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Interpretation models

The models used in well test interpretation can be described as a transfer function; they only define the
behavior (homogeneous or heterogeneous, bounded or infinite). Well test interpretation models are
often different from geological or log models, due to the averaging of the reservoir properties. Layered
reservoirs for example frequently show a homogeneous behavior during tests.

Interpretation models are made of several components, which are relatively independent, and exhibit
different characteristics at different time of the response. Once all compoents have been identified, the
interpretation model is defined. Analytical solutions or numerical models are used to generate pressure
responses to the specific production rate history I of the well, and the model parameters are adjusted
until the model behavior O is identical to the behavior of S.

In the case of complex reservoir behavior, several models are frequently applicable to describe the test
pressure response. The non-uniqueness of the inverse problem solution can be reduced by using
additional information, such as geological or geophysical data for example.

Input data required for well test analysis

Test data : flow rate and bottom hole pressure as a function of time. The sequence of event must be
detailed, including any operational problems that may affect the well response. Results of analysis are
dependent upon the accuracy of the well test data. When the production rate has not been measured
during some flow periods, it must be accurately estimated.

is a rate of diffusion, a measure of the rate at which particles or heat or fluids can spread. The diffusivity
equation is essentially designed to determine the pressure as a function of time t and position r.

Notice that for a steady-state flow condition, the pressure at any point in the reservoir constant and does
not change with time.

A transient test is essentially conducted by creating a pressure disturbance in the reservoir and recording
the pressure response at the wellbore, i.e., bottom-hole flowing pressure pwf, as a function of time.

Bottom-hole pressure => The pressure measured in a well at or near the depth of the producing
formation. For well-test purposes, it is often desirable to refer the pressure to a datum level chosen at a
reference depth by calculating the pressure that would occur if the pressure measurement were made at
the datum level rather than at the actual depth of the gauge.

Flow rate => The flow refers to the amount of water coming from the well and the flow rate measures
the gallons per minute coming out.

Well data : wellbore radius rw, well geometry (such as inclined or horizontal well), depths (formation,
gauges).
Wellbore Radius (rw) => In pressure transient analysis the wellbore is assumed to be cylindrical
and has a specific radius called the wellbore radius as shown in Figure I below.

This radius is used to determine the sandface area (2rwh) which represents the area through
which all the produced reservoir fluids must flow. The sandface area has a significant effect on
the flowing wellbore pressure and thus, the wellbore radius is found in many of the flow
equations used in PTA. In real life, the area of contact between the wellbore and the formation is
rarely cylindrical as seen above in Figure II. It depends on the perforations (density, phasing,
effectiveness, etc.) and is also affected by the type of perforating gun, casing, cement, etc. Thus,
a true wellbore radius does not exist (except for open hole completions) and the wellbore radius
used in the PTA equations is an approximation at best. A reasonable value to use can be the drill
bit radius, or the outside diameter of the casing.

Well geometry => We can now well geometry from this picture :

We can now depths (formation, gauges) by measure that.

Reservoir and fluid parameters : formation thickness h (net), porosity, compressibility of oil co,
water cw and formation cf, water saturation Sw, oil viscosity and formation volume factor B. The
total system compressibility ct is expressed as :
The above reservoir and fluid parameters are used for calculation of the resuts. After a first
interpretation, they may always be changed or adjusted if needed to refine the results, for the
same theoretical interpretation model.

We can obtain the formation thickness by measure that.

Porosity or void fraction is a measure of the void (i.e. "empty") spaces in a material, and is a fraction of
the volume of voids over the total volume, between 0 and 1, or as a percentage between 0 and 100%.

In thermodynamics and fluid mechanics, compressibility is a measure of the relative volume change of
fluid or solid as a response to a pressure (or mean stress) change.

Additional data can be useful in some cases : production log, gradient sruveys, reservoir temperature,
bubble point pressure etc. General information obtained from geologist and geophysicists are required
to validate the well test interpretation results.

Production Logging is one of a number of cased hole services that includes cement monitoring, corrosion
monitoring, monitoring of formation fluid contacts (and saturations), perforating and plug and packer
setting.

The reservoir temperature represents the temperature of the formation. It increases with reservoir
depth and differs widely depending on the reservoir location's geothermal gradient.

In the analysis of gas wells, the reservoir temperature is used directly in the pressure transient
analysis calculations, as well as calculating all the gas fluid properties such as gas formation
volume factor (Bg), gas viscosity (g), and gas compressibility (cg). For gas wells, the reservoir
temperature has only a weak effect on the pressure transient analysis calculations.

In the analysis of oil wells, the reservoir temperature does not enter into the pressure transient
analysis equations, directly, but rather It is used in calculating the oil fluid properties such as oil
formation volume factor (Bo), oil viscosity (o), oil compressibility (co), and solution gas-oil ratio
(Rs). It also enters into the calculation of the total reservoir fluid rate (qtBt) through the gas
formation volume factor (Bg), and in the calculation of total compressibility (ct) through the
calculation of gas compressibility (cg).

The bubble point pressure is defined as the pressure at which the first bubble of gas comes out of
solution. At this point, we can say the oil is saturated - it cannot hold anymore gas. Above this pressure
the oil is undersaturated, and the oil acts as a single-phase liquid. At and below this pressure the oil is
saturated, and any lowering of the pressure causes gas to be liberated resulting in two-phase flow.

REFERENCE
https://books.google.co.id/books?id=yVocRPXIW-
QC&pg=PA5&lpg=PA5&dq=input+data+required+for+well+test+analysis&source=bl&ots=RVKRLWoBqR&
sig=ZNmV7JP0P3ZLPgG86HxoymFE-PQ&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diffusivity

http://www.pe.tamu.edu/blasingame/data/z_zCourse_Archive/P648_15A/P648_15A_zReference/PTA_F
ekete_PTA_Course_(Mattar_2004).pdf

http://subsurfwiki.org/wiki/Wellbore_geometry

http://www.fekete.com/SAN/WebHelp/FeketeHarmony/Harmony_WebHelp/Content/HTML_Files/Refer
ence_Material/General_Concepts/Reservoir_Fluid_Properties.htm