2-37 - Generalized sketches to illustrate formation tivity than the deep-induction device (Rno) when the
parameters
ratio of Rx0 IR1 is less than five. As the RxJR1 ratio

- 69 -
-
I
1
1 Ql a: R*
1 e Fresh Mud
Ql 1 o ~
e N Salt D M S
o
Ql
N
o 1
I
e Undisturbed :~
u Ro Water 1
.g
j1
.e -o
1 Zone ;
Zone 1
1
!l! ;

1
Ql 1 Ql
o .e 1 e a: 1
CD (/)
~
::,
: I
1
1
1- 1
1 Fresh Mud
- lnvaded Zone- System
----------~S ~D
100% - - -

~1
Distance from Borehole

Water Zone
-- R
Rxo
--

t R f.R.v or ~o Zone l f I
1

'"""'"g
l .. 1
~. :

~ 1
1:
DMS

0%

100%
Distance from Borehole

-S M D

---r--'~"''"
. t
Salt Mud 1
System R.v or S0 1 1
o R ', 1
C/)
1 1
_
O%_..__ _ __.__ _ _ _ _

Distance from Borehole

Fig. 2-39 - Resistivity profiles of invasion follow the above schemes.

increases above five, or dee per invasion exists, the effect


decreases, and the medium induction will indicate resis-
tivity approximately equal to or greater than that shown
on the deep curve. Calculations also indicate the deep
rf Rxo induction to be only slightl y affected by an annulus, and
V lnvaded the recorded resistivity is only about 10% low for RxofR1
el Formation ratios of three to five and 5% low for Rx0 IR1 ratios greater
than fi ve.

:~ lnvasion Corrections to the Dual lnduction-


R,
; Focused Log
Ql
a: Undisturbed
rf Formation Two charts are provided to correct the dual induction-
/\ focused logs for invasion effects. The first chart (Fig. 2-
rf
o
.Badiu_s
lnvas1on
.QL. 43) is used where R1 < Rx0 , and the second chart (Fig. 2-
44) is used where R 1 > Rxo A microresistivity device,
--Distance such as the microlaterolog, is recommended for the
second chart, as Rxo is part of the required input to the
chart; i.e., the focused measurement is not adequate for
Fig. 2-40 - Step profile of invasion the specified conditions.

-70-
,,

cS
/\
o
c5' Undisturbed R,o
Forrnation
lnvaded
Forrnation
01 - lnner Boundary of
?;- Transition Zone
:~ D.! - Outer Boundary ?;- Undisturbed
o :~ Forrnation
-5 C,o
;
e Q) Low Resistivity Zone
8 al g a:
.s::;"' Zone
cS 2"'E~
V u..~
o,
J D, D2
D2:::: 1.4 D1
Dis t a n c e - - - - - - - - -
- - Distance - - - - - - --

Fig. 2-42 - Low resistivity annulus profile of invasion

rf D1 - lnner Boundary of
V Transition Zone
D2 - Outer Boundary

"C
Q) -
g
~ co The second chart (Fig. 2-44) is entered with a ratio
::, E
:~ RwlRx0 o n the y-axis and R 1w!RILM on the x-axis with
exarnple values of 4 and 2, respectively. It can be
assumed that Rxo is microlaterolog resistivity, and it
Transition Undisturbed should be corrected for mudcake thickness if necessary.
rf Zone Forrnation
/\
The example illustrates the following output results -
o,

---Distance----
therefore,

Flg. 2-41 - Transition profiles of invasion R1 = 1.5 x 20 = 30 ohm-m.

lnvasion Corrections to the Dual Laterolog and


an R xo Device
The first chart (Fig. 2-43) is entered with a ratio
RFodR1LD on the ordinate and a ratio RM!RILD on the The dual laterolog tornado chart (Fig. 2-45) is used
abscissa. The example on the chart shows entries of 10 by entering the ratios of RdRxo on the y-axis and
and 1.4, which cross one another at a point where d = RdRLLS) on the x-axis. The microresistivity devices
39 in. , RxJR , = 18.5, and RfR 1w = 0.95; can be used to determine resistivity of the flushed zone
(Rx0 ). Ratio values of21 and 6.3 are used in the example.
Output results are
therefore,

d = 50 in, and R / R LLD = 1.5 ;


R 1 = (0.95) x ( 1.0) = 0.95 ohm-m.
therefore,
This calculation demonstrates that RILD is not seriously
affected by an apparent 39-in. (1.0-m) invasion diameter. R1 = 1.5 x 63 = 94.5 ohm-m .

-71-
,.

10
9
8

RFL/RILD
4

This chart provides a method of obtaining Rt from the Dual Induction-Focused Log readings where Rt is less
than Rxo The depth of filtrate invasion may also be determined.

RFL = JFL x RXO + (l - 1FL) x Rl


1/RILM = GILM/Rxo + (l - GILM/ Rt
l/R1w = (G1w/Rx0 ) + (l - G 1w)/Rt

where Rxo = resistivity of formation invaded by drilling fluids; Rt = resistivity of undisturbed formation; J =
geometric factor for Focused Log at the invasion diameter; G = geometric factor for Induction Log at the
invasion diameter; FL = Focused Log; ILM = Induction Log Medium; ILD = Induction Log Deep
Example

Given: RFdR1w = 10 Q m/1 Q m = 10; R1LM/R1w = 1.4 Q mi l Q m = 1.4


Determine: d = 39 in., Rx0 1Rt = 18.5; R/Rrw = 0.95; Rt = (R/Rrw) Rrw = 0.95 Q m

Fig. 2-43 - R1 from Dual lnduction-Focused Log (R < Rxo)

-72-
-,

1 " ~; '" / .... 1

20
...
1

I
11

l ,nr
In
J,r ..n
1

, ""' -
=- j' :~11
11
t" ,... r

-
1' / i::nn
1/ J / A l.
I / I ~ 1 1"'11 ....
I 1/
' l///1 pv, l .
J b ~e
' ,V/ I 1q.>
/ u(.J'l ,/ 1.o ,..,.
J '
J
I
i'/'\
tY ./ / I
,. ~'
I J

j
1

1) ~ / / /40
10
- I
I
'

I 1r 11 .' i
/ I "/
_,

.... -.,. ~

8
.
..
, ..
~

I "
6
. '111 -
...
I ' 1

.
"
. '
5
''
~

.. -- 11 A

-,
,/
I Ji
nn
-
I'
I
~ I! ~
4 ' I j
'
IJ
" \


: . ,

~ n . ,
3
, ,,~
'\ I -- < ,,,.,
,

, ,,-
'~~ -
,-
I
I ,,, 11
""
>-

Rt > Rxo
- _,,' ,_ ... Thick Beds
,-

-~
1-
,- ,- il r1r~ 1-
,-
11..
, J 8-in. (203-mm) ,-
J 'I,

2 L I I ,, - 1- 1- Borehole ,-
,-
1 ,,. 'l / 1/,..,_ Step Profile ,-

--
I I 1 :, r1 No Skin Effect
'.A
/ 11
' I
r, -.
j / 'J
l IIW 11
~, fll
rj r
f//
r
3 4

This chart provides a method of obtaining R1 from the Dual lnduction-Focused Log readings where R
1
is greater than Rxo Rxo should be determined by an auxiliary survey such as the Micro Laterolog.
Example

Given: R1LDIRxo = 20 Q m/5 Q m = 4; R1LD/R1LM = 20 Q m/10 Q m = 2

Determine: d = 50 in. , Rx0 /R1 = 0.17; R1/RLD = 1.5; R1 = (RIRLD) RLD; 1.5 x 20 = 30 Qm

Fig. 2-44 - Rt from Dual lnduction-Focused Log (Rt > Axol

-73-
. '
. '
100

10 ......,.
o
X
a:
---0
_J
_J
a:

. . . : . . . . . . . . . . . :. . . . . . . . , ..... ....., .. . -~ .. ! . . . . . . . . . . ...... .... . .... .


................. ( Thick Beds
...,. 8-in. BorehoJe
: Step Profile
.. .. .. -~ ..... .. . ... ; . . . . . ! . .. ~ ..:- ... ... :- .. : .. . ...... . .... .

.. .2 ...............;............, ........: .. :

.1
.5 1 2 5 10 20

This chart provides a method of obtaining R1 from the Dual Laterolog readings where R 1 is greater than Rxo
Rxo should be determined from an auxiliary survey such as the Micro Laterolog. Rxo RLLD and RLLS
should be corrected far borehole effects befare entering this chart.

Example

Given: RLLD/Rxo = 63 Q rn/3 Q m = 21; RLrn/Ru,s = 63 Q rn/10 Q m = 6.3

Determine: d = 50 in.; R/RLLD = 1.5; Ri = 1.5 X RLLD = 94.5 Q. m

Fig. 2-45 - Rt from Dual Laterolog (Rt > Rxo )

-74 -
,,
Reminders About Correction Charts In conjunction with resisti vity recordings, SP measure-
ments are used by the geologist to locate the measured
Most reservoir rocks are of sufficient thickness that onl y depths of geological horizons, to determine thickness of
small corrections (often insignificant to final results) are individual horizons, and to make well-to-well compari-
necessary. Borehole size typically becomes more impor- sons of such geologicaJ entities. The SP curve is also uti-
tant as the size increases, and this is especially true whe n lized for other methods of log analysis that are discussed
inductio n devices are used in a high-salinity borehole later in this text.
fluid. Induction devices, despite the foc using, respond to
the most conductive routes between the array of transmit-
ters and rece ivers, whereas laterolog devices are strongly The natural vo ltage found in a mud-filled borehole origi-
influenced by the more resisti ve surro undings. nates from e lectrochemical and electrokinetic actions and
causes an electrical current to flow in conductive bore-
The tornado charts are generated with certain assump- hole fluids. The electrochemical component (Fig. 2-47) is
tions; e.g., specific hole size lusually 8 in. (20.3 cm)], caused by two potentiaJs, the membrane potential and the
step profil es of invasion (that almost never occur), and liquid junction potential. The formation is said to be at
sufficiently thick beds. The inductio n charts are built earth potential; therefore, the borehole fluid itself causes
assuming no skin effect. the chemical reactions that affect borehole fluid and
result in SP measurements.
SPONTANEOUS POTENTIAL (SP)

A self-induced, natural potential that occurs sponta-


neous ly between reservoir rocks and a fluid-filled bore-
hole is often called Self Potential. On a well log, it is
more commo nly referred to as the SP curve. The SP is
usually recorded in combination with conventional resis-
tivity or conductivity data and helps the analyst segregate
permeable strata from impermeable hori zons (Fig. 2-46).

RILO (ohm-m)
t
SP 1----- --- ---- ------------~ Permeable
20mV 1
2 2000
RILM (ohm-m)
1
- - 1 1- + 0.2 RFOC (ohm-m) 2000

0.2 2000

Fig. 2-47 - Electrochemical component of the SP

Shales tend to have a layered clay structure and the


charges on those layers allow shales to be permeable onl y
to the Na+ cations. When shale separates two solutions of
different salinities (e.g., R,,, and R 111 ), the Na+ io ns pass
through the shale from the more concentrated solution to
the less concentrated solution. The movement of charged
ions is, in effect, an electric current and the force moving
the ions causes a natural potential across the shale. ShaJes
pass only positive charged cations so, in e ffect, they rep-
Fig. 2-46 - SP identifies the permeable sand. resent an ion-selective membrane (Fig. 2-48).

- 75-
When the permeable zone is not shaly, the total electro-
chemical potential (Ec) can be calculated as follows,
Fresh
Mud
(Water)

Shale where w = chemical activity of the connate water,

a111 = chemical activity of the mud filtrate,


Salty Water
in
Bore- Sandstone and K = a coefficient or constant proportional to
hole (Permeable) absolute temperature. This is normally
taken as 71 (equal to 25C or 77F).

+
Chemical activity of a solution is in approximate propor-
+ Na+ tion to its salt content, which is similar to its conductivity.
+ '-
'- Therefore, if the solutions contain mostly NaCI, the
'- equation can be written in the following terms for log
Fresh
'- ,
analysis purposes,
Mud '-
Salty
c1 Water

Shale (-) Charge When the solutions contain substantial salts other than
Attracts (+) Na lons
NaCl, the value of K may be quite different. If the perme-
Repels (-) CI lons from the Sand
able horizon contains sorne shale or dispersed clay, the
SP is reduced somewhat and the effect and percentage of
Fig. 2-48 - Membrane potential - Fresh mud and salty for- shaliness must be considered.
mation water effects

Electrokinetic potential (Ek) is produced when an electro-


Within a permeable bed, sorne filtrate invasion will occur lyte flows through a nonmetallic, porous media. The
and where mud filtrate and native formation water come magnitude of such a potential is mostly determined by
in direct contact, a liquid junction potential occurs; i.e., the pressure causing the flow and the conductivity of the
both cations and anions can transfer from one solution to electrolyte. This is often referred to as streaming poten-
the other (Fig. 2-49). Anions (Ci-) have greater mobility tial. These effects are infrequent and usually difficult to
so that net flow is negative from the concentrated (saline) detect; they occur most often in low-permeability
solution to the diluted (less saline) solution. The current (< 5 md) formations where much of the pressure differ-
across the junction is produced only between solutions of ential is across the formation.
different salinities - when equality exists, no ionic
exchange occurs. In practice, the cause and effect of the NATURAL GAMMA RAY (GR)
liquid junction potential is usually much smaller than the
membrane potential (generally > 80%). Ali sedi mentary rocks contain sorne natural radioactivity;
sorne contain much more than others. The total gamma
ray (GR) measurement is a combination of the potas-
Shale
sium, thorium, and/or uranium elements present in rock
Membrane Potential and fluid properties of any particular geological horizon
(Fresh Mud Rmt > Rw)
(Fig. 2-50). The higher GR readings typically, but do not
always, occur in front of shale beds; lower readings usu-
Rw ally occur in front of other sediments (Fig. 2-51). The
/..,.F-+_ Liquid Junction Potential gamma ray, an excellent correlation log, is often recorded
in conjunction with resisti vity logs. The GR curve is
almost always recorded with resistivity measurements
Membrane Shale
made in oil-based muds, salt-based muds, or air-filled
Potential
(Extreme Salt Mud) boreholes. It can also be recorded with most other log
(Rmf Rw) measurements in open or cased hole (Fig. 2-52).

Fig. 2-49 - Liquid junction potential occurs between Rmf > Rw The total GR measurement can be separated into its
(or R 2 ) interface respective portions of potassium, thorium, and uranium

- 76 -
,-

O 4 8 14 20 40 60 80 100
Caprock and anhydrite
Coal

1

Salt
Dolomite
Limestone
....
1

Sandstone
Sandy limestone and
limy sandstone
"""'
...
Greenish-gray sandstone
Shaly sandstone
Shaly limestone
Sandy shale
Calcareous shale
Shale
Organic marine shale
Lean potash beds
Rich potash beds

Fig. 2-50 - Gamma ray response of sedimentary rocks (from Russell, 1941)

GR (A PI)

o 100 POK.100 LOG FORMAT 1

e-
:;>
-
- ""''l
~

p
lt
s~
-
r--::
"'-~
Apparent
Shale
i
-


,!
,..,,..-l> ~~ cf
rr
..... 1

~
.....<
,....- 1 t
K: t-- ~~ ,
-
11' PI 1
1 I< 1,, l!J 1 1
i.:=
- ,...!=- PDK-100 LOG FORMAT 2

'---- -'l
--------- -~
------~ '+---~ - ---
-;:, ~ 1
Cleaner
Sediments ~
~
,,..e >
>
l
1/
'7
---::::
~.,
>
~,..,,
"-... ~1
>
(>
r
<("

Fig. 2-52 - Cased hole gamma ray recording shown with pulsed
Fig. 2-51 - Gamma ray example neutron data

- 77 -
by a spectral analysis technique. This can be accom- GR DENSITY
plished with a device known as a Spectralog instrument 1
~.. PHOTOELECTRIC CORRECTION .. ~
~ .<:
.. CAL
(Fig. 2-53). Spectralog data will be discussed in more 6 16 O 10 -0.5 + 0.5

detail later. <Lf:.


-~
1~,...b
b
GR (API) K
o 100 !.:
KTh u ;:
L..-
100 Th ., : <,-.
1
;....;..+ft> :~ ,. )
.i~ 1
1 1

i:f 1-..;: ! ~ ,: 1 1 d'..


., - b
~ ' ~, 1 rc,.,, .. ;::l--t-:" 1
1 ,=.
. 1 1

t>
1
:1:, i ,... 1

...
1 l-t ,i:>

1
~ i ..~
'. ~
1
i , _:
,:.
(
' 1
'1
! ~~ ' 1 (.' 1~I
t' 1 1~
~

1-:
,,.,;
,_
'
; ! f:_ ~
1
: 1
1

~ 1
4'"~
::a- Fig. 2-54 - Compensated Z-Densilog
5
M example
1
~ '
1
t....,.. ' ~
'
'-t-+- ;:,;
k
:
1 t: -.. ~
,. ,,: r , IC,-
1. 1.
environment. Good contact is usually accomplished if the
r~ 1 1 1~ 1 r--
I~,...
1

-
.

1)-: borehole is not washed out badly or if the borehole wall


1 1 l.: .:.. 1 l<B'
~ - ~ is not too rugose. If pad contact to the borehole is lost, the
vfi ~j- ! -~~ 1
: ;p g. 1' p,
influence of borehole fluid becomes dominant to the
1
measurement. A second caliper is run in combination
with this device in sorne areas to provide a borehole pro-
file and positive orientation of the too! pad on the small
axis of the borehole. Measurement theory for density and
Fig. 2-53 - Spectralog example
photoelectric recordings are discussed in more detail in
Chapter 4.

WIRELINE DENSITY MEASUREMENTS


WIRELINE ACOUSTIC MEASUREMENTS

Logging devices that measure density characteristics of


the rocks traversed with the instrument are very impor- There are many types of acoustic measurements and
tant to openhole log analysis. Of ali the log measure- many different ways of obtaining them. This section con-
ments that are sensitive to porosity in rock, the density centrates on conventional acoustic log data obtained by
measurement is the most important because it provides a the use of one or two transmitters and two or more
bulk density (Pb) value that is most sensitive to effective receivers positioned at known distances from one another
formation porosity. The density tools actually measure on the tool string (Fig. 2-55). Sound from the transrnitters
electron density, which is very near bulk density and is coupled through fluids to the borehole wall, where it is
easily corrected in the instrumentation. A photoelectric refracted along the wall, refl ected back across the fluid
capture cross section (Pe) curve is presented on many of column to receivers, and recorded from an early com-
today's density logs (Fig. 2-54). The Pe curve, sensitive pressional arrival (Fig. 2-56). This measurement is
primarily to matrix lithology, is extremely helpful in den- known as acoustic interval transit time (~t), the interval
sity- porosity calculations. representative of the distance between the two receivers.
A knowledge of lithology and fluid type allows porosity
A knowledge of lithology and fluid density is fundamen- to be calculated by empirical means. The sound is also
tal to the porosity calculation made from a bulk density transmitted directly through the fluid column to the
value. A caliper is an integral part of the density tool's receivers. Since fluid velocity is much slower than the
recordings. A backup shoe forces the skid containing other sound path along the formation wall, direct fluid
source and detectors against the borehole wall during waves do not interfere with the desired measurement,
logging operations (Fig. 2-14). It is essential that the skid that of formation properties. A knowledge of fluid travel
make good contact to avoid the influences of the borehole time and lithology is needed to calculate porosity.

- 78-
- -
~ __ C2_A_!; J.!.nJ _ ,!_6~ ~AVEL TIME (ms)
100
O GR (API) 120 1- _ _ _ ..f.O..B._0.!_~ _ _ _ --l

VOL (cu ft) + 1o AC (MICS/ft) 10


H
om
.--..-------,----, 1~ ~

Electronics

11111 Transmitter

X
1\)

8
GR

a.: Receiver
11111 POROSITY
~

INTEGRATE
"'
-=.:-

TIME
MARK- BOREHOLE
Receiver
11111 ERS VOLUME

""' TD
X
"'
8
CURVE

11111 Transmitter

Fig. 2-56 - BHC Acoustilog presentation example

arrivals or Stoneley arrivals for more advanced interpre-


tations (Fig. 2-57); e.g., to determine the mechanical
properties of the rock strata or to derive an estmate of
permeability. Comparisons of compressional and shear
Breakpoint arrivals are also empirically related to lithology.

Fig. 2-55 - Scheme far BHC Acoustilog transducers Compressional


Transmitter Shear
, Fires ,l.

Acoustic interval transir time (one-way time) is often


cumulatively integrated in milliseconds over the logged
interval and used for comparison to seismic two-way Time
time. The data can also be used (often in combination
with density data) to create a synthetic seismogram. lnte- Fig. 2-57 - Generalized acoustic waveform
gration pips are printed near the right edge of the depth
track on the log (Fig. 2-56). Note the time markers on the
left edge of the log and the integrated hole volume pips to WIRELINE NEUTRON LOGS
the left of the depth track (Fig. 2-56). Hole volume is
integrated in cubic measurements of depth (feet or The principal use of neutron logs is to identify porous
meters) from caliper information and is very useful to rock and determine an apparent porosity (Fig. 2-58). If
completion personnel planning cement jobs. Acoustic the formation is shale free, the pores filled with liquid,
compressional arrivals are often compared to later shear and the matrix lithology known, the neutron log can be

-79-
GA(API) CN(%)
most satisfactory method for determining porosity, lithol-
o 150 30% -10%
ogy mix, and recognition of gas (Fig. 2-59). Neutron logs
CAL
~ .. . ......
6 16
are also used effectively with acoustic log data to identify
gas in shaly sands. The ability to record neutron logs in
cased holes has been a distinct advantage since the intro-
duction of the device (Fig. 2-60). A more detailed discus-
sion on neutron logging theory appears in Chapter 4.

WIRELINE DIELECTRIC MEASUREMENTS

Until the late 1970s, it was very difficult to differentiate


formations that contained heavy crude oils from forma-
tions containing fresh connate waters. Dielectric mea-
surements were introduced to resolve the problem
because fresh waters have a significantly higher dielec-
Fig. 2-58 - Compensated neutron example tric constant than most of the other measured fluid, gas,
or matrix properties. Dielectric propagation and attenua-
tion measurements permit differentiation between heavy
oil and fresh water, and although dielectric devices do not
used to determine the porosity. When gas and/or shale are necessarily read deep enough to be beyond filtrate inva-
present, or if the lithology is not precisely known, neu- sion, they segregate horizons so that the oil-bearing strata
tron logs will probably not provide for accurate porosity can be evaluated within reason.
calculations. Comparing the neutron log data to other log
data often resolves the presence of gas, volume of shale,
Both deep- and shallow-dielectric measurements are cur-
and matrix type. Therefore, neutron logs are often used in
rently being made, but their interpretation goes beyond
combination with other logging devices to determine any
the scope of this chapter's discussion (Fig. 2-61). The
or all of these parameters.
tools have found additional use in thin-bed analysis and
as flushed zone saturation devices in holes drilled with
The types of neutron logs range from epithermal (0.1 to
oil-based muds. Dielectric logging theory and interpreta-
100 eV) to thermal (a:0.025 eV) to GR interaction. Most
tion methods are covered in more detail later.
openhole neutron logs run today are compensated and
utilize a chemica1 source (AmBe or PuBe). The compen-
sated too! system employs two detectors at known WIRELINE PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS
distances from the source to provide sorne compensation AND FORMATION FLUID SAMPLING
for borehole effects. Neutron logs are also recorded in
cased hole; sorne utilize a chemical source, while others
Wireline-conveyed formation test tools can be seated by
use a pulse-activated accelerator source that generates
hydraulic packoff against the formation wall at any depth
about three times the energy of the chemical source. Dis-
in a borehole (Fig. 2-62). At different stationary depths,
cussion of accelerated neutron devices is reserved for
drawdown pressure, hydrostatic pressure, and buildup
cased hole formation evaluation methods. In the future,
pressure are recorded (Fig. 2-63). Segregated sample
most neutron logs will likely utilize accelerator sources
chambers can be opened at selected depths to retrieve
because of imposed environmental safeguards.
formation fluids or gases. Tool design allows any number
of pressure readings to be acquired along the borehole
Fundamentally, neutron log responses are a function of
trajectory in addition to two samples that can be segre-
the hydrogen present. Hydrogen is present not only in
gated or commingled in the two sample chambers.
fluids but also in many types of minerals that make up the
rock matrix. As a result, neutron devices are very
sensitive to rock composition as well as to pore space. Wireline pressure and sample data can be used to
When gas occupies part of the pore structure, neutron estimate permeability, suggest hydrocarbon producibili-
log data by itself will lead to a pessimistic calculation of ty generate pressure profiles across reservoir horizons,
porosity, but the fact that neutron devices are sensitive to and evaluate severa] other reservoir indicators. Detailed
the presence of gas makes them valuable tools when gas interpretative techniques with the wireline tester are dis-
is present. Neutron devices are commonly run in combi- cussed in Formation Multi-Tester (FMT) Principies,
nation with density devices in open holes, and interpreta- Theory, and Interpretation. Baker Atlas Logging
tive techniques have proved this combination to be the Services Publication No. 9575).

-80-
,...

,,

BHC COMPENSATED COMPENSATED


ACOUSTILOG NEUTRON DENSILOG
LITHOLOGY LOG
f INCREASES f l NCREASES f lNCREASES

.e:,/::: 130-1 1
P = 2 .3-2.7 g/cm3
Shale
-- ---
1- - - - - - 175 s/ft +reads high variable
variable (compaclion)
~---~~~-~-~-~-~-+-----+ -L, - - - - + - - - --
1
1
---, - i-
-
(densily shale)
1
,
.C,.I:::: 52.5- 1 p =
Sandstone 55.5 s/fl +:::: -4% 2.65 g/cm3
variable (compaclion)
i
,----- 1

Limestone
L:,.I
7 47.5 ,s/ft
- ,___
+:::: 0% p = 2.71 g/cm3
(Reference)

1
- --. --
1
,---
1
1
-
Dolomite I
I
I
I
I
61 :::: 42.5 s/ft '
+= (6-8)% P = 2.83
/ / / 2.87 g/cm3

+
I

+
I

+ +
/
~----~
1i
1

1
1
1
1
Anhydrite +
+
+
+
+ +
+ +
.c,.1 :::: 50 s/ft += - (1-2)% P = 2.98 g/cm3
+ + + . 1 1
- 1

-
1
1 1
Gypsum 61=
f = 48% P = 2.33 g/cm3
52 ,s/ft

- 1
1
1
-
1
1

1
,--

61:::: 67 s/fl += 0% p = 2.08 g/cm3


1
1- ---,,-
1

61 reads high +reads low P reads low


1 1

Fig. 2-59 - Generalized comparison of acouslic, neulron, and densily responses to several lithologies and gas

LOG MEASUREME NTS FOR BOREHOLE IMAG- Detailed dip processing can also resolve original depo-
ING AND FORMATION DIP DETERMINATION sitional features and their orientation patterns, and this
information can help determine drainage pattern s
Microresistivity pad traces can be recorded from three or needed for reservoir engi neering plans. With reasonable
more arms of a logging device in combination with cali- knowledge of the depositional environment, the detailed
per data and information on the too! orientation with
data can help resolve numerous sedimentological pecu-
respect to magnetic north, a vertical axis, and a third
liarities within specific reservoirs and be of great help in
dimension. These data can be used to calculate dip from
correlative elements (pad traces) across the borehole describing reservoir geometry. The acquired borehole
(Fig. 2-64). Dip data are often considered a too] to measurements can also be used for severa! other solu-
describe average structural tilt, but if adequately pro- tions, such as fracture detection, healed or open fractures,
cessed and compared to other types of data, these data thin-bed analysis, borehole directional surveys, detailed
can provide candid structural observations for the vicin- well-to-wel l correlation , detailed vertical correlation
ity of a wellbore or help describe the structural complex- (e.g., "sand count"), and for calculations of true strati-
ity of an entire reservoir. lnformation from other wells graphic thickness of a reservoir. Dipmeter uses are dis-
and surface seismic data are an important dimension to cussed in more detail in Fundamentals of Diplog Analy-
the interpretation of dip data. sis (Baker Atlas Publication No. 9565).

- 81 -
GR Deplh POROSITY

GAMMARAV NEUTRON OPEN HOLE


(API un.is)
o 100 NEUTRON CASED HOLE
----------------
45 o 30 15

~: -~
<J ~y
ID ~
.. r-,... ~ -7
-=:;;.
? ~ " - Neutron
~~ ~ Cased Hale

.>7{ <:_

....,,,
:t
-....=-~

~
-
- -=--
"'
r.. 8 -) ~ Neutron

} ..... / OpenHole -
~
::,.._

~
?
~
~->
~
) ~
__;- <...
"'i1> _;P-

Fig. 2-60 - Comparison of compensated neutron run before and


alter setting casing

A1 RESL
O A2 2 200 DEC
O RAT 2 so PHASE O
180 o

1: 1 1 '111 t. 1
1
r:. ~
1

\ 1, 1
i
-
1 1
',' : ' : ' ~ 1 1 1" ..'- i
<' 1 1--- .;_ ! , ,._,,_
1 1
..- e-
1
1,
>,,.
1
1 1
il ,......
e-
p
:.
_.,.,.- 1

., 1 l.--S .;.
1
~ '! ', 1
"'
o
o . e 1
1/ 1 <
i } 1
1
' "'-- l")t
111 )
.J : ,.
1
1 1
- 1 l
1
, J
Fig. 2-62 - Formation Multi-Tester (FMT) tool shown in open
and closed positions, and with an oblique view of the probe
Fig. 2-61 - Dielectric log example

Acoustic images can be acquired in any type of borehole a water-based drilling fluid and sufficient pad contact to
drilling fluid but cannot be acquired in air-fi lled holes. obtain good data, and they do not cover the entire bore-
Borehole images can also be obtained by pad-contact hole periphery. Jmages often identify bedding features
microresistivity methods. Acoustic pulse-echo measure- from which severa! synthetic pad traces are projected to
ments are very sensitive to enlarged, out-of-ro und bore- compute dip and describe planarity or nonplanarity.
holes, but often manage to provide meaningful data in Other features such as fractures, both natural and drilling
such extremes. Microresistivity imaging devices require induced, can be inferred, combined with borehole break-

-82-
,.....

- ,,

ORIENTATION FOCUSED CORRELATION CURVES


ANO CALIPERS

,.... 1 .. .
HV,C( Or l"AO NO 1

... ''
1 THINo. _ __
1
ANALOG
PSI ! R[CORDED DIGITAL SAMPLING PRESSURE
PSI
"Z1~ UTH
~
l'l[LAT l~ti IE:AAIHG
Jll:.t,C( OF PAO NO

r 'f .,,,. ..
- ,.., --- --
r, - , , 1 ,

1
i

Fig. 2-64 - High Resolution 4-Arm Diplog raw data example

;
1

W N N W N

AMPU TUOE TRAVEL TIME

'"'
15
GAMMA A.AY

CALIPER 2 OO CALIPER.: IS
300

i!, CALIPER 1:! O C...;,.;~~R 3 15


Q - - SPEE~-- 20
GAMMA RAY ISO

s:; ',

1
'
i ''
'
,,'
._<
''
.,,

''
,!
'1
Fig. 2-63 - FMT pretest pressure recordings
'
'''
'
''
1

out, inclusions in the borehole wall, etc. (Fig. 2-65). ''


Attempts are being made to determine the effectiveness
of these images for rock texture and other sedimentologi-
cal details. lnterpretative methods used for the specialty
tools are beyond the scope of this text, but for introduc-
tory purposes, it is important to understand a few of their Fig. 2-65 - Circumferential Borehole lmaging Log (CBIL)
example
applications and limitations.

- 83-
PRACTICAL WORK SESSION Problem 5

Problem 1 Are high GR values always representative of shale


zones? lf so, why?
Why is a circulated mud sample prefened over a mud
sample acquired from the return pit?

Problem 6

What is the basic difference between induction and later-


Problem 2 olog measuring systems?

Why is a representative mud sample important to log


analysis?

Problem 7

What is the difference between salt mud and fresh mud?


Problem 3

Why is the temperature important to mud measurements?

Problem 8

What are three of the most basic uses of wireline logs?

Problem 4

What causes the natural potential called SP?

-84-
Problem 9 Problem 12

Why is it so important that the log header be filled out as A well, drilled with fresh mud (R111 = 1 ohm-m @ for-
completely and accurately as possible? mation temperature), is logged with dual induction and
focused devices. A water-wet formation has Rw =
O.OS ohm-m @ formation temperature. How would the
three resistivity curves compare in relation to one
another?

Problem 10

A well, drilled with salt-based mud (R111 = 0.03 ohm-m @


formation temperature) through a reservoir rock (Rw =
0.03 ohm-m @ formation temperature), is logged with Problem 13
dual laterolog and microlaterolog devices. If the forma-
tion is 100% water saturated, how would the three resis- A well, drilled with fresh mud (R111 = 1 ohm-m @ forma-
tivity curves compare; i.e., which would read high, low, tion temperature), is logged with dual induction and
or in between. focused devices. The reservoir Rw = O.OS ohm-m @ for-
mation temperature, but is oil bearing (Sw = 25%). How
would the three resistivity curves compare in relation to
one another?

Problem 11

A well, drilled with salt-based mud (Rm = 0.03 ohm-m @


formation temperature) through an oil-bearing reservoir Problem 14
(Rw = 0.03 ohm-m @ formation temperature and Sw =
35%), is logged with dual laterolog and microlaterolog A well, drilled with salt mud (R111 = 0.03 ohm-m @ for-
tools. How would the three resistivity curves compare in mation temperature), is logged with dual laterolog and
relation to one another? micro laterolog tools. The oil-bearing reservoir (Sw =
30%) has Rw = 0.30 ohm-m . How would the three resis-
tivity curves compare in relation to one another?

-85-
,,

40
-' - -
30 "
.....
- ~

25
20 ,_ ,_
"
'
,...... - "-
,_
......
-
15 '-
" "- ,_
... .......
" ''
.....
...
10 ' -' '
-
..~---
~ 9 , .... .....
~
-
o
~
8 ' '- ' ....
.... J
?: 7 ' ' .....
....
; 6 "
e
o 5
(l.

4 ~ ,~ .. ..... .....
- ,~
~

'
-
~ .....

......
3 ' "" '-
1,
'-
...
~ '- ....
,_ '- '- ....
1v. ~ , ~

'
' i\. ' 11 ~
Ir
1, .......
2 1 1'- ~

- d \. '/ ' ,~ 1
l
r-. ,
-~ '
1,1' f"\
' - l!,m ',
1
2.5 5 10 20 50 100 200
'
500 1000 2000 5000 10,000
Formation Resistivity Factor, F

Porosity can be related to resistivity by any one of severa!


formation resistivity factor (F) relationships. The prob-
lem is knowing the proper conversion factor , a and m.
Formation factor is not a measured value; it is a linking
mechanism between resistivity and formation fluid and
rock properties. Formation factor has been described as
the ratio of the resistivity of a rock with pore spaces con-
taining only water to the resistivity of the water itself;
i.e., F = RJRw The chart above provides conversions for
severa( values of m and the common empirical conver-
sions. The appropriate relation from the chart should be
considered a prelimjnary approach if no additional infor-
mation is available. A clear understanding of formation
factor is very important for any individual who has an
abidi ng interest in learning to perform well-log analysis.
The F term will appear in numerous interpretative proce-
dures th rougho ut the remainder of this text. It should be
obvious from observing the above chart that F values can
vary considerably, depending on the conversion values;
i.e., a and m.

-86-
,,
Basic Openhole Log Analysis 3

The log analysis methods presented in this chapter pro- (4) Qualitatively, how much production?
vide relatively quick answers derived by using interpreta-
tive aids typically available at the well site. These meth- (5) What is the depth of the permeable beds?
ods do not rely on computer processing. Log analysts
must understand how and why data are manipulated, not (6) What are the thicknesses of those beds?
only for computer processing but also for interpretative
techniques developed for particular circumstances. Infor- (7) What is the estimated porosity and saturation of
mation from the following sources is used as input in those beds?
these analysis methods:
Other queries will be initiated, but seldom at the well site.
(1) General identification of formation boundaries Log responses, log analysis, and other information
sources are often discussed prior to testing subsurface
(2) Simple calculations horizons, but usually at a site remote from the well, and
usually by persons who must make the decisions that
(3) Interpretation charts impact their company economically. Engineers, geolo-
gists, log analysts, geophysicists, etc. with extensive
(4) Overlays of different log measurements experience are typically the advisors to management
during meetings of this type. However, in the case of
(5) Quick-look logs provided by automatic computa- small independent operators, critica! decisions are often
tion facilities associated with conventional logging made at the well site.
apparatus
PERMEABLE BED IDENTIFICATION
Sophisticated, computerized log analysis techniques give
accurate numerical calculations, but the individual who Sorne mini mal amount of permeability must be available
analyzes the log data must understand the quality of log in a formation or it will not produce. Permeability can be
measurements before readily accepting any interpretative increased artificially by hydraulic fracturing and/or acid
answer as accurate. Accuracy can be maximized by methods, but a minimal amount of permeability must be
there initially. Extremely expensive nitrogen fracture
( 1) Recognizing the inherent limitations of each inter- j obs and even nuclear detonations attempted in oil- or
pretative method and making allowances for those gas-bearing horizons with essentially no permeability
limitations have resulted in little or no increase in permeability.
Permeable beds ~an be identified quickJy by one of the
(2) Tai loring the system to be "fail-safe"; i.e., to err following indicators,
toward optimism. This provision acknowledges the
far greater cost of overlooking pay zones vs. the (1) Spontaneous potential (SP)
cost of testing a marginal horizon
(2) Invasion evidence from severa! resistivity mea-
(3) Where possible, constructing the technique to pro- surements
vide limiting values for inherent errors in the
system (3) Mudcake evidence indicated by caliper or
Minilog data
(4) Recognizing that quick-look methods are not
intended as a replacement or substitute for more These permeability indicators tend to confirm one
comprehensive petrophysical evaluations another. Porosity at permeable intervals, indicated by any
or ali acoustic, density, or neutron devices, adds
At the conclusion of logging operations, the client or cli- confirmation.
ent's representative on site during logging is primarily
interested in answers to these critica! questions, DEFLECTION S OF THE SP

(1) Will the well produce? The magnitude of spontaneous potential (SP) deflection
and hydraulic permeability of a formation have no direct
(2) lf so, will it be oil, gas, or both? relationship. However, when the mud is less saline than
connate formation water, permeable beds are often delin-
(3) Will production include sorne water? eated by negative SP excursions.

-87-
SP amplitude is a function of electrochemical and elec- adjacent shale beds and is therefore not usually sig-
trokinetic effects that take place between the drilling nificant toan interpretation.
fluid, permeable formation, and adjacent impermeable
shale beds. SP deflection normally occurs only if perme- (3) Shaliness within the permeable formation causes
ability exists to allow ion migration between the drilling SP amplitude reduction.
fluid and formation (Fig. 3-1). The following features of
(4) Bed boundaries become sharp transitions when
SP measurements should be considered: low-resistivity formations are encountered, but bed
boundaries are more ambiguous when high-resis-
(1) Electrochemical potential is generally the largest tivity formations are encountered.
contributor to the deflection.
(5) Shale baseline shifts are often observed when con-
(2) Electrokinetic effect across the mudcake is usually nate water resistivity changes from one horizon to
more or less in balance with similar effects across the next.

SP Curve
Uninvaded Mud Sand
Zone (Dilute
(Concentrated Solution)
Solution)

Fig. 3-1 - SP deflection is caused by ion migration that requires existence of sorne minimal permeability.

- 88-
(6) SP measurements cannot be made in oil-based
drilling fluids.
SPONTANEOUS
POTENTIAL DEPTH
RESISTIVITY
(7) Fluid movement in the borehole (streaming poten- Millivolts ohms-m2/m

tial) during logging may cause severe disturbances SHALLOW FOCUSED LOG
of the SP measurement; abnormally high SP 1.0 10 100 1000
deflections can occur in front of low-permeability
formations (no mudcake buildup) as a result of -+i fo-+ MEDIUM INDUCTION LOG
20
electrokinetic potentials across the formation itself 1.0 10 100 1000

(rare).
--------------------------
DEEP INDUCTION LOG
1.0 10 1()(. 1000
(8) In the case of no invasion, SP deflections may be --------------------------
reduced when an electromotive force across the
mudcake occurs (rare).

(9) SP profiles may have a "sawtooth appearance" --


opposite impermeable beds that are sandwiched
between zones of high vertical permeability (rare).

t=:
DIFFERENT RESISTIVITY VALUES WITH
DIFFERENT RESISTIVITY MEASUREME NTS
----
:----~ _:;_~ -
A formation can be invaded by drilling fluid only if it has
sorne permeability. lnvaded beds are defined by a
separation of deep-, medium-, or shallow-reading resis- - ~=-
.:.:: . :;_:-f-
tivity measurements recorded on similar scales. This sep- =
aration is caused by mud fil trate being either less or more
: ~--:-::..,
saline than the native connate water (Fig. 3-2), the shal-
low-reading curve being affected by mud filtrate, or the
:-:: = ..

deep-reading curve being affected by connate water.

lt can therefore be said that if R,,if> R11, , then Rxo will be


greater than R 1 in a water-bearing zone. However, if the Fig. 3-2 - Resistivity curves often differ in response where
formation contains hydrocarbons, the difference between filtrate invasion occurs.
Rxo and R1 will decrease and possibly reverse. A porosity-
sensitive log helps distinguish low-porosity, high-resis-
tivity zones from high-porosity, hydrocarbon-bea ring
zones (Fig. 3-3). When working with resistivity devices, remember these
basic premises -
lf R11if "" Rw, deep-, medium-, and shallow-reading resis-
tivity measurements should be almost equal in a perme- ( 1) The shallow-reading device is more affected by the
able, water-bearing horizon or an impermeable zone.
borehole.
More obvious separations of resistivity values occur
when permeable hydrocarbon-bea ring formations are
encountered because the hydrocarbons are flushed away (2) The deep-reading device is more affected by adja-
from the borehole by the mud filtrate. Therefore, R, > R cent beds.
> Rxo in most permeable hydrocarbon-bea ring forma-
tions drilled with muds having salinitics similar to that of (3) A caliper is useful for judging borehole effects on
the formation water. log data.

Hypersaline conditions occasionally exist; i.e., Rm << (4) The ratio of Rmto Rw is very important to these per-
R"' This is a much more difficult problem, but separation meability observations, and it is very importan! that
between Rxo and R deep is greater in hydrocarbon-bea ring values of R,,ifand Rw are accurate.
intervals than in water-bearing intervals. This condition
can also occur in injection or disposal wells. Imperme- (5) SP development indicates permeability but does not
able zones exhibit essentially lhe same resistivity values. quantify permeability.

- 89-
Resistiv,ty
SP & CALIPEA RESISTIVITY ANO POROSITY
_, Micronormal

-H DENStr"l'l'OAOSfTV
leo _ __ -------':--- ___ _ _ _____D
Microinverse

- """""
~-----------"
AESISTIVITY
~,,,,.._,

Shale

____ __ _ ----_ID
~-------- - ,. Tight

Shale
/

')
.- Permeable

_.I,
T ight --- --
.... Shale
( Permeable
< (Possible Hydrocarbon)

Permeable
(Water)

Ctliplt-' . Permeable
(Water-No lnvasion)

Shale

Fig. 3-4 - Typical Minilog responses

Fig. 3-3 - Porosity-sensitive logs help distinguish low-porosity,


high-resistivity zones from high-porosity, hydrocarbon-bearing
zones_
mudcake, the two curves read essentially the same resis-
tivity value. However, when the borehole is enlarged or
very rugose, separation can occur but does not represent
MINILOG INDICATIONS OF PERMEABILITY permeability. The microcaliper device obviously be-
comes important to the interpretation of Minilog data;
Depth intervals with appreciable permeability will have however, Minilog data do not quantify permeability. Pos-
deposits of mudcake on the borehole wall. Minilog tools iti ve separation and the presence of mudcake indicate
record micronormal and microinverse resistivity traces only that sorne permeability is present.
and microcaliper data. The two microresistivity measure-
ments are affected differently by the mudcake buildup; Minilog data are also ,ery useful for thin-bed analysis
i.e. , the 2-in. micronormal device investigates deeper and because of the fine vertical resolution of the measure-
is more affected by the flushed zone resistivity (Rx0 ), ments. The log is often used as a sand count device to
while the 1-in. X 1-in. (2.5-cm X 2.5-cm) microinverse determine the cumulative footage of permeable rock
device is more affected by mudcake resistivity (R111c) within a shaly sand interval.
This normally causes the micronormal to record a higher
resistivity value than the microinverse, a condition com-
monly referred to as "positive separation" (Fig. 3-4). CALIPER INDICATION OF PERMEABILITY
When mudcake buildup occurs, the Minilog traces usu-
ally read moderate values of resistivity ranging from 2 to Caliper tools can be run in boreholes that are reasonably
10 times the mud resistivity (R111). in gauge, and evidence of mudcake read from any type
caliper device is a good indicator of formation permeabil-
In negligible mudcake conditions, or occasionally with ity. Mechanical caliper devices are usually run with the
certain drilling fluids, the separation of the two microre- Densilog, Acoustilog, Diplog, Micro Laterolog, Thin-
sistivity traces may be "negative," but usually no separa- Bed Resistivity (TBRT5M), and Circumferential Acous-
tion occurs. If invasion does not occur, and there is no tilog tools.

- 90 -
,,
The tools that exert the least pad pressure tend to most Problem 2
accurately identify mudcake buildup. The skid-type
devices, such as the Densilog too!, are designed to elimi- Dual laterolog, microlaterolog, gamma ray, and caliper
nate much of the mudcake on the borehole wall facing data are available on the log below. Select the depth nter-
the skid. The relative axial position of the too! within a vals that are apparently permeable.
borehole may also affect mudcake indications.
Depth lnterval Depth Interval Depth Interval
The Circumferential Borehole Imaging Log (CBIL)
instrument makes a complete circurnferential caliper
measurement, but it is a pulse-echo measurement and
mudcake indications are not obvious. Mudcake thickness
does not reflect the amount of permeability, but instead
only that sorne permeability is present.

PRACTICAL WORK SESSION

Problem 1
GAMMA RAY OEPTH DUAL LATEROLOG
CALIPER MICRO LATEROLOG
Select the apparently permeable depth intervals from the
GAMMA RAY
log data provided below and list those depth intervals. (4,.,Vft,11-1

' .........'-:---- ': ----'~- '"?'--


'
Depth Interval Depth Interval Depth Interval OEEP LATEROLOG
()Mu.,...,.,,

~------r-----..!! '----!/ ------7 ------~ ------ i ~ -


MICRO LATEROLOG
,or,,,,,,.,, ....

[? '

SP
(Milt\oolt1)
OEPTH RESISTIVITY
- ~ :'
(Ohma-mJ/m)

I> : :::;-,
'
Slt .
02 10 10 ,oo 1000
.. 1 . . .. , .1. .L

ou, ,-ouenON lOO

-...
02 10 10
------L---------L---------'----------L-
100 1000
MLL'

l=:t:
::-... r-
.:::~
"'lJ 11111111
~Ldw ,b!JJl'.:0
-g:
~
lo.lit
l'ar-- I> I<
/(
f.,

, L.

1
,. _~
Is

- 91 -
"'

Problem 3 (2) Dielectric (particularly those recorded with the


200-MHz tool)
Minilog and caliper data are given below. Select the
depth intervals that appear permeable. (3) Short-spaced resistivity (short normals, spherically
focused, and focused)
Depth Interval Depth Interval Depth lnterval
(4) Gamma ray

(5) SP

(6) Borehole imaging devices

The correlative element being defined determines the


tool selected for identifying the top, bottom, and interme-
diate bed boundaries. These definitions do not normally
require tremendous vertical detail but do require the abil-
CALIPER DEPTH
RESISTIVITY ity to segregate the top and bottom boundaries from adja-
ohms m2/m
MICRO INVERSE
cent formations. On the other hand, when a series of
1" X 1" thinly laminated sequence of shale and sand is encoun-
HOLE SIZE - INCHES
O 40 tered, a too! with fine vertical resolution is required to
MICRO NORMAL
7 9 11 13 15 2 adequately segregate the thin permeable layers from thin
--- ---------~------------
40 80 impermeable layers.
8 f=+t IL: f 1: .
1
. ! :-
1 -
.:...:___ : ! Formation tops are important to geologists because they
=- ~ construct structure maps from such data. The depth
_; t...J ;_
selected as the formation's top boundary is subtracted
'
. ' from the log's surface zero measure point, which is typi-
: : j: ...
cally the kelly bushing (KB). As an example, a vertical
= __;_ ! : : well that has a KB elevation of 420 ft above sea leve! and
==-1 . --: -
= - - -. - _: ..::. ~
= a formation top recorded at a measured depth of 6,000 ft
.... - has a subsea structural top of -5,580 ft. In sorne geo-
-!- - graphical areas (Rocky Mountains, U.S.A.), surface ele-
vations are very high and subsea tops may be near sea
leve! or above sea leve!. In such circumstances, a KB ele-
= ~ CAUPER -== vation of 12,500 ft and a well depth to a specific forma-
tion top could be 12, 100 ft, resulting in a +400 ft struc-
= -a BITSIZE ===
tural elevation for the formation top. In deviated bore-
. r .-= : holes, the subsea top must be corrected to true vertical
1
,- depth. When both top and bottom depths of a formation
- e i _J
(apparent formation thickness) are being considered, rec-
ognize that measured thickness, true vertical thickness,
BED BOUNDARIES AND BED THICKNESS and true stratigraphic thickness can ali be the same or
completely different from one another, depending on
Bed boundaries are usually characterized by a change in hole drift, formation dip angle, etc.
lithology, such as sand to shale or carbonate to sand or
shale. A distinct change in porosity, resistivity, or perme- SPTRACE
ability indications often identifies the boundary on log
data. SP logs, recorded in fresh drilling fluid where formations
are mostly sands and shales of low resistivity, provide
A given tool responds to specific changes in circum- distinct bed boundary identification. These ideal condi-
stances. Different logging measurements have different tions provide inflection points that fall very close to the
vertical resolutions and are affected differently by bore- exact intersection of the boundary plane with respect to
hole effects, bed thickness, steeply dipping beds, etc. The the borehole. As formation resistivities become higher,
best logs from which to select bed boundaries are: the SP measurement begins to lose its pinpoint vertical
resolution (Fig. 3-5). In salt-based muds, the SP curve
( l) Microresistivity (Minilog, Micro Laterolog, Prox- tends to be a straight line. There is no valid SP measure-
imity, Thin-Bed Resistivity, and Diplog) ment in oil-based fluids.

- 92 -
,,

Static SP Values d

... ...
[ 16d

e --=::::::::: e e 2d

E E 8d

r r
1 1 11d
L L

Fig. 3-5 - SP is affected by bed thickness and resistivity variables.

Anomalous SP behavior is possible. For example, the


true SP response can be masked by fluids moving in the
borehole (Fig. 3-6). Lack of invasion results in no SP
amplitude development. Gas-cut mud also affects SP
readings by reducing amplitude and causing spurious
100 SP o o RESISTIVITY 100

readings and/or baseline shifts.

RESISTIVITY ANO CONDUCTIVI TY TRACES


1\)
.::,.
The specific peculiarities of resistivity and conductivity o
o
responses and the requirements for bed definition deter-
mine the effectiveness of these measurements in defining
bed boundaries.

Short Normal

Until recently, induction logs were recorded with the 1\)


o,
o
16-in. short normal as a shallow-reading device. If the o
contrast between drilling fluid resistivity (R111 ) and forma-
tion resistivity (R 1) is not great, the 16-in. (41-cm) short
normal measurement is useful for defining bed boundaries
and bed thickness. Resistive beds appear to be thinner
when measured by the 16-in. (41-cm) AM electrode spac-
I
ing, and conductive beds appear thicker by the same
amount (Fig. 3-7). Beds less than the AM spacing in thick- o~ t1!'----- ---j
o
ness show a reversa!; e.g. , resistivity reverses from actual
high to very low values (Fig. 3-8). High-resistivity forma-
tions (high R/R111 ratio) cause normal curves to become
distorted and behave with asymmetrical responses. Fig. 3-6 - SP with streaming potential

- 93 -
,,

o Qm 10 o Qm 10 O Qm 2 O Qm 2
1
1
1
16 in.
64 in. Normal~)
1O ft
J_ 16 in. Normal
I
/ 1 O ft
J_
64 in.
Normal 18 ft-8 in.
Lateral

T 1
''\ -
Borehole Parameters 1
1
dn = 8in. 1
1
As= 1 Qm 1
1
Am=0.2Qm 1
1
No lnvasion 1
1
1
1

Aesistive Beds - A1 = 1O Qm Conductive Bed - A= 0.2 Qm

Fig. 3-7 - Electrode spacings affect normal curve response.

o Qm 10 o Qm 10 SPONTANEOUS RESISTIVI f Y
POTENTIAL OCPTU
M 1ll1volts ohms m2/m
SHALLOW FOCUSED LOG
1 16 in. 1O 10 100 1000
1 18'-8" Borehole Parameters --1201- +
Normal 2 ft
I
' j_ ,/Lateral dn = 8 in.
As = 1 Qm
' \
T A m=0.2 Qm
/-64in. No lnvasion
Normal

Aesistive Beds - A= 10 Qm

Fig. 3-8 - Aesistivity reversa! occurs when beds are thinner


than a normal curve's electrode spacing.

Focused Log

Atlas' focused log instrument is a laterolog eight device


that is excellent for bed boundary definition. The loga-
rithmic scaling and wide measurement range make it an
excellent correlation device, especially in high-resistivity
formations (Fig. 3-9). No depth shifts or reversals occur,
and the resolution is determined by beam width. The Fig. 3-9 - Focused log example
focused log is usually recorded with dual induction data.
device as the standard shallow-reading resistivity too! for
Spherically Focused Logs (SFL) logging in fresh mud. Whereas focused devices focus a
planar current beam into the formation, SFL devices pre-
This resistivity device is similar to the focused log in serve a spherical potential distribution into the formation
terms of its vertical resolution and almost unlimited over a wide measurement range, including conductive
resistivity range. It is gradually replacing the focused borehole fluids. Two separate current systems are used. A

-94 -
"
bucking current system essentially eliminates most bore-
hole effects and establishes equipotential spheres sur-
rounding the tool. The survey current that flows through
the portion of the formation being investigated provides
current intensity proportional to formation conductivity.

Laterolog Devices

These devices provide excellent bed boundary definition


if there are large variations in the resistivities of different
horizons (Fig. 3-10). The measuring range covers the
extremities, but the deep device is especially accurate
and sensitive to changes at high resistivities. Again, no
depth shifts or reversals occur with this type device, and
vertical resolution is determined by beam width. Later-
olog devices are designed to respond to higher resistivi-
ties and are reasonably accurate up to and beyond
2000 ohm-m. Laterolog tool accuracy begins to diminish
slightly below l ohm-m, but these tools maintain their
sensitivity to changes in resistivity at lower vaJues. Verti-
cal resolution, or beam width, is not as fine as with the
microresistivity devices, but it is superior to the induction
systems. The types of rocks and high-salinity borehole
conditions for which laterolog tools are best-suited typi-
cally have low porosity and low permeability (higher
resistivities).
lfL~I OMnl'II


CloltlCl'IJ
................................. ......
Fig. 3-11 - Diagrammatic representation of the magnetic lace
1. 00 1100
field induced by the tool transmitters

1 I:>
<
t--
r~ fluids and empty holes, but they also perform well in
-, ls freshwater-based mud systems. SP and/or gamma ray
R curves and a shallow-reading resistivity measurement are

--_._._ <
usually recorded with induction measurements, and any
one of these traces is commonly used to identify bed
boundaries.
_,....>
-t---> The deep induction device usually measures sufficiently
deep into the formation to obtain a representative value
of true resistivity (Fig. 3-12). Dual-phase tools and array
> induction devices are designed for thin-bed resolution
-- '"' and estimates of R1 under adverse conditions caused by
layering of thin resistive and thin conductive beds
(Fig. 3-13).
Fig. 3-10- Laterolog example
Dual-Phase lnduction Logs (DPILSM)
Induction Logs
Dual-phase induction devices essentially measure forma-
lnduction tools have poor vertical resolution but are tion conductivity. Both in-phase and phase-quadrature
designed to measure most of their recorded signa! from signals from the formation are utilized to allow for more
deep in the formation (Fig. 3- 11). Dual-phase induction accurate skin-depth corrections. Under ideal conditions,
measurements improve vertical resolution somewhat, but the signals measured are proportional to formation con-
much of the improvement is dueto computer deconvolu- ductivity. The instrumentation allows measurements at
tion techniques of the additional phase signal. lnduction three different operating frequencies (10, 20, and
devices were originally designed for oil-based drilling 40 kHz). This capability allows accurate conductivity

- 95 -
,,
Microresistivity Devices
RILO {ohm-m)
SP ~-----------------------~
20mV
- -l 1- .
t ................... ~!~--(~
0.2 RFOC (olvn-m)
--~~ .................~~
2000
Minilog tools are capable of detecting laminae less than
02 2000 1 in. thick if mudcake is thin and Rm>> Rw. A separation
~ between the micronormal and microinverse traces (result-
~ ~
~ ing from mudcake) clearly defines permeable intervals
and their boundaries (Fig. 3-14). Proper mud conditions
~t::

~
"' ~ are necessary in order to use the data effectively. The pri-
i!
8 ~ mary use of the microlog data is to segregate porous, per-
~ 3:
I=
meable strata from other strata, but it can be used quanti-
tatively to calculate R xo in fresh mud conditions.
I=
~
~ Microlaterolog devices have slightly better vertical reso-
I=
lution than the Minilog devices and are best suited for salt-
based muds and mid to high values of formation resistiv-
ity. Thick mudcakes, which are more cornrnon in fresh-
mud systems, have a severe influence on the measuring
capabilities. The microlaterolog instrument is a focused
device designed for measuring flushed zone resistivity
(Fig. 3- 15), and if salt-mud invasion is shallow, the too!
will read a higher value than Rxo in oil or gas reservoirs.
Although these conditions adversely affect quantitative
interpretation, the drawbacks can actually enhance the
Fig. 3-12 - Dual lnduction-Focused Log example tool's ability to identify bed boundaries. Microlaterolog
tools respond to resistivity changes at both high (500 to
2000 ohm-m) and low values (0.2 to 50 ohm-m). Depth of
investigation is about 2 to 4 in. (5 to 1O cm), and vertical
resolution is approximately 2 in. (5 cm).
- - 1 1-+ 1----- ------------------~
-
1-01CH-r1,

- Proxirnity devices have a vertical resolution of about 3 in.


(7.6 cm) and measure deeper into the formation [ "'4 to
6 in. (10 to 15 cm)] than the microlaterolog device (less
affected by mudcake) (Fig. 3-16). lts purpose is to pro-
vide a reliable measurement of Rxo in fresh-mud environ-
ments. Because of the proximity tool's depth of investiga-
tion, resistivity values are often representative of the tran-
:: sition zone (R).

Thin-Bed Resistivity Tool (TBRT)

The TBRT device is similar in mechanical design to the


other microresistivity tools, but it is focused to read
deeper into the forrnation. Vertical resolution is about
, .
V 2 in. (5 cm), but the depth of investigation is from 15 to
... -~ 19 in. (38 to 48 cm) (usually in the transition zone) .
Although the TBRT instrument does not normally read
Fig. 3-13 - Dual-Phase lnduction Log (DPIL)example R1, it comes much closer to reading the resistivity of the
virgin zone in very thin beds than a deep-reading later-
olog or induction devic~. This is the result of its superior
measurements to be made over wider dynamic ranges vertical resolution and focusing attributes. The major
than is possible with single-frequency instrumentation. problem in thinly laminated, shaly sand reservoirs is the
The too] is most accurate at the 10-kHz transmitter fre- influence of conductive clay laminae vs. the sand lami-
quency when low-resistivity formations are encountered nae. A hybrid version of laterolog mandrel devices, the
(0.2 to 100 ohm-m), at the 20-kHz frequency when for- TBRT instrument incorporates closer-spaced electrodes
mations of 0.5 to 500 ohm-m are encountered, and at the mounted on a pad, and the measuring system is more
40-kHz frequency when formation resistivities range attracted by higher resistivity sand laminae. Toe TBRT
from 2 to 2000 ohm-m. device is an excellent correlation too! (Fig. 3-17).

-96-
,,

SP OEPTH RESISTIVIT Y

-
(Ohmsm21"'1
SP
MICRO INVERSE
20
1 111 ,M
H o 5
"
,.
MICRONOAMAl

o--------------7----
5
----------"
I',
r" 1
i 1
1 ! 1 1

r ""' 1
i
,__. f
~';;-- :,
1 1

!1
~._
~-
1
'/
'I ! 1
'> 1

--
1
1 1
1 \(' 1

k: 1 1
1 i' 1
1 1
1
1'-:;, !
1
i 1
1
1 - 1 1
1
1
1

1:1 1

Fig. 3-14 - Minilog data pinpoints porous and permeable depth intervals. The pad electrode arrangement is shown in the photo.

. " '"""
--------------~ l ( o,j '~ . \ , --
1 /.s' 1 :>
1
1
e'-
rl-: 1
-r 1
1

- ft'
~ 1:
~ ~
1 I
1 1

~ I
1
,~W--~ 1

+ e-'5 1
I

~ '
1 "'- 1
1
.....,"--P
~-~ 1
1
1
> 1

-~
~r--- 1
1
,..
.....
/
1
1
e::;::, ~
1
-., 1
'
-- - 1
- --
-
1
..
- -- 1

Fig. 3-15- Micro Laterolog electrode arrangement, shape of curren! beam, and field example

-97 -
MINILOG OEPTH PROXIM ITY LOG

AESISTIVI TY
,o,,m ...- ...,

MICRO INVEASE
' .'
" '
RESISTIVIT'I
,.
..
M ICRO NORM AL Qr,ms m'lm

t---" --~-, ----' ,o ,


" "' ""

.. :;
.'.:,...
:: ,...
..
:;';:>
>
1
7-
~ ,,
1 MI
.,, ",.. _PROX
1 ,.,
MN .'/
fl
-!;;:
.. 1

;;
g
.-

i
'
,\
:: I<
,
..;
,:71 1 '
i

- ....w
,-.: ..
1 li

Fig. 3-16- Proximity Lag electrode arrangement, shape of curren! beam, and field example recorded in combination with a Minilog

Micro Spherically Focused Log

The uSFL is a pad-mounted version of the SFL device.


Vertical and horizontal resolution of the SFL device gen-
QAMMA RAV {AF'I)
,,. ., ATBA(OHMMJ
"
. CAL IINCH)

.,....,
.,,.
.....
RNML (OtiMM)

Rl.Ml(OHMM)
..
erally lies between that of the microlaterolog and proxim-
ity logs (Fig. 3-18) but can approach the response of either
'o ' tool if mud salinity and invasion conditions permit.

1- - 1-- . _ . . _ , , ~ _ . _ .
Diplog Microresistivity Pad Traces

Very fine vertical resolution is found in the correlation


' ' traces of dipmeter instrumentation ("" 0.5 in. or 1.25 cm).
... Any of the pads may lose contact with the borehole wall,
but at least one or more pads will maintain contact. Dip
1- - t - ~-
pad traces have been found to be effective for well-to-
well correlation when other logging services previously
1-- - - 1-l--1+1--i">l-+-HI described could not fulfill the requirement (Fig. 3-19).
Depth of investigation is about 1 in. (2.5 cm) with con-
-, 1-...
1-- ventional pad electrodes because most of the signa!
comes from this distance into the formation. Thin-bed
analysis programs often utilize dip pad traces and block-
Fig. 3-17 - TBRT example ing techniques to refine sand resistivity values.

-98-
,.
Low-frequency dielectric instruments typically have a
larger vertical resolution than the 200-MHz device and
are designed to read deeper into the formation. Baker
Atlas ' 47-Mhz too! serves this purpose and is often run
in combination with the high-frequency too! as a Dual
Dielectric Log when conditions warrant (Fig. 3-20)
For 8-in. Borehole
and Thick Beds ~- - - - - -~F_(~
~ __ R4Sl (OHMM) _ _ ...
- - - - - 1
O
--Rxo >Rt 200 2 200
A2F (MV) A2Sl (OHMM)
--- Rxo== 0.1 Rt 2 200
GR (API)
~ - - - - 2001 ~--P2~ - -I
120 O
P4HS
120 9

~--- - -~~C_(~~- - - - -1
50 O

0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 o


Pseudogeometrical Factor

Fig. 3-18 - Comparison of pseudogeometrical factor response


of microlaterolog and proximity, devices

>

Pad 1 Pad2
I
Pad 3 Pad 4
,, '
-,:
V
,

Fig. 3-20 - Dual dielectric log presentation

t
2 ft

GAMMA RAY MEASUR EMENTS

Natural gamma ray tools usually provide excellent


correlation logs. Virtually ali the gamma rays that are
counted result from the total potassium, thorium, and/or
uranium in the formation and the borehole. ln most cases,
shale formations are the most radioactive , and most res-
ervoir rocks exhibit very low count rates (Fig. 3-21).

Natural Gamma Ray Measurements

Fig. 3-19- Dip pad traces have very fine vertical resolution. Natural gamma ray measurements have a vertical
resolution of about 1 ft (30 cm), but true vertical resolu-
tion depends on logging speed and filtering methods (or
time constant with older tools) of the averaging used to
DIELECT RIC MEASUR EMENTS
smooth statistically varying measurements. Measure-
ments made in formations that exhibit high natural
Dielectric instruments were originally designed to help gamma ray intensity have better vertical resolution
distinguish reservoirs containing heavy oil from fresh- because detector efficiency is improved at the high count
water aquifers, a difficult task with conventional resistiv- rates. At practica] logging speeds, gamma ray devices
ity devices. The high-frequency tools are generally can detect beds as thin as 1 ft (30 cm). In extremely thin
designed with fine vertical resolution, and they are use- beds, too! resolution can be enhanced only by logging at
ful as R xo devices in oil-based mud conditions. The very slow speeds. Gamma ray instrumentation is very
Baker Atlas 200-MHz too! is applicable for both these adaptable and can be run in combination with a Iarge
purposes and also gives excellent thin-bed resolution. variety of other logging tools.

-99-
,,

Radioactivity lncreases
Surface formations (30'70')
attected by cosmic ray pene- Gamma ray Neutron
tration. Log valueless. Fluid bearing Sand or lime
Non fluid bearing
Sandorlime
Shale
Shale Fluid and dense sand or lime
Sand or lime Shale
Shale
Shaly sand or lime
Shaly sand or shaly lime Shale
____ .,,_ Shale Fluid and dense sand or lime
Sand or lime. Broken with intermittent grading to shale
sandy shales. Grades to shale on bottom Shale
Shale Marine shale appears on normal shale
- Marine shale. Volcanic ash. Bentonite. Shale
Shale Dense sand or lime
Sand or lime. Fairly uniform. Fluid bearing on bottom
Shale
Shale, vares in radioactive material.
Caprock fluid bearing or dense
::::i: Caprock. Calcite or lime. Gypsum. Anhydrite
Anhydrite Salt
Salt Anhydrite
- - - - - - Anhydrite Potash, etc.
Potash beds, sylvite or polyhalite
Shale Shale
Anhydrite Anhydrite
Shale Shale partly washed out
Sand or lime Dense on top. Fluid on bottom
Sand or lime Shale
Shale not uniform in radioactive material Shaly sand or lime grading
Shaly sand (or lime) grading
to clean sand or lime dense
to clean sand (or lime)
Shale with intermittent sandy Shale with sand stringers
shales and twin sand stringers
Radioactive shale or radioactive sand Differentiated shale
sand and hme dense
or lime, dependmg upon area.
Shale
Shale Anhydrite
; : : Anhydrite Shale
Anhydrite
Shale Shale
Lime Lime dense
Dolomite Dolomite dense
Lime Lime dense
Dolomite Dolomite fluid
Lime dense
Lime
Bentonite shale
Bentonite Lime dense
Lime fluid
Lime
Lime dense
:.:..:_-_-_-_ -....:--;. Shale Shale
Lime
Lime Lime fluid spotted
Lime dense
Shale Shale
Lime
Lime
Dolom1te Dolomite dense

Lime normal Lime dense


or radioactive Radioactive

Granite
Granite

Fig. 3-21 - Gamma ray and neutron responses to different type of formations174

A major advantage of the gamma ray device is that it can Natural Gamma Ray Spectroscopy Tools
be run in cased holes. Although the presence of steel
casing will reduce gamma ray count rates by about 30%, Spectral analysis can identify the percentages of potas-
and statistical fluctuations will show a corresponding sium and parts per mi Ilion ofthorium and uranium. Any of
increase, log characteristics are otherwise unchanged the three traces can serve as distinct correlative elements
(Fig. 3-22). in certain c ircumstances. For exampl e, high uraniu m

- IOO -
dominant lithology (Fig. 3-26). Interbedded stringers of
GAMMA RAY evaporite and carbonate no thicker than 3 ft (91 cm) can
(API UNITS) also be identified. Porosity values can be calculated from
O.H. Lit, combination of llt and Pb, or Lit and <l>N-
o 150
___ C.H. __ _
O 100 Acoustic transit time (Lit) data are often integrated to pro-
vide a borehole time (in milliseconds) to correlate to sur-
face seismjc time. Transit time data are frequently used to
~

1-----+-"---l
u,
~
create synthetic seismograms for direct correlation to sur-
o face seismic and to calibrate velocity checkshot surveys.
o
Observations of compressional Lit vs. depth are useful in
identifying pressure gradients and overpressured hori-
zons, and with sufficient well control, a description of
tectonic events can be ascertruned. These uses of acoustic
data are discussed in subsequent material.

The Digital Array Acoustilog5M (DAC5M) instrument uses


two low-frequency transmters anda 12-receiver array to
record compressional, shear, and Stoneley waveforms
simultaneously (Fig. 3-27) in either open or cased hole.
u,
t----:~---1 ~ Waveform amplitude, coherent slowness, and arrival
o
time (llt) processing of raw data are available for use in
advanced log evaluation routines that estmate lithology,
evaluate severa] rock properties including fractures, and
supply an estmate of sand production. Synthetic seismo-
grams can also be constructed from the DAC data.

NEUTRON MEASUREM ENTS


Fig. 3-22 - Comparison of openhole and cased hole gamma ray
curves in the same borehole
Sensitive primarily to hydrogen and to lithology changes,
the neutron log is often an excellent correlation too!,
especially in cased hole (Fig. 3-28). This tool's primary
values identify organic-rich shales that represent source limitation is the effect of gas, but gas effect on neutron
beds (Fig. 3-23). High potassium content is found in glau- measurements can also be used to advantage if other
conitic sands, micaceous sands (Fig. 3-24), concentra- porosity-sensitive measurements are available (Fig. 3-
tions of illite clays, algal limestones, etc. Thorium-rich 29). Neutron logs often provide the best depth control for
marker beds such as bentonite can easily be identified perforating in carbonate reservoirs where thjn porosity
with spectral gamma ray data (Fig. 3-25). Spectralog stringers are the completion target (Fig. 3-30).
interpretations are discussed in more detail later in this
text. DENSITY MEASUREM ENTS

ACOUSTIC MEASUREM ENTS Bulk density recordings are used with a gamma ray curve
as a base correlation log in areas where air drilling is
Conventional measurements of acoustic transit time (Lit) common, such as in parts of Arkansas and in the Appala-
in salt, anhydrite, and gypsum demonstrate relatively chian Basin (U.S.A.). Bulk density is the log measure-
constant log responses. Boreholes are normally in gauge ment used most often to identify effective porosity. Verti-
through carbonate and anhydrite formations, but may cal resolution is on the order of I ft (30 cm), but the mea-
enlarge somewhat through salt beds. Salt transit times are surement is sensitive to logging speed and statistical vari-
typically 68-72 sec/ft, depending on borehole effects. ations. Gas occasionally affects the density measurement
Anhydrite beds read 50 sec/ft and provide an acceptable (in high-porosity, high-permeability zones when invasion
downhole log quality checkpoint. Low-porosity lime- is very shallow), but when the density and neutron tools
stones usually read from 47 to 50 sec/ft. When recorded are run in combination, the two measurements comple-
simultaneously with gamma ray and caliper data, the ment one another. They respond to gas effect in opposite
acoustic Lit measurement is a good correlation device in directions with respect to their scaling, and the separation
areas where carbonate reservoirs and evaporites are the of the two traces readily identifies gas zones (Fig. 3-31).

-101-
.
Depth Gamma Aay Oepth Aesistivity

-
Total counts Counts per minute spontaneous
(ft) (ft) n - m
potential
Potassium
o 0.5%/CD GR 10 100 1,000
Uranium ~------.-------
O API 150
o 02.0 ppmiCO
API units SP
o 150 o mV 100

T -~ l)
1 :
__.._ ::, 1
1 .- ~- ::
1

.. \ . . . ...
--
.. ..1.. .. .. ~- .... <: _,,
~

,,: J: -- --
-- - .. -- .. ,.,. -- --- -
~

-----
>
1
;
I :- ~ ,'

)
1 -- . ,
-- (f)
:
.. .. -- ... - - -.
., --
.. o,
oo ~ ~-
~
:r o-
o
"'
;;- ~ X "
1 1 / X
X [g ~-.
\J
8 ~,...._

~
+
( \
'/
(J\ '
) ;;: ~ !
;;:
-- ...,o I"-'<
()
,..._._-_ - [i ! (: 1

).-- --.. ---- --- ( !


-- .. --- ,.,,. .... ..... .......... D 1
j_ ~
..._ '
,.-
el
'
~
> 3 :!.
(l) o:,
t:,
11 ~ '
1

1
1
' 1 X
X t., '

i
! 1 "' o
o
j. :' 1 1l
1,

Fig. 3-23 - A Woodford well in Oklahoma was recompleted based on through-casing natural gamma ray spectral log data. Selectively
perforated as shown, the well produced 600 BOPD and 1.5 MMcf/D.

The photoelectric trace (Pe) adds important data that accurate log analysis approach for determining porosity
indicates lithology type (Fig. 3-32), thereby improving (Fig. 3-33). The combination of neutron, density, and Pe
the analyst's ability to estmate porosity from the bulk curves leads to more accurate determination of lithology
density measurement. and gas effect and, subsequently, more confidence in
porosity determination (Fig. 3-34). The combination of
COMBINATIONS OF POROSITY/ three information types provides more detail for well-to-
LITHOLOGY-DEVICES well correlation of porosity and lithology.

Combining density and neutron data al lows for a descrip- Acoustic log data can enhance the lithology description
tion of two-mineral mix, adequate porosity determina- and often aid in describing the type and amount of poros-
tion, and indications of gas being present. Crossplotti ng ity. The combination of ali three logs (acoustic, density,
neutron and density data is considered to be the most and neutron) is discussed in Chapter 5.

- 102-
- ,

TOTAL COUNTS COUNTS PER MINUTE

Potassiumn 0.24%/CD GR (API ) AC (,sec/ft)


o O 200 140 40
Uranium 1.24 ppm/CD ~ ............CAL (in.) ...........4 ACO
16 80
o .
TEN.(lbl ............ ..
CPM Thorium 7.1 ppm/CD 4500 -500
15000
-::,
>

>
.... .... e
"\.,

__.,,
__
I',

J <ei-- _ _ _

e
_:s
s
___
- - - - TOTAL
.....,. COUNTS :::::...,
-,
....
I< ~
/ r
Fig. 3-24 - Potassium-rich rocks w
' o
8

Fig. 3-26 - BHC Acoustilog example

o 40
...
o
u,
o

Fig. 3-25 - Hot gamma ray caused by thorium-rich bentonite


marker bed.14

- 103 -
,....

,,

Compr Shear Stoneley

Rec 1 :

Rec2

Rec3

Rec4

Rec5

Rec6
14 ft - o in. 1
I
I
l 1

~ ~
(4.27m)

Rec 8 ! \ \

3.38 in. 6.0 in. Typ.


(85.7 mm) (0.15 m)

X-+-----

8 ft - O in.
(1.83 m)

12 ft O in.
3.38 in.
(3.66m)
(85.7mm)

X-+-----

3.75 in.
(95.3 mm)
3 ft. - O in.
(0.91 m)

------+---"-T2
8 ft - 3.0 in. 2 ft Oin.
(2.51 m) (0.61 m
______._

1
T1

Fig. 3-27 - Digital Array Acoustilog (DAC) downhole instrument and receiver signals

- 104 -
,.

,,

,_____.
CCL
100 . O
GR (API) NEU (API)
GR Dept h
o 100 500 1500
POROSITY

GAMMA RAY NEUTRON OPEN HOLE


!:, ,-
- 8
,_
-1=
(AptUnllS)
~ - EE
o

~:
100
~---~-- -~---~-
45 o30--
NEUTRON CASED HOLE

~
15 -
-
- l=:>-:-

- - -- t::t= -_

lJ ~ L :'!:.
( ~
~ ~ ~~
........ ~? ~

--
? -e::::;

.> ~ ---" I<-.


Neutro n
Cased Ho le
~

.i!::_
~
..,,, -=--,, -- p
o
CD
8
~ o
.......,
lt' '"
~

8
t:.
}
> /
~ Neutron
Open Hole -
"""'::...
~~ ~
1P -~
~->
~

....J ~
~ <....
Fig. 3-28 - Gamma ray and compensated neutron recordings Fig. 3-30 - In carbonate reservoirs, neutron logs offer excellent
before and alter setting casing. correlation for perforating depth control.

o.;,~u.:v 1 OEPTH Hit ACOUSTIC 28


39
NEUTRON
(~)
NEUTRON
21 3t __ __ _ _ _ ____ (1141) _ - - __ ---- _ _ 21
- - DENSITY- - - - - - - - - - - - OENSITV --- - -------
{9f'Ncef ACOUSTIC
(gffVCCI

1
SANOY SHAL.E

----,f---, -P~- --I_L

GAS IJ.EARING
SHALY SANOSTONE

GASIWATER
(OEFINEO 9 Y
COMPUTERIZEO
SAHOSTONE
1 ANAl.YSlS)
OENSITY

Fig. 3-29 - Gas zones are identified by comparison of neutron to acoustic or density data.

- 105 -
GAMMARAY DENSILOG-NEUTRON

1 :.,_ CALIPER

/ 1/1 1.9
BIT lt Pt = 1.0 g cm - 3
SIZE i/
1 2.0
Salt

2.1

2 .2

2.3
'
1

~ 2.4
,Q
NEUT RON e,,
POROSITY ~ 2.5
;;
e
a,

~ 2.6
a b 'S
(D

2.7

Fig. 3-31 - Gas effect on neutron and density logs


2.8

2.9
Anhydrite
...___ ..____..____..___ _ ..____..___~
-10 o 10 20 30 40 50
Gas- Oil- Water- Compensated N eutron Apparent Limestone Porosity (%)
Filled Filled Filled
Porosity Porosity Porosity

Calcita o 1())

Dolomita

Quartz
o
o e
iil
Fig. 3-33 - Crossplot of density and compensated neutron

1.8 o
o
o o o
2.0 e
o o
35 o
iil
2.2 35
M
1
E
u
.9 2.4
~
;
e
a,
o
2.6

2.8

3.0 .__ _........_ __,.__ ____._ _ _..___ ___.___ __,


o 2 3 4 5 6
Photoelectric lndex, P8 (b/e)

Fig. 3-32 - Photoelectric index data are influenced by lithology


and improve porosity estimates from bulk density data.

- 106-

FORMATION
CORAELATION WATER BUlKYOlUME
CURVE SATURATION ANALYSIS

GR (API) CNC (p.u.) LIMESlONE


o 150
' ---------------------------------~
45 -1 5
GAMMARAV
DENSILOO
AVERAGE :TER SATVRATION
(API) (OGAj s.
_DENSITY CALIPER (in .) ZDEN (g cm - 3)
150 25 (ocm, 3.0 100 o;,

6 16 3 BULI< YOLUME
Y-CALIPER (in.) ZCOR (g cm - 3) AVERAGE
..... .
~
{OOAC)
6 16 -1.5 0.5 25 __ (gcm') ~- 3.0
P (ble)
,............................................................................
8
.
O 10

,: '\--
~,; .::
.. _..,

:. ;:.
' ~,i,:
.
X
X
o
o i;'..
1
!
-:.

I>
....:: -:::1- -

- .."'
X
X

' "' .. > ' t,


::;
,-..,:.:
~t::,

t: b :
- '- .. ...;; ~

-;~I>
- t--

,;:,;/, ~~!,,

'::>

('
::,
1 '
..
X
X
g;

---
=~

Fig. 3-34 - Z-Densilog and complex reservoir analysis examples

PRACTICAL WORK SESSION Problem 2

Problem 1 The client requests ground level be used as the zero re fer-
ence point for ali wireline logs. You are given informa-
From the log on page 108, select the depth representing tion on a land rig that has a surveyed KB elevation of
the top of the sand reservoir. If the log was zeroed at the 82 ft above sea level and a surveyed ground level of
KB elevation before entering the well, and the borehole 39.5 ft above sea level. The too! measure point cannot be
is relatively vertical (< 2 hole drift), what is the subsea observed at ground level inside the wellbore. How would
top of the formation? _ __ _ _ _ _ _ __ you resolve depth measurements to satisfy the needs of

-107-

the client? Answer in the spaces below or sketch it out in
the blank space provided.
-
SPONTANEOIJS POTENTIAL _,_
CONOIJCTIVITY

INOUCTION CONOUCTIVITY
o-SPACtNG
ioo
--1-1--

IN0UCTIONFIESIS11VITY
""
40"SPACING
~ - - - - - - _J;:J
------- -~
' '
1

' <
'.
\1
''
'
1
/ ))
1 \
1
l
1 ;\
-
)
/V -~ ~
{ J
, ,/ <
\ 1
V /
' \
/
',/
'1
1
"->
"
'
\ '
1
1
1
1

1 \\
1 I
1

,,.,,\
~
f ,/

CONNATE WATER RESISTIVITY (Rw)

The resistivity of formation water is one of the most


important parameters in openhole Iog analysis because
an Rw value is required to calculate fluid or gas saturation
in the reservoir rock's pore space. Formation waters
evolve from diverse sources: newly formed waters, sea-
water, rain, and waters produced from diagenesis. Many
formation waters have undergone almost continua! modi-
Problem 3 fication since the begi nning of geologic time. The chemi-
cal composition is often modified by filtration through
From the log data, select the top, bottom, and apparent clay particles, by ion exchange, by precipitation of min-
net thickness of the permeable reservoir rock. erals, and/or by reaction between rock matrix and other
fluids.

Marine sediments initially had seawater filling pore


space, but chemical composition of seawater does not
remain constant over large subsea depth intervals, large
geographical areas, or throughout long periods of time.
Nevertheless, most seawater has probably not undergone
significant change over geologic time.

- 108-
,
Coastal deposits often demonstrate considerable salinily (6) Pressure gradients from Formation Multi-Tester
variation, and continental deposits, including lakes, may (FMT) data can be translated to density and density
have water variations from very low to very high salinity. can be converted to equivalent parts per million
In most cases, subsurface connate waters increase in NaCI, which can be converted to Rw
salinity with increasing depth. Unusual situations do
occur, such as in the Malay Basin where waters become (7) Calculation of Rw in an adjacent shale bed using
less saline with increasing depth. This basin is believed acoustic transit time of the shale to determine F
to have been an enclosed freshwater lake that gradually and using a deep resistivity device for R0 , and then
became accessible to the open sea. Because of these resolving from the F/R0 relationship. CAUTION:
events, sand bodies at shallow depths have highly saline This method can lead to error and should only be
connate waters, whereas sands below 5,000 to 6,000 ft used as a last resort.
often contain fresh water (Rw values > 1 ohm-m).
Rw Catalogs
Considerable variation in water salinity can occur within
a basin. Occasionally, salinity is quite different in the Water data are documented and cataloged for severa)
same reservoir rock on two sides of a sealed fault. Salin- areas of the world. Professional societies, oil companies,
ity variations can occur over short horizontal or vertical governmental agencies, and service organizations often
distances. Filtration through clays is apparently one of undertake a project of documenting formation waters.
the primary mechanisms for causing sorne unusual salin- Cataloged water data are available for the North Sea, and
ity changes. published data for the Rocky Mountain region of the
U.S.A. are available through the Denver Well Logging
Water density is dependen! on salt content, temperature, Society. Cataloged data are usually given for specific for-
and pressure. Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of mations with geographical references, depth of the hori-
a substance to that of water at a specified temperature. zon, and at a specified temperature (Fig. 3-35). Large
Water density decreases with increasing temperature but amounts of the data are often cataloged on particular
increases at higher total salid concentrations and higher fields.
pressures.
When using cataloged water data, res1st1v1ty must
Yirtually ali porous rocks contain sorne water. Ionized be corrected to the downhole formation temperature of
salts in solution cause formation water to be electri- the well being analyzed. Temperature correction of
cally conductive. Water resistivities can range from resistivity can be performed by chart or by mathematics
O.O! ohm-m to severa! ohm-meters at reservoir temper- (Fig. 3-36). Either formation waters or drilling fluids can
ature. Sodium chloride (NaCI) is usually the dominant be corrected to formation temperature.
sal! in solution, and the resistivity of the NaCI electro-
lyte normally decreascs with increasing salt concentra- As an example of using the chart, simply draw a straight
tion because the larger amou nt of ions carry an electri- line between known values; e.g., 2 L0F and 0.05 ohm-m.
cal charge and higher temperature that affects ion The line should intersect the center string of the nomo-
mobility. Formation water resistivity (R11.) is often easy graph at ""' 50,000 ppm. If formation temperature is
to determine, but occasionally it becomes very difficult 160F, extend a line from l 60F through the 50,000 ppm
to find an accurate value for this very important petro- point on the center string of the nomogram, and read the
physical parameter. Severa! sources or methods are corrected resistivily as 0.065 ohm-m at L60F.
used lo determine Rw,
When using the Rw catalog source in formation, the
( 1) Cataloged water resistivity information source data should come from a well relatively close geo-
graphically to the well being analyzed. This type of salin-
ity information is used to augment or verify an Rw value
(2) Measured resistivity and temperature of a produced
determined by other meaos.
water sample from the reservoir horizon

Resistivity and Temperature of Produced Water


(3) Chemical analysis of a water sample produced
from the reservoir
The most direct method of determining Rw is to measure
the resistivity and temperature of produced water. The
(4) Calculation of Rw from the SP trace water sample should not be contaminated with mud sol-
ids, mud filtrate, oil, or gas. These materials may alter the
(5) Calculation of Rw from reliable R0 and q> values in resistivity measurement. Produccd water is often gath-
a known water-bearing horizon ered and stored in containers for this purpose.

- 109-
~

"'

"T1
<p"
c.> LOCATJUN
w
u,
1 COUNTY FORMATIUN
-------------
SEC TWP RANGE OPERATOR LEAS E OEPTH RW T EMP s ,k
m
X
ll)
3
"O
UKFUSKH TRENTON l(! 12 N 7 E 4198 0.043 100 u
ro OKFUSKEE UNION VLY. 10 12 N 7 E 3784 0.039 100 u
g_ OKFUSKEf UNION Vl Y. 9 13 N p f 3534 0.040 lOU u
a.
El. OKFUSKE:E W1 LCOX 6 10 N 9 l. 4185 0.040 100 u
ll)
OK FUSll:EE WlLCOX 2b 11 N 8 E 4273 C.037 100 u
o OKFUSKH WILCUX 3 11 N 11 E FERGUSON OIL JOHNSON l 3712 0.082 100 T
3
ll) OKFUSKEE WILCOX 11 12 N 7 E MAHONEY DRLG BADGER 1-A 3300 0.077 100 T
:E
ll) OKF-USKH WILCOX 30 12 N 9 E 0.045 100 u
: OKFUSKH: WILCUX 14 13 N <, ( 3A09 0.045 100 u
(")
OKLAHOMA ARBUCK LE 18 11 N 2 W 6474 0.039 100 u
s:
o OKLAHUMA ARBUCKLE. 19 11 N 2 W C 1T IES SERVICE FARLEY A-5 8300 o.054 100 p
(Q
OKLAHOMA AKBUCKLE 19 11 N 2 W 6075 0.039 100 u
lJKLAHUMA AR[fCKLE 3() 11 N 2 W 0.039 l 00 u
UKLAHOMA Af< l\UCI< LE 3() 11 N 2 W 6499 0.038 100 u
OKLAHm1A AkBlJCKLE 31 11 N 2 W SKELLY OIL CO M l HOOPS 3 6331 0.036 100 u
OKLAHOMA ARBUCKLE 13 11 N 3 W 0.038 100 u
OKLAHOMA ARP.UCKLE 24 11 N 3 W 6475 0.039 100 u
(IKLAHOMA Af-'.BUCKLf 21 29 N 1 E VARN PETN #1 MCCORMICK 3425 o.05fj HO p
OKLAHOM.A B 1 VILLI:: 2 14 N 2 W 5673 0.038 111 O u
o OKLAHOMA Ei'Vll LF 31 14 N 2 W 5996 l'.034 100 u
1
OKLAHOHA BOlS D 1 ARC 3 12 N 2 W 6317 0.064 100 u
Ol<LAHOMA BOIS 0 1 ARC 5 12 N 2 W GULF #1 WRIGHl HEIRS 6318 0.0~5 100 u
OKLAHLIMA BC'IS D1 ARC 5 12 N 2 W 6317 0.035 l 00 u
OKLAHClMA BOIS LPARC 1 12 N 3 W STANOLIND TRACT 46 #45 0.129 100 u
UKLAHOMA BfJIS l.i 1 ARC ~ 12 N 4 W 7288 0.039 1 o, u
OKLAHCMA Bl' I S lJ I ARC 34 13 N 2 W C.fl38 100 u
OKLAHOMA B(IJS [11 ARC 36 13 N 3 W 6443 0.035 l 01) u
CKLAHOMA BOIS D 1 ARC 36 13 N 3 W 6443 0.035 l 00 u
OKLAHOMA BOIS D 1 ARC 6 13 N 4 k 7142 0.042 100 u
OKLAHOMA BOIS 0 1 ARC 33 13 N 4 W 7176 o. 0"'\8 100 u
UKLAHOMA BCIS D1 ARC 32 14 N 4 H 7073 0.040 100 u
CKLAHOMA CHtCK !:- R f.-. k 11 13 N 4 W e; L REASOR SITTL INGTON l 5700 0.029 100 p
OKLAHOMA CHl::.CKfRE:RD 36 14 N 4 W ROY MC ANINCH STATE l 5686 0.040 100 u
OKLAHOMA Ct-lECK ERl',IU> 25 14 N 24 W LIKINS FOSTER SWISHE'R 3 5682 0.043 100 p
01< LAHOMA CHESH I{ LM 29 20 N 17 W HA LLI RUR TON RUTTON 1-29 0.215 100 p
OKLAHOMA CLEVE LANO 22 11 N 3 W 5780 ~.035 HlO u
OKLAHOMA C.LlVELANO 30 13 N 2 W 6250 0.035 10'} u
*P = Produced Sample
S T = Test Sample
U = Unknown Source
,,

Temperatura R
(F) (C) (Qm)
500 260 20
240
Equivalen! NaCI
220 Concentration
400 200 10
~kppm) (@gr/gal
24C ) a
180 or 75F
0.2 6
160
5
300 0.3
20 4
140 0.4
30 3
250 120 0.6
40
o.a 50 2
100
200 100
90 2

80 3
200 o.a
70 4
300 0.6
150
6 0.5
400
60
a 500 0.4
10
50 0.3

1000
20
0.2
40
100 30 2000
40
90 3000
30 60 0.1
4000
80 80 5000 0.08
100
10,000 0.06
70
20 200 13,000 0.05
300 17,500
0.04
60
0.03

50 10 0.02

0.01
English: Salinity (ppm at 75F) = 10 x
T 1 + 6.77 )
; F
( T + 6.77 3.562 - log (Rw - 0.0123)
2 75
0.955
Metric:
T + 21.5)
1 3647.5
( T + 21.5 ; C
2
Rw ~ 0.0123 +
75
[NaCl(ppm))955
Example
Given: Temperature = 250F and NaCI concentration = 100,000 ppm. Determine: Resistivity
R=0.024Qm

Fig. 3-36 - Res istivity of equivalen! NaCI solutions

- 111 -
,,
Measurements can be made in the mud cup, but the pre- Brines having total solids concentrations other than the
ferred method is to use the mud press, which filters the Na+ and e- ions are sometimes encountered. In such
samples to segregate solids from the water. The fi ltered cases, Rw, R111, or R111 can be determined accurately only
water sample can then be measured in the same manner after expressing the total ionic concentration asan equiv-
as mud filtrate (R111) is determined. Measuring severa( alent NaCI concentration.
samples ensures statistical integrity, and the temperature
of each fluid sample should be recorded at the time it is A practica( example is given by taking a brine analyzed
measured. The resistivity is then corrected from mea-
chemically to have 50,000 ppm total solids that include
sured temperature to reservoir temperature.
10,000 ppm Na, 16,000 ppm CI, 7,000 ppm Mg,
5,000 ppm Ca, and 12,000 ppm SO4 .
Rw from Chemical Analysis
The equivalent NaCI concentration chart (Fig. 3-37) is
Chemical analysis is a more time-consuming and expen- used for total solids concentrations > 1,000 ppm. At
sive process than the direct measurement method. Sam- lower concentrations, additional data can be derived by
pled water must be virtually uncontaminated. A water implementing the Variable Dunlap method, but for
sample from a producing well is preferred. Samples from practica( purposes, the Desai-Moore chart is acceptable.
wireline tests or drillstem tests are usually contaminated The Desai-Moore chart is entered on the abscissa with
with mud solids, filtrate, and/or perhaps hydrocarbon. the total solids concentration ( ppm) of the sample to find
The method used to derive electrical resistivity of a solu- the weighting multiplier for each ion identified. The
tion from chemical analysis of that solution implements concentration of each ion is then multiplied by the
the use of weighting coefficients that are proportional to weighting multiplier and the products for ali the ions are
concentrations of certain minerals commonly found in added together to determine the equivalent NaCI concen-
water (Fig. 3-37). tration .

.>:.

-~
- + 1.0 ..+-,.....+~-4-1.....,.........,.,,.,.~11+.,..-;::,,...,.........+H-Hl-+~++.,,....,,.....;++~1-+H,..;
::::,
~

1000 10,000 100,000


Total Solids Concentration (ppm or mg/kg)

Fig. 3-37 - Equivalen! NaCI concentrations from ionic concentrations

- 112-
,
In the example, total solids concentration is 50,000 ppm. As discussed in Chapter 2, K = -71 (at 77F or 25C),
The multipliers for Na and Cl are 1, and the multipliers where K is a coefficient proportional to absolute temper-
for Mg ("" 0.90), Ca("" 0.78), and SO4 (:o: 0.36) are deter- ature. ChernicaJ activity is in approximate proportion to
mined by a chart (Fig. 3-37). Individual concentrations its salt content (similar to conductivity); therefore, if the
are then converted to equivalent NaCI concentrations by solutions are virtually pure NaCI, resistivity is inversely
the multiplier and added as follows, proportional to activity (Fig. 3-38), and the equation can
be written in the following terms for log analysis,
10,000 X 1 = 10,000
16,000 X 1 = 16,000 SSP = -K log R111eqlRweq,
7,000 X 0.9 = 6,300
5,000 X 0.78 = 3,900 where R111eq = resistivity equivalent to mf
12,000 X 0.36 = 4,320
and Rweq = resistivity equivalent to w
Equivalent NaCI concentration = 40,520.
The total NaCl value can then be converted to resistivity Resistivity of NaCI Solution vs
at a specified temperature (Fig. 3-36). For example, if Na+ Activity (Temp. 77 F)
formation temperature is l 80F, resistivity should be
0.07 ohm-m. More accurate and detailed numbers can be
determined by use of the algorithms given below the
nomogram.

Rw from the SP Curve

Acceptable formation water resistivity values can sorne-


times be found using the SP trace. Caution is necessary
any time the SP is used to determine Rw because several
factors influence this natural voltage response. Thin beds,
.02
adjacent beds, shaliness within the reservoir body, hydro-
carbons, adequate permeability, important electrokinetic O. 01,.____,_L....J.....J.._J.....L.1...-----1----1.....1....L..1.Ju...u_---LL-'--'-....,_..u..i
potentials, pressure-depleted reservoir conditions, very .01 .02 .05 0.1 0.2 0.5 1.0 2.153 5 10
heavy drilling fluids, borehole size, etc. can affect the Na+ Activity (Gr - ion/L)
total SP amplitude.
Fig. 3-38 - In NaCI solutions, resistivity is inversely proportional
In the following favorable conditions, the SP can be used to chemical activity.
to determine Rw,
The solution to the equation just discussed is represented
Clean or shale-free water-bearing horizon graphically in Fig. 3-39. Conversion from Rweq or Rmfeq
to Rw or Rm requires an empirical chart or algorithm
Muds of moderare resistivity (Fig. 3-40). The inverse proportionality rule is not exact
for ali types formation water or for waters having excep-
tionally high salinity.
Saline formation water

Selection of SSP requires selection of the maximum SP


Appreciable formation permeability
amplitude deflection value (mV) in a given permeable
horizon and its difference in millivolts from a shale base
Adequate bed thickness
line. SSP is best selected under ideal conditions. How-
ever, if bed thickness is a problem, a correction factor can
Hole size less than 1O in. (25 cm) be determined from the chart shown in Fig. 3-4 1. The
value selected from the log would then be a pseudostatic
Static SP (SSP) in these conditions relate almost totally SP (PSP).
to e lectrochemical potential so that chemical activities of
the formation water (aw) and mud filtrate (ami) are then In many areas, it is difficult to fi nd thick, clean, perme-
related to SSP as able, invaded formations, or adjacent shales to form a
membrane potential. As a result, SPs are not useful for
Rw determination.

- 113 -

>
.sc.. -100

(/)
(/)

-
~ -75
Q)
o
c..
(/)
::,
oQ)
e
"'o
e
a.
(/)
(.)

~
5

0.5 1.0 3.0 5.0 10.0 30.0


R,,,1/Rweq
Using Tr in F;
R
SSP = - (60 + 0.133 T r) log ____E!!_ Example
RWeq
Given: SSP = - 71 mV; Tf = 1400F; ~ = 0.SSQ m
SSP ]
Determine: R.veq; ~/R.veq = 8.0
[ (00 + O. 133 T,J }
~eq = ~ [ 10 'Weq = 0.55/8.0 = 0.069 Q m
"R

F = 1.8 (C) + 32

Fig. 3-39 - Graphic solution of the SP equation

- 114-
I/
Engliih ;1/
, 75F

V
--
-'V
100F
150F
0.5 200F
300 F
~-
0.2 --- 400F
500F
~,,;
::::...-
e
e.
o.,
-- ~
~
English:
Rweq + 0.131
rrl
5
0.05
"7 X (Oll/log(fr/19.9)]-2

... fT _ 0.5 Rw +
eq
lQ[0.0426/log(fr/ 50.8)1
a:
0.02
r,
~f
/) r111 1, oon Example
001
Given: Rweq = 0.069 Qm, Tr = 140F
'11 I
0005
Determine: Rw; Rw = 0.073 Qm at 140F.

For mostly NaCJ formation waters, use the solid lines. Use the
0.002
1, ---
"' dashed lines for fresh formation waters that are being influenced
0.00 , 500
... .. by salts other than NaCl, and for gypsum-based muds.
0.005 o.o, 0.02 0.03 0.05 o., 0.2 0.3 0.5

A,... or Rm, (Q m)

/
MEtri
rJ ,
1, /
--
V
25C
50C
75C
05 100C
,, 150C

-
,~- 200C
250C

-
~ ,..
0.2
~~ 1,

~
,i..-
o., ~
e
e'.
)
E
a:
5
0.05 "
l
a:
0.02
/J'/
lll 'I/ / , 1,>' r hon
o.o,

'//
Metric:
I
0.005
"
Rw + 0.131 X (0[1/ j log(f + 17.78) - 1.04) J- 2
, Rw =
eq
1, I!_ . o - 0.5 Rw + lQ[0.0426/ {log(fr + 17.78) - t.45 ) J
0.002
. slv>o eq
250~ ,..
0.001
0.005 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.05 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.5

Fig. 3-40 - Chart to convert equivalents (Rweq or Rmfeq) to Rw or Rmt

- 115 -
,,

30 .
\\ \
9
SP from Log SSP
120 20 8

\\\\
7
110 30
.
20 100 40 - 6

\ \ 90 "50
.
\ .
15 \ \ \\ \
\ \
\ 80 60
5

' \
70
SP Correction Factor
70
4

1 \ 1\ ,.,
'O
g
\ \ '\ \
g \ ,.< 3.5
.e 60 1.J 80 .e
1.,
ui
(/)
Q) 10
\ \ \ \ \ 50
'-s
90 3
ui
(/)
Q)

\
e
~
o
:e 9 \ \ \ \ <o
e
~
o
:e
\ \ \ \ 40,.
t-
"O 8 \ \ 1\. <.s 100 2.5 t-
"O
Q)
\
Q)
IIl
7 \
\ \ \ \.r-... 30
-J.o
J.s
<t.o
110
IIl

\,
6 \ \ \
1\
'\
~
"' " i'-..
20 S.o
.o 120
2

4 >-->-
\
\
\
\
\
1\
'\
1\ "' ',"'"\
"-..

'~
'-....
'~
1.5

, ...... "-
~= 2( ' 5( 100 200
Rm 1\ .....

---
'
' ' ............
----
'""
'!'--- '---..r--....
1\ r---
3
1.0 1.2
11
1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 ' 4.0 5 .0 6.0 7 .0 8.0 9 .0 10.0
SP Correction Factor
1

SP correction factor =
14 (:~ +2) l 3.65 -1.5
+0.95
1

h -l (:~ + 11) / 0.65~


l 6.05
- 0. 1

R
for -2. >5 and 3<h<50, for h in ft
Rm
SSP = SP x SP correction factor

Example
Given: SP(log) = - 50 mV; h =8 ft; R = 35 Qm; ~ = 0.7Qm
= 8 ft; R/Rm
Solution: Bed thickness 1.43 = 50; SP correction factor =
Nomograph Solution: SP10g = - 50 mV; SP correction factor = 1.43; SSP = -71.5 mV

Fig. 3-41 - Chart to corree! SP for bed thickness

- l 16-
Salts, other than NaCI, also occur in formation water or
the mud filtrate. ca++, Mg++, HCO3, and other ions can Empirical
affect SP amplitude differently from NaCI ions. This is curve
particularly true for fresh formation waters, and an CaCl2v
MgCl2------.. ~ ,
empirical dashed curve for "average fresh water" is then 10 ' I 1
1 I 6