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AMS-LATEX Reference Card #1 Classes and Packages Sectioning and Table of Contents

See the TEX Reference Card for additional commands. \documentclass[option(s)]{class} • Sectioning commands
Required packages are indicated as (package). \usepackage[option(s)]{package(s)} \command{title} sectioning command with title
\NeedsTeXFormat{LaTeX2e}[1994/12/01] \command[head]{title} with alternative running head
Document Structure •Document Classes \command*{title} with number supressed
article, book, letter, report, slides \part \section \paragraph
• Preamble amsart, amsbook, amsproc (all autoload amsmath) \chapter \subsection \subparagraph
\documentclass[option(s)]{class} •Useful Packages \subsubsection
\usepackage[option(s)]{package(s)} amsmath,amsthm,amscd,amssymb,latexsym \appendix start appendix
\begin{document} fancyheadings allows custom headers and footers • Table of Contents
• Body alltt all teletype, even \,{,} \tableofcontents create and print contents
• Front Matter (\frontmatter in book classes) makeidx,showidx create index, show in margin filename.toc contents associated to filename.tex
• Top Matter graphics,graphicx inclusion of graphics \addcontentsline{toc}{section}{line to add}
\title{. . . } enumerate extends the enumerate environment \addtocontents{toc}{material to add}
\title[running head]{. . . } alternative headline layout shows page layout of doc class \setcounter{tocdepth}{. . . } set amount to print
\date{. . . } multicol flexible multicolumn typesetting
\date{\today} gives current date showkeys print label keys in margin Tables and Figures
\author{. . . } verbatim extends verbatim environment
\maketitle (not in book classes) \begin{table} . . . \caption{text} \label{name} \end{table}
url typeset URLs allowing line breaks \listoftables create and print list of tables
• Additional items — ams classes only graphpap \graphpaper command for \picture environ.
\translator{. . . } \begin{figure} . . . \caption{text} \label{name} \end{figure}
•Document and Package Options \includegraphics{filename} include image (graphics)
\dedicatory{. . . } Font Size
\address[optional name]{. . . } \scaledbox{.5}{\includegraphics{filename}} scaled graphic
8pt, 9pt, 10pt, 11pt, 12pt \listoffigures create and print list of figures
\curraddress{. . . } Paper Size
\email[optional name]{. . . }
\thanks{. . . }
a4paper,a5paper,b5paper,legalpaper,letterpaper Lists
Document Preparation
\subjclass{Primary: XXX; Secondary: XXX} \item item within list
draft,final,notitlepage,titlepage
\keywords{. . . } \item[label] item with label
Page Formatting
\thanks{. . . } \begin{enumerate}. . . \end{. . . } numbered items
onecolumn,twocolumn,oneside,twoside,openany,openright
\tableofcontents \begin{itemize}. . . \end{. . . } bulleted items
Equation Numbering
\chapter{Introduction} (in book classes) \begin{description}. . . \end{. . . } captioned items
fleqn,leqno,reqno,centertags,tbtags
•Abstract (not in book classes) \setlength{\itemsep}{0pt} move items closer
Equation Limits
\begin{abstract}. . . \end{abstract} enumerate package extends enumerate
intlimits,sumlimits,nonamelimits
• Main Matter (\mainmatter in book classes)
\chapter{. . . }
AMS (Postscript) Fonts Displayed Text Material
psamsfonts,noamsfonts
\section{. . . } \begin{center}. . . \end{. . . } centered matrial
\subsection{. . . } Bibliography (see also BIBTEX) \begin{flushright}. . . \end{. . . } flush right matrial
\appendix \begin{flushleft}. . . \end{. . . } flush left matrial
• Back Matter (\backmatter in book classes) \begin{thebibliography}{99}. . . \end{. . . } \begin{quote}. . . \end{. . . } short quote
\begin{thebibliography}{99}. . . \end{. . . } bibliography with widest label specified \begin{quotation}. . . \end{. . . } long quote
\end{document} \bibitem{name} named bibliography item \begin{verse}. . . \end{. . . } poetry
\bibitem[label]{name} with alternative label to print \begin{verbatim}. . . \end{. . . } verbatim material
Page Style \bysame use long line for same author \verb|. . . | verbatim material
\renewcommand{\bibname}{title} use custom title \verb*|. . . | verbatim with spaces marked
\pagestyle{style} set page style to one of:
\cite{name} print number of named bib item verbatim package extends verbatim
plain empty header, page number in footer
\cite[text]{name} with extra text
empty empty header and footer
headings header filled by doc class, empty footer Cross Referencing and Numbering Footnotes, Comments, Other Stuff
myheadings empty footer, fill header with info in \footnote{text} numbered footnote
\markboth{lefthead}{righthead} \label{name} assign label name to numbered item % comment out a line
and \markright{righthead} \ref{name} print number of named item \begin{comment}. . . \end{. . . } long comment (verbatim)
\thispagestyle{style} set \pagestyle, only current page \eqref{name} print number in parentheses (amsmath) \typeout{text} print to terminal
\enlargethispage{\baselineskip} force an extra line \pageref{name} print page location of named item \typein{text} get input from keyboard
\renewcommand{\baselinestretch}{2} doublespaced \cite{name} print number of named bibliography item \typein[\cmd]{text} assign input to \cmd
fancyheadings package allows custom headers and footers \cite[text]{name} with extra text \protect protects fragile commands
• Page Style Parameters \numberwithinsection{equation}{section} number by section \- optional hyphen
\hoffset, \voffset move page right, down \hyphenation{hypenated words} extra hyphenated words
\paperwidth, \paperheight, \textheight, \textwidth Copyright ° c 2007 J.H. Silverman, January 2007 v2.0
\topmargin, \headheight, \headsep, \footskip Math. Dept., Brown Univ., Providence, RI 02912 USA
\pagenumbering{. . . } e.g., arabic, roman Permission is granted for noncommercial distribution provided the copy-
right notice and this permission notice are preserved on all copies.
Dimensions, Spacing, and Glue Fonts Array and Tabular Environments
Dimensions are specified as hnumberihunit of measurei. • Text Fonts \begin{tabular}[POS]{COLS}. . . \end{. . . }
Glue is specified as hdimeni plushdimeni minushdimeni. \textnormal{. . . } {\normalfont. . . } document font \begin{array}[POS]{COLS}. . . \end{. . . }
point pt pica pc inch in centimeter cm \textrm{. . . } {\rmfamily. . . } roman Use tabular for text, array for mathematics
m width em x height ex math unit mu millimeter mm \textsf{. . . } {\sffamily. . . } sans serif font &, \\ column and row separators
1 pc = 12 pt 1 in = 72.72 pt 2.54 cm = 1 in 18 mu = 1 em \texttt{. . . } {\ttfamily. . . } typewriter style POS aligns top (t), bottom (b), center (default)
\ \quad \qquad white space (1 space, 1 em, 2 em) \textbf{. . . } {\bfseries. . . } bold COLS gives formats for columns:
\hspace{10pt} specified horizontal space \textup{. . . } {\upshape. . . } upright l,c,r left, center, right justified
\hspace*{10pt} space even at line start \textit{. . . } {\itshape. . . } italic | vertical rule
Horizontal Spacing (Math): \, thin space \: med space \textsl{. . . } {\slshape. . . } slanted @{. . . } material between columns
\; thick space \! neg. thin space \mspacehmugluei \textsc{. . . } {\scshape. . . } SMALL CAPITALS @{} no space between columns
\strut,\mathstrut invisible vertical space \emph{. . . } {\em. . . } emphasize *{n}{. . . } n copies of material
\phantom{. . . } invisible space \fbox{. . . } framed text p{width} set column width
\vphantom{. . . } invisible vertical space • Font Environments exist for above types, e.g., \hline horizontal line between rows
\smash[bt]{. . . } typeset w/zero height,depth \begin{ttfamily}. . . \end{. . . } \cline{i-j} line across columns i to j
\hfill fill with space • Changing Font Sizes \multicolumn{n}{COLS}{. . . }
\dotfill fill with dots \tiny, \scriptsize, \footnotesize, \small span n columns using format in COLS
\hrulefill fill with rule (line) \normalsize \large, \Large, \LARGE, \huge, \Huge \setlength{\tabcolsep}{0pt} set column separation
\par new paragraph • Math Fonts \setlength{\itemsep}{0pt} set item separation
\newline or \\ force a new line \mathrm{. . . } roman \renewcommand{\arraystretch}{1.25} open up array
\\* new line, prohibit page break \mathbf{. . . } bold (letters) • Example of a table using \tabular
\\[5pt] new line skipping 5 pts \boldsymbol{. . . } bold (symbol) (amsmath) \begin{table}
\vspace{1in} specified vertical space \mathit{. . . } italic \begin{center}
\vspace*{1in} space even at page start \mathcal{. . . } caligraphic A, B, C \begin{tabular}{|l|c|c|} \hline
\newpage force a new page \usepacakge{eucal} redef \mathcal to script A, B, C Name & Exam & Grade \\ \hline
• Length Variables \mathfrak{. . . } Fraktur A, a, B, b (amsfonts) Dan & 97\% & A \\ \hline
\newlength{\lngth} create length varible \lngth \mathbb{. . . } Blackboard bold A, B, C (amsfonts) \end{tabular}
\setlength{\lngth}{dimen} set value of \lngth \boxed{. . . } framed math \caption{Math 101 Final Grades}
\addtolength{\lngth}{dimen} increase \lngth • Math Font Sizes \label{GradeTable}
• Useful Length Assignments \displaystyle display size \end{center} Name Exam Grade
\enlargethispage{\baselineskip} force extra line \textstyle text size \end{table}
Dan 97% A
\setlength{\hangindent}{30pt} indentation \scriptsize sub/superscript size
\setlength{\hangafter}{3} indent after \scriptscriptsize doubly sub/superscripted size Math 101 Final Grades
\renewcommand{\baselinestretch}{2} doublespaced
Boxes Tabbing Environment
Accents \mbox{. . . } one line of text \begin{tabbing}. . . \end{. . . } tabbing environment
Type Example In Math In Text \text{. . . } one line of text (amsmath) \= set tab
hat â \hat \^ \parbox{width}{text} paragraph of text \\ end line
expanding hat acbc \widehat none \parbox[align][height][inner align]{width}{text} \> move to next tab
check ǎ \check \v \marginpar{. . . } marginal comment \kill do not print line
tilde ã \tilde \~ \rule[-1pt]{20pt}{10pt} solid box
expanding tilde afbc \widetilde none \raisebox{5pt}{text} raised box
File Suffixes and Types
acute á \acute \’ \makebox[width][alignment]{text} box of text • LATEXSource Files
grave à \grave \‘ \framebox[width][alignment]{text} framed text .tex File containing a LATEXdocument
dot ȧ \dot \. \setlength{\fboxsep}{5pt} space around text .sty, .cls LATEX style and document class files
double dot ä \ddot \" \setlength{\fboxrule}{3pt} width of box borders .fd Font definition file
breve ă \breve \u • Files Written by LATEX
bar ā \bar \= Overfull and Underfull Boxes (See also BIBTEXand MAKEINDEX)
vector ~a \vec none draft document class marks overfulls .aux cross-referencing and list information
cedilla ç none \c \overfullrule width of overfull marker .dvi device independent typeset file
\begin{setlength}{\hfuzz}{2pt}. . . \end{. . . } .glo list of glossary entries
Additional Text Symbols allow small overfulls .lof list of figures (read by \listoffigures)
\dag † \copyright c
° \pounds £ .lot list of tables (read by \listoftables)
\ddag ‡ \textcircled{r} r
° Multicolumn Printing .toc table of contents (read by \tableofcontents)
\P ¶ \textvisiblespace .log LATEX log file
\twocolumn double column on new page
\S § \textbullet • \nofiles supresses all except .log and .dvi
\onecolumn single column on new page
\begin{multicols}{n}[title]. . . \end{. . . } °c 2007 J.H. Silverman, Permissions on back. v2.0
multicolumn environment (multicol) Send comments and corrections to J.H. Silverman, Math. Dept., Brown
Univ., Providence, RI 02912 USA. hjhs@math.brown.edui
AMS-LATEX Reference Card #2 Multiline Math Displays (amsmath) Large Operators
Use as \begin{command}. . . \end{command} P T J
See the TEX Reference Card for additional commands. Q \sum S \bigcap N \bigodot
The notation (package) indicates a required package. Separate items with &, separate lines with \\
` \prod F \bigcup L \bigotimes
No \\ on last line, \\[dim] to skip space
\coprod \bigsqcup
Math Environments • Full Math Environments (full line) R W U \bigoplus
\int \bigvee \biguplus
\(. . . \) or $. . . $ inline math gather centered, numbered equations H V
gather* centered, unnumbered equations \oint \bigwedge
\[. . . \] or $$. . . $$ displayed math \substack{xxx\\ yyy} stacked sub or superscripts
\begin{equation}\label{eqname}. . . \end{. . . } multline first line left, last line right, rest centered
multline* same as multline, but unnumbered \limits,\nolimits force or forbid displayed limits
numbered and labeled equation \oint,\iint,\iiint,\iiiint,\idotsint
\ref{eqname} refer to labeled eqn align formulas aligned at & signs
align* same as align, but unnumbered integral variants (amsmath)
\mbox{. . . } text in math
flalign flush left and right align
• The following require amsmath
alignat align without space, needs Delimiters
\text{. . . } text in math
\begin{equation*}. . . \end{. . . } unnumbered eqn argument \begin{alignat}{# of cols} [ \lbrack or \[ { \lbrace or \{ h \langle
\tag{eqtag} use eqtag instead of number \intertext{text} text between lines ] \rbrack or \] } \rbrace or \} i \rangle
\notag supress equation tag \shoveleft,\shoveright move multline line left, right | \vert or \| b \lfloor d \lceil
\eqref{eqname} ref with parens \allowdisplaybreaks allow page breaks (\\* prohibits) k \Vert or \| c \rfloor e \rceil
\begin{subequations}. . . \end{. . . } \displaybreak force page break (before \\) ↑ \uparrow ⇑ \Uparrow l \updownarrow
group equations for numbering • Math Subenvironments (within math display) ↓ \downarrow ⇓ \Downarrow m \Updownarrow
\numberwithin{equation}{section} gathered centered equations \left( \right) expanding delimiters
number equations within sections aligned formulas aligned at & signs \left. \right. empty delimiters
split split long formula within other environment \bigl( \bigr) big delimiters
Theorems, Lemmas, Etc. cases cases, with { on left \Bigl( \Bigr) bigger delimiters
matrix matrix (of up to 10 columns) \biggl( \biggr) even bigger delimiters
• Defining Theorem-Like Environments
pmatrix, bmatrix, vmatrix, Vmatrix \bigm|,\biggm| big binary relation delimiters
\newtheorem{name}{label} theorem environment
matrix variants enclosed by (· · ·), [· · ·], | · · · |, k · · · k
\newtheorem*{name}{label} unnumbered (amsthm)
\setcounter{MaxMatrixCols}{12} Roots
\newtheorem{name}[other name]{label} √
increase number of matrix columns \sqrt{. . . } square root
numbered consecutively with other environment √
\hdotsfor{num} dots across columns \sqrt[n]{. . . } nth root n
\newtheorem{name}{label}[section]
\leftroot{2},\uproot{2} move root left or up
numbered by section (or chapter, etc.) Overlines, Underlines, and Arrows
\swapnumbers put numbers on left
• Theorem-Like Environment Styles (amsthm)
\underline{. . . } underline Ellipses
\overline{. . . } overline \ldots,\cdots,\dots ellipses
\theoremstyle{plain} most emphatic
\overbrace{. . . }^{. . . } overbrace \vdots,\ddots vertical and diagonal dots
\theoremstyle{defintion} medium emphasis
\underbrace{. . . }_{. . . } underbrace \dotsc,\dotsb,\dotsm,\dotsi more ellipses (amsmath)
\theoremstyle{remark} least emphatic
\overightarrow{. . . } over right arrow
• Invoking Theorem-Like Environments
\begin{name}. . . \end{. . . } invoke environment
\overleftarrow{. . . } over left arrow Fractions and Stacked Relations
\overleftrightarrow{. . . } over left-right arrow
\begin{name}[label]. . . invoke with new label \frac{n}{d} fraction nd
\underrightarrow{. . . },\underleftarrow{. . . }, etc.
If proclamation starts with a list, put in \hfill \dfrac{n}{d} displaystyle fraction
\xrightarrow[bot]{top} stretchable w/sub/supscripts
\begin{proof}. . . \end{. . . } proof environment \tfrac{n}{d} textstyle fraction ¡ ¢
\xleftarrow[bot]{top} stretchable w/sub/supscripts
\begin{proof}[label]. . . \end{. . . } proof with label \binom{n}{d} binomial coefficient nd
\qedsymbol end of proof marker
\renewcommand{\qedsymbol}{. . . } redefine marker
Operator Names \genfrac{ldelim}{rdelim}{thick}{style}{num}{den}
\cfrac{. . . }{. . . } continued fraction
\arccos \cos \csc \exp \ker \liminf \min \sinh \stackrel{top}{bot} stacked relation
Commutative Diagrams (amscd) \arcsin \cosh \deg \gcd \lg \limsup \Pr \sup \overset{top}{bot} stacked symbol (amsmath)
\arctan \cot \det \hom \lim \log \sec \tan \underset{bot}{top} stacked relation (amsmath)
Separate lines with \\, do not use &s
\arg \coth \dim \inf \ln \max \sin \tanh \sideset{_{ll}^{ul}}{_{lr}^{ur}}{largeop}
\begin{CD}. . . \end{CD} commutative diagram
a \equiv b \pmod{m} a ≡ b (mod m) large operator with left/right sub/supscripts
@>#1>#2> right arrow with labels
a \equiv b \mod{m} a ≡ b mod m
@<#1<#2< left arrow with labels
@V#1V#2V down arrow with labels
a \bmod m a mod m Negated Relations
\DeclareMathOperator{\cmd}{opname} create operator
@A#1A#2A up arrow with labels \not negate a relation
\DeclareMathOperator*{\cmd}{opname} with limits
@= long horizontal equal sign \ne not equal 6=
\operatorname{. . . } typeset as an operator
@| long vertical equal sign \notin not a member of ∈ /
\operatorname*{. . . } with limits
@. leave out an arrow \nmid not divisible -

Copyright ° c 2007 J.H. Silverman, January 2007 v2.0


Math. Dept., Brown Univ., Providence, RI 02912 USA
Permission is granted for noncommercial distribution provided the copy-
right notice and this permission notice are preserved on all copies.
User Defined Commands Counters Color (color)
\newcommand{\name}{replacement text} new command \newcounter{cntr} create new counter named cntr \color{color} change color
\newcommand{\name}[n]{text with #1,#2,. . . ,#n} \newcounter{cntr}[cntr1]reset cntr when cntr1 changes \textcolor{color}{text} colored text
new command with n arguments \setcounter{cntr}{value} set value of cntr \colorbox{color}{text} colored background
Example: \newcommand{\vect}[2]{#1_1,\ldots,#1_{#2}} \stepcounter{cntr} increment cntr \fcolorbox{col1 }{col2 }{text} colored border & background
\newcommand{\name}[n][default]{. . . } \refstepcounter{cntr} increment and reset \label \setlength{\fboxsep}{5pt} put space around text
command with args and default value for #1 \addtocounter{cntr}{n} increment by n \setlength{\fboxrule}{3pt} width of border of box
\renewcommand{. . . }{. . . } redefine existing command \value{cntr} value stored in \cntr \pagecolor{color} set background color of page
\providecommand{. . . }{. . . } define if doesn’t exist \thecntr the value of cntr \definecolor{name}{rgb}{r, g, b} define an RGB color
\newcommand*{. . . }{. . . } command with one par arg calc package to do counter arithmetic \definecolor{name}{cmyk}{c, m, y, k} define a CMYK color
\ensuremath{. . . } forces math mode • Counter Styles Predefined Colors
\show\command print definition of \command \arabic{} \roman{} \Roman{} \alph{} \Alph{} black, white, red, green, blue, yellow, cyan, magenta
\showthe\paramname print value of a parameter • Standard Counters
equation footnote figure page table
User Defined Environments part chapter section subsection subsubsection BIBTEX
\newenvironment{name}{pretext}{posttext} paragraph subparagraph enumi enumii enumiii enumiv • BIBTEX File Suffixes
new environment with material before and after secnumdepth depth to which sections are numbered .bib BIBTEX bibliographic database file
\newenvironment[n]{name}{. . . }{. . . } tocdepth depth to which sections are put into toc .bst BIBTEX bibliographic style file
environment with n arguments .blg BIBTEX log file
\newenvironment[n][default]{name}{. . . }{. . . } Customized List Environments .bbl BIBTEX document bibliography file
environment with default value for #1 \begin{list}{default label}{declarations} • BIBTEX Commands in Document File
\renewenvironment{name}{. . . }{. . . } redefine envrment \item item 1 text \bibliographystyle{bib style file}
\item item 2 text Examples: plain, amsplain, unsrt, alpha, abbrv
MAKEINDEX \end{list} \bibliography{bib database file(s)}
• MakeIndex File Suffixes \begin{trivlist}. . . \end{trivlist} \cite{label} cite a reference
.idx, .ind, .ilg entry listing, index file, log file list with no labels or declarations, trivial lengths \nocite{label} include ref in bib without citation
• MakeIndex Commands in Document File •Declarations \nocite{*} include all references in bibliography
\usepackage{makeidx} use indexing package \setlength{length parameter}{length} • Creating BIBTEX Database File
(Do not include this line if using AMS packages.) \usecounter{counter name} @STRING{name = "text"} define an abbreviation
\makeindex tell LATEX to create an .idx file [Create counter first using \newcounter{counter name}.] Put braces around non-initial capitalized title words.
\printindex tell LATEX to print index here •Length Parameters (see page 113 of Lamport for more) Use and to separate multiple authors in author field
\nofiles supresses creation of .idx and .glo files \topsep separate preceding text and first item •General Format of a Database Entry
• Creating MakeIndex .idx File \itemsep separate items @ENTRYTYPE{label,
\index{entry} main entry \leftmargin indent of item box from left margin fieldtype1 = {entry1},
\index{entry!entry} subentry \labelwidth width of box for item label fieldtype2 = {entry2},
\index{entry!entry!entry} subsubentry \labelsep separate label box from item box .
..
\index{text@entry} with placement info }
\index{entry|see{entry}} cross referenced entry The picture Environment •Database Entry Types
\index{entry|modifier} entry with page modifier \begin{picture}(w,h). . . \end{picture} picture @ARTICLE{. . . } @MASTERSTHESIS{. . . }
e.g. \index{gnats|textbf} give bold page number \begin{picture}(w,h)(∆x,∆y). . . with offset @BOOK{. . . } @MISC{. . . }
\index{entry|(} . . . \index{entry|)} page range \put(x,y){picture object} place object @BOOKLET{. . . } @PHDTHESIS{. . . }
Special Characters: "! "@ "| "" \multiput(x,y)(∆x,∆y){n}{object} n times @INBOOK{. . . } @PROCEEDINGS{. . . }
• Creating An Index With MakeIndex Picture Objects: @INCOLLECTION{. . . } @TECHREPORT{. . . }
(1) Typeset document containing \makeindex command. \makebox(x,y)[tblr]{text} box with text @INPROCEEDINGS{. . . } @UNPUBLISHED{. . . }
(2) Run MakeIndex on .idx file to create .ind file. \line(∆x,∆y){x length} line of slope ∆y/∆x @MANUAL{. . . } @COMMENT{. . . }
(3) Typeset document containing \printindex command. \vector(∆x,∆y){x length} arrow of slope ∆y/∆x •Field Types Within Entries
\circle{r} circle of radius r address editor month school
Glossary \circle*{r} filled circle author howpublished note series
\makeglossary tell LATEX to create a .glo file \oval(x,y)[lrtb] oval (part or whole) booktitle institution number title
\glossary{entry} create a glossary entry \shortstack{abc\\xyz\\} stacked text chapter journal organization type
\glossaryentry{entry}{page no.} entries in .glo file \framebox(x,y)[tblr]{text} framed text crossref key pages volume
\input filename.glo read glossary file \frame{text},fbox{text} other framed boxes edition language publisher year
User must define \makeglossary, e.g., \dashbox{d}(x,y){text} dashed box • Creating Document Bibliography With BIBTEX
\newcommand{\glossaryentry}[2]{#1, page #2\par} \qbezier(x1 ,y1 )(x2 ,y2 )(x3 ,y3 ) quadratic curve (1) Typeset document to get new .aux file.
\savebox{\name}(x,y){. . . } store material (2) Run BIBTEX on .aux file to create .bbl file.
Time and Date \usebox{\name} retrieve material (3) Retypeset document twice.
\today current date \graphpaper[n]{x,y}{w,h} print grid (graphpap) °c 2007 J.H. Silverman, Permissions on back. v2.0
Use \the to display the following items \setlength{\unitlength}{1pt} change size of picture Send comments and corrections to J.H. Silverman, Math. Dept., Brown
\day, \month, \year, \time (minutes since midnight) \thinlines,\thicklines adjust line thickness Univ., Providence, RI 02912 USA. hjhs@math.brown.edui