Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 13

Unit #07

WRITING OBJECTIVES
Writing Objectives
(objectives: something that you plan to do or achieve)

Definition:A specific result that a person or system aims to achieve within a time frame and
with available and with available resources. Objectives are basic tools that underlie all planning
and activities.

Examples:Some example of business objectives including; Minimizing expenses , expanding


internationally ,or making a profit.

Types of objectives

There are three types of objectives:

1. Educational objectives

2. Instructional objectives

3. Behavioral objectives or learning objectives.

Educational objectives:

Educational objectives are used to identify the intended outcomes of the education
process ,whether in reference to an aspect of a programme or a total programme of study,
that design of curriculum units.

Instructional objectives:

Instructional objectives describe the teaching activities and resources used to facilitate
effective learning.

Behavioral or learning objectives:

Behavioral objectives describe precisely what the learner will be able to do following a
learning situation. Behavioral or learning to denote that they are action oriented rather
than content oriented , learner centered rather than teacher centered , and outcome
centered rather than process focused.

Characteristics of Goals and Objectives


Goals;
A goal is the final outcome of what is achieved at the end of teaching- learning process.
Goals are global and broad in nature . They are considered multidimensional in that a
number of objectives are subsumed under or incorporated into an overall goal.

Objectives
An objective is a specific , single ,undimensional behavior.

when we teach our students to learn. What we want them to learn as a result of our teaching are
out objectives(Anderson , 2001). Objectives are short term in nature and should be achievable at
the conclusion of one teaching session.
Goals V/S Objectives

Goals Objectives
The purpose toward which an endeavor is Something that ones efforts or action are
directed. intended to attain or accomplish ; purpose
; target.

Example: Example:
I want to achieve success in the field of I want to complete this thesis on genetic
genetic research and do what no one has research by the end of this month.
ever done.

Action: Action:
Generic action , or better still ,an Specific action-the objective supports
outcome toward which we strive. attainment of the associated goal.

Measure: Measure:
Goals may not be strictly measurable or Must be measureable and tangible.
tangible.

Time frame: Time frame:


Longer term. Mid to short term

Writing behavioral objectives


According to Robert Mager (1993),

According to Robert Magers approach to writing behavioral objectives has been widely
accepted among educators. His message to educators is that for objectives to be
meaningful, they must precisely, clearly communicate the teachers instructional intent.
the format for writing concise and useful behavioral objectives includes the following
three important characteristics:

1. Performance.

2. Condition

3. Criterion
1. Performance :_
Describes what the learner is expected to be able to do or perform to demonstrate
the kinds of behavior the teacher will accept as evidence that objectives has been
achieved .Activities performed by the learner may be visible or invisible such as
identifying or recalling.

2. Condition:
Condition describes the testing situation ,resources, assistance, under which the
behavior will be observed or completed or performance is expected to occur.

3. CRITERION:
Criterion describes how well with what accuracy or within what time frame the
learner must be able to perform the behavior to be consider acceptable; the
standard, quality level or amount of performance defined as satisfactorily
demonstrating mastery. It is the level of competence that a learner must achieve.

Writing behavioral objectives according to Cummings (1994)

Cummings, (1994) thus behavioral objectives are statements that communicate under
particular condition, Who will, DO what, Under what condition and how well.

To link the behavioral objectives together the following four step are recommended

1. Identify the testing situation (condition)

2. Identify who will perform (the learner)

3. State what the learner will demonstrate (performance).

4. State how well the learner will perform (CRITERIAN).

FOR EXAMPLE:

Following a 20 minutes teaching session on hypoglycemia (condition), Mrs. SMITH(learner) will be able
to identify (performance) three out of four major symptoms of low blood sugar(criterion)
THE FOUR PART METHOD OF OBJECTIVE WRITING

Condition Who Performance Criterion


( testing situation) (identify learner) (learner behavior) (quality or quantity of
mastery)

Without using a The student will solve 5 out of 6 math problem


calculator

Using a model The staff nurse Will demonstrate The correct procedure
for changing sterile
dressing

Following group The patient Will list At least 2 reasons for


discussion losing weight

After watching a video The care giver Will select High protein food with
100% accuracy

ABCD rule of writing objectives

An easy way to remember four elements that should be in behavioral objective is to follow the ABCD
rule proposed by Heinich, Molenda, Russell, and Smaldino, in 2001.

A. Audience (who)

B. Behavior (what)

C. Condition (under what circumstance)

D. Degree (how much; to what extent)

Types of objectives

It is important to note, however that there are really to accepted approaches to writing behavioral
objectives depending on the audience of learners.

1. SPECIFIC BEHAVIORAL OBJECTIVES.

2. GENERAL BEHAVIORAL OBJECTIVES.


Reilly and Oermann (1990), distinguish between what are known as specific behavioral objectives and
general behavioral objectives.

SAMPLES OF WRITTEN OBJECTIVES


WELL WRITTEN OBJECTIVES
After watching a demonstration on suctioning, the staff member will be able to
correctly suction a trachrostomy tube using aseptic technique.
Following a class on hypertension, the patient will be able to state three out of four
causes of high blood pressure.
POORLY WRITTEN OBJECTIVES
The patient will be able to prepare a menu using low-salt foods(condition and criterion
missing)
The Nurse will demonstrate crutch walking postoperatively to the patient(teacher-centered)

PERFORMANCE WORDS WITH MANY OR FEW INTERPRETATIONS

When writing behavioral objective using the format suggested by Mager (1997), the
recommendation is to use precise action words (verbs as labels, known as verbals) that are open
to few interpretations when describing learner performance. According to
Mager,1997Understanding , knowing, enjoying and appreciating are considered abstract
state of being and can not be directly measured but merely inferred from performance.
Therefore ,verbs that signify an internal state of thinking, feeling or believing should be avoided
because they are difficult to measure or observe.A performance may be overt audible, for
example the learner is able to list, to write, to state. These performances are directly observable.A
performance may be invisible for example learner is to able to identify, to solve, to recall and to
recognise.
COMMON MISTAKES WHEN WRITING OBJECTIVES

The most frequent errors in writing objectives are:

1. To describe what the instructor rather than the learner is expected to do

2. To include more than one expected behavior in a single objective (avoid using the compound word and
to connect two verbs e.g., the learner will select and prepare)

3. To forget to include all four component of condition ,performance, criterion, and who will do the
performance.

4. To use term for performance that are subject to many interpretation ,not action oriented and difficult to
measure.

5. To write an objective that is unattainable given the ability level of the learner.

6. To write objectives that do not related to the stated goal.

7. To clutter an objective by including unnecessary information.

8. To be too general so as not to clearly specify the expected behavior to be achieved


Term with many interpretation Terms with few interpretation recommended
not recommended

To know To apply To explain

To understand To choose To identify

To appreciate To classify To list

To realize To compare To order

To be familiar with To contrast To predict

To enjoy To construct To recall

To value To define To recognize

To be interested in To describe To select

To feel To demonstrate To state

To think To differentiate To verbalize


Sample of writing objectives
To learn To distinguish To write

1) Distinguish a Well-writing objectives and poor writing objectives:

a) After watching a demonstration on suctioning, the staff member will be able to correctly suction a
tracheostomy tube using an aseptic technique.

b) The patient will be able to prepare a menu using low salt foods.

c) c) Following a class on hypertension, the patient will be able to state three out of four causes of
high blood pressure.

d) d) on completion the reading material providing on the care of newborn,

e) the mother will be able to express any concern she has about caring for baby after discharge.

Taxonomy of objective according to learning domains

Taxonomy: A taxonomy is a mechanism used to categorize things according to how the are
related to one another.

A taxonomy is a special kind of framework in which categories lie along a continuum.

For example biologists use taxonomies to classify plants and animals.


Bloom et al. (1956) and Krathwhol, Bloom, Masia (1964) developed a very useful taxonomy, known as
the taxonomy of behavioral objectives, as a tool for systematically and logically classifying behavioral
objectives.

Learning domains

This taxonomy which became widely accepted as a standard aid for planning as well as
evaluating learning, is divided into three broad categories or domain:

Cognitive

Affective

psychomotor

1. The Cognitive domain


The cognitive domain is known as the thinking domain. Learning in this domain involves the
acquisition of information and addresses the development of learners intellectual abilities,
learning capacities, understanding and thinking process.
Levels of cognitive domain
Objectives in this level are divided into six levels, each specifying cognitive process ranging from
simple to more complex.
1. Knowledge
2. Comprehension
3. Application
4. Analysis
5. Synthesis
6. Evaluation

1.Knowledge:
ability of the learner to memorize, recall, recognize, define, or identify specific
information such as facts, rules, principles conditions and terms, presented during
instruction.
2.Comprehension:
ability of the learner to demonstrate an understanding or appreciation of what is being
communicating by translating it into a different form or recognizing it into a translated
form such as grasping an idea by defining it or summarizing it in his or her own words
3.Application:
ability of the learner to use ideas, principles, abstractions or theories in particular and
concrete situations, such as figuring, writing, reading or handling equipment.
4.Analysis:
ability of the learner to recognize and structure information by breaking down into its
constituent part and specifying the relationship between parts.
5.Synthesis:
ability of the learner to put together parts and elements into unified and whole by
creating a unique product that is written, oral, pictorial, and so on.
6.Evaluation:
ability of the learner to judge the value of something, such as an essay, design, or
action, by applying appropriate standards or criteria.

The effective domain


The effective domain is known as the feeling domain.
Learning in this domain involves an increasing internalization or commitment to feeling
expressed as emotion, interest, belief, values, and appreciation.

Levels of effective domain

Objectives in the effective domain are divided into five categories,


1. Receiving
2. Responding
3. Valuing
4. Organization
5. Characterization

1.Receiving: Ability of the to show awareness of an idea or fact or a consciousness of


a situation or event in the environment. This level represents a willingness to
selectively attend to or focus on data or to receive a stimulus.
2.Responding: ability of the learner to respond to an experience, at first obediently
and second willingly and with satisfaction.
3. Valuing: ability of the learner to regard or accept the worth of a theory, idea, or
event, demonstrating sufficient commitment or preference to be identified with some
experience seen as having value.
4. Organization: ability of the learner to organize, classify, and prioritize values by
integrating a new value into general set of values, to determine interrelationship of
values, to harmoniously establish some values as dominant and pervasive.
5. Characterization: ability of the learner to integrate values into a total philosophy or
world view, showing firm commitment and consistency of responses to the values by
generalizing certain experiences into a value system or attitude cluster.

The psychomotor domain


The psychomotor domain is known as the skills domain.
Learning in this domain involves acquiring fine and gross motor abilities with increasing
capacity of neuromuscular coordination to carry out physical movements such as
walking, handwriting, manipulation of equipment, or carrying out a procedure.
Levels of psychomotor domain
1. Perception
2. Set
3. Guided response
4. Mechanism
5. Complex overt response
6. Adaptation
7. Organization

1. Perception: the ability of the client to show sensory awareness of objects or cues
associated with some task to be performed. Cues relevant to a situation are
attended to, symbolically translated, selected to guide action, gain insight and
receive feedback.
2. Set: the ability of the learner to exhibit readiness to a particular king of action,
such as following expressions, through expressions of willingness, sensory
attending , or body language favorable to performing a motor act.
3. Guided response: ability of the learner to exert action via overt actions under the
guidance of an instructor or imitate an observed behavior with conscious
awareness of effort
4. Mechanism: ability of the learner to repeatedly perform steps of the desired skill
with a certain degree of confidence, indicting the mystery to the extent that some
or all aspects of a process become habitual. the steps are blended into a
meaningful whole and are performed smoothly with little conscious effort.
5. Complex overt response: ability of the learner to automatically perform a
complex motor act with independence and high degree of skill, without hesitation
and with minimum expenditure of time and energy; performance of an entire
sequence of a complex behavior without the need to attend to details.
6. Adaptation: ability of the learner to modify or adapt a motor process or suit the
individual to various situation, indicating mystery of highly developed movements
that can be suited to a variety of situations.
7. Organization: ability of the learner to develop new motor acts, such as novel of
manipulating objects or materials, as result of understanding of a skill and develop
ability to perform skills.

Writing SMART objectives


1. Specific
2. Measureable
3. Achievable
4. Realistic
5. Timely
Teaching plan
A teaching plan is a blue print for action to achieve the goal and objectives that have
been agreed upon by the educator and the learner.
A predetermined goal and objectives serve as a basic for developing a teaching
plan.
In addition to the goal and objectives, it also should include purpose, content,
methods and tools, timing, and evaluatin of instruction.
It should be clear what the learner is to learn and what the teacher is to teach.
Purpose of teaching plan
The three major reasons for constructing teaching plan are:
1. To force the teacher to examine the relationship among the steps of the teaching
process to ensure a logical approach to teaching , which can serve as a map for
organizing and keeping instruction on target.
2. To communicate in writing and in an outline format exactly what is being taught,
how is being taught and evaluated, and the time allotted for accomplishment of the
behavioral objectives.
3. To legally document that an individual plan for each learner is in place and is being
properly implemented.
Development of teaching plan
Teaching plans can be presented in a number of different formats to meet
institutional requirements or the preference of the users , but all parts must be
included for the teaching plan to be considered comprehensive and complete.
Elements of teaching plan
A Complete teaching plan should be consist of eight basic elements.
(Ryan & Marinelli, 1990):
1. The purpose.
2. A statement of the overall goal.
3. A list of objectives (and subjective , if necessary.
4. An outline of the related content.
5. The instructional method used for teaching the related content.
6. The time allotted for the teaching of each objective.
7. The instructional resources (materials/tools and equipment) needed.
8. The method used to evaluate learning.
Sample of teaching plan

Purpose:

Goals:

Objectives & Content outline Method of Time Allotted (in Resources Method of
instruction mint) evaluation
Sub-objective

This format provides the best structure for determining if a relationship is


apparent among all the elements of a plan.
A teaching plan is said to internally consistent when all of its
eight elements related to one another.

References;
Susan & Bastable: Nurse as educator: Principle of teaching and learning for nursing
practice)