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# Understanding Inertia

## The Important Role Inertia

Plays in Motion Control
Understanding Inertia and Reflected Inertia
Overview
Inertia Definition
Inertia Ratio
Reflected Inertia
Reflected Inertia of Mechanical Motion Components
Inertia Definition

## 1a: A property of matter by which it remains at rest or in uniform

motion in the same straight line unless acted upon by some external
force.
-Merriam-Webster Dictionary

An object at rest will stay at rest and an object in motion will stay in
motion with the same speed and direction unless acted upon by an
unbalanced force.
-Newtons First Law of Motion

## Mass is directly related to Inertia

Inertia Demonstration

Demonstration:

## Force vs. Inertia

Free Body Evaluation of Forces

## Force vs. Inertia

Fgravity Fgravity

## Fdrag x Fdrag x Fthrow x

Fthrow y

The ball continues to move on the x-axis even though there is no longer a
propulsion force present.
Inertia Relative to Mass
Mass and Inertia
Inertia is the property of an object of matter to resist change in
acceleration
F = ma
If it takes force to change the acceleration of an object then for linear
motion inertia is directly related to mass of an object. By the above
equation the larger a mass is (or the more inertia it has) the more force
will be required to change the acceleration of that object.
Inertia Evaluation
Does this make sense?

## Property Tennis Ball Hollow Lead Sphere

Diameter 2.7 in 2.7 in
Wall Thickness 0.1in 0.1in
Volume 1.1 in3 1.1 in3
Density 0.002 slugs/in3 0.012 slugs/in3
Mass 0.0022 slugs 0.0132 slugs
Weight (Force) 1.0 oz 6.8 oz

Lead has a higher density then rubber, and for a hollow sphere of the
same volume has more mass. This makes sense, intuitively a tennis ball
made of rubber would be lighter than a hollow lead sphere of the same
geometry. Weight is the result of the acceleration of gravity acting on a
body of mass.
Rotary Inertia Definition
Rotary Inertia
- Also known as moment of inertia

## A measure of the resistance of a body to angular acceleration about a given axis

that is equal to the sum of the products of each element of mass in the body and
the square of the elements distance from the axis.
-Merriam-Webster Dictionary

An object at rest will stay at rest and an object in angular motion will stay in
motion with the same speed and direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced
torque.
-Newtons First Law of Motion
(applied to rotary motion)

Mass and distance to the axis of rotation is directly related to the moment of
inertia
Angular Inertia Model
Force = Mass x Acceleration
Torque = Inertia x Angular Acceleration
=
For a single particle of mass m
= 2

Units
= 2

=
2
2
= = Nm
2

=
2
Angular Inertia Model
Moment of Inertia for a Rigid Body
-Assumes uniform density

= 2 = 2
Angular Inertia Model
Defining Moment of Inertia for a Disk

= 2

## We can break the mass of the disk up into small

ring sections with reducing radii and find the
inertia of each ring.
= 2
Integrate to find the total inertia of the disk
=
= 2
=0

## To perform this computation the mass needs to

be related to radius of the disk
Angular Inertia Model
Defining Moment of Inertia for a Disk continued
=
= 2
=0

2 2
= =
2 2
=
2
= 2 2
=0
=
2
= 2 3
=0

2 4
= 2 |
4 0
1
= 2
2
Inertia of Forms
Moment of Inertia for Standard Shapes
Annular Solid Cylinder Solid Cylinder Thin rod about Solid sphere Thin spherical
central axis axis diameter end diameter
perpendicular
to length (cut away
shown below)

1 1 1 1 1 2 2
12 + 22 2 2 + 2 2 2 2
2 2 4 12 3 5 3
Form Comparison
Which disk has a greater moment of inertia when spun about its center axis?

Part A: Part B:
R1 = 0.20 m R1 = 0.1 m
R2 = 0.22 m Mass = 4kg
Mass = 1kg

1 1
12 +22 = 2
2 2
1 1
1 0.08842 = 4 0.012
2 2
= 0.04422 = 0.022
Inertia Used with Bodies in Motion

## If Torque is constant then angular

acceleration can be manipulated by the
moment of inertia
=
As inertia is increased, velocity decreases
and as inertia is decreased, velocity
increases
Inertia Ratio Definition
Inertia Ratio
In motion control the inertia ratio is defined as follows:

=

=
=

## For optimal power transmission the inertia ratio is 1:1

=
If velocity and mass are fixed, then power improvement is created by
acceleration improvement
Inertia Optimization Proof

= = +
2
Where:
TM = Motor Torque
JM = Motor Inertia
JL = Load Inertia
Gr = Gear Ratio
M = Acceleration of Motor
Motor acceleration:
=

=
2 +
Inertia Optimization Proof

## Taking the derivative of L with respect to Gr:

2 + 2 +
= 2
2 +

2 + 2
= 2
2
+
Simplifying to :
2
= 2
2
+
Inertia Optimization Proof

To find the gear ratio that results in the maximum acceleration the
derivative is set equal to zero.

2
0= 2
2
+

0 = 2
Simplify to:

=

This demonstrates the claim for optimal power transmission at a 1:1 ratio
The Impact of Inertia Ratio
Why does the inertia ratio matter in motion control?
Coupled loads are often idealized
Adding the deflection properties of the coupling introduces an element
of energy conservation in form of a spring mechanism
Servo systems can be highly dynamic and are often used in applications
that require quick response with minimal overshoot and settling time.
Inertia ratios help to address performance in the transient response of a
system
Inertia Ratio Recommendations
Typical Inertia Ratio Industry Recommendations

## Stepper Motor Driven Systems:

1:1 or as close to 1:1 as is reasonable for the system

Servo Systems:
5:1 to 10:1 are typical industry recommendations, but specific system
goals will move this range.

## **Performance goals driven by application requirements will ultimately

determine what ratio is acceptable. Remember a lower ratio allows a
system to respond faster and have tighter dynamic control.
High Inertia Ratios
High Inertia ratios can lead to the following:
Sub satisfactory performance
Vibration/Noise
Unstable operating condition
These all reflect poor control of the systems transient response.

## The mechanical components degree of compliance will be a factor as

well.
Stiff mechanics improve response
Soft mechanics reduce response
Stored Energy of a Coupling
Deflection of a Rigid Coupling Modeled as a Hollow Shaft

32
= =
4 4

: :
= =
= =
=
=
= 32 1 5
=
10.9 106 .754 .3754

= 1.58 105 4
= 9 10
A rigid coupling has little deflection and can optimize system response,
but generally is not as forgiving on shaft alignment and manufacturing
tolerances.
Alternative coupling technologies add compliance
Compliance effects the dynamic system response
Steady-state operation is less critical of inertia ratio

For a given system performance target the stiffness of the coupling will
allow for varied degrees of inertia ratio. Coupling, in this statement
refers to any mechanical component between the load and the motor.
Inertia Transmission
Coupling Modeled as a Spring

## Servo controlled assembly

High acceleration and deceleration
Coupling deflection stores energy
The deflection recovery can be modeled as a
spring
=

=
=
=
Inertia's Effect on System Control
Lets consider inertias effect on torque and acceleration
=
If the system performance goal for acceleration is fixed then:
Higher inertia leads to higher torque
Higher torque leads to higher deflection
Higher deflection leads to a longer settling time, or unstable
conditions

This may explain why inertia miss-match for direct drive, rigidly coupled
loads has not been of much concern in servo systems
Coupling Evaluation JM to JL
Full article and evaluation can be viewed at the following link posted
02/10/2015.

http://www.motioncontrolonline.org/content-detail.cfm/Motion-
Control-Technical-Features/Understanding-the-Mysteries-of-Inertia-
Mismatch

## This has been provided by Motion Control Online, by contributing Editor

Kristin Lewotsky.
Coupling Evaluation JM to JL

## Expressions for angular acceleration:

=

+ + =
Where:
JM = rotor inertia of the motor
JL = the load inertia
KS = coupling elasticity
T = applied torque
BML = viscous damping of the coupling
BM = viscous damping between ground and rotor
BL = viscous damping between ground and load
Coupling Evaluation JM to JL

## The following equations can be derived from transfer functions defined:

+
= =

**Increasing the stiffness of the system (KS) will raise the resonance frequency and
allow for a low pass filter (or system operation below resonance and anti-resonance)
Reflected Inertia Definition
Reflected Inertia:

The inertia from the load that is translated through the drive
components back to the drive input of the axis of motion.

## Direct Gear Tangential Screw

drive drive drive drive
Direct Driven Reflect Inertia
Direct Drive
Simplest
Load directly transmitted to motor
= + :
= =
= =
=
=
=
=
=
Reflected Inertia of a Gear Drive
Gear Drive
Speed reducing device
Gears make up mechanical linkage

:
= 2 +
= gear ratio

=

=
Reflected Inertia of a Belt or Rack Drive
Tangential Drive
Belt & pulley linkage etc.
Load transmitted to motor off of pulley tangent

2
= + 1 + 2 +

:
=
=
= =
2
=
1 = 1
2 = 2
=
=
Reflected Inertia of a Screw Drive
Screw Drive
Screw and nut linkage etc.
Load transmitted to motor from screw

2 :
= + + =
2
4 =
= =
2
=
= =
2
=
= =

Reflected Inertia Example
Reflected Inertia example 1:
A belt and pulley driven linear axis has a 15lb load and a pulley
diameter of 2in. It is a two pulley configuration with both the drive
pulley and idler pulley having an inertia of 3.1x10-5 slug-ft2. The motor
directly coupled to the drive pulley has a rotor inertia of 1.5x10-5 slug-
ft2. What is the inertia ratio of the system?

15 .083 2
= + 3.1 105 2 + 3.1 105 2 = 3.27 103 2
32.2
2
3.27 103 2
= = 218: 1
1.5 105 2

## This will not be a well controlled system, what

can be done to improve the inertia ratio?
Reflected Inertia Example
Reflected Inertia example 1 continued:
Adding a 10:1 gearbox between the motor and drive pulley of the belt
driven system.

3.27 103 2
= 2 = 2
= 3.27 105 2
10

3.27 105 2
= = 2.18: 1
1.5 105 2

## What adverse affect might this have on the systems performance?

-Possibly speeding limiting either by the motor or gearbox
Speaker Contact Details

Keith Knight