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ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Thanks to the Almighty God, for everything.

May I observe the protocol to show my deep gratitude to the venerated Faculty-in-charge Mr.
Manvendra Tiwari for hhis kind gesture in allotting me a wonderful and elucidating research
topic. His sincere and honest approach have always inspired me and pulled me back on track
whenever I went off track.

I must express my gratitude to my seniors, who never refrained from guiding me whenever it
was required.

Last, but by no means the least, I would like to thank all the members of HNLU family in
general and my blooming and charismatic friends in particular for their wholehearted co-
operation throughout the odyssey.

Harshwardhan Parganiha

(B.A-LL.B, Semester:-VIII, Roll no:-25)

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Table of Contents
ACKNOWLEDGMENT i
Aims and Objectives..iii

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS...iv
LIST OF CASE LAWS. v

CHAPTER 1-INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................................2
1. WHAT IS PASSING OFF?.................................................................................................................2
1.1OBJECT OF THE LAW OF PASSING OFF......................................................................................2
1.2 GENERAL PRINCIPLES AND THE SCOPE OF THE LAW OF PASSING OFF................................4
CHAPTER 2- ELEMENTS OF PASSING OFF............................................................................................8
2.1 CHARACTERISTIC ELEMENTS OF PASSING OFF...........................................................................8
2.2 GOODWILL..................................................................................................................................9
2.3 MISREPRESENTATION...............................................................................................................10
2.3.1 LIKELIHOOD OF CONFUSION OR DECEPTION.................................................................12
2.3 DAMAGE....................................................................................................................................14
3. REVERSE PASSING OFF....................................................................................................................20
3.1. PASSING OFF- UNREGISTERED TRADE MARK...........................................................................21
3.2 MEDICINES AND PHARMACEUTICAL- ESSENTIALS LAID DOWN...............................................23
4. TRADE NAMES AND DOMAIN NAMES...........................................................................................25
5. DEFENSES IN PASSING OFF ACTION..............................................................................................27
6. PROCEDURE IN SUITS FOR PASSING OFF........................................................................................28
7. PERSONS WHO CAN BE SUED AND WHO CAN SUE IN AN ACTION FOR PASSING OFF....................28
8. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN INFRINGEMENT AND PASSING OFF...........................................................30
9. REMEDIES FOR INFRINGEMENT AND PASSING OFF OF TRADE MARKS.........................................34
9.1. CIVIL REMEDIES.......................................................................................................................34
9.2 QUIA TIMET ACTION- INJUNCTION.........................................................................................36
9.3 .CRIMINAL REMEDIES...............................................................................................................37
10. CONCLUSION................................................................................................................................38
11. REFERENCES39

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AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

Often considerable amount of money is spent in making a name or symbol popular through
various media of advertisement. As a result, the trade mark may acquire great reputation,
and may often become a stamp of quality and a symbol of origin. A good trade mark is he
best sales man of the goods. Every manufacturer or trader who has built up a reputation for
his mark is naturally jealous of protecting it against piracy by unscrupulous competitors.
Protection of trade marks is necessary not only for honest trader bur also for the benefit of
the purchasing public against imposition and fraud. At common law the reputation of a
business, symbolized through a name or label, can be protected
only by an action of passing off, the procedure for which is cumbersome and the outcome
uncertain.
Registration of a trade mark under Trade Mark Act, 1999 confers on the proprietor certain
statutory rights which are fur more extensive than common law rights, and affords a
convenient means of protecting those rights against infringement. Action against
infringement of trade mark has been made a statutory right under the Trade Marks Act. But
the action against passing off of trade marks has only been recognized by the Act. The Act
merely lays down the procedure to be followed in such an action. The substantive part
constituting the principles and the grounds for such an action still form part of the common
law, from which it has been adopted.
The project aims at analyzing the law relating to infringement and passing off of the trade
marks. It aims at bringing out the difficulties that are faced by the court in deciding in an
action of passing off, due to its common law origin and its want of being a statutory remedy.

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LIST OF ABBREVIATONS

& : And
AC : Appeal Cases
AIR : All India Reporter
Annex : Annexure
Anr. : Another
APP : Appeal
CA : Court of Appeal
Co. : Company
Co. P. No. : Company petition number
Ed : Edition
HC : High Court
Honble : Honorable
J. : Justice
LR : Law Reports
Ltd. : Limited
Ors : Others
Ors. : Others
P. C. : Privy Council
p. : Page
p./ pp. : page number
Para : Paragraph.
Pvt. : Private
SC : Supreme Court
SCC : Supreme Court Cases
UOI : Union of India
V: Versus.
Vol. : Volume

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LIST OF CASE LAWS

I. STATUTES

THE TRADEMARK ACT, 1999.

II. CASE LAWS


National and International Decisions
1. Laxmikant Patel v. Chetanbhai Shah [2002] 3 SCC 65,
2. Harrods v. Harrodian School [1996] RPC 697
3. Mirage Studio v. Counter Feat Clothings [1991] FSR 145.
4. Century v.Roshanlal AIR 1978 Del 258.
5. Bulmer v. Bollinger [1978] RPC 79 at 108
6. Stringfellow case [1984] RPC 501.
7. Wander v Antox 1991 PTC 1 (SC)
8. Mars Incorporated v.Kumar Krishna Mukerjee 2003 PTC 60
9. SBL Ltd. v Himalaya Drug 67(97) DLT 803
10. Coca- Cola v. Pepsi- Cola 1942) 59 RPC 127(PC)
11. Amritdhara Pharmacy v. Satya Dev Gupta AIR 1963 SC 449
12. Harrods Ltd. v Harrodian School Ltd [1996] RPC 697 at 706
13. Sunstar Lubricants v. Federal Chemical Industries
14. J&P Coats Ltd. v. Popular Thread Mills 1997 PTC 64(Del)
15. Rustom & Hornby v Zamindara Engineering ; AIR 1970 SC 1649
16. Rediff Communication Ltd v. Cyberbooth and another 2000 PTC 209 Bom
17. Yahoo Inc v. Akash Arora 1999 PTC 201 (Del)
18. Kirlosker Diesel Recon v. Kirlosker Proprietary AIR 1996 Bom 149
19. Virendra v. Varindra AIR 1982 Del 482
20. WWF International v Mahavir Spinning Mills 1994 PTC 250 at 258
21. Novelty Emporium v. Novelty Creations Private Limited 2002(24)PTC 285(Del)
22. Haldiram Bhujiawala v. Anand Kumar Deepak Kumar 2000 PTC 147 (SC)
23. Saville Perfumery v June 1941)58 RPC 147
24. Millington v. Fox ( 1833) 3 My & Cr 338
25. Aboobacker v. Nanikram Meharchand (1957) 2 MLJ 573
26. Midas Hygiene Industries (P) Ltd. v Sudhip Bhatia (2004)3 SCC 90.
27. Mars Incorporated v. Kumar Krishna Mukerjee 2003 PTC 60 (Cal)
28. Rob Mathys India v. Synthes AG Chur 1997 PTC 669 at 693 (Del) (DB)
29. Reckitt & Colman v Borden [1990] RPC 341
30. Henderson v. Radio Corp. Pty (1969) RPC 218
31. Marage Studies v. Counter Feat Clothing Co. Ltd (1991) FSR 145
32. Ellora v. Banarasi Dass AIR 1980 Del 254 at 257
33. Harrods v. Harrodian School [1996] RPC 697
34. Cadbury- Schweppes v Pubsquash [1981] RPC 429
35. Laxmikant Patel v. Chetanbhai Shah [2002] 3 SCC 65
36. Erven Warnink BV v. Townend (J.) & Sons [1979] AC 731

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37. Marengo v. Daily Sketch (1948) 65 RPC 242
38. Biba Group v. Biba Boutique [1980] RPC 413,420
39. Bovril v. Bodega Co Ltd (1916) 33 RPC 153
40. BSB v. Sky Home Services [2007] FSR (14) 321
41. T.V. Venugopal v. Ushodaya Enterprises (2011) 4 SCC 85
42. Boehringer Ingelheim KG v. Swingward Ltd [2004] EWCA Civ 129